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Sample records for pulsed electron-electron double

  1. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) as EPR spectroscopy in nanometre range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Yu D; Milov, A D; Maryasov, A G [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-06-30

    The results of development of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) method and its applications in structural studies are generalised and described systematically. The foundations of the theory of the method are outlined, some methodological features and applications are considered, in particular, determination of the distances between spin labels in the nanometre range for iminoxyl biradicals, spin-labelled biomacromolecules, radical ion pairs and peptide-membrane complexes. The attention is focussed on radical systems that form upon self-assembly of nanosized complexes (in particular, peptide complexes), spatial effects, and radical pairs in photolysis and photosynthesis. The position of PELDOR among other structural EPR techniques is analysed.

  2. Visualization of Distance Distribution from Pulsed Double Electron-Electron Resonance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Michael K.; Maryasov, Alexander G.; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER), also known as pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR), is a time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance method that can measure the weak dipole-dipole interactions between unpaired electrons. DEER has been applied to discrete pairs of free radicals in biological macromolecules and to clusters containing small numbers of free radicals in polymers and irradiated materials. The goal of such work is to determine the distance or distribution of distances between radicals, which is an underdetermined problem. That is, the spectrum of dipolar interactions can be readily calculated for any distribution of free radicals, but there are many, quite different distributions of radicals that could produce the same experimental dipolar spectrum. This paper describes two methods that are useful for approximating the distance distributions for the large subset of cases in which the mutual orientations of the free radicals are uncorrelated and the width of the distribution is more than a few percent of its mean. The first method relies on a coordinate transformation and is parameter free, while the second is based on iterative least-squares with Tikhonov regularization. Both methods are useful in DEER studies of spin labeled biomolecules containing more than two labels.

  3. On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2007-10-01

    The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.

  4. Site directed spin labelling and pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (double electron-electron resonance) of force activation in muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajer, Piotr G [Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biological Science, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2005-05-11

    The recent development of site specific spin labelling and advances in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) have established spin labelling as a viable structural biology technique. Specific protein sites or whole domains can be selectively targeted for spin labelling by cysteine mutagenesis. The secondary structure of the proteins is determined from the trends in EPR signals of labels attached to consecutive residues. Solvent accessibility or label mobility display periodicities along the labelled polypeptide chain that are characteristic of {beta}-strands (periodicity of 2 residues) or {alpha}-helices (3.6 residues). Low-resolution 3D structure of proteins is determined from the distance restraints. Two spin labels placed within 60-70 A of each other create a local dipolar field experienced by the other spin labels. The strength of this field is related to the interspin distance, {proportional_to} r{sup -3}. The dipolar field can be measured by the broadening of the EPR lines for the short distances (8-20 A) or for the longer distances (17-70 A) by the pulsed EPR methods, double electron-electron resonance(DEER) and double quantum coherence (DQC). A brief review of the methodology and its applications to the multisubunit muscle protein troponin is presented below.

  5. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syryamina, V. N.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011), 10.1063/1.3633241], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  6. Probing the Structure of the Mechanosensitive Channel of Small Conductance in Lipid Bilayers with Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Pliotas, Christos; Branigan, Emma; Hacker, Christian; Rasmussen, Akiko; Hagelueken, Gregor; Booth, Ian R.; Miller, Samantha; Lucocq, John; Naismith, James H.; Schiemann, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channel proteins are important safety valves against osmotic shock in bacteria, and are involved in sensing touch and sound waves in higher organisms. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) has been extensively studied. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR or DEER) of detergent-solubilized protein confirms that as seen in the crystal structure, the outer ring of transmembrane helices do not pack against the pore-forming helices, creating an apparent void. The relevance of this void to the functional form of MscS in the bilayer is the subject of debate. Here, we report PELDOR measurements of MscS reconstituted into two lipid bilayer systems: nanodiscs and bicelles. The distance measurements from multiple mutants derived from the PELDOR data are consistent with the detergent-solution arrangement of the protein. We conclude, therefore, that the relative positioning of the transmembrane helices is preserved in mimics of the cell bilayer, and that the apparent voids are not an artifact of detergent solution but a property of the protein that will have to be accounted for in any molecular mechanism of gating. PMID:24559986

  7. Conformational state of the MscS mechanosensitive channel in solution revealed by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliotas, Christos; Ward, Richard; Branigan, Emma; Rasmussen, Akiko; Hagelueken, Gregor; Huang, Hexian; Black, Susan S; Booth, Ian R; Schiemann, Olav; Naismith, James H

    2012-10-02

    The heptameric mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) provides a critical function in Escherichia coli where it opens in response to increased bilayer tension. Three approaches have defined different closed and open structures of the channel, resulting in mutually incompatible models of gating. We have attached spin labels to cysteine mutants on key secondary structural elements specifically chosen to discriminate between the competing models. The resulting pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectra matched predicted distance distributions for the open crystal structure of MscS. The fit for the predictions by structural models of MscS derived by other techniques was not convincing. The assignment of MscS as open in detergent by PELDOR was unexpected but is supported by two crystal structures of spin-labeled MscS. PELDOR is therefore shown to be a powerful experimental tool to interrogate the conformation of transmembrane regions of integral membrane proteins.

  8. Modulation scheme for electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlkopf, A. F.; Kuiper, F. G.; Smidt, J.; Tiggelman, T. A.

    1983-06-01

    A modulation scheme for electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectrometers is presented. With this scheme an optimum stabilization signal for locking the pump microwave generator to the pumped electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line is generated. A separate pump power level and a separate magnetic field modulation amplitude are used for the purpose of locking. In general, such a modulation scheme introduces false ELDOR lines. These false lines disturb the real ELDOR signals, or introduce an ELDOR signal in the absence of any communication between the observed EPR line and the pumped EPR line. With the described modulation scheme the frequencies of the false ELDOR signals are limited to even multiples of the frequency of the wanted ELDOR signals. This makes a suppression of the false ELDOR lines easy.

  9. Electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) with a loop-gap resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James S.; Yin, Jun-Jie; Froncisz, W.; Feix, Jimmy B.

    Electron-electron double-resonance (ELDOR) experiments on nitroxide-radical-spin-labeled liposomes have been performed using a loop-gap resonator. The signal-to-noise ratio expressed on a molarity basis is 20-fold over the best that has been achieved using a bimodal cavity. This improvement permits ELDOR experiments on spin-labeled plasma membranes of intact cells, as illustrated by a prototype experiment on red blood cells labeled with stearic acid spin label. Moreover, 20 times greater pumping energy density at the sample is achievable for a given incident pump power, permitting ELDOR experiments on less readily saturated systems. Pump and observing frequencies are introduced directly into the loop-gap resonator, which has a relatively low Q, and the pump electron paramagnetic resonance signal is isolated from the receiver using a high Q trap microwave filter.

  10. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Thomas M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron–electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package “DeerAnalysis” (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications. PMID:26477251

  11. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.

    2015-06-01

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  12. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H., E-mail: jhf3@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and National Biomedical Center for Advanced ESR Technology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  13. Electron--electron correlations assessed analyzing doubly differential angular distributions in double ionization of helium by proton impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, Marcelo; Schulz, Michael; Kirchner, Tom; Fischer, Daniel; Moshammer, Robert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2008-10-01

    Double ionization (DI) of helium by ion impact presents a singular scenario to study electron-electron correlation in atomic physics. Recent experimental data have revealed signatures of this feature in the doubly differential cross sections in terms of the angles of the two emitted electrons [1]. We present an exhaustive theoretical and experimental study of these cross sections, by disentangling the contribution of the different mechanisms that contribute to DI [2]. To this end, first order and higher order distorted wave theories are implemented jointly with the Monte Carlo Event Generator method (MCEG) [3]. This latter tool allows us to incorporate efficiently all the experimental conditions in the theoretical models. [1] M. Schulz et al, J. Phys. B 38, 1363-1370 (2005). [2] M. F. Ciappina et al, PRA (in preparation) (2008). [3] M. D"urr et al, Phys. Rev. A 75, 062708 (2007).

  14. Effects of cholesterol on lateral diffusion and vertical fluctuations in lipid bilayers. An electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, J.J.; Feix, J.B.; Hyde, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    Electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and saturation-recovery spectroscopy employing /sup 14/N:/sup 15/N stearic acid spin-label pairs have been used to study the effects of cholesterol on lateral diffusion and vertical fluctuations in lipid bilayers. The /sup 14/N:/sup 15/N continuous wave electron-electron double resonance (CW ELDOR) theory has been developed using rate equations based on the relaxation model. The collision frequency between /sup 14/N-16 doxyl stearate and /sup 15/N-16 doxyl stearate, WHex (16:16), is indicative of lateral diffusion of the spin probes, while the collision frequency between /sup 14/N-16 doxyl stearate and /sup 15/N-5 doxyl stearate, WHex (16:5), provides information on vertical fluctuations of the /sup 14/N-16 doxyl stearate spin probe toward the membrane surface. Our results show that: (a) cholesterol decreases the electron spin-lattice relaxation time Tle of /sup 14/N-16 doxyl stearate spin label in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (egg PC). (b) Cholesterol increases the biomolecular collision frequency WHex (16:16) and decreases WHex (16:5), suggesting that incorporation of cholesterol significantly orders the part of the bilayer that it occupies and disorders the interior region of the bilayer. (c) Alkyl chain unsaturation of the host lipid moderates the effect of cholesterol on both vertical fluctuations and lateral diffusion of /sup 14/N-16 doxyl stearate. And (d), there are marked differences in the effects of cholesterol on lateral diffusion and vertical fluctuations between 0-30 mol% and 30-50 mol% of cholesterol that suggest an inhomogeneous distribution of cholesterol in the membrane.

  15. Double pulse Thomson scattering system at RTP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Chu, C.C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Herranz, J. A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Pijper, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this article a double pulse multiposition Thomson scattering diagnostic, under construction at RTP, is discussed. Light from a double pulsed ruby laser (pulse separation: 10-800 mu s, max. 2x12.5 J) is scattered by the free electrons of the tokamak plasma and relayed to a Littrow polychromator fo

  16. The determination of pair-distance distribution by double electron-electron resonance: regularization by the length of distance discretization with Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, Sergei A.

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed double electron-electron resonance technique (DEER, or PELDOR) is applied to study conformations and aggregation of peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules. For a pair of spin labels, experimental data allows for the determination of their distance distribution function, P(r). P(r) is derived as a solution of a first-kind Fredholm integral equation, which is an ill-posed problem. Here, we suggest regularization by increasing the distance discretization length to its upper limit where numerical integration still provides agreement with experiment. This upper limit is found to be well above the lower limit for which the solution instability appears because of the ill-posed nature of the problem. For solving the integral equation, Monte Carlo trials of P(r) functions are employed; this method has an obvious advantage of the fulfillment of the non-negativity constraint for P(r). The regularization by the increasing of distance discretization length for the case of overlapping broad and narrow distributions may be employed selectively, with this length being different for different distance ranges. The approach is checked for model distance distributions and for experimental data taken from literature for doubly spin-labeled DNA and peptide antibiotics.

  17. Conformational changes of the histidine ATP-binding cassette transporter studied by double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippach, Michael; Weidlich, Daniela; Klose, Daniel; Abé, Christoph; Klare, Johann; Schneider, Erwin; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    The conformational dynamics of the histidine ABC transporter HisQMP2 from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, reconstituted into liposomes, is studied by site-directed spin labeling and double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy in the absence of nucleotides, in the ATP-bound, and in the post-hydrolysis state. The results show that the inter-dimer distances as measured between the Q-loops of HisP2 in the intact transporter resemble those determined for the maltose transporter in all three states of the hydrolysis cycle. Only in the presence of liganded HisJ the closed conformation of the nucleotide binding sites is achieved revealing the transmembrane communication of the presence of substrate. Two conformational states can be distinguished for the periplasmic moiety of HisQMP2 as detected by differences in distributions of interspin distances between positions 86 and 96 or 104 and 197. The observed conformational changes are correlated to proposed open, semi-open and closed conformations of the nucleotide binding domains HisP2. Our results are in line with a rearrangement of transmembrane helices 4 and 4' of HisQM during the closed to the semi-open transition of HisP2 driven by the reorientation of the coupled helices 3a and 3b to occur upon hydrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Conformational cycle of the vitamin B12 ABC importer in liposomes detected by double electron-electron resonance (DEER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82-82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached.

  19. Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and electron spin-echo study of solute dynamics in smectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorcester, Jeff; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Freed, Jack H.

    1989-05-01

    Electron spin-echo (ESE) and two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance (2D ELDOR) experiments have been performed as a function of director orientation and temperature in the smectic A phase of the liquid crystal S2 for the spin-probe PD-tempone(2×10-3 M). Over the entire temperature range studied (288-323 K) we observe significant 2D ELDOR cross peaks only for ΔMI =±1 indicative of 14N spin-relaxation and negligible Heisenberg exchange. From the angular dependent 14N spin-relaxation rates we obtain the dipolar spectral densities at the hyperfine (hf) frequency, whereas from a combination of ESE and 2D ELDOR we obtain the dipolar and Zeeman-dipolar spectral densities at zero frequency. The angular dependent spectral densities were successfully decomposed into their basic components in accordance with theory. The angular dependent spectral densities at the hf frequency are not predicted by a model of anisotropic rotational diffusion in a nematic orienting potential, but are consistent with predictions of a model due to Moro and Nordio of solute rototranslational diffusion in a McMillan-type potential. The angular dependence also indicates that order director fluctuations in the smectic phase are suppressed at frequencies on the order of 10 MHz. An additional contribution to solute reorientation due to cooperative hydrocarbon chain fluctuations is suggested to account for the behavior of the observed spectral densities at zero frequency. An evaluation of the relevance of several other dynamical models to this experimental work is also presented.

  20. Double pulse laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changbum [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chbkim@postech.ac.kr; Kim, Jin-Cheol B. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kukhee [National Fusion Reserch Center, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, In Soo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Hyyong [Center for Advanced Accelerators, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-22

    Two-dimensional simulation studies are performed for modified laser wakefield acceleration. After one laser pulse, another identical laser pulse is sent to the plasma to amplify the wake wave resonantly. The simulation results show that the number of injected electrons is bigger than that of the single pulse case and the beam energy is higher as well. In addition, increase of the transverse amplitude is noticed in the wake wave after the second laser pulse. This shows that the transverse motion of the wake wave enhances the wave breaking for strong injection and acceleration of electron beams.

  1. Electron--electron double resonance study of magnetic energy transfer between trapped electrons and radicals in organic glasses: Relation between dipolar cross relaxation times and dipolar interaction distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.P.; Feng, D.F.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Kevan, L.

    1976-11-15

    Electron--electron double resonance (ELDOR) has been used to measure cross-relaxation times between trapped electrons and trapped radicals produced by ..gamma.. irradiation of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and 3-methylhexane organic glasses. The cross-relaxation times are measured as a function of temperature, radiation dose, and the frequency difference ..delta..f of the microwave frequencies used. The cross-relaxation times are nearly temperature independent and depend on ..delta..f/sup 2/ at doses where the spin concentrations approach uniformity; these features indicate the dominance of single step over multistep cross-relaxation processes. Equations have been derived to relate the dipolar cross-relaxation distance to the measured cross-relaxation times, and it is suggested that the cross-relaxation line shape is Lorentzian in magnetically dilute systems. Typical electron--radical correlation distances in these organic glasses are 10 A. (AIP)

  2. Mechanism of spin diffusion in electron spin resonance spectra of trapped electrons in aqueous glasses. Electron--Electron double resonance studies. [. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.P.; Kevan, L.

    1977-05-19

    Electron--electron double resonance (ELDOR) has been used to test the validity of the noninteracting spin packet model for inhomogeneously broadened ESR lines. For trapped electrons in 10M NaOD/D/sub 2/O glassy ice the saturation of field-swept ELDOR spectra fits the above mentioned model in contrast to earlier work on trapped electrons in protiated matrices. In the protiated matrix spin diffusion produces significant interaction between the spin packets. The difference between the protiated and deuterated matrices suggests that nuclear relaxation is the mechanism for spin diffusion. The deuterated matrices show no structure in frequency-swept ELDOR spectra due to deuteron spin--flip transitions whereas structure due to proton spin--flips is seen in protiated matrices.

  3. A dual-mode microwave resonator for double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy at W-band microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina

    2011-04-01

    We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.

  4. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, V. P.; Samokhvalov, A. A., E-mail: samokhvalov.itmo@gmail.com; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N. [Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky Pr. 49, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lednev, V. N. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskyave., 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershin, S. M. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential “opening” radio pulses with a delay of 0.2–1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  5. Quantum Computing Using Pulse-Based Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance (endor):. Molecular Spin-Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Shigeki; Rahimi, Robabeh D.; Nishida, Shinsuke; Ise, Tomoaki; Shimoi, Daisuke; Toyota, Kazuo; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Carl, Parick; Höfner, Peter; Takui, Takeji

    2009-06-01

    Electrons with the spin quantum number 1/2, as physical qubits, have naturally been anticipated for implementing quantum computing and information processing (QC/QIP). Recently, electron spin-qubit systems in organic molecular frames have emerged as a hybrid spin-qubit system along with a nuclear spin-1/2 qubit. Among promising candidates for QC/QIP from the materials science side, the reasons for why electron spin-qubits such as molecular spin systems, i.e., unpaired electron spins in molecular frames, have potentialities for serving for QC/QIP will be given in the lecture (Chapter), emphasizing what their advantages or disadvantages are entertained and what technical and intrinsic issues should be dealt with for the implementation of molecular-spin quantum computers in terms of currently available spin manipulation technology such as pulse-based electron-nuclear double resonance (pulsed or pulse ENDOR) devoted to QC/QIP. Firstly, a general introduction and introductory remarks to pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy as electron-nuclear spin manipulation technology is given. Super dense coding (SDC) experiments by the use of pulsed ENDOR are also introduced to understand differentiating QC ENDOR from QC NMR based on modern nuclear spin technology. Direct observation of the spinor inherent in an electron spin, detected for the first time, will be shown in connection with the entanglement of an electron-nuclear hybrid system. Novel microwave spin manipulation technology enabling us to deal with genuine electron-electron spin-qubit systems in the molecular frame will be introduced, illustrating, from the synthetic strategy of matter spin-qubits, a key-role of the molecular design of g-tensor/hyperfine-(A-)tensor molecular engineering for QC/QIP. Finally, important technological achievements of recently-emerging CD ELDOR (Coherent-Dual ELectron-electron DOuble Resonance) spin technology enabling us to manipulate electron spin-qubits are described.

  6. The position of cytochrome b(559) relative to Q(A) in photosystem II studied by electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, S; Tonaka, M; Kawamori, A; Akabori, K

    2000-11-20

    The electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) method was applied to measure the dipole interaction between cytochrome (Cyt) b(+)(559) and the primary acceptor quinone (Q(-)(A)), observed at g=2.0045 with the peak to peak width of about 9 G, in Photosystem II (PS II) in which the non-heme Fe(2+) was substituted by Zn(2+). The paramagnetic centers of Cyt b(+)(559)Y(D)Q(-)(A) were trapped by illumination at 273 K for 8 min, followed by dark adaptation for 3 min and freezing into 77 K. The distance between the pair Cyt b(+)(559)-Q(-)(A) was estimated from the dipole interaction constant fitted to the observed ELDOR time profile to be 40+/-1 A. In the membrane oriented PS II particles the angle between the vector from Q(A) to Cyt b(559) and the membrane normal was determined to be 80+/-5 degrees. The position of Cyt b(559) relative to Q(A) suggests that the heme plane is located on the stromal side of the thylakoid membrane. ELDOR was not observed for Cyt b(+)(559) Y(D) spin pair, suggesting the distance between them is more than 50 A.

  7. Reconsideration of the galvanostatic double-pulse method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, D.J.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    A critical examination is made of the voltage response of a cell when a double-pulse current is applied. The limitations of the double-pulse method for studying fast electrode reactions are considered and it is shown that the maximum value of the heterogeneous rate constant measurable with this meth

  8. Electron transfer flavoprotein domain II orientation monitored using double electron-electron resonance between an enzymatically reduced, native FAD cofactor, and spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Michael A; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Majtan, Tomas; Frerman, Frank E; Eaton, Gareth R; Eaton, Sandra S

    2011-03-01

    Human electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is a soluble mitochondrial heterodimeric flavoprotein that links fatty acid β-oxidation to the main respiratory chain. The crystal structure of human ETF bound to medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase indicates that the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain (αII) is mobile, which permits more rapid electron transfer with donors and acceptors by providing closer access to the flavin and allows ETF to accept electrons from at least 10 different flavoprotein dehydrogenases. Sequence homology is high and low-angle X-ray scattering is identical for Paracoccus denitrificans (P. denitrificans) and human ETF. To characterize the orientations of the αII domain of P. denitrificans ETF, distances between enzymatically reduced FAD and spin labels in the three structural domains were measured by double electron-electron resonance (DEER) at X- and Q-bands. An FAD to spin label distance of 2.8 ± 0.15 nm for the label in the FAD-containing αII domain (A210C) agreed with estimates from the crystal structure (3.0 nm), molecular dynamics simulations (2.7 nm), and rotamer library analysis (2.8 nm). Distances between the reduced FAD and labels in αI (A43C) were between 4.0 and 4.5 ± 0.35 nm and for βIII (A111C) the distance was 4.3 ± 0.15 nm. These values were intermediate between estimates from the crystal structure of P. denitrificans ETF and a homology model based on substrate-bound human ETF. These distances suggest that the αII domain adopts orientations in solution that are intermediate between those which are observed in the crystal structures of free ETF (closed) and ETF bound to a dehydrogenase (open).

  9. High power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Gao, Gan; Li, Qinghua; Gong, Mali

    2017-03-01

    Generation of high power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser is experimentally demonstrated. By employing the Yb-doped 10/130 double-clad fiber as the gain medium, the laser realizes an output power of 5.1 W and pulse energy of 0.175 µJ at repetition rate of 29.14 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this average output power is the highest among the reported double-scale pulse oscillators. The autocorrelation trace of pulses contains the short (98 fs) and long (29.5 ps) components, and the spectral bandwidth of the pulse is 27.3 nm. Such double-scale pulses are well suited for seeding the high power MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) systems, nonlinear frequency conversion and optical coherence tomography.

  10. Conical Double Frequency Emission by Femtosecond Laser Pulses from DKDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-Peng; JIANG Hong-Bing; TANG Shan-Chun; GONG Qi-Huang

    2009-01-01

    Conical double frequency emission is investigated by femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 800nm in a DKDP crystal. It is demonstrated that the sum frequency of incident wave and its scattering wave accounts for the conical double frequency emission. The gaps on the conical rings are observed and they are very sensitive to the propagation direction, and thus could be used to detect the small angle deviation of surface direction.

  11. Cross sections for short pulse single and double ionization ofhelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Alicia; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2007-11-27

    In a previous publication, procedures were proposed for unambiguously extracting amplitudes for single and double ionization from a time-dependent wavepacket by effectively propagating for an infinite time following a radiation pulse. Here we demonstrate the accuracy and utility of those methods for describing two-photon single and one-photon double ionization of helium. In particular it is shown how narrow features corresponding to autoionizing states are easily resolved with these methods.

  12. Physics of Double Pulse Irradiation of Targets For Proton Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, S.; Mo, M.; Masud, R.; Manzoor, L.; Tiedje, H.; Tsui, Y.; Fedosejevs, R.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; McLean, H.; Hazi, A.; Chen, H.; Ceurvorst, L.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments have been carried out on double-pulse irradiation of um-scale foil targets with varying preplasma conditions. Our experiment at the Titan Laser facility utilized two 700 fs, 1054 nm pulses, separated by 1 to 5 ps with a total energy of 100 J, and with 5-20% of the total energy contained within the first pulse. The proton spectra were measured with radiochromic film stacks and magnetic spectrometers. The prepulse energy was on the order of 10 mJ, which appears to have a moderating effect on the double pulse enhancement of proton beam. We have performed LSP PIC simulations to understand the double pulse enhancement mechanism, as well as the role of preplasma in modifying the interaction. A 1D parameter study was done to isolate various aspects of the interaction, while 2D simulations provide more detailed physical insight and a better comparison with experimental data. Work by the Univ. of Alberta was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. A frequency-doubled, pulsed laser system for rubidium manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dingjan, J; Beugnon, J; Jones, M P A; Bergamini, S; Messin, G; Browaeys, A; Grangier, P

    2005-01-01

    We have constructed a pulsed laser system for the manipulation of cold Rb atoms. The system combines optical telecommunications components and frequency doubling to generate light at 780 nm. Using a fast, fibre-coupled intensity modulator, output from a continuous laser diode is sliced into pulses with a length between 1.3 and 6.1 ns and a repetition frequency of 5 MHz. These pulses are amplified using an erbium-doped fibre amplifier, and frequency-doubled in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, yielding a peak power up to 12 W. Using the resulting light at 780 nm, we demonstrate Rabi oscillations on the F = 2 F=3-transition of a single 87Rb atom.

  14. Investigation of phase explosion in aluminum induced by nanosecond double pulse technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarabadi, Marzieh Akbari; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Single and collinear double pulse configurations were used for laser ablation of aluminum target in air. • The 5, 10, 15 and 20 ns delay times between pre pulse and main pulse in double pulse arrangement was investigated. • In comparison between single and double pulse regimes, the phase explosion threshold fluence is decreased in double pulse configuration. • The plasma shielding effect reduces the crater depth in lower laser fluence in double pulse configuration rather that its in single pulse configuration. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of double pulse technique on phase explosion threshold in laser ablation of an aluminum target is investigated. Single and double pulse laser ablation of aluminum target was performed by a high power Nd:YAG laser beam in ambient air. In the double pulse excitation, the two pulses were from a single laser source which separated by a delay time in the range of 5–20 ns. Measuring ablation depth and rate, the phase explosion threshold was estimated in double pulse configuration as well as in the single pulse regime. The results show that in comparison between single and double pulse regimes, the phase explosion threshold fluence is decreased in double pulse configuration. The lowest phase explosion threshold fluence of 0.9 J/cm{sup 2} was obtained at 5 ns delay time. The results also show that plasma shielding effect reduced crater depth at a laser fluence which depended on the laser ablation configuration (single pulse or double pulse). The reduction of crater depth occurs at lower laser fluences for double pulse regime.

  15. Effects of the electron-electron interaction on electronic transport through the antibonding orbital of a longitudinally embedded double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Hualde, J. M.; Chiappe, G.; Louis, E.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of the on-site electron-electron (e-e) interaction U on the electronic transport across two longitudinally embedded quantum dots in the regime in which the antibonding (AB) state of the isolated composite system is aligned with the Fermi level at the leads are investigated. This regime occurs when the dot orbital energy γd is negative and equal in magnitude to the hopping probability between the orbitals on the two dots. In the noninteracting case, the conductance approaches asymptotically the conductance quantum G0=2e2/h as γd decreases; in addition, the contribution of the AB channel to the conductance tends to 1. As shown here, this picture is substantially modified by the e-e interaction. For finite U , the conductance versus γd shows a maximum at which the value G0 is reached, being supported in this case by the two channels (bonding and antibonding); the relative weight of each channel depends on the actual value of the e-e interaction. In the limit γd=-∞ , the conductance is supported only by the AB channel (as in the noninteracting case), but it is always smaller than G0 . While the mechanism underlying these results is mainly one body for small U , the Kondo effect and quantum interference come into play at large U . The effects of the e-e interaction increase significantly as the leads-dots coupling decreases, in particular, the range over which the conductance is non-negligible is significantly narrowed. The possible implications on a physically related system, a hydrogen molecule longitudinally bridging two Pt electrodes, are discussed.

  16. Status of the LIA-2. Double-pulse mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, D. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Bak, P. A.; Batazova, M. A.; Batrakov, A. M.; Boimelshtein, Yu. M.; Bolkhovityanov, D. Yu.; Eliseev, A. A.; Korepanov, A. A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Kulenko, Ya. V.; Logatchev, P. V.; Ottmar, A. V.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Pavlov, O. A.; Panov, A. N.; Pachkov, A. A.; Fatkin, G. A.; Akhmetov, A. R.; Kolesnikov, P. A.; Nikitin, O. A.; Petrov, D. V.

    2016-12-01

    The LIA-2 linear induction accelerator has been designed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics as an electron-beam injector for a promising 20-MeV induction accelerator intended for tomography. Owing to the results of the first tests, it was decided to use the injector as an independent X-ray installation [1]. In 2014, the high-voltage power supply system of the LIA-2 was upgraded and tuned. The accelerator operates stably in the one-pulse mode at energies of up to 1.7 MeV; in the double-pulse mode it operates at energies of up to 1.5 MeV. The inhomogeneity in energy in each pulse does not exceed ±0.5%.

  17. Characterizations of double pulsing in neutron multiplicity and coincidence counting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Katrina E.; Henzl, Vladimir; Croft, Stephen S.; Henzlova, Daniela; Santi, Peter A.

    2016-10-01

    Passive neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters are subject to non-ideal behavior, such as double pulsing and dead time. It has been shown in the past that double-pulsing exhibits a distinct signature in a Rossi-alpha distribution, which is not readily noticed using traditional Multiplicity Shift Register analysis. However, it has been assumed that the use of a pre-delay in shift register analysis removes any effects of double pulsing. In this work, we use high-fidelity simulations accompanied by experimental measurements to study the effects of double pulsing on multiplicity rates. By exploiting the information from the double pulsing signature peak observable in the Rossi-alpha distribution, the double pulsing fraction can be determined. Algebraic correction factors for the multiplicity rates in terms of the double pulsing fraction have been developed. We discuss the role of these corrections across a range of scenarios.

  18. The double ionization of H{sub 2} by fast electron impact: Influence of the final state electron-electron correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuluunbaatar, O., E-mail: chuka@jinr.ru; Gusev, A. A., E-mail: gooseff@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Joulakian, B. B., E-mail: boghos.joulakian@univ-lorraine.fr [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Institut Jean Barriol (France)

    2013-02-15

    We have determined fully differential cross sections of the (e, 3e) double ionization of H{sub 2} by employing correlated initial- and final-state wave functions. We have constructed for the description of the two slow ejected electrons a symmetrized product of a correlation function and two-center continuum wave functions, which fulfill the correct boundary conditions asymptotically up to the order O((kr){sup -2}). We have shown that the introduction of the correlated part of the final-state wave function improves the results on the (e, 3-1e) of H{sub 2}.

  19. Rapid phase change induced by double picosecond laser pulses and the dynamics of acoustic phonons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Simian, E-mail: lism1972@qq.com [Hebei Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Geo-detection Technology, Shijiazhuang University of Economics, Shijiazhuang 050031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang, Guangfei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-12-02

    For a given phase change material and composition, the double laser pulses better than a single pulse for the crystallization process. We investigated the crystallization process in Si{sub 15}Sb{sub 85} thin films induced by double picosecond pulses with constant fluence and variable intervals. The crystallization degree is a function of the intervals of double pump laser pulses. The crystallization time decreased with the increasing of the intervals of the pump pulses. We believe that acoustic phonons play a key role in the crystallization process. - Highlights: • The double pulse crystallization is easier than the single pulse crystallization. • The crystallization is a function of the intervals of double pump laser pulses. • The crystallization time decreases with the increase of the pump pulse intervals. • Acoustic phonons play a key role in the crystallization process.

  20. Physics constraints on double-pulse LIA engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-20

    The options for advanced-radiography double-pulse linear induction accelerators (LIA) under consideration naturally fall into three categories that differ by the number of cells required. Since the two major physics issues, beam breakup (BBU) and corkscrew, are also dependent on the number of cells, it may be useful for the decision process to review the engineering consequences of beam physics constraints for each class. The LIAs can be categorized three different ways, and this report compares the different categories based upon the physics of their beams.

  1. Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinon, V. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol, A Coruna (Spain); Fotakis, C. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicolas, G. [Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol, A Coruna (Spain); Anglos, D. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: anglos@iesl.forth.gr

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents results obtained in a study of collinear geometry double pulse femtosecond LIBS analysis of solids in ambient environment. LIBS signal enhancement of 3-10 fold, accompanied by significant improvement of signal reproducibility, in comparison with the single pulse case, has been found in different samples such as brass, iron, silicon, barium sulfate and aluminum when an optimum temporal separation between the two ablating pulses is used. The influence of the delay between pulses in the LIBS signal intensity was investigated and two intervals of interaction were established. A first transient regime from 0 to 50 ps, in which the LIBS signal increases until reaching a maximum, and a second regime that ranges from 50 to 1000 ps (maximum inter-pulse delay investigated) in which the signal enhancement remains constant. Emissions from both ionized and neutral atoms show the same pattern of enhancement with a clear tendency of lines arising from higher energy emissive states to exhibit higher enhancement factors.

  2. Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Luan, Qingfang; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez

    2013-08-12

    This work reports on the Q-switched pulsed laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides. Double-cladding waveguides with different combination of diameters were inscribed into a sample of Nd:YAG ceramic. With an additional semiconductor saturable absorber, stable pulsed laser emission at the wavelength of 1064 nm was achieved with pulses of 21 ns temporal duration and ~14 μJ pulse energy at a repetition rate of 3.65 MHz.

  3. Generation and storage of double slow light pulses in a solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yun-Fei; Wang Hai-Hua; Wang Rong; Zhang Xiao-Jun; Kang Zhi-Hui; Wu Jin-Hui; Zhang Han-Zhuang; Gao Jin-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation and storage of double slow light pulses in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal.Under electromagnetically induced transparency,a single signal pulse is stored in the spin coherence of the crystal. By simultaneously switching on two control fields to recall the stored information,the spin coherence is converted into two slow light pulses with distinct frequencies.Furthermore,the storage and controlled retrieval of double slow light pulses are obtained by manipulating the control fields.This study of double slow light pulses may have practical applications in information processing and all-optical networks.

  4. Double dumbbell shaped AgNi alloy by pulsed electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, K.; Vasumathi, M.; Santhi, Kalavathy; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Silver-Nickel is the well-known thermally immiscible system that makes them quite complex for the formation of alloy. This kind of alloy can be attained from electrodeposition method. In the present work, AgNi alloy was synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition in a single bath two electrode system with the use of anodic alumina membrane. The prepared AgNi alloy and pure Ag were characterized with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for structural confirmation, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological, and magnetic properties by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, respectively. The X-ray Diffraction study shows the formation of cubic structure for pure Ag. SEM analysis reveals the double dumbbell morphology for AgNi alloy and spherically agglomeration for pure silver. Hysteresis behaviour from VSM measurement indicates that the AgNi alloy have good ferro-magnetic properties.

  5. Single and double long pulse laser ablation of aluminum induced in air and water ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, single pulse and double pulse laser ablation of an aluminum target in two interaction ambient was investigated experimentally. The interaction was performed by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser beam in air and four depths (i.e. 9, 13, 17, and 21 mm) of distilled water ambient. The irradiation was carried out in single and collinear double pulse configurations in both air and liquid ambient. Crater geometry (depth and diameter) was measured by an optical microscope. The results indicated that the crater geometry strongly depends on both single pulse and double pulse configurations and interaction ambient. In single pulse regime, the crater diameter is higher for all water depths compared to that of air. However, the crater depth, depend on water depth, is higher or lower than the crater depth in air. In double pulse laser ablation, there are greater values for both crater diameters and crater depths in the water.

  6. Anomalous photo-induced response by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-02-01

    We measured ultrafast reflectivity changes induced by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6. Using double-pulse excitation with a relatively high intensity, the sign of reflectivity change became reversed at around 0.8 ps and subsequently the reflectivity change reverted to that of the normal photo-induced state after about 1 ps. Using a optically phase-locked double-pulse with low intensity, we found that the temporal profile excited by an in-phase double-pulse differs from that by an out-of-phase double-pulse despite the time difference between the double-pulses being only 1.31 fs. This was true even when there is almost no overlap between each pulse in the double-pulse. These results indicate that the photo-response in this material to double-pulse excitation differs greatly from the linear sum of the responses to single pulses.

  7. Laser Energy Monitor for Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer IPDA Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is a remote sensing technique for monitoring different atmospheric species. The technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features normalized to the transmitted energy. 2-micron double-pulsed IPDA lidar is best suited for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In such case, the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by short interval (200 microseconds), with low repetition rate (10Hz). Conventional laser energy monitors, based on thermal detectors, are suitable for low repetition rate single pulse lasers. Due to the short pulse interval in double-pulsed lasers, thermal energy monitors underestimate the total transmitted energy. This leads to measurement biases and errors in double-pulsed IPDA technique. The design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on a high-speed, extended range InGaAs pin quantum detectors suitable for separating the two pulse events. Pulse integration is applied for converting the detected pulse power into energy. Results are compared to a photo-electro-magnetic (PEM) detector for impulse response verification. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in single-pulsed mode, then comparing the pin and PEM detectors in double-pulsed mode. Energy monitor linearity will be addressed.

  8. Fluorescence Enhancement Ratio Dropdown at Low Fluences during Femtosecond Double Pulse Laser Ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sima SINGHA; Robert J. GORDON; HU Zhan

    2008-01-01

    In the study of double pulse ablation of materials (silicon and copper), a dropdown of double pulse to single pulse fluorescence signal enhancement at low fluences is observed. The dropdown is analysed with a simple theoretical one-dimensional heat diffusion model and verified by fluorescence time constants change as a function of fluence. The dropdown is explained as a result of liquid-solid mixture layer at the liquid and solid boundary. The effect of the layer becomes important at low fluences.

  9. Optimally enhanced optical emission in laser-induced air plasma by femtosecond double-pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anmin [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Suyu; Li, Shuchang; Jiang, Yuanfei; Ding, Dajun [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Tingfeng [State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Huang, Xuri [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Jin, Mingxing [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2013-10-15

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, a femtosecond double-pulse laser was used to induce air plasma. The plasma spectroscopy was observed to lead to significant increase of the intensity and reproducibility of the optical emission signal compared to femtosecond single-pulse laser. In particular, the optical emission intensity can be optimized by adjusting the delay time of femtosecond double-pulse. An appropriate pulse-to-pulse delay was selected, that was typically about 50 ps. This effect can be especially advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, plasma channel, and so on.

  10. Susceptibility of personal computer systems to electromagnetic pulses with double exponential character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Camp

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the susceptibility of personal computer systems to fast transient electromagnetic pulses with double exponential pulse shapes (EMP, UWB is determined. The influence of the computer generation, RAM-values, different program states and the pulse shape, as well as the destruction thresholds of single PC-components (CPU, RAM, BIOS, Mainboard have been investigated.

  11. Pulse doubling in zigzag-connected autotransformer-based 12-pulse ac-dc converter for power quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMDs) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse acdc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifiers. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

  12. Digital Double-Pulse Holographic Interferometry for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Tiziani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Different arrangements for double-pulsed holographic and speckle interferometry for vibration analysis will be described. Experimental results obtained with films (classical holographic interferometry and CCD cameras (digital holographic interferometry as storage materials are presented. In digital holography, two separate holograms of an object under test are recorded within a few microseconds using a CCD camera and are stored in a frame grabber. The phases of the two reconstructed wave fields are calculated from the complex amplitudes. The deformation is obtained from the phase difference. In the case of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (or image plane hologram, the phase can be calculated by using the sinusoid-fitting method. In the case of digital holographic interferometry, the phase is obtained by digital reconstruction of the complex amplitudes of the wave fronts. Using three directions of illumination and one direction of observation, all the information necessary for the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional deformation vector can be recorded at the same time. Applications of the method for measuring rotating objects are discussed where a derotator needs to be used.

  13. Observation of reconnection pulses by Cluster and Double Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Deng

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available During a reconnection event on 7 August 2004, Cluster and Double Star (TC-1 were near the neutral sheet and simultaneously detected the signatures of the reconnection pulses. AT 22:59 UT tailward flow followed by earthward flow was detected by Cluster at about 15 RE, while earthward plasma flow followed by tailward flow was observed by TC-1 at about 10 RE. During the flow reversal from tailward to earthward, the magnetic field Bz changed sign from mainly negative values to positive, and the X component of the magnetic curvature vector switched sign from the tailward direction to the earthward direction, which indicates that the reconnection site (X-line moved tailward past the Cluster constellation. By using multi-point analysis and observation of energetic electron and ion flux, we study the movement and structure of the current sheet and discuss the braking effect of the earthward flow bursts in the inner magnetosphere.

  14. Ultrashort-pulse laser irradiation of metal films: the effect of a double-peak laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosandi, Yudi [Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Universitas Padjadjaran, Department of Physics, Sumedang (Indonesia); Urbassek, Herbert M. [Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation coupled to a homogeneous model for the electron gas, we study the response of an Al thin film on short-pulse laser irradiation. Laser pulses are considered to have a double-peak structure consisting of two Gaussian pulses; the time delay between the two pulses is varied. The temporal dependence of the energy transfer from the electronic system to the lattice is considered in detail. The effect on the temperature and pressure inside the material, as well as on melting, void nucleation and spallation (ablation) are studied. (orig.)

  15. Demonstration of periodic nanostructure formation with less ablation by double-pulse laser irradiation on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuki; Sakata, Ryoichi; Konishi, Kazuki; Ono, Koki; Matsuoka, Shusaku; Watanabe, Kota; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    By pairing femtosecond laser pulses (duration ˜40 fs and central wavelength ˜810 nm) at an appropriate time interval, a laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) is formed with much less ablation than one formed with a single pulse. On a titanium plate, a pair of laser pulses with fluences of 70 and 140 mJ/cm2 and a rather large time interval (>10 ps) creates a LIPSS with an interspace of 600 nm, the same as that formed by a single pulse of 210 mJ/cm2, while the double pulse ablates only 4 nm, a quarter of the ablation depth of a single pulse.

  16. MOSFET-based high voltage double square-wave pulse generator with an inductive adder configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Qiaogen, E-mail: hvzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Long, Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lei, Yunfei; Liu, Jinyuan [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a fast MOSFET-based solid-state pulse generator for high voltage double square-wave pulses. The generator consists mainly of an inductive adder system stacked of 20 solid-state modules. Each of the modules has 18 power MOSFETs in parallel, which are triggered by individual drive circuits; these drive circuits themselves are synchronously triggered by a signal from avalanche transistors. Our experiments demonstrate that the output pulses with amplitude of 8.1 kV and peak current of about 405 A are available at a load impedance of 20 Ω. The pulse has a double square-wave form with a rise and fall time of 40 ns and 26 ns, respectively and bottom flatness better than 12%. The interval time of the double square-wave pulses can be adjustable by varying the interval time of the trigger pulses.

  17. Ultrafast thermal dynamics of nano-ripples formation via laser double pulses excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangqing; Wu, Yanmin; Uddin, Noor; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Lu, Yu; Bian, Hao; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    The ultrafast thermal dynamics of nano-ripples formation on gold film via ultrafast laser double pulses excitation is theoretically investigated by numerical simulations. The non-equilibrium thermal modulations with respect to the electron and phonon energy transfers within gold film is proposed for predicting the nano-ripples formation. It is revealed that the nano-ripples contrast on gold film surface can be well controlled via tuning the pulse energy ratio, pulse separation and pulse exchange of ultrafast laser double-pulse. It is attributed to the tunable energy transfer routes between the electron thermal diffusion and the electron-phonon coupling via tuning double pulses parameters. The study provides theoretical basis for producing high-contrast ripples for a wide range application in the fields such as high-absorptive solar cells, surface friction devices and super-hydrophobic surface.

  18. Ablation enhancement of silicon by ultrashort double-pulse laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Shin, Yung C. [Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, the ultrashort double-pulse ablation of silicon is investigated. An atomistic simulation model is developed to analyze the underlying physics. It is revealed that the double-pulse ablation could significantly increase the ablation rate of silicon, compared with the single pulse ablation with the same total pulse energy, which is totally different from the case of metals. In the long pulse delay range (over 1 ps), the enhancement is caused by the metallic transition of melted silicon with the corresponding absorption efficiency. At ultrashort pulse delay (below 1 ps), the enhancement is due to the electron excitation by the first pulse. The enhancement only occurs at low and moderate laser fluence. The ablation is suppressed at high fluence due to the strong plasma shielding effect.

  19. Period Doubling in a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode Subject to Optical Pulse Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yue-Peng; WANG Yun-Cai; ZHANG Ming-Jiang; AN Yi; WANG Ji-Long

    2007-01-01

    Experimental study and numerical simulations of the period doubling of injected optical pulses in Fabry-Perot laser diodes are presented. In our experiments, the period doubling is achieved within a wide input frequency range and the period doubling of the injected optical pulses with 6.32 GHz repetition rate is investigated in detail. The obtained experimental results indicate that period doubling occurs at an appropriate injected optical power level when the bias current of the Fabry-Perot laser diode is located in lower ranges. Moreover, the experimental observed features have been numerically demonstrated by using a coupled rate-equation model. Numerical simulations are consistent with the experimental results.

  20. Drilling of aluminum and copper films with femtosecond double-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinxin; Luo, Sizuo; Chen, Zhou; Qi, Hongxia; Deng, Jiannan; Hu, Zhan

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum and copper films are drilled with femtosecond double-pulse laser. The double-pulse delay is scanned from -75 ps to 90 ps. The drilling process is monitored by recording the light transmitted through the sample, and the morphology of the drilled holes is analyzed by optical microscopy. It is found that, the breakthrough time, the hole evolution during drilling, the redeposited material, the diameters of the redeposited area and the hole, change as functions of double-pulse delay, and are different for the two metals. Along the double-pulse delay axis, three different time constants are observed, a slow one of a few tens of picoseconds, a fast one of a few picoseconds, and an oscillation pattern. Results are discussed based on the mechanisms of plasma shielding, electron-phonon coupling, strong coupling of laser with liquid phase, oxidation of aluminum, laser induced temperature and pressure oscillations, and the atomization of plume particles.

  1. Development of Double-Pulsed Two-Micron Laser for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Refaat, Tamer F.

    2017-01-01

    A CO2 lidar double-pulse two-micron high-energy transmitter, tuned to on- and off-line absorption wavelengths, has been developed. Transmitter operation and performance has been verified on ground and airborne platform.

  2. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2015-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new 2-miron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of 2014 for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  3. Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandula, D.Z.; Renault, A.A.L.; Gohle, C.; Wolf, A.L.; Witte, S.; Hogervorst, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate phase stable, mJ-level parametric amplification of pulse pairs originating from a Ti: Sapphire frequency comb laser. The amplifier-induced phase shift between the pulses has been determined interferometrically with an accuracy of approximate to 10 mrad. Typical phase shifts are on the

  4. Two-electron time-delay interference in atomic double ionization by attosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N

    2009-10-04

    A two-color two-photon atomic double ionization experiment using subfemtosecond UV pulses can be designed such that the sequential two-color process dominates and one electron is ejected by each pulse. Nonetheless, ab initio calculations show that, for sufficiently short pulses, a prominent interference pattern in the joint energy distribution of the sequentially ejected electrons can be observed that is due to their indistinguishability and the exchange symmetry of the wave function.

  5. Double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of explosives: Initial study towards improved discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lucia, Frank C. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)], E-mail: fdelucia@arl.army.mil; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Detecting trace explosive residues at standoff distances in real-time is a difficult problem. One method ideally suited for real-time standoff detection is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). However, atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen contributes to the LIBS signal from the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing explosive compounds, complicating the discrimination of explosives from other organic materials. While bathing the sample in an inert gas will remove atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen interference, it cannot practically be applied for standoff LIBS. Alternatively, we have investigated the potential of double pulse LIBS to improve the discrimination of explosives by diminishing the contribution of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen to the LIBS signal. These initial studies compare the close-contact (< 1 m) LIBS spectra of explosives using single pulse LIBS in argon with double pulse LIBS in atmosphere. We have demonstrated improved discrimination of an explosive and an organic interferent using double pulse LIBS to reduce the air entrained in the analytical plasma.

  6. Double-pulse laser ablation sampling: Enhancement of analyte emission by a second laser pulse at 213 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Bruno Yue [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Mao, Xianglei [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hou, Huaming [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Zorba, Vassilia; Russo, Richard E. [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Nai-Ho, E-mail: nhcheung@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-01

    For the purpose of devising methods for minimally destructive multi-element analysis, we compare the performance of a 266 nm–213 nm double-pulse scheme against that of the single 266 nm pulse scheme. The first laser pulse at 266 nm ablates a mica sample. Ten ns later, the second pulse at 213 nm and 64 mJ cm{sup −2} orthogonally intercepts the gas plume to enhance the analyte signal. Emissions from aluminum, silicon, magnesium and sodium are simultaneously observed. At low 266 nm laser fluence when only sub-ng of sample mass is removed, the signal enhancement by the 213 nm pulse is especially apparent. The minimum detectable amount of aluminum is about 24 fmol; it will be a hundred times higher if the sample is analyzed by the 266 nm pulse alone. The minimum detectable mass for the other analytes is also reduced by about two orders of magnitude when the second pulse at 213 nm is introduced. The spectral and temporal properties of the enhanced signal are consistent with the mechanism of ultra-violet laser excited atomic fluorescence of dense plumes. - Highlights: • We devise a two-laser-pulse scheme to analyze the elemental composition of mica as test samples. • We compare the analytical performance of the single 266 nm pulse scheme against the 266 nm – 213 nm two pulse scheme. • The two pulse scheme improves the absolute LODs of the analytes by about a hundred times. • The spectral and temporal properties of the enhanced signal are consistent with the mechanism.

  7. Transient analysis of single stage GM type double inlet pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, P. B.; Desai, K. P.; Naik, H. B.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Transient analysis of single stage GM type double inlet pulse tube cryocooler is carried out using a one dimensional numerical model based on real gas properties of helium. The model solves continuity, momentum and energy equation for gas and solid to analyse the physical process occurring inside of the pulse tube cryocooler. Finite volume method is applied to discretize the governing equations with realistic initial and boundary conditions. Input data required for solving the model are the design data and operating parameters viz. pressure waveform from the compressor, regenerator matrix data, and system geometry including pulse tube, regenerator size and operating frequency for pulse tube cryocooler. The model investigates the effect of orifice opening, double inlet opening, pressure ratio, system geometry on no load temperature and refrigeration power at various temperatures for different charging pressure. The results are compared with experimental data and reasonable agreement is observed. The model can further be extended for designing two stage pulse tube cryocooler.

  8. Physics Design of the ETA-II/Snowtron Double Pulse Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y J; McCarrick, J F; Paul, A C; Sampayan, S E; Wang, L F; Weir, J T; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Ho, Darwin D.-M.; Mccarrick, James F.; Paul, Arthur C.; Sampayan, Stephen; Wang, Li-Fang; Weir, John T.

    2000-01-01

    We have modified the single pulse target experimental facility[ ] on the Experimental Test Accelerator II (ETA-II) to perform the double pulse target experiments to validate the DARHT-II[, ] multi-pulse target concept. The 1.15 MeV, 2 kA Snowtron injector will provide the first electron pulse. The 6 MeV, 2 kA ETA-II beam will be used as the probe beam. Our modeling indicates that the ETA-II/Snowtron experiment is a reasonable scaling experiment.

  9. Effect of inter-pulse delay time on production and size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Behzad; Mahdieh, Mohammah Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The influence of inter-pulse delay times (0-20 ns) between two collinear sequential nanosecond pulses on the production and size properties (mean size and size distribution) of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a silver target in a distilled water medium has been studied. Various laser fluences at different inter-pulse delay times between two collinear pulses were used. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the effect of the double-pulse and single-pulse mode, experiments were performed. The characterization of the synthesized colloidal nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that 5 ns time-delayed double-pulse laser ablation results in the production of nanoparticles with the highest concentration among the other time-delayed ablation experiments and even more than single-pulse-mode experiments. It also found that using a double-pulse approach with inter-pulse delay times in the range of 0-20 ns leads to the production of nanoparticles with smaller mean sizes and narrower size distributions in comparison to single-pulse-mode laser ablation. The effect of time overlapping between two pulses in the case of double-pulse ablation was analyzed.

  10. Optical emission studies of plasma induced by single and double femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinon, V. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol, A Coruna (Spain); Anglos, D., E-mail: anglos@iesl.forth.g [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2009-10-15

    Double-pulse femtosecond laser ablation has been shown to lead to significant increase of the intensity and reproducibility of the optical emission signal compared to single-pulse ablation particularly when an appropriate interpulse delay is selected, that is typically in the range of 50-1000 ps. This effect can be especially advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of materials. A detailed comparative study of collinear double- over single-pulse femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been carried out, based on measurements of emission lifetime, temperature and electronic density of plasmas, produced during laser ablation of brass with 450 fs laser pulses at 248 nm. The results obtained show a distinct increase of plasma temperature and electronic density as well as a longer decay time in the double-pulse case. The plasma temperature increase is in agreement with the observed dependence of the emission intensity enhancement on the upper energy level of the corresponding spectral line. Namely, intensity enhancement of emission lines originating from higher lying levels is more profound compared to that of lines arising from lower energy levels. Finally, a substantial decrease of the plasma threshold fluence was observed in the double-pulse arrangement; this enables sensitive analysis with minimal damage on the sample surface.

  11. Electron correlation in two-photon double ionization of helium from attosecond to FEL pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of electron correlation in the two-photon double ionization of helium for ultrashort pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) regime with durations ranging from a hundred attoseconds to a few femtoseconds. We perform time-dependent ab initio calculations for pulses with mean frequencies in the so-called 'sequential' regime ({Dirac_h}{omega} > 54.4 eV). Electron correlation induced by the time correlation between emission events manifests itself in the angular distribution of the ejected electrons, which strongly depends on the energy sharing between them. We show that for ultrashort pulses two-photon double ionization probabilities scale non-uniformly with pulse duration depending on the energy sharing between the electrons. Most interestingly we find evidence for an interference between direct ('nonsequential') and indirect ('sequential') double photoionization with intermediate shake-up states, the strength of which is controlled by the pulse duration. This observation may provide a route towards measuring the pulse duration of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses.

  12. Periodic surface structures on titanium self-organized upon double femtosecond pulse exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemini, Laura, E-mail: gemini@fzu.cz [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics, ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Hashida, Masaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Shunsuke [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan); Limpouch, Jiri [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Mocek, Tomas [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics, ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 606-8502 Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • LIPSS self-formed on Ti surface upon irradiations by 25 double pulses. • A surface plasma density variation leads to a variation of LIPSS features. • Data from double pulse irradiations well agree with the parametric decay model. • Results confirm the formation of surface plasma during the ultra-short interaction. • Results support once again the validity of the parametric decay model. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) self-organized on Ti surface after irradiations by femtosecond laser beam composed by double pulses with a fixed time delay of 160 fs. The fluence of the first pulse (F{sub PP}), responsible for surface plasma formation, was varied in the range 10–50 mJ cm{sup −2} and always kept below the LIPSS formation threshold fluence (F{sub LIPSS}) on Ti for 50-single-shots exposure. The fluence of the delayed pulse (F{sub LP}), responsible for LIPSS self-organization, was varied in the range 60–150 mJ cm{sup −2} and always kept above F{sub LIPSS}. Regardless the specific fluence F{sub LP} of the delayed pulse, the interspace of the grating structures increases with the increase of F{sub PP}, that is an increase of the surface plasma density. This tendency suggests that a variation of the surface plasma density, due to a variation of F{sub PP}, actually leads to a modification of the grating features. Moreover, we observed that the LIPSS periodicities after double pulse exposures are in quite good agreement with data on LIPSS periodicities after single 160 fs pulse irradiations on Ti surface and with the curve predicted by the parametric decay model. This experimental result suggests that the preformed plasma might be produced in the rising edge of the temporal profile of the laser pulse.

  13. High power pulse amplification of ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Chang; Wei Fan; Jialin Chen; Li Wang; Bai Chen; Zunqi Lin

    2007-01-01

    By solving a set of time-dependent equations, the characteristics of the ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier are presented. Besides the steady state in the fiber of the upper-state population, pump power and amplified spontaneous emission without the input signal, the dynamic characteristics of the high power Gaussian pulse amplification like the evolution of pulse waveform distortion, upper-state population distribution and stored energy and pulse energy of the amplifier under the forward and backward pump,are simulated. The relations between the output pulse energy of the amplifier and the different input pulse peak power or pump power are also discussed. The models and results can provide important guide for the design and optimization of the high power pulse amplification.

  14. Dynamics of optical breakdown in air induced by single and double nanosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir; Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 1684613114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, an optical breakdown in air induced by single and double nanosecond laser pulses was studied. A high power Nd:YAG laser beam was used for producing optical breakdown plasma in the air. The dynamics of breakdown plasma were studied using an optical probe beam. A portion of the laser beam was used, as the probe beam and was aligned to propagate (perpendicular to the pump beam) through the breakdown region. The transmission of the probe beam (through the breakdown region) was temporally measured for both single and double pulse irradiations. The results were used to describe the evolution of the induced plasma in both conditions. These results show that the plasma formation time and its absorptivity are strongly dependent on the single or double pulse configurations.

  15. The role of plasma shielding in collinear double-pulse femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penczak, John [Department of Chemistry (m/c 111), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60680-7061 (United States); Kupfer, Rotem; Bar, Ilana [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Gordon, Robert J. [Department of Chemistry (m/c 111), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60680-7061 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical study of the mechanism for the enhancement of the laser-induced breakdown signal produced by two collinear femtosecond pulses separated by a suitable delay. A bilayer sample consisting of a 500 nm thick film of Ag deposited on Al was used in the experiments, and a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation was implemented in the theoretical part of the study. Experiments on the effect of laser polarization, performed at a 30° angle of incidence over a wide range of fluences, together with the PIC results, showed that the plasma produced by the first pulse was further excited by the second pulse. Experiments at normal incidence and a fluence of 200 J/cm{sup 2} showed that the second pulse did not penetrate the Ag layer. In addition, measurements of the effect of pulse delay on the signal supported the conclusion that double pulse enhancement is produced by plasma heating rather than by increased surface ablation. - Highlights: • We study the mechanism for collinear double-pulse enhancement of LIBS produced by a fs laser. • We use a bilayer of Ag on Al to determine which region is reached by the 2nd pulse. • Signal enhancement is produced by plasma heating rather than by increased surface ablation. • Particle-in-cell calculations show that plasma shielding plays a key role.

  16. Anisotropy modulations of femtosecond laser pulse induced periodic surface structures on silicon by adjusting double pulse delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weina; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Hao; Lu, YongFeng

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate that the polarization-dependent anisotropy of the laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) on silicon can be adjusted by designing a femtosecond laser pulse train (800 nm, 50 fs, 1 kHz). By varying the pulse delay from 100 to 1600 fs within a double pulse train to reduce the deposited pulse energy, which weakens the directional surface plasmon polarition (SPP)-laser energy coupling based on the initial formed ripple structure, the polarization-dependent geometrical morphology of the LIPSS evolves from a nearly isotropic circular shape to a somewhat elongated elliptical shape. Meanwhile, the controllable anisotropy of the two-dimensional scanned-line widths with different directions is achieved based on a certain pulse delay combined with the scanning speed. This can effectively realize better control over large-area uniform LIPSS formation. As an example, we further show that the large-area LIPSS can be formed with different scanning times under different pulse delays.

  17. Ultrahigh contrast from a frequency-doubled chirped-pulse-amplification beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, David; Danson, Colin; Duffield, Stuart; Egan, David; Elsmere, Stephen; Girling, Mark; Harvey, Ewan; Hopps, Nicholas; Norman, Michael; Parker, Stefan; Treadwell, Paul; Winter, David; Bett, Thomas

    2013-06-20

    This paper describes frequency-doubled operation of a high-energy chirped-pulse-amplification beamline. Efficient type-I second-harmonic generation was achieved using a 3 mm thick 320 mm aperture KDP crystal. Shots were fired at a range of energies achieving more than 100 J in a subpicosecond, 527 nm laser pulse with a power contrast of 10(14).

  18. Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)], E-mail: jennifer.gottfried@arl.army.mil; De Lucia, Frank C.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We have developed a double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system capable of detecting a variety of hazardous materials at tens of meters. The use of a double-pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of ST-LIBS, especially for the detection of energetic materials. In addition to various metallic and plastic materials, the system has been used to detect bulk explosives RDX and Composition-B, explosive residues, biological species such as the anthrax surrogate Bacillus subtilis, and chemical warfare simulants at 20 m. We have also demonstrated the discrimination of explosive residues from various interferents on an aluminum substrate.

  19. Clinical usefulness of transpapillary removal of common bile duct stones by frequency doubled double pulse Nd: YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Hyeon Kim; Hyo Jeong Oh; Chang-Soo Choi; Dong Han Yeom; Suck Chei Choi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the efficacy and the safety of laser lithotripsy without direct visual control by using a balloon catheter in patients with bile duct stones that could not be extracted by standard technique.METHODS: The seventeen patients (7 male and 10 female; mean age 67.8 years) with difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones were not amenable for conventional endoscopic maneuvers such as sphincterotomy and mechanical lithotripsy were included in this study. Laser wavelengths of 532 nm and 1064 nm as a double pulse were applied with pulse energy of 120 mJ. The laser fiber was advanced under fluoroscopic control through the ERCP balloon catheter. Laser lithotripsy was continued until the fragment size seemed to be less than 10 mm.Endoscopic extraction of the stones and fragments was performed with the use of the Dormia basket and balloon catheter.RESULTS: Bile duct clearance was achieved in 15 of 17 patients (88%). The mean number of treatment sessions was 1.7 ± 0.6. Endoscopic stone removal could not be achieved in 2 patients (7%). Adverse effects were noted in three patients (hemobilia, pancreatitis, and cholangitis).CONCLUSION: The Frequency Doubled Double Pulse Nd:YAG (FREDDY) laser may be an effective and safe technique in treatment of difficult bile duct stones.

  20. Relative Phase Dependence of Double Ionization in a Synthesized Laser Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Sheng; XIA Chang-Long; GUO Jing; LIU Xue-Shen

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate the double ionization process of a three-dimensional model atom interacting with a synthesized laser pulse and explore the mechanism of non-sequential double ionization varying with the value of relative phase.The result shows that the recollision probability decreases when the value of the relative phase increases.The momentum spectra of electrons in the sequential ionization region are also illustrated.

  1. Ultrafast Breakdown of dielectrics: Energy absorption mechanisms investigated by double pulse experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizard, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.guizard@cea.fr [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-IRAMIS, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Klimentov, Sergey [General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova St 38, 11991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mouskeftaras, Alexandros [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-IRAMIS, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Fedorov, Nikita; Geoffroy, Ghita [Laboratoire CELIA, CNRS-CEA-Université de Bordeaux, Cours de La Libération, Talence (France); Vilmart, Gautier [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-IRAMIS, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the mechanisms involved in the modification of dielectric materials by ultrashort laser pulses. We show that the use of a double pulse (fundamental and second harmonic of a Ti–Sa laser) excitation allows getting new insight in the fundamental processes that occur during the interaction. We first measure the optical breakdown (OB) threshold map (intensity of first pulse versus intensity of second pulse) in various materials (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, α-SiO{sub 2}). Using a simple model that includes multiphoton excitation followed by carrier heating in the conduction band, and assuming that OB occurs when a critical amount of energy is deposited in the material, we can satisfactorily reproduce this evolution of optical breakdown thresholds. The results demonstrate the dominant role of carrier heating in the energy transfer from the laser pulse to the solid. This important phenomenon is also highlighted by the kinetic energy distribution of photoelectrons observed in a photoemission experiment performed under similar conditions of double pulse excitation. Finally we show, in the case of α-SiO{sub 2}, that the initial electronic excitation plays a key role in the formation of surface ripples and that their characteristics are determined by the first pulse, even at intensities well below OB threshold.

  2. Periodic surface structures on titanium self-organized upon double femtosecond pulse exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemini, Laura; Hashida, Masaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Shunsuke; Limpouch, Jiri; Mocek, Tomas; Sakabe, Shuji

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) self-organized on Ti surface after irradiations by femtosecond laser beam composed by double pulses with a fixed time delay of 160 fs. The fluence of the first pulse (FPP), responsible for surface plasma formation, was varied in the range 10-50 mJ cm-2 and always kept below the LIPSS formation threshold fluence (FLIPSS) on Ti for 50-single-shots exposure. The fluence of the delayed pulse (FLP), responsible for LIPSS self-organization, was varied in the range 60-150 mJ cm-2 and always kept above FLIPSS. Regardless the specific fluence FLP of the delayed pulse, the interspace of the grating structures increases with the increase of FPP, that is an increase of the surface plasma density. This tendency suggests that a variation of the surface plasma density, due to a variation of FPP, actually leads to a modification of the grating features. Moreover, we observed that the LIPSS periodicities after double pulse exposures are in quite good agreement with data on LIPSS periodicities after single 160 fs pulse irradiations on Ti surface and with the curve predicted by the parametric decay model. This experimental result suggests that the preformed plasma might be produced in the rising edge of the temporal profile of the laser pulse.

  3. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  4. Double discharges in unipolar-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred

    2003-07-01

    Excitation of dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps by unipolar short square pulses is studied in this paper. Two discharges with different polarity are excited by each voltage pulse (double discharge phenomenon). The primary discharge occurs at the top or at the rising flank of the applied unipolar square pulse, which is directly energized by the external circuit. The secondary discharge with the reversed polarity occurs at the falling flank or shortly after the falling flank end (zero external voltage) depending on the pulse width, which is energized by the energy stored by memory charges deposited by the primary discharge. Fast-speed ICCD imaging shows the primary discharge has a conic discharge appearance with a channel broadening on the anode side. This channel broadening increases with increasing the pulse top level. Only the anode-side surface discharge is observed in the primary discharge. The surface discharge on the cathode side which is present in bipolar sine voltage excitation is not observed. On the contrary, the secondary discharge has only the cathode-side surface discharge. The surface discharge on the anode side is not observed. The secondary discharge is much more diffuse than the primary discharge. Time-resolved emission measurement of double discharges show the secondary discharge emits more VUV xenon excimer radiation but less infrared (IR) xenon atomic emission than the primary discharge. It was found that the IR xenon atomic emission from the secondary discharge can be reduced by shortening the pulse width. The energy efficiency of unipolar-pulsed xenon excimer lamps (the overall energy efficiency of double discharges) is much higher than that obtained under bipolar sine wave excitation. The output VUV spectrum under unipolar pulse excitation is found to be identical to that under sine wave excitation and independent of injected electric power.

  5. Kinematical vortices in double photoionization of helium by attosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djiokap, J. M. Ngoko; Meremianin, A. V.; Manakov, N. L.

    2017-01-01

    -order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrodinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear...... detection geometries. However, the vortex structures only occur when the angular separation beta = cos(-1)((p) over cap (1) . (p) over cap (2)) between the electron momenta p(1) and p(2) is held fixed. The vortex structures can also be observed in the fourfold differential DPI probability distribution...... obtained by averaging the sixfold differential probability over the emission angles of one electron. Such kinematical vortices are a general phenomenon that may occur in any ionization process, initiated by two time-delayed short pulses with opposite ellipticities, for particular detection geometries....

  6. Theory modeling and experimental research of external-cavity frequency doubling technology of short pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Cun-li; Zhang, Su-juan; He, Jiang-long

    2011-06-01

    Q-switched Short pulse laser has been widely applied in many fields, such as optical ranging, remote sensing, communications, nonlinear optics and spectroscopy etc. Q-switched Nd3+: YAG laser, with its high thermal conductivity and resistance to damage threshold, longer energy levels were generally used especially. Second harmonics generation was usually obtained through optical nonlinear effects in crystal. To the frequency doubling technology, poor conversion efficiency and multi-output frequency are the main problems. Researchers focus more on phase and group velocity matching induced by nonlinear effects, but pays less attention on theoretical modeling and numerical calculation of factors affecting frequency doubling of pulsed laser. In this article, nonlinear effects of double frequency crystals in Q-switched Nd3+: YAG laser was first analyzed in theory, then we deduced the relation expressions between factors affecting the efficiency of frequency doubling( thickness of frequency doubling crystal, cross section area of incident beam, power of the fundamental field, phase matching of incidence light)and double frequency efficiency. Secondly, taken KTP Crystal for example; numerical results and theirs' corresponding curves on these relation expressions was calculated and drawn with MATLAB software. These findings can be used for processing the specific requests of frequency doubling crystal. Finally, Theory modeling and numerical calculation were tested in experiment. The experiment results are in good agreement with those obtained in theory.

  7. The Technology and Properties of Digital Double Pulse Electrodepositing Ni-HA Composite Coating of Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG He-yan; WANG Zhou; SHI Gu-guizhi; FU Chuan-qi; CHEN Wei-rong; JIN Zhong-hong; LI Yan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the technology, the surface image, microstructure and ability of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics made on 1Crl8Ni9Ti substrate by SEM ,XRD and so on. The results shows that ( 1 ) the HA particles exit in substrate uniformly; (2) XRD result shows that there are HA peaks at 78. 023 ° ,43. 246°and 73. 120°differently; (3) The microhardnees of the composite coatings is increased with the rise of content of HA particles, and on the same conditions the microhardnees value is greater than that of common non-pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics. (4) The grain size of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics is much thinner than that of common D. C.

  8. A compact field-portable double-pulse laser system to enhance laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Yan, Aidong; Huang, Sheng; Huang, Xi; Chen, Rongzhang; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact double-pulse laser system to enhance laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for field applications. Pumped by high-power vertical-surface emitting lasers, the laser system that produces 16 ns pulse at 12 mJ/pulse with total weight less than 10 kg is developed. The inter-pulse delay can be adjusted from 0 μ s with 0.5 μ s increment. Several LIBS experiments were carried out on NIST standard aluminum alloy samples. Comparing with the single-pulse LIBS, up to 9 times enhancement in atomic emission line was achieved with continuum background emission reduced by 70%. This has led to up to 10 times improvement in the limit of detection. Signal stability was also improved by 128% indicating that a more robust and accurate LIBS measurement can be achieved using a compact double-pulse laser system. This paper presents a viable and field deployable laser tool to dramatically improve the sensitivity and applicability of LIBS for a wide array of applications.

  9. Rippled area formed by surface plasmon polaritons upon femtosecond laser double-pulse irradiation of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Thibault J-Y; Krüger, Jörg; Itina, Tatiana E; Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Bonse, Jörn

    2013-12-02

    The formation of near-wavelength laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on silicon upon irradiation with sequences of Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulse pairs (pulse duration 150 fs, central wavelength 800 nm) is studied theoretically. For this purpose, the nonlinear generation of conduction band electrons in silicon and their relaxation is numerically calculated using a two-temperature model approach including intrapulse changes of optical properties, transport, diffusion and recombination effects. Following the idea that surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) can be excited when the material turns from semiconducting to metallic state, the "SPP active area" is calculated as function of fluence and double-pulse delay up to several picoseconds and compared to the experimentally observed rippled surface areas. Evidence is presented that multi-photon absorption explains the large increase of the rippled area for temporally overlapping pulses. For longer double-pulse delays, relevant relaxation processes are identified. The results demonstrate that femtosecond LIPSS on silicon are caused by the excitation of SPP and can be controlled by temporal pulse shaping.

  10. Design and construction of double-Blumlein HV pulse power supply

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak K Gupta; P I John

    2001-10-01

    A double Blumlein pulse generator is constructed using a coaxial cable. This power supply is capable of providing a voltage up to 20 kV across a matched load and 40kV across an open load with a charging voltage of 10 kV. It is designed to provide a pulse width of 110ns. A rise time of ∼10ns is obtained with present spark gap. A rotating spark gap is also designed and constructed to get a pulse repetition rate of 25Hz. Although, in the present work this pulse generator is used to study the streamer discharge in air, it is useful in many other applications also.

  11. Long-pulse, single-frequency 1064 nm laser and frequency doubling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiafei Xu; Gang Xie; Yanhua Lu; Lei Zhang; Min Wan

    2015-01-01

    An all-solid-state single-frequency 1064 nm laser with a 100 μs pulse width, 500 Hz repetition rate and 700 m J single pulse energy is designed using seed injection and a three-stage master oscillator power amplifier(MOPA) construction.Using this as a basis, research on long-pulse laser frequency doubling is carried out. By designing and optimizing the lithium triborate(LBO) crystal, the theoretically calculated maximum conversion efficiency ηmax reaches 68% at M2=1, while ηminis 33% at M2=3. Generation of 212 m J pulses of green light with a repetition rate as high as500 Hz is obtained from a fundamental energy of 700 m J. The experimental conversion efficiency reaches 31% and the power stability is better than±1%.

  12. Formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on Ti upon double fs pulse exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemini, Laura; Hashida, Masaki; Nishii, Takaya; Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Shunsuke; Limpouch, Jiri; Mocek, Tomas; Sakabe, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    Recently a parametric decay model was proposed in order to foresee LIPSS interspaces, and experimental results are in reasonable agreement. To confirm the possibility assumed by the model of pre-formed plasma generation, Ti surface was irradiated by a femtosecond (fs) laser beam composed by double fs pulses, with a fixed delay of 160 fs. The fluence of the first pulse (FPP), responsible for surface plasma formation, was varied in the range 10-50 mJ cm-2 and always kept below the LIPSS formation threshold fluence (FLIPSS) of Ti for 50-single-shots exposure. The fluence of the delayed pulse (FLP), responsible for LIPSS formation, was varied in the range 60-150 mJ cm-2 and always kept above FLIPSS. Regardless the specific fluence FLP of the delayed pulse, the interspace of the grating structures increases with the increase of FPP, that is the increase of the surface plasma density. This tendency suggests that a variation of the surface plasma density, due to a variation of FPP, actually leads to a modification of the grating features, highlighting the driving role of the first pulse in LIPSS formation. Moreover, we observed that the LIPSS periodicities after double pulse exposures are in quite good agreement with data on LIPSS periodicities after single 160 fs pulse irradiations on Ti surface and with the curve predicted by the parametric decay model. This experimental result suggests that the preformed plasma might be produced in the rising edge of the temporal profile of the laser pulse.

  13. Thermal characteristics of double-layer thin film target ablated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xun; Song Xiao-Wei; Lin Jing-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of tightly-contacted copper-gold double-layer thin film target under ablation of femtosecond laser pulses are investigated by using a two-temperature theoretical model. Numerical simulation shows that electron heat flux varies significantly on the boundary of copper-gold film with different maximal electron temperature of 1.15 × 103 K at 5 ps after ablating laser pulse in gold and copper films, which can reach a balance around 12.6 ps and 8.2 ps for a single and double pulse ablation, respectively, and in the meantime, the lattice temperature difference crossing the gold-copper interface is only about 0.04 × 103 K at the same time scale. It is also found that electron-lattice heat relaxation time increases linearly with laser fluence in both single and double pulse ablation, and a sudden change of the relaxation time appears after the laser energy density exceeds the ablation threshold.

  14. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  15. Compartment shape anisotropy (CSA) revealed by double pulsed field gradient MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarslan, Evren

    2009-07-01

    The multiple scattering extensions of the pulsed field gradient (PFG) experiments can be used to characterize restriction-induced anisotropy at different length scales. In double-PFG acquisitions that involve two pairs of diffusion gradient pulses, the dependence of the MR signal attenuation on the angle between the two gradients is a signature of restriction that can be observed even at low gradient strengths. In this article, a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the double-PFG observation of restricted diffusion is presented. In the first part of the article, the problem is treated for arbitrarily shaped pores under idealized experimental conditions, comprising infinitesimally narrow gradient pulses with long separation times and long or vanishing mixing times. New insights are obtained when the treatment is applied to simple pore shapes of spheres, ellipsoids, and capped cylinders. The capped cylinder geometry is considered in the second part of the article where the solution for a double-PFG experiment with arbitrary experimental parameters is introduced. Although compartment shape anisotropy (CSA) is emphasized here, the findings of this article can be used in gleaning the volume, eccentricity, and orientation distribution function associated with ensembles of anisotropic compartments using double-PFG acquisitions with arbitrary experimental parameters.

  16. Fraunhofer-type absorption line splitting and polarization in confocal double-pulse laser induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagli, Lev, E-mail: nagli@post.tau.ac.il; Gaft, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Strong line splitting and polarization are observed in Fraunhofer-type absorption lines in Pb, Sn, Si, Cd, In, and Zn in confocal double-pulse laser induced plasma (DP-LIP) experiments. This effect is detectable using medium laser power densities: (∼ 1–2) × 10{sup 13} W/m{sup 2} for the first laser pulse and 1 × 10{sup 14} W/m{sup 2} for the second laser pulse. Polarization and splitting effects exist only during the second laser pulse (∼ 7 ns). Absorption line polarization and splitting phenomena may be explained by a high overall magnetic field and motional Stark effect caused by the second laser pulse inside the laser plasma created by the first pulse. - Highlights: • Certain Fraunhofer absorption lines in DP LIBS are polarized. • Certain Fraunhofer absorption lines in DP LIBS are split. • Those effects exist during laser pulse. • Effects take place in elements with ns{sup 2}np{sup 2} and ns{sup 2} electron ground state.

  17. [Arc spectrum diagnostic and heat coupling mechanism analysis of double wire pulsed MIG welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-qiang; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-jun; Zheng, Kai; Gao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A double wire pulsed MIG welding test system was built in the present paper, in order to analyze the heat-coupling mechanism of double wire pulsed MIG welding, and study are temperature field. Spectroscopic technique was used in diagnostic analysis of the are, plasma radiation was collected by using hollow probe method to obtain the arc plasma optical signal The electron temperature of double wire pulsed MIG welding arc plasma was calculated by using Boltzmann diagram method, the electron temperature distribution was obtained, a comprehensive analysis of the arc was conducted combined with the high speed camera technology and acquisition means of electricity signal. The innovation of this paper is the combination of high-speed camera image information of are and optical signal of arc plasma to analyze the coupling mechanism for dual arc, and a more intuitive analysis for are temperature field was conducted. The test results showed that a push-pull output was achieved and droplet transfer mode was a drop in a pulse in the welding process; Two arcs attracted each other under the action of a magnetic field, and shifted to the center of the arc in welding process, so a new heat center was formed at the geometric center of the double arc, and flowing up phenomenon occurred on the arc; Dual arc electronic temperature showed an inverted V-shaped distribution overall, and at the geometric center of the double arc, the arc electron temperature at 3 mm off the workpiece surface was the highest, which was 16,887.66 K, about 4,900 K higher than the lowest temperature 11,963.63 K.

  18. Quantitative analysis of arsenic in mine tailing soils using double pulse-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ji-hyun [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lenth, Christoph; Salb, Christian [Photonic Sensor Technology, Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1 D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Ko, Eun-Joung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kihong, E-mail: kpark@gist.ac.k [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A double pulse-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was used to determine arsenic (As) concentration in 16 soil samples collected from 5 different mine tailing sites in Korea. We showed that the use of double pulse laser led to enhancements of signal intensity (by 13% on average) and signal-to-noise ratio of As emission lines (by 165% on average) with smaller relative standard deviation compared to single pulse laser approach. We believe this occurred because the second laser pulse in the rarefied atmosphere produced by the first pulse led to the increase of plasma temperature and populations of exited levels. An internal standardization method using a Fe emission line provided a better correlation and sensitivity between As concentration and the DP-LIBS signal than any other elements used. The Fe was known as one of the major components in current soil samples, and its concentration varied not substantially. The As concentration determined by the DP-LIBS was compared with that obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) to evaluate the current LIBS system. They are correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The As concentration by the DP-LIBS was underestimated in the high concentration range (>1000 mg-As/kg). The loss of sensitivity that occurred at high concentrations could be explained by self-absorption in the generated plasma.

  19. High frequency optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose and experimentally characterize a stable 40 GHz optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation in a phase modulator (PM). Only half the electrical driving frequency is required (i.e. 20 GHz); hence the deployment cost can be reduced. Besides, precise control of the bias of the PM is not required. The generated optical pulses have a high center-mode-suppression-ratio (CMSR) of  >  28 dB. The single sideband (SSB) noise spectrum is also measured, and the time-domain waveforms under different CMSRs are also analyzed and discussed.

  20. Double-pulse induced harmonic generation in laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, Rashid A.; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoneya, Shin; Kuroda, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    We report the studies of the metals, non-metals, powders, and nanoparticles as the targets for laser ablation induced high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses using the double-pulse technique. The proposed technique demonstrates the attractiveness as the method for the studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of various materials. The comparative analysis of the harmonic generation using different targets showed that the species allowing easier ablation (powders, nanoparticles) produce stronger harmonic yield in the extreme ultraviolet range.

  1. Electron Correlation in Nonsequential Double Ionization of Helium by Two-Color Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue-Ming; LIAO Qing; HUANG Cheng; TONG Ai-Hong; LU Pei-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ We investigate the momentum and energy correlations between the two electrons from nonsequential double ionization(NSDI)of helium by strong two-color pulses with the classical three-dimensional ensemble model.The correlated momentum distribution in the direction parallel to the laser field exhibits an arc-like structure and the sum-energy spectrum shows a sharp peak for the NSDI of helium in the two-color fields.Back analysis reveals that the narrow time interval during which recollisions occur,the low returning energy and the short time delay between recollision and double ionization lead to the novel momentum and energy correlations.

  2. Pulsed digital micro-holography of femto-second order by double-wavelength recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-wei; WANG Xiao-lei; ZHAI Hong-chen

    2007-01-01

    Double-wavelength recording used in a pulsed digital micro-holographic system to record ultra-fast processing of the order of femto-second is reported for the first time, where a BBO crystal is used to generate harmonic wave of the incident laser wave, and both of the basic and the frequency doubled waves are time-delayed and introduced to a Michelson's interferom eter to record two sub-holograms with different spatial frequencies on a single frame of a CCD. In the experiment, an ultra fast dynamic process of air ionization induced by a single femto-second laser pulse is recorded with holography by this system, and both of intensity and phase difference images digitally reconstructed are obtained through Fourier transformation and digital filtering, which show clearly the dynamic process of formation and propagation of the plasma, with a time resolution of the order of femto-second.

  3. Double-pulse laser ablation coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, Reto, E-mail: reglaus@ufl.edu; Hahn, David W.

    2014-08-01

    Laser ablation coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LA-LIBS) is an analytical method, which minimizes sample matrix effects typically found in quantitative LIBS-based direct solid analyses. This paper reports the application of double-pulse laser ablation (DP-LA) to improve the analyte response and the achievable precisions of LA-LIBS. Two coaxial laser beams were applied at the ablation site and the analytical signals were then collected from a second free-standing LIBS plasma downstream of the ablation site. Signal improvements of up to one order of magnitude were observed compared to single-pulse LA-LIBS. The effect of the interpulse delay on the observed signal-to-noise ratios was studied and the quantification capabilities of the optimized DP-LA-LIBS setup were investigated for manganese and iron in a broad range of different alloy types. A linear response was observed for manganese across the different matrices, allowing for nonmatrix-matched calibrations. Matrix effects were observed when analyzing aluminum samples, which, however, could be compensated for by applying iron as internal standard. Size distributions of the ablated material and electron density measurements provide additional insight into the double-pulse process, with additional future work suggested. - Highlights: • Double-pulse laser ablation was coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. • Nonmatrix-matched calibration of manganese in various alloys was performed. • Improved sensitivities and precisions compared to single-pulse LA were demonstrated. • Remaining matrix effects and internal standardization are discussed.

  4. Double pulses and cascades above 2 PeV in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palladino, Andrea [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Pagliaroli, Giulia [LNGS, L' Aquila (Italy); Villante, Francesco L. [LNGS, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi dell' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Vissani, Francesco [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); LNGS, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The IceCube collaboration has seen an unexpected population of high energy neutrinos compatible with an astrophysical origin. We consider two categories of events that can help to diagnose cosmic neutrinos: double pulse, which may allow us to clearly discriminate the cosmic component of ν{sub τ}; and cascades with deposited energy above 2 PeV, including events produced by anti ν{sub e} at the Glashow resonance, which can be used to investigate the neutrino production mechanisms. We show that one half of the double pulse signal is due to the neutrinos spectral region already probed by IceCube. By normalizing to HESE data, we find that 10 more years are required to obtain 90 % probability to observe a double pulse. The cascades above 2 PeV provide us a sensitive probe of the high energy tail of the neutrino spectrum and are potentially observable, but even in this case the dependence on type of the source is mild. In fact we find that pp or pγ mechanisms give a difference in the number of cascades above 2 PeV of about 25 %, which can be discriminated at 2σ in ∝ 50 years of data taking. (orig.)

  5. Linear Track Estimation Using Double Pulse Sources for Near-Field Underwater Moving Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifei Chen; Hong Hou; Jianhua Yang; Jincai Sun; Qian Wang

    2013-01-01

    The double pulse sources (DPS) method is presented for linear track estimation in this work.In the field of noise identification of underwater moving target,the Doppler will distort the frequency and amplitude of the radiated noise.To eliminate this,the track estimation is necessary.In the DPS method,we first estimate bearings of two sinusoidal pulse sources installed in the moving target through baseline positioning method.Meanwhile,the emitted and recorded time of each pulse are also acquired.Then the linear track parameters will be achieved based on the geometry pattern with the help of double sources spacing.The simulated results confirm that the DPS improves the performance of the previous double source spacing method.The simulated experiments were carried out using a moving battery car to further evaluate its performance.When the target is 40-60m away,the experiment results show that biases of track azimuth and abeam distance of DPS are under 0.6° and 3.4m,respectively.And the average deviation of estimated velocity is around 0.25m/s.

  6. Double ionization effect in electron accelerations by high-intensity laser pulse interaction with a neutral gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan Gupta, Devki

    2013-11-01

    We study the effect of laser-induced double-ionization of a helium gas (with inhomogeneous density profile) on vacuum electron acceleration. For enough laser intensity, helium gas can be found doubly ionized and it strengthens the divergence of the pulse. The double ionization of helium gas can defocus the laser pulse significantly, and electrons are accelerated by the front of the laser pulse in vacuum and then decelerated by the defocused trail part of the laser pulse. It is observed that the electrons experience a very low laser-intensity at the trailing part of the laser pulse. Hence, there is not much electron deceleration at the trailing part of the pulse. We found that the inhomogeneity of the neutral gas reduced the rate of tunnel ionization causing less defocusing of the laser pulse and thus the electron energy gain is reduced.

  7. Double ionization effect in electron accelerations by high-intensity laser pulse interaction with a neutral gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Devki Nandan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of laser-induced double-ionization of a helium gas (with inhomogeneous density profile on vacuum electron acceleration. For enough laser intensity, helium gas can be found doubly ionized and it strengthens the divergence of the pulse. The double ionization of helium gas can defocus the laser pulse significantly, and electrons are accelerated by the front of the laser pulse in vacuum and then decelerated by the defocused trail part of the laser pulse. It is observed that the electrons experience a very low laser-intensity at the trailing part of the laser pulse. Hence, there is not much electron deceleration at the trailing part of the pulse. We found that the inhomogeneity of the neutral gas reduced the rate of tunnel ionization causing less defocusing of the laser pulse and thus the electron energy gain is reduced.

  8. Effects of temporal laser profile on the emission spectra for underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Study by short-interval double pulses with different pulse durations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Ayaka, E-mail: tamura.ayaka.88m@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo, E-mail: sakka.tetsuo.2a@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi; Ogata, Yukio H. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Fukami, Kazuhiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2015-01-14

    We investigate the effects of temporal laser profile on the emission spectra of laser ablation plasma in water. We use short-interval (76 ns) double pulses with different pulse durations of the composing two pulses for the irradiation of underwater target. Narrow atomic spectral lines in emission spectra are obtained by the irradiation, where the two pulses are wide enough to be merged into a single-pulse-like temporal profile, while deformed spectra are obtained when the two pulses are fully separated. The behavior of the atomic spectral lines for the different pulse durations is consistent with that of the temporal profiles of the optical emission intensities of the plasma. All these results suggest that continuous excitation of the plasma during the laser irradiation for ∼100 ns is a key to obtain narrow emission spectral lines.

  9. Frequency doubled high-power disk lasers in pulsed and continuous-wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Sascha; Hangst, Alexander; Stolzenburg, Christian; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk; Killi, Alexander; Kalfhues, Steffen; Kriegshaeuser, Uwe; Holzer, Marco; Havrilla, David

    2012-03-01

    The disk laser with multi-kW output power in infrared cw operation is widely used in today's manufacturing, primarily in the automotive industry. The disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Additionally, the disk laser is ideally suited for frequency conversion due to its polarized output with negligible depolarization losses. Laser light in the green spectral range (~515 nm) can be created with a nonlinear crystal. Pulsed disk lasers with green output of well above 50 W (extracavity doubling) in the ps regime and several hundreds of Watts in the ns regime with intracavity doubling are already commercially available whereas intracavity doubled disk lasers in continuous wave operation with greater than 250 W output are in test phase. In both operating modes (pulsed and cw) the frequency doubled disk laser offers advantages in existing and new applications. Copper welding for example is said to show much higher process reliability with green laser light due to its higher absorption in comparison to the infrared. This improvement has the potential to be very beneficial for the automotive industry's move to electrical vehicles which requires reliable high-volume welding of copper as a major task for electro motors, batteries, etc.

  10. Two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense attosecond pulse train

    CERN Document Server

    Manschwetus, B; Campi, F; Maclot, S; Coudert-Alteirac, H; Lahl, J; Wikmark, H; Rudawski, P; Heyl, C M; Farkas, B; Mohamed, T; L'Huillier, A; Johnsson, P

    2016-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in a photon energy regime where both direct and sequential mechanisms are allowed. For an APT generated through high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in argon we achieve a total pulse energy close to 1 $\\mu$J, a central energy of 35 eV and a total bandwidth of $\\sim30$ eV. The APT is focused by broadband optics in a neon gas target to an intensity of $3\\cdot10^{12} $W$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$. By tuning the photon energy across the threshold for the sequential process the double ionization signal can be turned on and off, indicating that the two-photon double ionization predominantly occurs through a sequential process. The demonstrated performance opens up possibilities for future XUV-XUV pump-probe experiments with attosecond temporal resolution in a photon energy range where it is possible to unravel the dynamics behind direct vs. sequential double ionization and the asso...

  11. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon upon polarization controlled two-color double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Herzlieb, Marcel; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-01-12

    Two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on silicon wafers to study the temporally distributed energy deposition in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated parallel or cross-polarized double-pulse sequences at 400 and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds between the sub-ablation 50-fs-pulses. Multiple two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample. The resulting LIPSS characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism is proposed to explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments extend previous single-color studies and prove the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition for LIPSS formation.

  12. Double Potential Pulse Chronocoulometry for Detection of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Efflux at Disk Platinum Microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard H.; Lu, Hui; Shaw, Kendrick; Chiel, Hillel J.; Kelley, Thomas J.; Burgess, James D.

    2016-01-01

    A double potential pulse scheme is reported for observation of cholesterol efflux from the plasma membrane of a single neuron cell. Capillary Pt disk microelectrodes having a thin glass insulator allow the 10 μm diameter electrode and cell to be viewed under optical magnification. The electrode, covalently functionalized with cholesterol oxidase, is positioned in contact with the cell surface resulting in enzyme catalyzed cholesterol oxidation and efflux of cholesterol from the plasma membrane at the electrode contact site. Enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide accumulates at the electrode/cell interface during a 5 s hold-time and is oxidized during application of a potential pulse. A second, replicate potential pulse is applied 0.5 s after the first potential pulse to gauge background charge prior to significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The difference in charge passed between the first and second potential pulse provides a measure of hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzyme and is an indication of the cholesterol efflux. Control experiments for bare Pt microelectrodes in contact with the cell plasma membrane show difference charge signals in the range of about 7–10 pC. Enzyme-modified electrodes in contact with the plasma membrane show signals in the range of 16–26 pC. PMID:27330196

  13. Double pulse spectrochemical analysis using orthogonal geometry with very low ablation energy and He ambient gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Hidayah, Affi Nur; Pardede, Marincan; Jobiliong, Eric; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Lie, Tjung Jie; Hedwig, Rinda; Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Lie, Zener Sukra; Niki, Hideaki [Program of Nuclear Power and Energy Safety Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kagawa, Kichiro [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    An experimental study of double pulse LIBS is performed for the development of highly sensitive and quantitative analysis of Cl and Ca for the strength evaluation of concrete. The two lasers employed are arranged in orthogonal geometry and operated for delayed ablation with delay time of 10 {mu}s, using He ambient gas at atmospheric pressure. The very large intensity enhancement is obtained over those detected with single pulse operation without generating the He plasma. It is most remarkable that the same sharpness and intensity enhancement observed in the previous double pulse experiment with 37 mJ laser ablation energy is achieved in the present experiment with much lower ablation energy of merely 2.5 mJ, resulting in average crater size of about 10 {mu}m in diameter. Further, a linear relation is obtained between the Cl concentration and its emission intensity in alumina samples, while an estimated limit of detection of 80 ppm is obtained by using concrete sample, which is adequate for highly sensitive quantitative Cl analysis in concrete. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double pulse LIBS is used for sensitive and quantitative analysis of Cl and Ca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2 lasers employed in orthogonal geometry and with delay of 10 {mu}s for ablation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer He ambient gas was used at atmospheric pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong Ca and Cl emissions were detected at 2.5 mJ laser energy with small crater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear calibration for Cl was obtained with detection limit of 80 ppm.

  14. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  15. Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R., E-mail: freeman.justinr@gmail.com; Diwakar, P.K., E-mail: pdiwakar@purdue.edu; Harilal, S.S., E-mail: hari@pnnl.gov; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the effectiveness of long-wavelength heating in double pulse (DP) LIBS, quantitatively comparing figures of merit with those from traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS. The first laser pulse serves as the source of sample ablation, creating an aerosol-like plume that is subsequently reheated by the second laser pulse. At power densities used, the long-wavelength CO{sub 2} laser pulse does not ablate any of the solid sample in the atmospheric conditions investigated, meaning plasma emission and enhanced signal can be entirely attributed to the reheated plume rather than increased sample ablation. The signal discrimination was improved significantly using long-wavelength DP-LIBS. For bulk elemental analysis, DP-LIBS provided maximum enhancements of about 14 and 15 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, compared to SP-LIBS using the same quantity of ablated sample. For trace elemental analysis, maximum enhancements of about 7 and 4 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, were observed. These improvements are attributed to effective coupling between the second heating pulse and expanding plume and more efficient excitation of plume species than from the single pulse alone. Most significant improvements were observed in the case of low prepulse energy and minimal sample ablation. While bulk elemental analysis observed improvements for all prepulse energies studied, trace element discrimination only significantly improved for the lowest prepulse energy studied. - Highlights: • Enhancement by improved coupling and excitation efficiency, not increased ablated mass • S/N enhancements of 14 and 7 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • S/B enhancements of 15 and 4 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • Max enhancement observed for smaller quantities of ablated sample • Significant conclusions for delicate, mass-limited samples.

  16. Explosive-Emission Plasma Dynamics in Ion Diode in Double-Pulse Mode%Explosive-Emission Plasma Dynamics in Ion Diode in Double-Pulse Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander I. PUSHKAREV; Yulia I. ISAKOVA

    2011-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of explosive-emission plasma dynamics in an ion diode with self-magnetic insulation are presented. The investigations were accomplished at the TEMP-4M accelerator set in a mode of double pulse formation. Plasma behaviour in the anode-cathode gap was analyzed according to both the current-voltage characteristics of the diode (time resolution of 0.5 ns) and thermal imprints on a target (spatial resolution of 0.8 mm). It was shown that when plasma formation at the potential electrode was complete, and up until the second (positive) pulse, the explosive-emission plasma expanded across the anode-cathode gap with a speed of 1.3±0.2 cm/μs. After the voltage polarity at the potential electrode was reversed (second pulse), the plasma erosion in the anode-cathode gap (similar to the effect of a plasma opening switch) occurred. During the generation of an ion beam the size of the anode-cathode gap spacing was determined by the thickness of the plasma layer on the potential electrode and the layer thickness of the electrons drifting along the grounded electrode.

  17. Near and intermediate fields of an ultrashort pulse transmitted through Young’s double-slit experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrowati, A.M.; Pereira, S.F.; Van de Nes, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the transmitted field of an ultrashort pulse through Young’s double slit. We show how the spatial-temporal distribution of the field in the near and intermediate zone is affected by the input polarization state of the pulse. The analysis has been separated to study t

  18. Near and intermediate fields of an ultrashort pulse transmitted through Young’s double-slit experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrowati, A.M.; Pereira, S.F.; Van de Nes, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the transmitted field of an ultrashort pulse through Young’s double slit. We show how the spatial-temporal distribution of the field in the near and intermediate zone is affected by the input polarization state of the pulse. The analysis has been separated to study

  19. A high spatial resolution double-pulse Thomson scattering diagnostic; description, assessment of accuracy and examples of applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    A high spatial resolution (3 mm full width half maximum, i.e. 2% of the minor radius) double-pulse multiposition Thomson scattering system was in operation at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project RTP from March 1996 until September 1998. It upgrades the previously installed single-pulse Thomson scattering

  20. Double-Pulse Spectra and Closed-Orbits: Photodetachment of H-in Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Meng-Li

    2003-01-01

    We derive a formula for double-pulse spectra from closed-orbit theory. We then calculate the double-pulsephotodetachment spectra of H- in the presence of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We analyze the spectra in termsof closed-orbits of the system. We suggest a method for the measurement of a phase associated with each closed-orbit.

  1. A double peaked pulse profile observed in GX 1+4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B.; Agrawal, P. C.; Rao, A. R.; Manchanda, R. K.

    1997-03-01

    The hard X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 was observed several times in the last few years with a pair of balloon-borne Xenon filled Multi-cell Proportional Counters (XMPC). In a balloon flight made on 22 March 1995, the source was detected in a bright state, the average observed source count rate being 8.0+/-0.2s^-1^ per detector. X-ray pulsations with a period of 121.9+/-0.1 s were detected in the source with a broad double peak pulse feature. When observed in December 1993 with the same instrument, the pulse profile of GX 1+4 showed a single peak. This change in the pulse profile to a double pulse structure in about 15 months indicates either activation of the opposite pole of the neutron star if the magnetic field is asymmetric or possibly a change in the beam pattern, from a pencil beam to a fan beam. Assuming a fan beam configuration, the pulse profile is used to find the inclinations of the magnetic axis and the viewing axis with the spin axis. The derived angles support the GINGA observations of a dip in the pulse profile which was resolved to have a local maximum in one of the observations and was explained with resonance scattering of cyclotron line energy photons by the accretion column (Makishima et al., 1988Natur.333..746M, Dotani et al., 1989PASJ...41..427D). Compared to our previous observation of the same source with the same telescope (Rao et al., 1994A&A...289L..43R) a period change rate of 0.72 +/-0.40s/yr is obtained which is the lowest rate of change of period for this source since its discovery. Average pulse fraction in the hard X-ray range is low (30%), consistent with its anti correlation with luminosity as reported by us earlier (Rao et al., 1994A&A...289L..43R) and the observed spectrum is very hard (power law photon index 1.67+/-0.12).

  2. Orthogonal fs/ns double-pulse libs for copper-based-alloy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santagata, A.; Spera, D.; Albano, G.; Parisi, G.P.; Villani, P. [Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, CNR-IMIP, Unita Operativa di Potenza, Tito Scalo (Italy); Teghil, R.; Bonis, A. de [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica, Potenza (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The analytical response of a fs/ns double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique based on the orthogonal reheating induced by a ns-laser pulse on a fs-laser ablation plume is presented. All investigations have been performed in air at atmospheric pressure and employing certified copper-based-alloy targets. The emission intensities of the considered electronic transitions of Pb(I), Sn(I) and Zn(I) have been normalised with a Cu(I) emission line intensity belonging to the same considered spectral range. Emission data, acquired with inter-pulse steps of 2 {mu}s within the delay range of 1-200 {mu}s, have shown that fractionation takes place. Nevertheless, excellent linear regression coefficients (0.998-0.999), despite the target's large compositional variation and fractionation effects, have been obtained by integrating all emission intensity data along the whole inter-pulse delays used. Deviations from the theoretical ratio of the Zn(I)/Cu(I) emission intensities are shown and some hypotheses about the processes involved are formulated. (orig.)

  3. Sample Entropy-Based Approach to Evaluate the Stability of Double-Wire Pulsed MIG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the sample entropy, this paper deals with a quantitative method to evaluate the current stability in double-wire pulsed MIG welding. Firstly, the sample entropy of current signals with different stability but the same parameters is calculated. The results show that the more stable the current, the smaller the value and the standard deviation of sample entropy. Secondly, four parameters, which are pulse width, peak current, base current, and frequency, are selected for four-level three-factor orthogonal experiment. The calculation and analysis of desired signals indicate that sample entropy values are affected by welding current parameters. Then, a quantitative method based on sample entropy is proposed. The experiment results show that the method can preferably quantify the welding current stability.

  4. [Retinal photocoagulation with a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, J; Schiller, M; el Hifnawi, E S; Birngruber, R

    1994-12-01

    The small difference in wavelength between an argon laser (514 nm) and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), together with the advantage of the solid-state technology, makes the Nd:YAG laser likely to play a major role in retinal photocoagulation in the near future. For technical reasons all frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers work in a quasi-continuous mode, emitting a burst of highly repetitive short laser pulses during the exposure time desired. We investigated the side effects due to high peak irradiances of those short laser pulse trains (Crystal Focus Nd:YAG laser, Emerald; pulse duration 1-10 microseconds, repetition rate 13 KHz) in rabbits in comparison with a standard argon laser system (Zeiss, Visulas, Argon II). The energy necessary for blanching the retina was similar in both cases. As opposed to the argon laser system, subretinal bubbles were regularly visible ophthalmoscopically with the Nd:YAG system, when average powers as high as 200 mW were used. The ED50 power for bubble formation is about 2-3 times above the ED50 power for blanching. Thermal calculations show that this bubble formation effect is likely to be related to the peak power of the short pulses. The hemorrhage threshold is similar in both systems. However, light microscopically there is no difference between the two laser systems. Panretinal photocoagulation (300-500 microns, 100-200 ms) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy produced such bubbles about once per 1000 lesions.

  5. Optimal emission enhancement in orthogonal double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginés, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CCADET-UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-186, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cátedra CONACyT, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada, BC 22800 (Mexico); Contreras, V. [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Sobral, H., E-mail: martin.sobral@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CCADET-UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-186, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Robledo-Martinez, A. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Azcapotzalco, México, DF 02200 (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Orthogonal double-pulse (DP) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was performed using reheating and pre-ablative configurations. The ablation pulse power density was varied by two orders of magnitude and the DP experiments were carried out for a wide range of interpulse delays. For both DP-LIBS schemes, the signal enhancement was evaluated with respect to the corresponding single-pulse (SP) LIBS as a function of the interpulse delay. The reheating scheme shows a sharp maximum signal enhancement of up to 200-fold for low ablative power densities (0.4 GW cm{sup −2}); however, for power densities larger than 10 GW cm{sup −2} this configuration did not improve the SP outcome. On the other hand, a more uniform signal enhancement of about 4–6 was obtained for the pre-ablative scheme nearly independently of the used ablative power density. In terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) the pre-ablative scheme shows a monotonic increment with the ablative power density. Whereas the reheating configuration reaches a maximum at 2.2 GW cm{sup −2}, its enhancement effect collapses markedly for fluencies above 10 GW cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Comparison of reheating and pre-ablative double-pulse LIBS was done using a wide range of ablation power densities. • Experimental parameters that could achieve optimal signal-to-noise ratio were investigated. • A reheating scheme is better for low-ablation power densities. • A pre-ablative configuration is better for high-ablation power densities.

  6. Double-Pulse Two-Micron IPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2015-01-01

    An advanced double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-micron laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation from up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  7. Study of transient wave propagation in plates using double pulse TV holography

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, H.; Guedes, R. M.; M. A. P. Vaz; Rodrigues, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a numerical and experimental study of the transient response of an isotropic plate. A low mass impact is used to generate the bending wave propagation. Displacements due to the bending wave propagation were assessed using an out-of-plane double pulse TV holography set-up. A PZT transducer is used to record the impact force and its temporal evolution. A novel experimental technique is presented for determination of the stress field in the plate using the out-of-plane ...

  8. Group-delay Dispersion in Double-prism Pair and Limitation in Broadband Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昭; 赵卫

    2002-01-01

    A general expression of group-delay dispersion is obtained without any approximation for a pair of double prisms with an arbitrary apex angle. This expression also includes the change of dispersion resulting from change in insertion of the prism material into the beam by translating prism-pairs. The high-order dispersion can be calculated by means of this expression. The limitation for generation of negative group-delay dispersion by use of prism-pairs is presented for ultrashort laser pulses with broadband spectrum.

  9. 2-micron Double Pulsed IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke; Scola, Tory

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a high energy pulsed 2-micron IPDA lidar instrument to measure the atmospheric CO2 column density. The IPDA lidar is operated on the long wavelength wing of R(30) CO2 line at 2050.967 nm (4875.749 cm-1) in the side-line operation mode. The R(30) line is an excellent absorption line for the measurements of CO2 in 2µm wavelength region with regard to the strength of the absorption lines, low susceptibility to atmospheric temperature variability, and freedom from problematic interference with other absorption lines. The Ho:Tm:YLF laser transmitter is designed to be operated in a unique double pulse format that can produce two-pulse pair in 10 Hz operation. Typically, the output energies of the laser transmitter are 100mJ and 45mJ for the first pulse and the second pulse, respectively. We injection seed the first pulse with on-line frequency and the second pulse with off-line frequency. The IPDA lidar instrument size, weight and power consumption were restricted to small research aircraft payload requirements. The airborne IPDA lidar instrument measures the total integrated column content of CO2 from the instrument to the ground but with weighting that can be tuned by controlling the transmitted wavelengths. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. The 2-μm CO2 IPDA lidar airborne demonstration was conducted during March 20, 2014 through April 10, 2014. IPDA lidar airborne flights included various operating and environmental conditions. Environmental conditions included different flight altitude up to 8.3 km, different ground target conditions such as vegetation, soil, ocean, snow and sand and different cloud conditions. Besides, some flights targeted power plant incinerators for investigating the IPDA sensitivity to CO2 plums. The lidar instrument is robust during all of the flights. This paper describes

  10. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium upon single- and two-color femtosecond double-pulse irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-10-05

    Single- and two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on titanium to study the dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences in two configurations - either at 800 nm only, or at 400 and 800 nm wavelengths. The inter-pulse delays of the individual 50-fs pulses ranged up to some tens of picoseconds. Multiple of these single- or two-color double-fs-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surface. In both experimental configurations, the peak fluence of each individual pulse was kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and the periods were quantified by Fourier analyses. The LIPSS periods along with the orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. A plasmonic model successfully explains the delay-dependence of the LIPSS on titanium and confirms the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  11. Enhanced X-ray emission from laser-produced gold plasma by double pulses irradiation of nano-porous targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, R.

    2017-02-01

    Enhancement of the soft X-ray emission including free-free, free-bound and bound-bound emissions from Au nano-porous targets irradiated by single and double laser pulses is studied through numerical simulations. Laser pulses of duration 2 ns are used in calculations considering different prepulse intensities and a fixed intensity of 1013 Wcm-2 for the main pulse. The effects of prepulse intensity and time separation between laser pulses are studied for targets of different porosities. Results show that the X-ray yield can be enhanced significantly by a nano-porous target having optimum initial density. Such enhancement can be more improved when double laser pulses with appropriate delay time and intensities irradiate nano-porous targets. It is shown that the enhancement will be reduced when the prepulse intensity is greater than a specific value.

  12. Visible ns-pulse laser oscillation in Pr-doped double-clad structured waterproof fluoride glass fibre with SESAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Kajikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A visible Q-switched pulse train at 639 nm was successfully generated in a Pr-doped double-clad structured waterproof fluoride glass fibre with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The slope efficiency was calculated as 36.3%. The pulse duration and the radio frequency were measured as 270 ns and 107 kHz at 596 mW of absorbed power, respectively. The pulse energy and the pulse peak power were calculated as 1.32 μJ and 4.87 W, respectively.

  13. Nanosecond Pulse Shaping with Fiber-Based Electro-Optical Modulators and a Double-Pass Tapered Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for generating frequency-chirped and amplitude-shaped pulses on time scales from sub-nanosecond to ten nanoseconds. The system starts with cw diode-laser light at 780 nm and utilizes fiber-based electro-optical phase and intensity modulators, driven by an arbitrary waveform generator, to generate the shaped pulses. These pulses are subsequently amplified to several hundred mW with a tapered amplifier in a delayed double-pass configuration. Frequency chirps up to 5 GHz in 2 ns and pulse widths as short as 0.15 ns have been realized.

  14. Effect of atmosphere on collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew J. Effenberger, Jr.; Jill R. Scott

    2010-09-01

    Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) has been shown to enhance LIBS spectra. Several researches have reported significant increases in signal-to-noise and or spectral intensity [1-4]. In addition to DP-LIBS, atmospheric conditions can also increase spectra intensity. For example, Iida [5] found that He and Ar both increase LIBS intensity compared to air at one 1 atm. It was also found that as the pressure was decreased to 100 Torr, LIBS intensity increased in Ar and air for single pulse (SP) LIBS. In this study, a collinear DP-LIBS scheme is used along with manipulation of the atmospheric conditions. The DP-LIBS scheme consists of a 355 nm ablative pulse fired into a sample contained in a vacuum chamber. A second analytical 1064 nm pulse is then fired 100 ns to 10 µs after and along the same path of the first pulse. Ar, He and air at pressures ranging from atmospheric pressure (630 Torr at elevation) to 10-5 Torr are introduced during DP-LIBS and SP-LIBS experiments. For a brass sample, a significant increase in spectral intensity of Cu and Zn lines were observed in DP-LIBS under Ar compared to DP-LIBS in air (Figure 1). It was also found that Cu and Zn lines acquired with SP-LIBS in Ar are nearly as intense as DP-LIBS in air. Signal-to-noise for lines from various samples will be reported for both DP-LIBS and SP-LIBS in Ar, He, and air at pressures ranging from 630 Torr to 10-5 Torr.

  15. Signal enhancement in collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo, E-mail: gunicolodelli@hotmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Senesi, Giorgio Saverio, E-mail: giorgio.senesi@imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Romano, Renan Arnon, E-mail: renan.romano@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz de, E-mail: ivanperazzoli@hotmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira, E-mail: debora.milori@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known consolidated analytical technique employed successfully for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid, liquid, gaseous and aerosol samples of very different nature and origin. Several techniques, such as dual-pulse excitation setup, have been used in order to improve LIBS's sensitivity. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the key parameters as excitation wavelength, delay time and interpulse, that influence the double pulse (DP) LIBS technique in the collinear beam geometry when applied to the analysis at atmospheric air pressure of soil samples of different origin and texture from extreme regions of Brazil. Additionally, a comparative study between conventional single pulse (SP) LIBS and DP LIBS was performed. An optimization of DP LIBS system, choosing the correct delay time between the two pulses, was performed allowing its use for different soil types and the use of different emission lines. In general, the collinear DP LIBS system improved the analytical performances of the technique by enhancing the intensity of emission lines of some elements up to about 5 times, when compared with conventional SP-LIBS, and reduced the continuum emission. Further, the IR laser provided the best performance in re-heating the plasma. - Highlights: • The correct choice of the delay time between the two pulses is crucial for the DP system. • An optimization of DP LIBS system was performed allowing its use for different soil and the use of different emission lines. • The DP LIBS system improved the analytical performances of the technique up to about 5 times, when compared with SP LIBS. • The IR laser provided the best performance in re-heating the plasma.

  16. A Comparative Study of Single-pulse and Double-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy with Uranium-containing Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzki, Patrick J; Becker, Jason R; Diwakar, Prasoon K; Harilal, Sivanandan S; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) holds potential advantages in special nuclear material (SNM) sensing and nuclear forensics, which require rapid analysis, minimal sample preparation, and stand-off distance capability. SNM, such as U, however, result in crowded emission spectra with LIBS, and characteristic emission lines are challenging to discern. It is well-known that double-pulse LIBS (DPLIBS) improves the signal intensity for analytes over conventional single-pulse LIBS (SPLIBS). This study investigates the U signal in a glass matrix using DPLIBS and compares it to signal obtained using SPLIBS. Double-pulse LIBS involves sequential firing of a 1.06 µm Nd:YAG pre-pulse and 10.6 µm TEA CO2 heating pulse in a near collinear geometry. Optimization of experimental parameters including inter-pulse delay and energy follows identification of characteristic lines for the bulk analyte Ca and the minor constituent analyte U for both DPLIBS and SPLIBS. Spatial and temporal coupling of the two pulses in the proposed DPLIBS technique yields improvements in analytical merits with a negligible increase in damage to the sample compared to SPLIBS. Subsequently, the study discusses optimum plasma emission conditions of U lines and relative figures of merit in both SPLIBS and DPLIBS. Investigation into plasma characteristics also addresses plausible mechanisms related to the observed U analyte signal variation between SPLIBS and DPLIBS.

  17. Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of scales from petroleum pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, G.H. [Physics Department of University Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o – CEP 24210-346 – Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rocha, A.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry of the Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro CEP: 24020-141 (Brazil); Damasceno, R.N. [Biomass and Water Research Center of the Fluminense Federal University (NAB/UFF), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pardini, L. [Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds Of CNR, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi, 1 — 56124 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds Of CNR, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi, 1 — 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    Pipeline scales from the Campos Bay Petroleum Field near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil have been analyzed by both Raman spectroscopy and by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using a double-pulse, calibration-free approach. Elements that are characteristic of petroleum (e.g. C, H, N, O, Mg, Na, Fe and V) were detected, in addition to the Ca, Al, and Si which form the matrix of the scale. The LIBS results were compared with the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the nature of the incrustations inferred by the LIBS analysis. Results of this preliminary study suggest that diffusion of pipe material into the pipeline intake column plays an important role in the growth of scale. Thanks to the simplicity and relative low cost of equipment and to the fact that no special chemical pre-treatment of the samples is needed, LIBS can offer very fast acquisition of data and the possibility of in situ measurements. LIBS could thus represent an alternative or complementary method for the chemical characterization of the scales by comparison to conventional analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction or X-ray fluorescence. - Highlights: • Samples of scales from petroleum pipelines were analyzed using double pulse LIBS. • LIBS is proposed as an alternative method to conventional analytical techniques. • The scale growth is influenced by the product of corrosion in the column of production. • The diffusion of pipe material into the inlay is important for the growth of scale.

  18. Dynamics of double-pulse laser produced titanium plasma inferred from thin film morphology and optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstulović, N., E-mail: niksak@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička 46, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Salamon, K., E-mail: ksalamon@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička 46, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Modic, M., E-mail: martina.modic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bišćan, M., E-mail: mbiscan@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička 46, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Milat, O., E-mail: milat@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička 46, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Milošević, S., E-mail: slobodan@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička 46, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, dynamics of double-pulse laser produced titanium plasma was studied both directly using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and indirectly from morphological properties of deposited thin films. Both approaches yield consistent results. Ablated material was deposited in a form of thin film on the Si substrate. During deposition, plasma dynamics was monitored using optical emission spectroscopy with spatial and temporal resolutions. The influence of ablation mode (single and double) and delay time τ (delay between first and second pulses in double-pulse mode) on plasma dynamics and consequently on morphology of deposited Ti-films was studied using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy. Delay time τ was varied from 170 ns to 4 μs. The results show strong dependence of both emission signal and Ti-film properties, such as thickness, density and roughness, on τ. In addition, correlation of average density and thickness of film is observed. These results are discussed in terms of dependency of angular distribution and kinetic energy of plasma plume particles on τ. Advantages of using double-pulse laser deposition for possible application in thin film production are shown. - Highlights: • Ti-thin films produced by single and double pulse laser ablation mode. • Ablation mode and delay time influenced plasma plume and film characteristics. • Films are most compact for optimized delay time (thinnest, smoothest and most dense). • Plasma dynamics can be inferred from film characteristics.

  19. Characterization of Ag and Au nanoparticles created by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in double distilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, A.S., E-mail: anastas_nikolov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N.; Nikov, R.G.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of Ag and Au targets, immersed in double-distilled water is used to synthesize metallic nanoparticles (NPs). The targets are irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses at different wavelengths-the fundamental and the second harmonic (SHG) ({lambda} = 1064 and 532 nm, respectively) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The ablation process is performed at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and with pulse duration of 15 ns. Two boundary values of the laser fluence for each wavelength under the experimental conditions chosen were used-it varied from several J/cm{sup 2} to tens of J/cm{sup 2}. Only as-prepared samples were measured not later than two hours after fabrication. The NPs shape and size distribution were evaluated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The suspensions obtained were investigated by optical transmission spectroscopy in the near UV and in the visible region in order to get information about these parameters. Spherical shape of the NPs at the low laser fluence and appearance of aggregation and building of nanowires at the SHG and high laser fluence was seen. Dependence of the mean particle size at the SHG on the laser fluence was established. Comments on the results obtained have been also presented.

  20. Comparison of two models of a double inlet miniature pulse tube refrigerator: Part A thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Philippe; Bailly, Yannick

    2002-10-01

    The cooling of electronic components is of great interest to improve their capabilities, especially for CMOS components or infrared sensors. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and the optimization of a miniature double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) dedicated to such applications. Special precautions have to be considered in modeling the global functioning of small scale DIPTR systems and also in estimating the net cooling power. In fact, thermal gradients are greater than those observed in normal scale systems, and moreover, because of the small dimensions of ducts (diameter), the pulse tube cannot be assumed to be adiabatic. Hence thermal heat conduction phenomena must be considered. Besides dead volumes introduced by junctions and capillaries cannot be neglected any more in front of the volume of the gas tube itself. The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the cooler are predicted by means of two different approaches: a classical thermodynamic model and a model based on an electrical analogy. The results of these analysis are tested and criticized by comparing them with experimental data obtained on a small commercial pulse tube refrigerator.

  1. Explosive-Emission Plasma Dynamics in Ion Diode in Double-Pulse Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, I. Pushkarev; Yulia, I. Isakova

    2011-12-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of explosive-emission plasma dynamics in an ion diode with self-magnetic insulation are presented. The investigations were accomplished at the TEMP-4M accelerator set in a mode of double pulse formation. Plasma behaviour in the anode-cathode gap was analyzed according to both the current-voltage characteristics of the diode (time resolution of 0.5 ns) and thermal imprints on a target (spatial resolution of 0.8 mm). It was shown that when plasma formation at the potential electrode was complete, and up until the second (positive) pulse, the explosive-emission plasma expanded across the anode-cathode gap with a speed of 1.3±0.2 cm/μs. After the voltage polarity at the potential electrode was reversed (second pulse), the plasma erosion in the anode-cathode gap (similar to the effect of a plasma opening switch) occurred. During the generation of an ion beam the size of the anode-cathode gap spacing was determined by the thickness of the plasma layer on the potential electrode and the layer thickness of the electrons drifting along the grounded electrode.

  2. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between -10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  3. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-16

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between −10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  4. High-resolution three-dimensional compositional imaging by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, C.; Menichetti, L.; Grifoni, E.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Poggialini, F.; Pagnotta, S.; Palleschi, V.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present a new instrument specifically realized for high-resolution three-dimensional compositional analysis and mapping of materials. The instrument is based on the coupling of a Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument with an optical microscope. The compositional mapping of the samples is obtained by scanning the laser beam across the surface of the sample, while the in depth analysis is performed by sending multiple laser pulses on the same point. Depths of analysis of several tens of microns can be obtained. The instrument presented has definite advantages with respect to Laser Ablation-ICP Mass Spectrometry in many applications related to material analysis, biomedicine and environmental diagnostics. An application to the diagnostics of industrial ceramics is presented, demonstrating the feasibility of Double-Pulse LIBS Imaging and its advantages with respect to conventional single-pulse LIBS imaging.

  5. Organic Scintillators in Nonproliferation Applications With a Hybridized Double-Pulse Rejection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Mark Mitchell

    Alternative detection technologies are crucial to meeting demand for neutron detectors, for the current production of He-3, which has been the classical neutron choice, is insufficient. Organic scintillators are a strong candidate as a He-3 alternative due to their high efficiency, fast timing properties, and capabilities for separately identifying gamma-rays and neutrons through pulse shape discrimination (PSD). However, the use of organic scintillators in environments with numerous gamma rays can be limited because overlapping gamma-ray events can be misclassified as neutron events during PSD. To solve this problem, a new, hybridized double-pulse cleaning technique, consisting of three separate cleaning algorithms, was developed. The technique removes gamma-ray double pulses while preserving as many neutron pulses as possible. This technique was applied to separate experiments of Cf-252 and a gamma-ray source when measuring at a 100-kHz count rate and a field of 1000 incident gamma rays per incident neutron. It was found that stilbene scintillators were capable of intrinsic neutron efficiencies between 15-19% when measuring bare Cf-252 and 13-17% when exposed to the gamma-ray field. Misclassification rates ranged from 10-6-10-5, a factor-of-5 better than both the EJ-309 liquid and BB3-5 plastic. Next, plutonium experiments were performed with stilbene to determine which cleaning algorithm was best for each sample. A clear correlation was found that related the correct method of cleaning to the measured gamma ray-to-neutron ratio. When the measured gamma ray-to-neutron ratio is 10 or below, the template cleaning algorithm is preferred, while the fractional and hybrid cleaning algorithms are preferred when the gamma ray-to-neutron ratio is 100 or greater. Discriminating neutron sources such as Cf-252 or AmLi from SNM samples such as plutonium is a top priority in nonproliferation. We demonstrate that time-correlated experiments, utilizing both PSD-capable plastic

  6. Development of double-pulse lasers ablation system for generating gold ion source under applying an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Double-pulse lasers ablation (DPLA) technique was developed to generate gold (Au) ion source and produce high current under applying an electric potential in an argon ambient gas environment. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1064 and 266 nm wavelengths are combined in an unconventional orthogonal (crossed-beam) double-pulse configuration with 45° angle to focus on a gold target along with a spectrometer for spectral analysis of gold plasma. The properties of gold plasma produced under double-pulse lasers excitation were studied. The velocity distribution function (VDF) of the emitted plasma was studied using a dedicated Faraday-cup ion probe (FCIP) under argon gas discharge. The experimental parameters were optimized to attain the best signal to noise (S/N) ratio. The results depicted that the VDF and current signals depend on the discharge applied voltage, laser intensity, laser wavelength and ambient argon gas pressure. A seven-fold increases in the current signal by increasing the discharge applied voltage and ion velocity under applying double-pulse lasers field. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and density) were also studied and their dependence on the delay (times between the excitation laser pulse and the opening of camera shutter) was investigated as well. This study could provide significant reference data for the optimization and design of DPLA systems engaged in laser induced plasma deposition thin films and facing components diagnostics.

  7. Fast analysis of complex metallic alloys by double-pulse time-integrated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrentino, F., E-mail: marwan@df.unipi.i [Marwan Technology s.r.l., Spin-off University of Pisa Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Carelli, G.; Francesconi, F.; Francesconi, M.; Marsili, P. [Marwan Technology s.r.l., Spin-off University of Pisa Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Tognoni, E. [Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, IPCF/CNR - Via G.Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Results are reported on the application of double-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for fast analysis of complex metallic alloys. The approach followed for the determination of the composition of the alloys is based on the time-integrated acquisition of LIBS spectra emitted by plasmas induced by collinear double-pulse laser excitation. The spectra are analysed using the Partial Least Squares method, which allows the determination of sample composition even in the presence of strong spectral interferences. The results shown indicate the possibility of measuring the composition of complex metallic alloys in very short times and using relatively cheap LIBS instrumentation.

  8. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on zinc oxide crystals upon two-colour femtosecond double-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2017-03-01

    In order to study the temporally distributed energy deposition in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO), two-colour double-fs-pulse experiments were performed. Parallel or cross-polarised double-pulse sequences at 400 and 800 nm wavelength were generated by a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, exhibiting inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds between the sub-ablation 50-fs-pulses. Twenty two-colour double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surface. The resulting LIPSS periods and areas were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The delay-dependence of these LIPSS characteristics shows a dissimilar behaviour when compared to the semiconductor silicon, the dielectric fused silica, or the metal titanium. A wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism is proposed to explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS on ZnO when considering multi-photon excitation processes. Our results support the involvement of nonlinear processes for temporally overlapping pulses. These experiments extend previous two-colour studies on the indirect semiconductor silicon towards the direct wide band-gap semiconductor ZnO and further manifest the relevance of the ultrafast energy deposition for LIPSS formation.

  9. Electron-acoustic solitary pulses and double layers in multi-component plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Mannan, A; Shukla, P K

    2013-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear propagation of fi?nite amplitude electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) in multi-component plasmas composed of two distinct groups of electrons (cold and hot components), and non-isothermal ions. We use the continuity and momentum equations for cold inertial electrons, Boltzmann law for inertialess hot electrons, non-isothermal density distribution for hot ions, and Poisson's equation to derive an energy integral with a modi?ed Sagdeev potential (MSP) for nonlinear EAWs. The MSP is analyzed to demonstrate the existence of arbitrary amplitude EA solitary pulses (EASPs) and EA double layers (EA-DLs). Small amplitude limits have also been considered and analytical results for EASPs and EA-DLs are presented. The implication of our results to space and laboratory plasmas is briely discussed.

  10. Comparison of two models of a Double Inlet Miniature Pulse Tube Refrigerator - Part B Electrical Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Y; Bailly, Yannick; Nika, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The design of a Double Inlet Pulse Tube Refrigerator is investigated by means of an analogy with an electric circuit. The results obtained with the electric scheme are compared with both those of the thermodynamic model (Part A) and experiments. The basic formulation of equivalent electronic components is discussed and a few improvements are proposed to adjust the theoretical expressions of the electrical impedances of capillaries and regenerator in order to consider additional effects such pressure drops due to geometrical singularities at different internal flow regimes. A simplified formulation for the regenerator inefficiency is deduced from considerations on its harmonic functioning. The main purpose of this analysis considers especially the design of miniature cryocoolers dedicated to electronic applications. These models are applied to a commercial miniature refrigerator. A discussion of their relevance is achieved and a few suggestions on the refrigerator design are proposed to improve the cooling pro...

  11. Plasma block acceleration via double targets driven by an ultraintense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanxia; Wang, Jiaxiang; Qi, Xin; Li, Meng; Xing, Yifan; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, plasma block acceleration via radiation pressure from an ultraintense circularly polarized laser pulse with intensity I ≈ 10 22 W / cm 2 is investigated based on a double-target scheme, in which the targets are composed of a pre-target with a relatively low plasma density and a main target with a high plasma density. It has been demonstrated that an appropriately selected pre-target can help to greatly enhance the charge separation field in the main target, which then leads to generation of a strongly accelerated and well directed plasma block with proton energy in GeV magnitude. This result can have potential applications in the plasma block ignition of proton-born fusion.

  12. Double Pulse LIBS of Titanium-Based PVD-Coatings with Submicron Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ermalitskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for double pulse LIBS in the process of a direct layer-by-layer analysis of the titanium-based PVD-coatings on polished flat blank samples of steel and silicon and also of the TiAlN/TiN-coating on a milling cutter is considered. A method is proposed to control thickness of the radiation evaporated layer by defocusing the laser beam with respect to the surface, making it possible to attain the depth resolution of 0.1 μm. The Ti and Ti-Zr-coatings produced using the ion-assisted condensation method and subjected to streams of the nitrogen plasma in a magnetic-plasma compressor are studied.

  13. Three-dimensional compositional mapping using double-pulse micro-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, R.; Grifoni, E.; Gufoni, S.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Macro, N.; Menichetti, L.; Pagnotta, S.; Poggialini, F.; Schiavo, C.; Palleschi, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this communication, we present the development of the first double-pulse micro-LIBS (DP-μLIBS) instrument for three-dimensional compositional mapping of materials. The system allows for high-resolution three-dimensional scanning of materials; its advantages with respect to conventional single-pulse micro-LIBS systems are described and discussed. As a test example, we analyzed three Euro coins to show the performances of the system on homogeneous samples (20 Eurocents), heterogeneous samples (1 Euro) and layered samples (5 Eurocents). DP-μLIBS cannot provide isotopic information and has, typically, limits of detection for the elements of interest much higher with respect to Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). However, when the isotopic information and the extreme sensitivity to trace elements is not be necessary, the results obtained show that DP-μLIBS can be a viable alternative to LA-ICP-MS for the acquisition of high resolution three-dimensional compositional maps.

  14. Correction factor based double model fuzzy logic control strategy of arc voltage in pulsed MIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Meng Yongmin

    2005-01-01

    According to the feature of arc voltage control in welding steel using pulsed MIG welding, a correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was developed to realize the arc voltage control by means of arc voltage feedback.When the error of peak arc voltage was great, a coarse adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed,in the controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the wire feeding speed by means of arc voltage feedback. When the error of peak arc voltage was small, a fine adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed, in this controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the background time by means of arc voltage feedback. The FLC was realized in a Look-Up Table ( LUT) method. Experiments had been carried out aiming at implementing the control strategy to control the arc length change in welding process. Experimental results show that the controller proposed enables the consistency of arc length and the stabolity of arc voltage and welding process to be achieved in pulsed MIG welding process.

  15. CFD simulation and experimental validation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjare, Y. P.; Sahoo, R. K.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    Pulse tube refrigerator has the advantages of long life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as GM and stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) vertically aligned, operating under a variety of thermal boundary conditions. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, Fluent 6.1 is used to model the oscillating flow inside a pulse tube refrigerator. The simulation represents fully coupled systems operating in steady-periodic mode. The externally imposed boundary conditions are sinusoidal pressure inlet by user defined function at one end of the tube and constant temperature or heat flux boundaries at the external walls of the cold-end heat exchangers. The experimental method to evaluate the optimum parameters of DIPTR is difficult. On the other hand, developing a computer code for CFD analysis is equally complex. The objectives of the present investigations are to ascertain the suitability of CFD based commercial package, Fluent for study of energy and fluid flow in DIPTR and to validate the CFD simulation results with available experimental data. The general results, such as the cool down behaviours of the system, phase relation between mass flow rate and pressure at cold end, the temperature profile along the wall of the cooler and refrigeration load are presented for different boundary conditions of the system. The results confirm that CFD based Fluent simulations are capable of elucidating complex periodic processes in DIPTR. The results also show that there is an excellent agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental results.

  16. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with pulsed electromagnetic fields: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Florescu, A; Oturai, P

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DESIGN: The trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per...

  17. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  18. Femtosecond double-pulse fabrication of hierarchical nanostructures based on electron dynamics control for high surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Xin; Jiang, Lan; Shi, Xuesong; Li, Cong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2013-09-15

    This Letter presents a simple, efficient approach for high surface-enhanced Raman scattering by one-step controllable fabrication of hierarchical structures (nanoparticles+subwavelength ripples) on silicon substrates in silver nitrate solutions using femtosecond double pulses based on nanoscale electron dynamics control. As the delays of the double pulses increase from 0 fs to 1 ps, the hierarchical structures can be controlled with (1) nanoparticles--the number of nanoparticles in the range of 40-100 nm reaches the maximum at 800 fs and (2) ripples--the subwavelength ripples become intermittent with decreased ablation depths. The redistributed nanoparticles and the modified ripple structures contribute to the maximum enhancement factor of 2.2×10(8) (measured by 10(-6)  M rhodamine 6G solution) at the pulse delay of 800 fs.

  19. A Comparative Study of Single-pulse and Double-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy with Uranium-containing Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrodzki, P. J.; Becker, J. R.; Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-01-25

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) holds potential advantages in special nuclear material (SNM) sensing and nuclear forensics which require rapid analysis, minimal sample preparation and stand-off distance capability. SNM, such as U, however, result in crowded emission spectra with LIBS, and characteristic emission lines are challenging to discern. It is well-known that double-pulse LIBS (DPLIBS) improves the signal intensity for analytes over conventional single-pulse LIBS (SPLIBS). This study investigates U signal in a glass matrix using DPLIBS and compares to signal features obtained using SPLIBS. DPLIBS involves sequential firing of 1.06 µm Nd:YAG pre-pulse and 10.6 µm TEA CO2 heating pulse in near collinear geometry. Optimization of experimental parameters including inter-pulse delay and energy follows identification of characteristic lines and signals for bulk analyte Ca and minor constituent analyte U for both DPLIBS and SPLIBS. Spatial and temporal coupling of the two pulses in the proposed DPLIBS technique yields improvements in analytical merits with negligible further damage to the sample compared to SPLIBS. Subsequently, the study discusses optimum plasma emission conditions of U lines and relative figures of merit in both SPLIBS and DPLIBS. Investigation into plasma characteristics also addresses plausible mechanisms related to observed U analyte signal variation between SPLIBS and DPLIBS.

  20. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses.

  1. Analytical performances of laser-induced micro-plasma of Al samples with single and double ultrashort pulses in air and with Ar-jet: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semerok, A., E-mail: alexandre.semerok@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dutouquet, C. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SEARS/LISL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA, F-60550 Verneuil En Halatte (France)

    2014-09-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser microablation coupled with optical emission spectroscopy was under study to obtain several micro-LIBS analytical features (shot-to-shot reproducibility, spectral line intensity and lifetime, calibration curves, detection limits). Laser microablation of Al matrix samples with known Cu- and Mg-concentrations was performed by single and double pulses of 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration in air and with Ar-jet. The micro-LIBS analytical features obtained under different experimental conditions were characterized and compared. The highest shot-to-shot reproducibility and gain in plasma spectral line intensity were obtained with double pulses with Ar-jet for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulse durations. The best calibration curves were obtained with 1 ps pulse duration with Ar-jet. Micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses may find its effective application for surface elemental microcartography. - Highlights: • Analytical performances of micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses were studied. • The maximal line intensity gain of 20 was obtained with double pulses and Ar-jet. • LIBS gain was obtained without additional ablation of a sample by the second pulse. • LIBS properties were almost the same for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulses. • The micro-LIBS detection limit was around 35 ppm.

  2. Hydrogen isotope detection in metal matrix using double-pulse laser-induced breakdown-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Almaviva, Salvatore; Caneve, Luisa; Colao, Francesco; Maddaluno, Giorgio; Gasior, Pawel; Kubkowska, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The amount of hydrogen isotopes retained in plasma facing components (PFCs) and the determination of their surface layer composition are among the most critical issues for the next generation fusion device, ITER, under construction in Cadarache (France). Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is currently under evaluation as a technique suitable for quantitative, in situ, non-invasive measurements of these quantities. In order to detect traces of contaminant in metallic samples and improve its limit of detection (LOD), the Double Pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) variant can be used instead of the standard Single Pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS), as it has been proven by several authors that DP-LIBS can considerably raise the analytical performances of the technique. In this work Mo samples coated with a 1.5-1.8 μm thick W-Al mixed layer, contaminated with co-deposited deuterium (D) were measured by SP- and DP-LIBS under vacuum (p 5 × 10- 5 mbar), with an experimental set-up simulating conditions that can be found in a real fusion device between plasma discharges. A partial Calibration Free procedure (pCF) was applied to the LIBS data in order to retrieve the relative concentration of W and Al in the mixed layer. The amount of deuterium was then inferred by using tungsten as internal standard, accounting for the intensity ratio between the Dα line and nearby W I lines. The results are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained from preliminary Ion Beam Analysis measurements performed immediately after the specimen's realization.

  3. High Power Er/Yb Codoped Double Clad Fiber Pulsed Amplifier Based on an All-Fiber Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lei; NING Ji-Ping; CHEN Cheng; HAN Qun; ZHANG Wei-Yi; WANG Jun-Tao

    2009-01-01

    We report an all-fiber two-stage high power pulsed amplifier,seeded with a 1550nm,1 kHz repetition rate rectangular pulse,and based on Er/Yb co-doped double clad fiber.All the characteristics are measured in the experiment.The maxima/slope efficiency is 22.56%,which is the highest we know of at such a low repetition rate,and the maximal output signal power is 1W.The various factors that affect the pulsed amplifier performance are analyzed.A high output power while keeping high power conversion efficiency can be obtained with careful selection of the input power,pump power and repetition rate.The experimental results show that the crucial parameters should be optimized when designing all-fiber pulsed amplifiers.

  4. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S., E-mail: hoehm@mbi-berlin.de.de [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on fused silica is studied upon cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS periods are determined by the wavelength of the first pulse. • LIPSS area is increased for temporally overlapping pulses due to nonlinear absorption. - Abstract: The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation)

  5. Double Ion Implantation and Pulsed Laser Melting Processes for Third Generation Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric García-Hemme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the third generation of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cell is one of the possible candidates to reach higher efficiencies with a lower processing cost. In this work, we introduce a novel processing method based on a double ion implantation and, subsequently, a pulsed laser melting (PLM process to obtain thicker layers of Ti supersaturated Si. We perform ab initio theoretical calculations of Si impurified with Ti showing that Ti in Si is a good candidate to theoretically form an intermediate band material in the Ti supersaturated Si. From time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, we confirm that we have obtained a Ti implanted and PLM thicker layer of 135 nm. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a single crystalline structure whilst the electrical characterization confirms the transport properties of an intermediate band material/Si substrate junction. High subbandgap absorption has been measured, obtaining an approximate value of 104 cm−1 in the photons energy range from 1.1 to 0.6 eV.

  6. Emission enhancement using two orthogonal targets in double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ake, C. [Laboratorio de Fotofisica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.mx; Bolanos, Marduk [Laboratorio de Fotofisica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Ramirez, C.Z. [Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades Plantel Sur, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The enhancement of emission intensity resulting from the interaction between two laser-induced plasmas on two orthogonal targets was investigated using double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at 0.7 Pa, by means of time-resolved spectroscopy and fast photography. The results showed that the interaction between both plasmas improved carbon emission intensity in comparison to a single laser-induced plasma. For all the carbon lines of interest 477.2 nm (CI), 426.7 nm (CII), and 473.4 nm (C{sub 2} Swan band head), the intensity enhancement showed a maximum at a delay between lasers in the range from 2 to 5 {mu}s; moreover it increased with the fluence of the first laser. On the other hand, in the case of C{sub 2} the intensity enhancement reached a maximum at 5 mm from the target; however it decreased with increasing fluence of the second laser. The largest intensity enhancement found was twofold for atomic species and sixfold for molecular species.

  7. Precise Calculation of Single and Double Ionization of Hydrogen Molecule in Intense Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Vafaee, Mohsen; Shokri, Babak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new simulation box is introduced for two electronic systems in intense laser pulses. In this box, the region of hydrogen molecule, single ionization and second ionization are precisely recognized and time dependent of population of these regions are reported. In addition, a new regions is introduced and characterized as quasi-double ionization regions and the time dependent population of these regions are calculated and compared at different intensities. The special character of the simulation box is that it is designed in order that to assure the overall second ionization is taken to account. In this study, the dynamics of the electrons and the nuclei of hydrogen molecule are separated based on the adiabatic approximation. The time dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger and Newton equations are solved simultaneously for the electrons and the nuclei respectively. Four different intensities are used in the simulation; $ 1\\times10^{14} $, $ 5\\times10^{14} $, $ 1\\times10^{15} $ and $ 5\\times10^{15} $ W cm$^{...

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation on performance of a double inlet type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Animesh; Ghosh, Subrata K.

    2016-09-01

    A helium filled double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) has been designed, built and operated to provide cryogenic cooling. The experimental studies have been carried out to characterize the performance of the DIPTR at various values of the mean pressure of helium (0.7-1.5 MPa), amplitudes of pressure oscillations, and sizes of orifice opening. A detailed time-dependent three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the DIPTR has also been developed to predict its performance. In the CFD model, the continuity, momentum and energy equations have been solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and heat exchangers) in the DIPTR. The computational results have been compared with specific experimental results to validate the numerical model. The results predicted by the model show better results as compared to experimental results, as the effects of wall thicknesses and natural convective losses of the various components of the DIPTR to the surroundings have not been included in the model.

  9. Pulse-shape discrimination techniques for the COBRA double beta-decay experiment at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatschler, S.; COBRA collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In modern elementary particle physics several questions arise from the fact that neutrino oscillation experiments have found neutrinos to be massive. Among them is the so far unknown nature of neutrinos: either they act as so-called Majorana particles, where one cannot distinguish between particle and antiparticle, or they are Dirac particles like all the other fermions in the Standard Model. The study of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay), where the lepton number conservation is violated by two units, could answer the question regarding the underlying nature of neutrinos and might also shed light on the mechanism responsible for the mass generation. So far there is no experimental evidence for the existence of 0νββ-decay, hence, existing experiments have to be improved and novel techniques should be explored. One of the next-generation experiments dedicated to the search for this ultra-rare decay is the COBRA experiment. This article gives an overview of techniques to identify and reject background based on pulse-shape discrimination.

  10. Simultaneous acquisition of pulse EPR orientation selective spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Florent, Marc; Epel, Boris; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2011-01-01

    High resolution pulse EPR methods are usually applied to resolve weak magnetic electron-nuclear or electron-electron interactions that are otherwise unresolved in the EPR spectrum. Complete information regarding different magnetic interactions, namely, principal components and orientation of principal axis system with respect to the molecular frame, can be derived from orientation selective pulsed EPR measurements that are performed at different magnetic field positions within the inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectrum. These experiments are usually carried out consecutively, namely a particular field position is chosen, data are accumulated until the signal to noise ratio is satisfactory, and then the next field position is chosen and data are accumulated. Here we present a new approach for data acquisition of pulsed EPR experiments referred to as parallel acquisition. It is applicable when the spectral width is much broader than the excitation bandwidth of the applied pulse sequence and it is particularly useful for orientation selective pulse EPR experiments. In this approach several pulse EPR measurements are performed within the waiting (repetition) time between consecutive pulse sequences during which spin lattice relaxation takes place. This is achieved by rapidly changing the main magnetic field, B0, to different values within the EPR spectrum, performing the same experiment on the otherwise idle spins. This scheme represents an efficient utilization of the spectrometer and provides the same spectral information in a shorter time. This approach is demonstrated on W-band orientation selective electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM), electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) - detected NMR and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements on frozen solutions of nitroxides. We show that a factors of 3-6 reduction in total acquisition time can be obtained, depending on the experiment applied.

  11. Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the person's heart is pumping. Pulse ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  12. Collective State of Interwell Excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs Double Quantum Wells under Pulse Resonance Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    The time evolution and kinetics of photoluminescence (PL) spectra of interwell excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (n–i–n structures) have been investigated under the pulse resonance excitation of intrawell 1sHH excitons using a pulsed tunable laser. It is found that the collective exciton......, and a significant increase in the radiative decay rate of the condensed phase. The collective exciton phase arises at temperatures T properties of the collective phase of interwell excitons and experimental manifestations of this coherence...

  13. Issues in deep ocean collinear double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Dependence of emission intensity and inter-pulse delay on solution pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence-Snyder, Marion; Scaffidi, Jonathan P.; Pearman, William F.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Angel, S. Michael

    2014-09-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) with a collinear laser beam orientation is shown for high-pressure bulk aqueous solutions (up to 50 bar) along with bubble and plasma images. These investigations reveal that the emission plasma is quenched much more rapidly in solution requiring much shorter detector gate delays than for typical LIBS measurements in air. Also, the emission is inversely proportional to solution pressure, and the most intense emission at all pressures occurs when the laser-induced vapor bubble is at a maximum diameter. It is also shown that the laser-induced bubble grows initially at the same rate for all solution pressures, collapsing more quickly as the pressure is increased. Intense emission is best obtained for conditions where the laser-induced bubble formed by the first laser pulse is small and spherically shaped. - Highlights: • Collinear double-pulse LIBS is shown for 50 bar bulk aqueous solutions. • LIBS plasma in solution is much more rapidly quenched than a LIBS plasma in air. • For DP LIBS, the emission is inversely proportional to solution pressure. • Laser-induced bubble growth rate is the same at all solution pressures. • Large spherical laser-induced bubbles produce the strongest DP LIBS emission.

  14. Electron-electron correlations in liquid s-p metals

    CERN Document Server

    Leys, F E

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations for the valence electron-electron structure factor in liquid Mg near freezing, assuming knowledge of the jellium result. On the basis of this, we predict significant corrections to jellium short-range correlations in liquid s-p metals and in particular an increase in the electron-electron contact probability.

  15. Recent development of double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prochazka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Single pulse (SP LIBS setup was modified to DP setup to achievemore accurate analytical sensitivity and spatial resolution. Allparameters, like interpulse delay, acquisition delay or energy ofablation and excitation laser pulses were optimized.

  16. SMALL VOLUME LONG PULSE X RAY PREIONISED XeCl LASER WITH DOUBLE DISCHARGE AND FAST FERRITE MAGNETIC SWITCH

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hueber; Kobhio, M.; Fontaine, B.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Forestier, B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with a high efficiency small volume long pulse X-Ray preionised XeCl laser with double discharge and very fast ferrite magnetic switch are presented and compared with the results given by a new XeCl laser numerical self consistant model. The model takes into account most recent kinetic data and time variation of discharge impedence and switch inductance. There is a good agreement between experiment and model on electrical and laser parameters for typical conditions.

  17. Mapping apparent eccentricity and residual ensemble anisotropy in the gray matter using angular double-pulsed-field-gradient MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Noam; Barazany, Daniel; Sadan, Ofer; Bar, Leah; Zur, Yuval; Barhum, Yael; Sochen, Nir; Offen, Daniel; Assaf, Yaniv; Cohen, Yoram

    2012-09-01

    Conventional diffusion MRI methods are mostly capable of portraying microarchitectural elements such as fiber orientation in white matter from detection of diffusion anisotropy, which arises from the coherent organization of anisotropic compartments. Double-pulsed-field-gradient MR methods provide a means for obtaining microstructural information such as compartment shape and microscopic anisotropies even in scenarios where macroscopic organization is absent. Here, we apply angular double-pulsed-gradient-spin-echo MRI in the rat brain both ex vivo and in vivo for the first time. Robust angular dependencies are detected in the brain at long mixing time (t(m) ). In many pixels, the oscillations seem to originate from residual directors in randomly oriented media, i.e., from residual ensemble anisotropy, as corroborated by quantitative simulations. We then developed an analysis scheme that enables one to map of structural indices such as apparent eccentricity (aE) and residual phase (φ) that enables characterization of the rat brain in general, and especially the rat gray matter. We conclude that double-pulsed-gradient-spin-echo MRI may in principle become important in characterizing gray matter morphological features and pathologies in both basic and applied neurosciences.

  18. Improving the quality of proton beams via double targets driven by an intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme is proposed to improve the quality of proton beams via ultra-intense laser pulse interacting with double plasma targets, which consist of a pre-target with relatively low density and a main target with high density. Both one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations show that, the using of an appropriate pre-target can help to obtain a much stronger longitudinal charge separation field in contrast to using only the main target. And proton beam with lower momentum divergence, better monochromaticity and collimation, as well as higher current density is generated. Moreover, due to the strengthened coupling between the laser pulse and targets, the energy conversion from laser pulse to protons is also increased.

  19. Application of double pulse theory for hemispherical microelectrodes to the experimental study of slow charge transfer processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Espinardo 30100, Murcia (Spain); Rogers, Emma I. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Martinez-Ortiz, Francisco [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Espinardo 30100, Murcia (Spain); Molina, Angela, E-mail: amolina@um.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Espinardo 30100, Murcia (Spain); Compton, Richard G., E-mail: richard.compton@chem.ox.ac.u [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Differential Pulse Voltammetry and Reverse Pulse Voltammetry are applied to the study of the electrode kinetics of slow charge transfer processes at hemispherical microelectrodes of ca. 25 {mu}m radius. The electrochemical reversibility of three redox systems: 3-nitrophenolate{sup -/2-{center_dot}}, 3-nitrophthalate{sup 2-/3-{center_dot}} and europium{sup 3+/2+}, are evaluated with both techniques by determining the heterogeneous rate constant, the electron transfer coefficient as well as the formal potential for each. The experimental results show the value of these techniques for the characterization of the electrode kinetics by means of simple diagnostic criteria and single-point fit to general working curves. Further, theory developed for double potential pulse under radial diffusion conditions is validated.

  20. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  1. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, I., E-mail: eu13z002@steng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  2. Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Carr, Adra; Matyba, Piotr; Szilvási, Tibor; Emmerich, Sebastian; Piecuch, Martin; Keller, Mark; Zusin, Dmitriy; Eich, Steffen; Rollinger, Markus; You, Wenjing; Mathias, Stefan; Thumm, Uwe; Mavrikakis, Manos; Aeschlimann, Martin; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2017-07-01

    Electron-electron interactions are the fastest processes in materials, occurring on femtosecond to attosecond timescales, depending on the electronic band structure of the material and the excitation energy. Such interactions can play a dominant role in light-induced processes such as nano-enhanced plasmonics and catalysis, light harvesting, or phase transitions. However, to date it has not been possible to experimentally distinguish fundamental electron interactions such as scattering and screening. Here, we use sequences of attosecond pulses to directly measure electron-electron interactions in different bands of different materials with both simple and complex Fermi surfaces. By extracting the time delays associated with photoemission we show that the lifetime of photoelectrons from the d band of Cu are longer by ˜100 as compared with those from the same band of Ni. We attribute this to the enhanced electron-electron scattering in the unfilled d band of Ni. Using theoretical modeling, we can extract the contributions of electron-electron scattering and screening in different bands of different materials with both simple and complex Fermi surfaces. Our results also show that screening influences high-energy photoelectrons (≈20 eV) significantly less than low-energy photoelectrons. As a result, high-energy photoelectrons can serve as a direct probe of spin-dependent electron-electron scattering by neglecting screening. This can then be applied to quantifying the contribution of electron interactions and screening to low-energy excitations near the Fermi level. The information derived here provides valuable and unique information for a host of quantum materials.

  3. The Role of Plasma Shielding in Double-Pulse Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Penczak, John S; Bar, Ilana; Gordon, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that optical emission produced by femtosecond laser-induced breakdown on a surface may be enhanced by using a pair of laser pulses separated by a suitable delay. Here we elucidate the mechanism for this effect both experimentally and theoretically. Using a bilayer sample consisting of a thin film of Ag deposited on an Al substrate as the ablation target and measuring the breakdown spectrum as a function of fluence and pulse delay, it is shown experimentally that the enhanced signal is not caused by additional ablation initiated by the second pulse. Rather, particle-in-cell calculations show that the plasma produced by the first pulse shields the surface from the second pulse for delays up to 100 ps. These results indicate that the enhancement is the result of excitement of particles entrained in the plasma produced by the first pulse.

  4. Time resolved study of the emission enhancement mechanisms in orthogonal double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginés, R., E-mail: roberto.sangines@ccadet.unam.mx; Sobral, H.

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of laser induced ablation plume on aluminum targets has been investigated in orthogonal pre-ablation double pulse scheme at atmospheric pressure from the earliest stages of plasma evolution. Time-resolved emission spectra from neutrals, singly- and doubly-ionized species obtained with the double pulse experiment have been compared with those from the single pulse configuration. Signal-to-noise enhancement reaches values of up to 15 depending on the analyzed species; and the lower the charge state the later its maximum signal-to-noise ratio is reached. Ablation plume dynamics was monitored from 10 ns after the plasma onset via shadowgraphy and fast-photography with narrow interference filters to follow the evolution of individual species. Results show that ionic species from the target are located at the plasma core while nitrogen from the background air is found at the plume peripheral. Initially both configurations exhibit similar ablation plume sizes and their expansions were successfully fitted with the strong explosion model for the first 500 ns. At later times a good agreement was obtained by using the drag model, which predicts that the plume expansion eventually stops due to interaction with the background gas particles. The emission enhancement measured in the double pulse scheme is discussed in terms of the models describing the plume dynamics. - Highlights: • Production of 2 + ions at the earliest stages of plasma evolution • The higher the charge state the inner the location within the ablation plume. • The expansion rate of the second (ablation) plume was measured. • Shock and drag models successfully fit the ablation shock front expansion.

  5. Galvanostatic pulse followed by coulostatic impulse with reversed sign: A new double-pulse method for the determination of the kinetic parameters of electrode reactions I. Theory and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, H.P. van; Sluyters, J.H.

    1972-01-01

    A new double pulse method is presented in which a galvanostatic pre-pulse is followed by a coulostatic impulse with reversed sign. The coulostatic charge density selected is such that the overvoltage-time curve starts with a horizontal tangent after the impulse has ceased. As both the net current th

  6. Self-Calibration and Laser Energy Monitor Validations for a Double-Pulsed 2-Micron CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  7. Pulsed ELDOR in spin-labeled polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milov, Alexander D.; Maryasov, Alexander G.; Tsvetkov, Yuri D.; Raap, Jan

    1999-04-01

    The pulsed electron-electron double-resonance (PELDOR) technique was applied to obtain information about the structure of the synthetic polypeptide-biradical in a frozen glassy solution. From the concentration dependence of the PELDOR signal, the effects of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions were separated. It was found that the intramolecular dipole-dipole interactions in the biradical peptide led to the modulation effects in the PELDOR signal decay. This may be attributed to the existence of a conformational population having a distance between the two unpaired electrons of ˜20 Å with a distribution of (˜2 Å). Its fraction is estimated as about 25%.

  8. Coherent generation and dynamic manipulation of double stationary light pulses in a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Qianqian; Zhang Xiaohang; Gao Junyan; Zhang Yan; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-12-15

    We study a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms for efficiently manipulating the dynamic propagation and evolution of a quantum probe field by modulating four classical control fields. Our numerical results show that it is viable to transform the quantum probe field into a pair of two-color stationary light pulses mutually coupled through two wave packets of atomic spin coherence. The pair of stationary light pulses can be released either from the sample entrance and exit synchronously or just from the sample exit with a controlled time delay. In addition, the two-color stationary light pulses are immune to the fast decay originating from the higher-order Fourier components of atomic spin and optical coherence, and may exhibit the quantum limited beating signals with their characteristic frequency determined by detunings of the four classical control fields. These results could be explored to design novel photonic devices, such as optical routing, beam splitter, and beat generator, for manipulating a quantum light field.

  9. Improved performance of Li-ion cells under pulsed load using double-layer capacitors in a hybrid circuit mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Electrical characteristics of hybrid power sources consisting of Li-ion cells and double-layer capacitors were studied at 25 C and {minus}20 C. The cells were initially evaluated for pulse performance and then measured in hybrid modes of operation where they were coupled with the high-power capacitors. Cells manufactured by Panasonic measured at 25 C delivered full capacities of 0.76 Ah for pulses up to 3A and cells from A and T delivered full capacities of 0.73 Ah for pulses up to 4A. Measured cell resistances were 0.15 ohms and 0.12 ohms, respectively. These measurements were repeated at {minus}20 C. Direct coupling of the cells and capacitors (coupled hybrid) using 10F Panasonic capacitors in a 8F series/parallel combination extended the full capacity pulse limits (3.0V threshold) to 5.6A for the Panasonic cells and to 9A for the A and T cells. A similar arrangement using 100F capacitors from Elna in a 60F combination increased the Panasonic cell limit to 10 A. Operation in an uncoupled hybrid mode using uncoupled cell/capacitor discharge allowed fill cell capacity usage at 25 C up to the capacitor discharge limit and showed a factor of 5 improvement in delivered capacity at {minus}20 C.

  10. Optical time of flight studies of lithium plasma in double pulse laser ablation: Evidence of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumaran, V.; Joshi, H. C.; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-06-15

    The early stage of formation of lithium plasma in a collinear—double pulse laser ablation mode has been studied using optical time of flight (OTOF) spectroscopy as a function of inter-pulse delay time, the distance from the target surface and the fluence of the ablation lasers. The experimental TOF measurements were carried out for lithium neutral (670.8 nm and 610.3 nm), and ionic (548.4 nm and 478.8 nm) lines. These experimental observations have been compared with that for single pulse laser ablation mode. It is found that depending on the fluence and laser pulse shape of the first pre-ablation laser and the second main ablation laser, the plasma plume formation and its characteristic features can be described in terms of plume-plume or laser-plume interaction processes. Moreover, the enhancement in the intensity of Li neutral and ionic lines is observed when the laser-plume interaction is the dominant process. Here, we see the evidence of the role of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption process in the initial stage of formation of lithium plasma in this case.

  11. Double-beam pulsed laser deposition for the growth of Al-incorporated ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, L. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, AP 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sánchez-Aké, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, AP 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Bizarro, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition in a delayed-double beam configuration is used to incorporate in situ Al in ZnO thin films. In this configuration, two synchronized pulsed-laser beams are employed to ablate independently a ZnO and an Al target. We investigated the effects of relative time delay of plasma plumes on the composition of the films with the aim of evaluating the performance of this technique to produce doped materials. Relative delay between plumes was found to control the incorporation of Al in the film in the range from 14% to 30%. However, to produce low impurity concentration of Al-doped ZnO (with Al incorporation less than 2%) the fluence used to produce the plasmas has more influence over the film composition than the relative plume delay. The minimum incorporation of Al corresponded to a relative delay of 0 μs, due to the interaction between plumes during their expansion.

  12. Narrow linewidth Yb-doped double-cladding fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg gratings inscribed by femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhinan; Shi Jiawei; Zhang Jihuang; Wang Haiyan; Li Yuhua; Lu Peixiang, E-mail: oeyhli@gmail.com, E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A narrow-linewidth high power laser in all fiber format at 1064 nm is demonstrated. The resonant cavity is composed of two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber gratings, which were inscribed into the core of the double-cladding fiber by use of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and a phase mask. The spectrum of the laser exhibited a narrow linewidth of 21 pm at the output power of 0.8 W. The wavelength and power of the laser featured long term stability.

  13. Investigation of the osteitis deformans phases in snake vertebrae by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiová, M; Kaiser, J; Novotný, K; Ivanov, M; Nývltová Fisáková, M; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Vaculovic, T; Liska, M; Kanický, V

    2010-09-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was optimized for microspatial analyses of fossil and recent snake vertebrae. As complimentary techniques, solution analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography was utilized in order to determine the overall concentration of the selected elements in the samples and to visualize nondestructively the fossil sample microstructure, respectively. Elemental mapping of pathological bony tissue by DP-LIBS has been proven as a powerful tool for considering the osteitis deformans phases in fossil vertebrae.

  14. ZrO2 and ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings deposited by double pulsed plasma arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel surface technique has been developed to produce ZrO2 and ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings on the surface of alloys by using double pulsed plasma arc to react with a solution film containing nano-oxide particles. These coatings exhibit smooth surface and excellent adhesion with substrate. The morphologies of the ceramic coatings and phases were analyzed. It was shown that the oxidation resistance of l8-8 stainless steel was markedly improved by applying ZrO2 and ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings.

  15. A randomized double-blind prospective study of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields for interbody lumbar fusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, V. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A randomized double-blind prospective study of pulsed electromagnetic fields for lumbar interbody fusions was performed on 195 subjects. There were 98 subjects in the active group and 97 subjects in the placebo group. A brace containing equipment to induce an electromagnetic field was applied to patients undergoing interbody fusion in the active group, and a sham brace was used in the control group. In the active group there was a 92% success rate, while the control group had a 65% success rate (P greater than 0.005). The effectiveness of bone graft stimulation with the device is thus established.

  16. Measurement of Carrier-Envelope Phase and Field Strength of a Few-Cycle Pulse by Non-sequential Double Ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-Yun; CHEN Jing; JIANG Hong-Bing; LIU Jie; FU Pan-Ming; GONG Qi-Huang; YAN Zong-Chao; WANG Bing-Bing

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the carrier-envelop phase (CEP) and the intensity of a few-cycle pulse by controlling the non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) process.By using an additional static electric field, we can change the momentum distribution of the double-charged ions parallel to the laser polarization from an asymmetrical double-hump structure to a nearly symmetrical one.It is found that the ratio between the strength of the static electric field and that of the laser field is sensitive to the CEP but robust against the intensity fluctuation.Therefore we can determine the CEP of a few-cycle pulse precisely by measuring the static electric field.Furthermore, if the CEP of the few-cycle pulse is fixed at a certain value, we can also calibrate the intensity of the laser pulse by the static electric field.

  17. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional...

  18. Comparison of plasma parameters and line emissions of laser-induced plasmas of an aluminum target using single and orthogonal double nanosecond/picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, H., E-mail: martin.sobral@ccadet.unam.mx; Sanginés, R.

    2014-04-01

    The emission of laser-induced plasma on aluminum targets in air was investigated with nanosecond- and picosecond-pulsed Nd:YAG laser emitting at the fundamental wavelength. Orthogonal double pulse in pre-ablation and reheating configurations was also performed where the picosecond laser was employed to ablate the target. Ablation fluences were kept fixed at 100 J cm{sup −2} regardless of the laser pulse duration. Time integrated emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the plasma emission; thus, picosecond laser ablation provided larger figures than the nanosecond one. The emission was further enhanced when double pulse schemes were used. This enhancement was analyzed as a function of interpulse delays. Electron density and temperature evolutions were determined from time delays of 150 ns after the ablation plasma onset. Results are discussed in terms of the ablation rate. - Highlights: • A comparison of LIBS signal keeping constant the ablation fluence is performed. • Emission of ps laser ablation is up to four-fold enlarged compared with ns pulses. • Drilling ablation efficiency is 6 times larger with ps compared with ns pulses. • LIBS sensitivity with ps pulse ablation is equivalent to that of ns double pulse configuration.

  19. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  20. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohloff, M.; Das, S. K.; Hoehm, S.; Grunwald, R.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of five Ti:sapphire femtosecond (fs) laser pulse pairs (150 fs, 800 nm) is studied experimentally. A Michelson interferometer is used to generate near-equal-energy double-pulse sequences with a temporal pulse delay from -20 to +20 ps between the cross-polarized individual fs-laser pulses ({approx}0.2 ps resolution). The results of multiple double-pulse irradiation sequences are characterized by means of Scanning Electron and Scanning Force Microscopy. Specifically in the sub-ps delay domain striking differences in the surface morphologies can be observed, indicating the importance of the laser-induced free-electron plasma in the conduction band of the solids for the formation of LIPSS.

  1. Experiment Study of Dual Wavelength and Dual Pulse Q-switched Intracavity Frequency Doubling of a Tunable Cr:LiSAF Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Changshui; WANG Peilin; XIE Jianping; SHI Dufang; SHA Xianwu; HE Yulong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Cr: LiSAF laser system with intracavity frequency doubling is designed to obtain dual pulse and dual wavelength laser output. The behaviors of second harmonic output of dual pulse and dual wavelength are studied experimentally. Good results are obtained in experiments: the output energy of each second harmonic pulse a round 448.1 nm is 10.2 mJ, the dual pulse time interval can be tuned widely, and the tunable range of each second harmonic wavelength is 448.1 to 465 nm.

  2. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on Fused Silica, Silicon, and Titanium is studied upon parallel and cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation on Fused Silica follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS formation on Silicon and Titanium can be explained by a plasmonic model. - Abstract: In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach–Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  3. Brillouin backscattering from a double-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser incident on planar targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoste, R.; Lavigne, P.; Pepin, H.; Mitchel, G.R.; Kieffer, J.

    1982-05-01

    The Brillouin backscattering instability is studied for a range of preformed plasma conditions and using a CO/sub 2/ laser in the 10/sup 12/--10/sup 13/ W/cm/sup 2/ regime. A short prepulse is incident on a planar target ahead of the main-pulse to produce the preformed plasma. The instability appears in a short burst of back-reflected light. Saturation of the backscatter level is observed for an individual increase of the prepulse energy, main-pulse intensity, and prepulse-to-main-pulse delay. Ion Landau damping is strong and average back-reflected intensities are limited to less than 30% of incident. Backscattered light spectra suggest that the critical surface is involved in the backscatter process when the laser beam is at best focus onto the target surface. Otherwise, the spectral signature is similar to those obtained from underdense plasmas.

  4. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation).

  5. Effect of double false pulses in calibrated neutron coincidence collar during measuring time-correlated neutrons from PuBe neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tam Cong, E-mail: tam.nguyen.cong@energia.mta.hu; Huszti, Jozsef; Nguyen, Quan Van

    2015-09-01

    Effect of double false pulses of preamplifiers in neutron coincidence collar was investigated to explain non-parallel shape of calibrated D/S–M{sub Pu} curves of two commercial neutron coincidence collars, JCC-31 and JCC-13. Two curves, which were constructed from D/S ratio (doubles and singles count rate), and Pu content M{sub Pu}, of the same set of secondary standard PuBe neutron sources, should be parallel. Non-parallelism rises doubt about usability of the method based on this curve for determination of Pu content in PuBe neutron sources. We have shown in three steps that the problem originates from double false pulses of preamplifiers in JCC-13. First we used a pulse train diagram for analyzing the non-parallel shape, second we used Rossi-Alpha distribution measured by pulse train recorder developed in our institute and finally, we investigated the effect of inserted noise pulses. This implies a new type of QA test option in traditional multiplicity shift registers for excluding presence of double false pulses.

  6. Double core-hole spectroscopy of transient plasmas produced in the interaction of ultraintense x-ray pulses with neon

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Cheng; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Double core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy is investigated systematically for neon atomic system in the interaction with ultraintense x-ray pulses with photon energy from 937 eV to 2000 eV. A time-dependent rate equation, implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation, is utilized to study the dynamical evolution of the level population and emission properties of the highly transient plasmas. For x-ray pulses with photon energy in the range of 937-1030 eV, where $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonance absorption from single core-hole (SCH) states of neon charge states exist, inner-shell resonant absorption (IRA) effects play important roles in the time evolution of population and DCH spectroscopy. Such IRA physical effects are illustrated in detail by investigating the interaction of x-ray pulses at a photon energy of 944 eV, which corresponds to the $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonant absorption from the SCH states ($1s2s^22p^4$, $1s2s2p^5$ and $1s2p^6$) of Ne$^{3+}$. After averaging over the space and time distribution o...

  7. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple parallel polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Arkadi, E-mail: rosenfeld@mbi-berlin.de [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Rohloff, Marcus; Hoehm, Sandra [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, Joerg [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, Joern, E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPSS formation studied for double-fs-pulses (160 fs, 800 nm) of different fluences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to the damage threshold predominantly HSFL are observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HSFL period remains almost constant {approx}375 nm (delay independent). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high fluences and for short delays a transient metallic state is created (LSFL regime). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A transition of the LSFL period from 750 to 530 nm is observed in the sub-ps delay range. - Abstract: The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences of parallel polarized Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulse pairs (160 fs pulse duration, 800 nm central wavelength) was studied experimentally. For that purpose, a Michelson interferometer was used to generate near-equal-energy double-pulse sequences allowing the temporal pulse delay between the parallel-polarized individual fs-laser pulses to be varied between 0 and 40 ps with {approx}0.2 ps temporal resolution. The surface morphologies of the irradiated surface areas were characterized by means of scanning electron and scanning force microscopy. In the sub-ps delay range a strong decrease of the LIPSS periods and the ablation crater depths with the double-pulse delay was observed indicating the importance of the laser-induced free-electron plasma in the conduction band of the solids for the formation of LIPSS.

  8. Nonsequential double ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D+ fragments obtained from the ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses includes a high-energy component extending up to ˜10 eV. These fragments are only present for linearly, or slightly elliptically, polarized light. Both the maximum kinetic...

  9. A modified two-stage pulse tube cryocooler utilizing double-inlet and multi-mesh regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablu, M.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a thermally coupled Stirling-type two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers (TSPTC) is studied using a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD code. After validating the results of the simulations, effects of synchronous utilization of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on the performance of the TSPTC are investigated. Results of simulations show that non-oscillating friction factors do not possess sufficient accuracy for calculation of oscillating friction losses in non-porous media. Whereas, using oscillating friction factor of non-porous media leads to sufficient accurate results. According to the results, using multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet increases the COP and decreases the minimum attainable temperature of the system. It is observed that a minimum temperature of 18.2 K is attainable using optimum multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet; whereas, for a simple TSPTC with a uniform mesh regenerator, a minimum temperature of 26.4 K is concluded.

  10. Material removal during double-pulsed (ms and ns) laser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zicheng; Qin, Yuan; Yang, Sen; Shi, Bang; Wang, Heming; Chen, Hanyu

    2017-05-01

    Laser drilling is one of the processing approaches in aerospace industry. However, drilling with ms laser is unstable since the drilled hole is easy to be blocked by re-solidified molten material. To solve this problem, two different pulsed lasers (millisecond and nanosecond) are used in our experiments. The shock wave produced by the ns laser is introduced to increase the migration mass. With the help of shock wave, the depth and quality of the hole get higher. The influences of the interval time, the ms laser energy and the laser pulse duration time on the quality of drilled holes are also discussed. The results show that the hole is deep and clean if the ns laser is added shortly after the beginning of ms laser. The ms laser energy and the laser duration time determine the depth of the hole.

  11. Double-Relativistic-Electron-Layer Proton Acceleration With High-Contrast Circular-Polarization Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Yong-sheng; WANG; Nai-yan; TANG; Xiu-zhang; SHI; Yi-jin

    2012-01-01

    <正>Laser-ion acceleration has been the focus of international research for many years. However, obtaining mono-energetic proton beams larger than 100 MeV is still a challenge. Although the field strength in laser-plasma acceleration is 3-4 orders higher than that in classic accelerators, it quickly decreases to zero in 1-2 pulse durations for target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA), which is dominated

  12. Determination of chlorine, sulfur and carbon in reinforced concrete structures by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labutin, Timur A., E-mail: timurla@laser.chem.msu.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Popov, Andrey M.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Zorov, Nikita B. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Belkov, Mikhail V.; Kiris, Vasilii V.; Raikov, Sergey N. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, Nezavisimosti Ave. 68, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2014-09-01

    Accurate and reliable quantitative determination of non-metal corrosion agents in concrete is still an actual task of analytical use of LIBS. Two double-pulse LIBS systems were tested as a tool for the determination of chlorine, sulfur and carbon in concretes. Both systems had collinear configuration; a laboratory setup was equipped with an ICCD and two lasers (355/532 nm + 540 nm), but a CCD was a detector for a mobile system with one laser (1064 nm). Analytical lines of Cl I at 837.59 nm, S I at 921 nm and C I at 247.86 nm were used to plot calibration curves. Optimal interpulse delays for the laboratory setup were 4 μs for chlorine and 2.8 μs for carbon, while an interpulse delay of 2 μs was optimal for chlorine and sulfur determination with the mobile system. We suggested the normalization of the Cl I line at 837.59 nm to the Mg II line at 279.08 nm (visible at 837.23 nm in the third order) to compensate for pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of chlorine lines. It provided the decrease of the detection limit of chlorine from 400 ppm to 50 ppm. Therefore, we reported that LIBS can be used to determine main corrosive active substances under ambient conditions in concrete below critical threshold values. Moreover, the application of the mobile system for in-situ qualitative assessment of corrosion way of a steel cage of a swimming pool dome was also demonstrated. It was found that chloride corrosion due to the disinfection of water was the main way for corrosion of the open part steel and the steel rebar inside the concrete. - Highlights: • Determination of chlorine, sulfur and carbon in concrete in the air. • Comparison of mobile and laboratory LIBS systems. • LOD by double-pulse LIBS under ambient conditions: for sulfur 1500 ppm, for chlorine — 50 ppm. • Background level of carbon content in concrete is about 0.27% wt.

  13. Modulated Pulse Generations in a Laser-diode-pumped Passively Q-switched Intracavity-frequency-doubling Nd∶YVO4 Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑加安; 赵圣之; 陈磊

    2002-01-01

    The investigative results of modulated pulse output from an LD end-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubling Nd∶YVO4/KTP laser with Cr4+∶YAG saturable absorber are presented. The numerical stimulations of these modulated pulses are carried out basing on the rate equations. It indicated that the modulations are attribute to the frequency beating of two eigenstates of the resonant polarized modes. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  14. Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG rod laser with 73 ns pulse duration and 160Wgreen output power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Sharma; A J Singh; P K Gupta; P Hedaoo; P K Mukhopadhyay; K Ranganathan; K S Bindra; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    In a thermally birefringence-compensated linear cavity configuration, ∼160 W of average green power by intracavity frequency doubling of AO Q-switched Nd:YAG/LBO-based laser is demonstrated. The corresponding optical to optical conversion efficiency is estimated to be ∼12.7%. The pulse repetition rate is 20 kHz with the individual pulse duration of 73 ns. The beam quality parameter is measured to be 18.

  15. Boosted high harmonics pulse from a double-sided relativistic mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pirozhkov, A S; Zhidkov, A G

    2009-01-01

    A high-density thin plasma slab, accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime by a co-propagating ultra-intense electromagnetic wave, reflects a counter-propagating relativistically strong electromagnetic wave, producing strongly time-compressed and intensified radiation due to the double Doppler effect. The reflected light contains relativistic harmonics generated at the plasma slab, all upshifted with the same factor as the fundamental mode of the incident light.

  16. High contrast, 86  fs, 35  mJ pulses from a diode-pumped, Yb:glass, double-chirped-pulse amplification laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hornung, Marco; Keppler, Sebastian; Hellwing, Marco; Kessler, Alexander; Schorcht, Frank; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the generation of 86 fs, 35 mJ, high-contrast laser pulses at 1030 nm with a repetition rate of 1 Hz from a diode-pumped double chirped-pulse amplification setup. The pulses exhibit a spectral bandwidth exceeding 27 nm full width at half-maximum. This could be achieved by using a laser architecture comprising two stages of chirped pulse amplification with a cross-polarized wave generation filter in between, by applying spectral shaping and by increasing the spectral hard-clip of the second stretcher. These are, to the best of our knowledge, the shortest pulses at the mJ level with ultra-high contrast generated with a diode-pumped front end at 1030 nm.

  17. Highly efficient, widely tunable, 10-Hz parametric amplifier pumped by frequency-doubled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Y; Xu, Z; Kong, Y; Yu, C; Wu, Y

    1998-05-20

    We report a 10-Hz, highly efficient, widely tunable (from the visible to the IR), broadband femtosecond optical parametric generator and optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in BBO, LBO, and CBO crystals pumped by the frequency-doubled output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser at 400 nm. The output of the system is continuously tunable from 440 nm to 2.5 microm with a maximum overall efficiency of approximately 25% at 670 nm and an optical conversion efficiency of more than 36% in the OPA stage. The effects of the seed beam energy, the type of the crystal and the crystal length, and the pumping energy of the output of the OPA, such as the optical efficiency, the bandwidth, the pulse duration, and the group velocity mismatch between the signal and the idler and between the seeder and the pump, are investigated. The results provide useful information for optimization of the design of the system.

  18. Dual-scale nanoripple/nanoparticle-covered microspikes on silicon by femtosecond double pulse train irradiation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ge; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xin; Xu, Yongda; Shi, Xuesong; Yan, Ruyu; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-07-01

    Novel dual-scale structures were obtained by femtosecond double pulse train (subpulse delay Δt > 0 ps) one-step irradiating silicon in water. The dual-scale structures consist of microspikes of ∼2 μm width and ∼0.5 μm height, and nanoripples with a mean period of 146 nm or nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 90 nm which entirely cover on the microspikes, for linearly polarized or circularly polarized femtosecond laser respectively. The formation of dual-scale structures involves the following processes: (1) Continuously laser energy deposited at femtosecond to picosecond timescales within silicon surfaces and central regions, will result in enhanced capillary waves and thinner melted silicon layers. Hence, the microspikes can be induced at laser fluences below ablation threshold; (2) Later (>500-800 pulses), a mass of debris and bubbles produced will lead to the remarkably and uniformly scattering or shielding of subsequent incident laser energy. Hence, the nanostructures can be induced. The novel structures exhibit high-sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering with an enhancement factor of 108 for Rhodamine 6G detecting. Besides, the novel structures have application potentials in improving the silicon hydrophobicity, antireflection, etc.

  19. Determination of chlorine, sulfur and carbon in reinforced concrete structures by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labutin, Timur A.; Popov, Andrey M.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Zorov, Nikita B.; Belkov, Mikhail V.; Kiris, Vasilii V.; Raikov, Sergey N.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate and reliable quantitative determination of non-metal corrosion agents in concrete is still an actual task of analytical use of LIBS. Two double-pulse LIBS systems were tested as a tool for the determination of chlorine, sulfur and carbon in concretes. Both systems had collinear configuration; a laboratory setup was equipped with an ICCD and two lasers (355/532 nm + 540 nm), but a CCD was a detector for a mobile system with one laser (1064 nm). Analytical lines of Cl I at 837.59 nm, S I at 921 nm and C I at 247.86 nm were used to plot calibration curves. Optimal interpulse delays for the laboratory setup were 4 μs for chlorine and 2.8 μs for carbon, while an interpulse delay of 2 μs was optimal for chlorine and sulfur determination with the mobile system. We suggested the normalization of the Cl I line at 837.59 nm to the Mg II line at 279.08 nm (visible at 837.23 nm in the third order) to compensate for pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of chlorine lines. It provided the decrease of the detection limit of chlorine from 400 ppm to 50 ppm. Therefore, we reported that LIBS can be used to determine main corrosive active substances under ambient conditions in concrete below critical threshold values. Moreover, the application of the mobile system for in-situ qualitative assessment of corrosion way of a steel cage of a swimming pool dome was also demonstrated. It was found that chloride corrosion due to the disinfection of water was the main way for corrosion of the open part steel and the steel rebar inside the concrete.

  20. Quantitative comparison of fuel spray images obtained using ultrafast coherent and incoherent double-pulsed illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Ménard, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative comparison between the high-pressure fuel spray images obtained experimentally using classical imaging with coherent and incoherent ultrafast illuminations recorded using a compatible CMOS camera. The ultrafast, incoherent illumination source was extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing the femtosecond laser pulses in water. The average velocity maps computed using time-correlated image-pairs and spray edge complexity computed using the average curvature scale space maps are compared for the spray images obtained with the two illumination techniques and also for the numerically simulated spray using the coupled volume of fluid and level set method for interface tracking (direct numerical simulation or DNS). The spray images obtained with supercontinuum-derived, incoherent, ultrafast illumination are clearer, since the artifacts arising due to laser speckles and multiple diffraction effects are largely reduced and show a better correlation with the DNS results.

  1. Feasibility of measuring radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks and their repair by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in freshly isolated cells from the mouse RIF-1 tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Konings, AWT; Kampinga, HH

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the technical feasibility of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as a predictive assay for the radioresponsiveness of tumors. Induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in a freshly prepared cell suspension from a RIF-1 tumor (irradiated ex vivo) was compared

  2. Pulsed EPR in the method of spin labels and probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuba, Sergei A [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-31

    Various pulsed EPR in the method of spin labels and probes based on electron spin echo spectroscopy (spin echo envelope modulation through electron-nuclear interactions, electron-electron double resonance, echo detected EPR, etc.) are considered. These methods provide information on the conformations of complex biomolecules, nanostructure of matter, depth of water penetration into biological membranes, supramolecular structure of multicomponent systems (membrane-peptide, etc.), co-operative orientational dynamics of molecules and dynamic low-temperature transitions in disordered molecular media and biosystems.

  3. Pulsed EPR in the method of spin labels and probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, Sergei A.

    2007-08-01

    Various pulsed EPR in the method of spin labels and probes based on electron spin echo spectroscopy (spin echo envelope modulation through electron-nuclear interactions, electron-electron double resonance, echo detected EPR, etc.) are considered. These methods provide information on the conformations of complex biomolecules, nanostructure of matter, depth of water penetration into biological membranes, supramolecular structure of multicomponent systems (membrane-peptide, etc.), co-operative orientational dynamics of molecules and dynamic low-temperature transitions in disordered molecular media and biosystems.

  4. Increasing sensitivity of pulse EPR experiments using echo train detection schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink-Vigier, F.; Collauto, A.; Feintuch, A.; Kaminker, I.; Tarle, V.; Goldfarb, D.

    2013-11-01

    Modern pulse EPR experiments are routinely used to study the structural features of paramagnetic centers. They are usually performed at low temperatures, where relaxation times are long and polarization is high, to achieve a sufficient Signal/Noise Ratio (SNR). However, when working with samples whose amount and/or concentration are limited, sensitivity becomes an issue and therefore measurements may require a significant accumulation time, up to 12 h or more. As the detection scheme of practically all pulse EPR sequences is based on the integration of a spin echo - either primary, stimulated or refocused - a considerable increase in SNR can be obtained by replacing the single echo detection scheme by a train of echoes. All these echoes, generated by Carr-Purcell type sequences, are integrated and summed together to improve the SNR. This scheme is commonly used in NMR and here we demonstrate its applicability to a number of frequently used pulse EPR experiments: Echo-Detected EPR, Davies and Mims ENDOR (Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance), DEER (Electron-Electron Double Resonance|) and EDNMR (Electron-Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR)-Detected NMR), which were combined with a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) type detection scheme at W-band. By collecting the transient signal and integrating a number of refocused echoes, this detection scheme yielded a 1.6-5 folds SNR improvement, depending on the paramagnetic center and the pulse sequence applied. This improvement is achieved while keeping the experimental time constant and it does not introduce signal distortion.

  5. Nanoelectromechanical Heat Engine Based on Electron-Electron Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, A.; Eriksson, A. M.; Kulinich, S. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically show that a nanoelectromechanical system can be mechanically actuated by a heat flow through it via an electron-electron interaction. In contrast to most known actuation mechanisms in similar systems, this new mechanism does not involve an electronic current nor external ac fields. Instead, the mechanism relies on deflection-dependent tunneling rates and a heat flow which is mediated by an electron-electron interaction while an electronic current through the device is prohibited by, for instance, a spin-valve effect. Therefore, the system resembles a nanoelectromechanical heat engine. We derive a criterion for the mechanical instability and estimate the amplitude of the resulting self-sustained oscillations. Estimations show that the suggested phenomenon can be studied using available experimental techniques.

  6. P1-12: Different Double-Pulse Distinguishability Among the Luminance Opponency, the Red-Green Opponency, and the Blue-Yellow Opponency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inter-stimuli-interval (ISI thresholds of double pulses discrimination were measured to investigate the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency. Double pulses were presented randomly in one of four quadrants, defined by a central fixation cross on a CRT display controlled by the real time sequencer (RTS of the VSG system in 42-bit color mode calibrated with less than 3% display error rate of the 1931 CIE luminance and chromatic coordinate. Each pulse was of duration 6.7 msec and included a Gaussian patch with gradation of tristimulus values from the peak to the background in equal-energy-white (the luminance opponency or isoluminance (the red-green and the blue-yellow opponency configuration. Eleven observers were asked to report the number of pulses (one or two observed while ISI was adjusted by a psi method. Psychometric functions were estimated using the cumulative distribution function of the extreme value distribution. The threshold was the ISI value corresponding with the rate of 63.21% correct answer. Significant differences were found among ISI thresholds of the luminance, blue-yellow, and red-green opponency. Results supported that the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency were significantly different. The difference can be explained by the impulse response functions (IRF with various first peak time among the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency.

  7. Stimulated crystallization of melt-quenched Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films employing femtosecond laser double pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, Rebecca L.; Siegel, Jan [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The phase transformation of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films from the melt-quenched amorphous phase into the crystalline phase induced by 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses has been studied. For partly amorphized films, progressive crystallization could be induced by single pulses, which can be explained by growth of already existing crystalline embryos. For completely amorphized films, it was not possible to induce crystallization with one or two consecutive pulses; three pulses being the threshold for the onset of crystallization. By employing a fs laser double pulse with an adjustable inter-pulse delay, partial crystallization could be triggered for a delay range of 200 fs-100 ps, while for longer delays no crystallization was possible. The time window for stimulated crystallization can be related to the relaxation dynamics of free electrons excited by the first pulse, which are further excited by the second pulse still remaining in the excited state. Our results indicate that the lifetime of excited electrons in melt-quenched amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is Almost-Equal-To 100 ps.

  8. Double preconcentration of trace amounts of cadmium in nail samples and measurement by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Somayeh; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-04-01

    Cadion was coated on carbon powder and used as a solid phase for selective extraction and preconcentration of cadmium ions. Complexed cadmium ions were eluted from solid phase by 5 mL, nitric acid (2.0 M) with the flow rate of 2 mL min(-1).The resulted solution was used for accumulation of the cadmium metal at the surface of the carbon paste electrode at -1.3 V reduction potential. Finally, cadmium was reoxidized and the differential pulse voltammogram recorded at the potential range of -0.55 to -0.2 V. Calibration graph was plotted in the concentration range of 0.5-50 μg L(-1) of cadmium. Detection limit 0.06 μg L(-1) was calculated based on the 3 Sb/m. The RSD was 9.13 % (n = 4) for cadmium concentration of 10 μg L(-1) with preconcentration factor of 100. Method was successfully used for the determination of cadmium in finger nail samples and after spiking the samples, the recoveries were evaluated >96 %.

  9. Fermi LAT Pulsed Detection of PSR J0737-3039A in the Double Pulsar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Johnson, T. J.; Craig, H. A.; Romani, R. W.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Ferdman, R. D.; Stairs, I. H.; Kerr, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the 22.7 ms pulsar A in the double pulsar system J0737-3039A/B. This is the first mildly recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) detected in the GeV domain. The 2.7 s companion object PSR J0737-3039B is not detected in gamma rays. PSR J0737-3039A is a faint gamma-ray emitter, so that its spectral properties are only weakly constrained; however, its measured efficiency is typical of other MSPs. The two peaks of the gamma-ray light curve are separated by roughly half a rotation and are well offset from the radio and X-ray emission, suggesting that the GeV radiation originates in a distinct part of the magnetosphere from the other types of emission. From the modeling of the radio and the gamma-ray emission profiles and the analysis of radio polarization data, we constrain the magnetic inclination alpha and the viewing angle zeta to be close to 90 deg., which is consistent with independent studies of the radio emission from PSR J0737-3039A. A small misalignment angle between the pulsar's spin axis and the system's orbital axis is therefore favored, supporting the hypothesis that pulsar B was formed in a nearly symmetric supernova explosion as has been discussed in the literature already.

  10. Transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment for patients with shoulder pain booked for surgery: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Murray; Loughnan, Terence

    2014-02-01

    Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal problem and accounts for 5% of general practitioner consultations. Although many treatments are described, there is no consensus on optimal treatment and up to 40% of patients still have pain 12 months after initially seeking help for pain. Previously, the effect of transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment (TCPRFT) was evaluated in a retrospective audit that showed good pain relief for a mean 395 days and justified this randomized sham controlled trial. In this study, 51 patients entered into a randomized double-blinded, placebo controlled study of TCPRFT. Patients were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks by a blinded observer and compared with baseline. We observed sustained reductions in pain at night, pain with activity, and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks with active but not sham TCPRFT. The 25 subjects who received active treatment showed statistically significant reductions of 24/100 in pain at night and 20/100 of pain with activity at 4 weeks and 18/100 and 19/100, respectively, at 12 weeks from baseline. Statistically significant lower Brief Pain Inventory pain and function scores (4 and 12 weeks), improved pain self-efficacy (4 weeks), Oxford Shoulder scores (12 weeks), and internal rotation (12 weeks) were seen. Pain at both rest and shoulder elevation were not improved by active treatment. No complications were seen. This study of a simple, low risk, outpatient treatment confirms the findings of our earlier study of TCPRFT for knee pain and shoulder pain audit that transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment may help some people with painful shoulders.

  11. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  12. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  13. A split-step method to include electron-electron collisions via Monte Carlo in multiple rate equation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huthmacher, Klaus; Molberg, Andreas K.; Rethfeld, Bärbel; Gulley, Jeremy R.

    2016-10-01

    A split-step numerical method for calculating ultrafast free-electron dynamics in dielectrics is introduced. The two split steps, independently programmed in C++11 and FORTRAN 2003, are interfaced via the presented open source wrapper. The first step solves a deterministic extended multi-rate equation for the ionization, electron-phonon collisions, and single photon absorption by free-carriers. The second step is stochastic and models electron-electron collisions using Monte-Carlo techniques. This combination of deterministic and stochastic approaches is a unique and efficient method of calculating the nonlinear dynamics of 3D materials exposed to high intensity ultrashort pulses. Results from simulations solving the proposed model demonstrate how electron-electron scattering relaxes the non-equilibrium electron distribution on the femtosecond time scale.

  14. Potential of M-Wave Elicited by Double Pulse for Muscle Fatigue Evaluation in Intermittent Muscle Activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation for Motor Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Miura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES.

  15. A comparative study of continuous versus pulsed radiofrequency discectomy for management of low backache: Prospective randomized, double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Bhagya Ranjan; Paswan, Anil; Singh, Yashpal; Loha, Sandeep; Singh, Anil Prasad; Rastogi, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a minimally invasive target-selective technique that has been used with success for many years in the treatment of different pathologies, such as low back pain, trigeminal neuralgia, and others. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare different mode of RF - continuous RF (CRF) versus pulsed RF (PRF) along with steroid in the management of low back pain of discogenic origin. Setting and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with chronic discogenic low back pain were randomized to receive CRF plus intradiscal triamcinolone 40 mg (Group 1) or to receive PRF plus intradiscal triamcinolone 40 mg (Group 2). Outcome measured includes immediate as well as long-term pain relief using visual analog scale, the Oswestry Disability Index and straight leg raising test. Statistical Analysis: The continuous variables were compared by one-way analysis of variance test. Discrete variables were compared by Fisher's exact test/Chi-square test/Student's t-test, whichever appropriate. The value of P PRF was insignificant. Conclusion: CRF with steroid seems to be better for treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain than PRF with steroid. PMID:27746559

  16. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on experimental pain: A double-blind, randomized study in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Karen; Beland, Patricia; Pinard, Marilee; Handfield, Guilène; Handfield, Nicole; Goffaux, Philippe; Corriveau, Hélène; Léonard, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy can decrease pain. To date, however, it remains difficult to determine whether the analgesic effect observed in patients are attributable to a direct effect of PEMF on pain or to an indirect effect of PEMF on inflammation and healing. In the present study, we used an experimental pain paradigm to evaluate the direct effect of PEMF on pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and temporal summation of pain. Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 2 years; 9 males) participated in the experiment. Both real and sham PEMF were administered to every participant using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. For each visit, PEMF was applied for 10 minutes on the right forearm using a portable device. Experimental pain was evoked before (baseline) and after PEMF with a 9 cm(2) Pelletier-type thermode, applied on the right forearm (120 s stimulation; temperature individually adjusted to produce moderate baseline pain). Pain intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated using a 0-100 numerical pain rating scale. Temporal summation was evaluated by comparing pain intensity ratings obtained at the end of tonic nociceptive stimulation (120 s) with pain intensity ratings obtained after 60 s of stimulation. When compared to baseline, there was no change in pain intensity and unpleasantness following the application of real or sham PEMF. PEMF did not affect temporal summation. The present observations suggest that PEMF does not directly influence heat pain perception in healthy individuals.

  17. Coherent manipulation of four-level double lambda-like atomic system by a train of ultra-short few-cycle-optical pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that near complete coherence can be achieved in a four level double lambda-like systems using a train of ultra-short optical pulses. The effect of the Doppler broadening has been analyzed and a scheme has been proposed for establishing high and uniform coherence across different velocity groups in the atomic ensemble. We have also presented a novel scheme of excitation using chirped pulses and shown that in addition to generating coherence in the system it is possible to alter the translational states of the atoms.

  18. 1-MW peak power, 574-kHz repetition rate picosecond pulses at 515 nm from a frequency-doubled fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Wang, Ziwei; Wang, Zhaokun; Bai, Yang; Li, Qiurui; Zhou, Jun

    2016-11-01

    1-MW peak power picosecond, 574-kHz repetition rate green laser at 515-nm is generated from a frequency-doubled fiber amplifier. 12-ps pulses with 13.9-μJ energy at 515 nm are achieved with a noncritically phase-matched lithium triborate (LBO) crystal through second harmonic generation of a 1030 nm infrared source. The infrared source employs ultra-large-mode-area rod-type photonic crystal fiber (Rod-PCF) for direct picosecond amplification and delivers 20-W 11.6-ps 2.97-MW pulse train with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (M2 = 1.01).

  19. Method for Third Harmonic Generation of Double Wavelength and Double Pulse Laser%双波长双脉冲激光三次谐波的产生方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 陈长水; 王佩琳; 吴云霞; 孙晓红; 明海

    2001-01-01

    The method for third harmonic generation of double wavelength and double pulse laser is proposed. Two pulsed laser beams with different wavelengths are reflected to make them near close and passing through two BBO crystals. Two wavelength second harmonics (SH) of laser pulses are generated after two times passing through the BBO of SHG. SHs and laser fundamental waves pass through the BBO of third harmonic generation (THG) to obtain two wavelength THGs, and couple out by 45° output mirror. The four phase matching conditions are analyzed to be satisfied in SHG and THG. This method can be used to intracavity THG of double wavelength and double pulse laser. The corresponding experimental results are given.%提出双波长双脉冲激光产生三次谐波的方法。波长不同的两脉冲激光束由反射使它们合拢后通过两块非线性的BBO晶体,激光脉冲第一次通过BBO晶体产生两波长的二次谐波(SHG),它们由各自的反射镜反射再次通过BBO又产生了二次谐波,这两次产生的二次谐波和基波通过用于产生三次谐波的BBO晶体可产生双波长的三次谐波,它们由45°斜置的耦合镜输出。文中分析了满足二次谐波和三次谐波的四个相位匹配的条件,该方法也可用于腔内双波长双脉冲的三次谐波激光的产生,给出了相应的实验结果。

  20. Optimal control of a charge qubit in a double quantum dot with a Coulomb impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coden, Diego S. Acosta; Romero, Rodolfo H.; Ferrón, Alejandro; Gomez, Sergio S.

    2017-02-01

    We study the efficiency of modulated external electric pulses to produce efficient and fast charge localization transitions in a two-electron double quantum dot. We use a configuration interaction method to calculate the electronic structure of a quantum dot model within the effective mass approximation. The interaction with the electric field is considered within the dipole approximation and optimal control theory is applied to design high-fidelity ultrafast pulses in pristine samples. We assessed the influence of the presence of Coulomb charged impurities on the efficiency and speed of the pulses. A protocol based on a two-step optimization is proposed for preserving both advantages of the original pulse. The processes affecting the charge localization is explained from the dipole transitions of the lowest lying two-electron states, as described by a discrete model with an effective electron-electron interaction.

  1. Nonselective excitation of pulsed ELDOR using multi-frequency microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuki; Mutoh, Risa; Ishiura, Masahiro; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    The use of a polychromatic microwave pulse to expand the pumping bandwidth in pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) was investigated. The pumping pulse was applied in resonance with the broad (˜100 mT) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of the manganese cluster of photosystem II in the S 2 state. The observation pulses were in resonance with the narrow EPR signal of the tyrosine radical, YDrad . It was found that in the case of the polychromatic pumping pulse containing five harmonics with the microwave frequencies between 8.5 and 10.5 GHz the PELDOR effect corresponding to the dipole interaction between the Mn cluster and YDrad was about 2.9 times larger than that achieved with a monochromatic pulse. In addition to the dipolar modulation, the nuclear modulation effects were observed. The effects could be suppressed by averaging the PELDOR trace over the time interval between the observation microwave pulses. The polychromatic excitation technique described will be useful for improving the PELDOR sensitivity in the measurements of long distances in biological samples, where the pair consists of a radical with a narrow EPR spectrum and slow phase relaxation, and a metal center that has a broad EPR spectrum and a short phase relaxation time.

  2. Nonlinear Dichroism in Back-to-Back Double Ionization of He by an Intense Elliptically Polarized Few-Cycle Extreme Ultraviolet Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F

    2014-11-28

    Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.

  3. Broadly wavelength- and pulse width-tunable high-repetition rate light pulses from soliton self-frequency shifting photonic crystal fiber integrated with a frequency doubling crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanin, Aleksandr A; Fedotov, Andrei B; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2012-09-01

    Soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped by a long-cavity mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser is integrated with second harmonic generation (SHG) in a nonlinear crystal to generate ultrashort light pulses tunable within the range of wavelengths from 680 to 1800 nm at a repetition rate of 20 MHz. The pulse width of the second harmonic output is tuned from 70 to 600 fs by varying the thickness of the nonlinear crystal, beam-focusing geometry, and the wavelength of the soliton PCF output. Wavelength-tunable pulses generated through a combination of SSFS and SHG are ideally suited for coherent Raman microspectroscopy at high repetition rates, as verified by experiments on synthetic diamond and polystyrene films.

  4. Overcoming apparent susceptibility-induced anisotropy (aSIA) by bipolar double-pulsed-field-gradient NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Noam; Cohen, Yoram

    2011-10-01

    Double-Pulsed-Field-Gradient (d-PFG) MR is emerging as a powerful new means for obtaining unique microstructural information in opaque porous systems that cannot be obtained by conventional single-PFG (s-PFG) methods. The angular d-PFG MR methodology is particularly important since it can utilize the effects of microscopic anisotropy (μA) and compartment shape anisotropy (csA) in the E(ψ) profile at the different t(m) regimes to provide detailed information on compartment size and eccentricity. An underlying assumption is that the PFGs that are imparted to weigh diffusion are the only gradients present; however, in realistic systems and especially where there are randomly oriented anisotropic pores, susceptibility effects may induce strong internal gradients. In this study, the effects of such internal gradients on E(ψ) plots obtained from angular d-PFG MR and on microstructural information that can be obtained from s-PFG and d-PFG MR were investigated. First, it was found that internal gradients induce a bias in the s-PFG MR results, thus creating an anisotropy that is not related to microstructure, termed apparent-Susceptibility-Induced-Anisotropy (aSIA). We then show that aSIA effects are also manifest in different ways in the angular d-PFG MR experiment in controlled phantoms and in realistic systems such as quartz sand, emulsions, and biological systems. The effects of aSIA in some cases completely masked the effects of μA and csA; however, we subsequently show that by introducing bipolar gradients to the d-PFG MR (bp-d-PFG), the effects of aSIA can be largely suppressed, restoring the E(ψ) plots that are expected from the theory along with the microstructural information that it conveys. We conclude that when specimens are characterized by strong internal gradients, the novel information on μA and csA that is manifest in the E(ψ) plots can indeed be inferred when bp-d-PFG MR is used, i.e. when bipolar gradients are applied.

  5. Double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar airborne validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Ismail, Syed

    2016-05-20

    Field experiments were conducted to test and evaluate the initial atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement capability of airborne, high-energy, double-pulsed, 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. This IPDA was designed, integrated, and operated at the NASA Langley Research Center on-board the NASA B-200 aircraft. The IPDA was tuned to the CO2 strong absorption line at 2050.9670 nm, which is the optimum for lower tropospheric weighted column measurements. Flights were conducted over land and ocean under different conditions. The first validation experiments of the IPDA for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing, focusing on low surface reflectivity oceanic surface returns during full day background conditions, are presented. In these experiments, the IPDA measurements were validated by comparison to airborne flask air-sampling measurements conducted by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. IPDA performance modeling was conducted to evaluate measurement sensitivity and bias errors. The IPDA signals and their variation with altitude compare well with predicted model results. In addition, off-off-line testing was conducted, with fixed instrument settings, to evaluate the IPDA systematic and random errors. Analysis shows an altitude-independent differential optical depth offset of 0.0769. Optical depth measurement uncertainty of 0.0918 compares well with the predicted value of 0.0761. IPDA CO2 column measurement compares well with model-driven, near-simultaneous air-sampling measurements from the NOAA aircraft at different altitudes. With a 10-s shot average, CO2 differential optical depth measurement of 1.0054±0.0103 was retrieved from a 6-km altitude and a 4-GHz on-line operation. As compared to CO2 weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of 404.08 ppm, derived from air sampling, IPDA measurement resulted in a value of 405.22±4.15  ppm with 1.02% uncertainty and 0.28% additional bias. Sensitivity analysis of environmental

  6. Direct electron-impact mechanism of excitation of mercury monobromide in a double-pulse dielectric-barrier-discharge HgBr lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsyuk, V. V.; Izmailov, I. A.; Naumov, V. V.; Kochelap, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    In a nonequlibrium plasma of a gas-discharge HgBr lamp, the terminal electronic state of the HgBr(B-X) radiative transition with a peak wavelength of 502 nm remains populated for a relatively long time and is repeatedly excited to the B state in collisions with plasma electrons. This transfer of the HgBr molecules from the ground state X to the excited state B is the main mechanism of formation of the light-emitting molecules especially when the lamp is excited by double current pulses. According to our simulations, due to the electron-induced transitions between HgBr(X) and HgBr(B), the output characteristics of the DBD lamp operating in a double-pulse regime are better than those of the lamp operating in a single-pulse regime. In the considered case, the peak power is calculated to increase by a factor of about 2 and the lamp efficiency increases by about 50%.

  7. Investigation of synchronous effects of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on performance of a Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablu, M.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper synchronous effects of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on performance of a Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) have been considered. In this respect, a finite volume code was developed to simulate the SPTC. Set of governing equations were written in a general form such that all porous and non-porous sections of the system could be modeled. Results showed that synchronous application of double inlet and multi-mesh regenerator optimizes the phase shift between velocity and pressure at the warm end of the pulse tube, increases the regenerator's outlet pressure amplitude, decreases inertial and viscous losses in the hot end of the regenerator and consequently increases the COP of the system. Furthermore, it was observed that a minimum temperature of 60.3 K and COP of 0.03996 @ 80 K is attainable using optimum multi-mesh regenerator and double inlet; whereas, for a simple SPTC with a uniform mesh regenerator, a minimum temperature of 71.3 K and maximum COP of 0.0227 @ 80 K are concluded.

  8. Collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an in-situ diagnostic tool for wall composition in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Ran; Liu, Ping; Wu, Ding [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ding, Hongbin, E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Jing; Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DP-LIBS is proposed as an in-situ diagnostic method for characterizing PFCs of EAST in vacuum. • The collinear DP-LIBS configuration overcame the sensitivity shortcomings of the conventional SP-LIBS. • Plasma emission signals are dependent on the inter-pulse delay in 3.5 × 10{sup −3} Pa. • Exposed divertor tiles were tested by DP-LIBS at low pressure and remotely. - Abstract: Our recent investigations have indicated the potential of double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) for analysis of the deposited impurity on divertor tiles in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The collinear DP-LIBS configuration was suggested with the aim of overcoming the sensitivity shortcomings of the conventional single pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SP-LIBS) technique in vacuum conditions. A systematic study of plasma emission signal dependence on the inter-pulse delay at 3.5 × 10{sup −3} Pa was performed, and the results were compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. For a molybdenum tile, it was found that the atomic spectral lines of Mo were enhanced by a factor of 6.5 when an inter-delay time of 1.5 μs was installed. For an exposed divertor tile, significant increases in the emission line intensities of various minor elements (such as Mo, Si, Fe, Cr, Ti, Ni and Ca) were observed in DP-LIBS, while no spectra signal was achieved in SP-LIBS. This collinear DP-LIBS technique would help us to develop a more promising system to monitor the fuel retention and impurity deposition on plasma facing components of EAST.

  9. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika; Le, Tuan; Stingl, Andreas; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2011-06-20

    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected.

  10. Visualization of oscillating flow in a double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator with a diaphragm inserted in a bypass-tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Masao; Murakami, Masahide

    2012-07-01

    The double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator that has a diaphragm inserted in a bypass-tube, which enabled it to transmit a pressure oscillation whereas to obstruct a DC gas flow, was manufactured and tested. The oscillating flow behavior inside of the refrigerator was studied by using a smoke-wire flow visualization technique. It was found that if the diaphragm was optimized, the performance would be improved more than that of the refrigerator with a bypass valve due to the increase in the P-V work of the gas and the decrease in the convective heat loss caused by a secondary flow.

  11. A general framework to quantify the effect of restricted diffusion on the NMR signal with applications to double pulsed field gradient NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Basser, Peter J

    2009-03-14

    Based on a description introduced by Robertson, Grebenkov recently introduced a powerful formalism to represent the diffusion-attenuated NMR signal for simple pore geometries such as slabs, cylinders, and spheres analytically. In this work, we extend this multiple correlation function formalism by allowing for possible variations in the direction of the magnetic field gradient waveform. This extension is necessary, for example, to incorporate the effects of imaging gradients in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging scans and in characterizing anisotropy at different length scales via double pulsed field gradient (PFG) experiments. In cylindrical and spherical pores, respectively, two- and three-dimensional vector operators are employed whose form is deduced from Grebenkov's results via elementary operator algebra for the case of cylinders and the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the case of spheres. The theory was validated by comparison with known findings and with experimental double-PFG data obtained from water-filled microcapillaries.

  12. 测量人体温度的双脉冲超声波传感系统%Sensor system with double-pulse ultrasonic for measuring body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴水才; 夏雅琴; 贾丽芹; 彭见曙

    2001-01-01

    介绍了一种用于测量人体温度的双脉冲超声波传感系统,重点叙述了双超声波探头的设计。通过系统实验获取了超声回波信号,结果表明该传感系统完全满足设计要求。%The sensor system with double-pulse ultrasonic for measuring body temperature is introduced, and the design of double-ultrasonic probe is described.The signal of the ultrasonic echo is achieved by the system experiment, and the results show that the sensor system designed meets the needs of the measurement of body temperature.

  13. Realization of Double-pulse Laser Irradiating Scheme for Laser Ion Sources%激光离子源双脉冲打靶方案的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章民; 金钱玉; 张俊杰; 沙杉; 刘伟; 赵环昱; 孙良亭; 张雪珍; 赵红卫

    2015-01-01

    A double-pulse laser irradiating scheme has been designed and established for the production of highly charged ion beams at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The laser beam output by a Nd:YAG laser is split and combined by a double of beam splitters, between which the split laser beams are transmitted along different optical paths to get certain time delay between each other. With the help of a quarter-wave plate before the first splitter, the energy ratio between the two laser pulses can be adjusted between 3:8 to 8:3. To testify its feasibility, a preliminary experiment was carried out with the new-developed double-pulse irradiating scheme to produce highly charged carbon ions. Comparing the results with those got from the previous single-pulse irradiating scheme, the differences in the time structure and Charge State Distribution (CSD) of the ion pulse were observed, but its mechanisms and optimization require further studies.%设计并实现了近代物理研究所激光离子源双脉冲打靶方案以产生高电荷态离子束。从Nd:YAG激光器输出的激光束经过一对分光棱镜的分束-合束,通过改变两束光的光程差,得到有一定时间延迟的双激光脉冲。利用四分之一玻片,双脉冲的能量比值可以在3:8∼8:3之间连续调节。为了验证该方案的可行性,对C靶进行了初步实验。实验结果发现,与以往单脉冲打靶方案对比,双脉冲方案在离子束的脉冲时间结构和电荷态分布有所不同。但是,导致这些差异的机理和实验的优化还尚需要进一步研究。

  14. Growth and characterization of ternary Ni, Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Vlad, A., E-mail: angela.vlad@gmail.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Matei, A.; Ion, V.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Zavoianu, R. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a class of layered materials consisting of positively charged brucite-like layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. Layered double hydroxides containing a transition metal which undergoes a reversible redox reaction in the useful potential range have been proposed as electrode coating materials due to their properties of charge transport and redox catalysts in basic solutions. Ni–Al,(Ni,Mg)–Al and, as reference, non-electronically conductive Mg–Al double hydroxides thin films were obtained via pulsed laser deposition technique. The thin films were deposited on different substrates (Si, glass) by using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) working at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, Impedance Analyzer and ellipsometry were the techniques used for the as deposited thin films investigation. The optical properties of Ni based LDH thin films and the effect of the Ni amount on the structural, morphological and optical response are evidenced. The optical band gap values, covering a domain between 3.84 eV and 4.38 eV, respond to the Ni overall concentration: the higher Ni amount the lower the band gap value. - Highlights: • Ternary Ni, Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides thin films were deposited. • The effect of the nickel is evidenced. • The possibility to tailor the materials accompanied by an optical response is shown.

  15. Recurrent Proliferative Glomerulonephritis With Monoclonal IgG Deposits After a Renal Transplant Which Was Insensitive to Pulse Therapy Remitted by Double Filtration Plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Chen, Jin-Song; Cheng, Dong-Rui; Chen, Hao; Li, Xue; Ji, Shu-Ming; Xie, Ke-Nan; Ni, Xue-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Wen, Ji-Qiu

    2015-10-01

    Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits manifesting as a nephrotic syndrome recently has been described as a renal disease with the pathological features of mesangial and subendothelial deposits of monoclonal IgG. Eight cases of recurrent proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits after a renal transplant have been reported. Almost all of these patients had a certain remission of proteinuria by steroids alone or with cyclophosphamide, and had further remission through other special treatments (ie, rituximab and plasmapheresis). We present a case of recurrent proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits of the IgG3? subtype after a renal transplant, which was insensitive to pulse intravenous methyl-prednisolone and cyclophosphamide remitted by double filtration plasmapheresis. This case report reveals that recurrent proliferative glomerulo-nephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits may be insensitive to intravenous pulse therapy of methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. We advocate double filtration plasmapheresis as an effective treatment of proliferative glomerulo-nephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits on remission of proteinuria.

  16. Double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with ambient gas in the vacuum ultraviolet: Optimization of parameters for detection of carbon and sulfur in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physics, Atomic, Molecular and Plasma Spectroscopy Group, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-11-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) has been applied to calibrated steel samples for the low concentration level detection of the light elements, carbon and sulfur in steel. Experimental optimization parameters, aimed at enhancing the sensitivity of the technique, included short wavelength spectral detection, double-pulse (DP) operation, variable focusing conditions and different ambient environments in terms of gas type and pressure. Two lasers were employed respectively as an ablation laser (Spectron: 1.06 μm/200 mJ/15 ns) and a reheating laser (Surelite: 1.06 μm/665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear geometry. The results include insight into the most salient experimental variables and limits of detection in the parts per million range. - Highlights: • First overall optimization of TISR-LIBS in the deep VUV • First combination of double pulse VUV emission with low pressure ambient gas • The influence of each parameter on the plasm emission • Improvement of LOD for C and S in steel with optimized parameters.

  17. On the feasibility of molecular motion studies by the electron-electron double resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, L. I.; Ivanova, A. N.; Kulagina, T. P.

    ELDOR spectra for a spin system of axially symmetric g-factor have been computed for brownian rotational diffusion and jump models by using the stochastic liouville equation. The ELDOR spectra were shown to be sensitive to very slow rotations which may provide unique information on the details of molecular dynamics. The theoretical results are compared with some experimental data.

  18. Pulsed estrogen therapy in prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A 2-year randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Therese F; Ravn, Pernille; Bagger, Yu Z

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulsed estrogen therapy (intranasal 17beta-estradiol) in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. A total of 386 women (40-65 years old), less than 5 years past menopause, were randomized to intranasal placebo, 17beta-estradiol 150 micro g...... tolerance were good. This study demonstrates that pulsed estrogen therapy at the dose of 150 microg and 300-microg per day prevents bone loss in a dose-dependant manner at each site studied, and normalizes bone turnover markers to premenopausal levels....

  19. Simulation of ablation and plume dynamics under femtosecond double-pulse laser irradiation of aluminum: Comparison of atomistic and continual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Vladimir B.; Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Levashov, Pavel R.

    2017-02-01

    We elaborated two numerical methods, two-temperature hydrodynamics and hybrid two-temperature molecular dynamics, which take into account basic mechanisms of a metal target response to ultrashort laser irradiation. The model used for the description of the electronic subsystem is identical for both approaches, while the ionic part is defined by an equation of state in hydrodynamics and by an interatomic potential in molecular dynamics. Since the phase diagram of the equation of state and corresponding potential match reasonably well, the dynamics of laser ablation obtained by both methods is quite similar. This correspondence can be considered as a first step towards the development of a self-consistent combined model. Two important processes are highlighted in simulations of double-pulse ablation: (1) the crater depth decrease as a result of recoil flux formation in the nascent plume when the delay between the pulses increases; (2) the plume reheating by the second pulse that gives rise to two- three-fold growth of the electron temperature with the delay varying from 0 to 200 ps.

  20. Time-varying auditory gain control in response to double-pulse stimuli in harbour porpoises is not mediated by a stapedial reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asger Emil Munch Schrøder

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating animals reduce their output level and hearing sensitivity with decreasing echo delays, presumably to stabilize the perceived echo intensity during target approaches. In bats, this variation in hearing sensitivity is formed by a call-induced stapedial reflex that tapers off over time after the call. Here, we test the hypothesis that a similar mechanism exists in toothed whales by subjecting a trained harbour porpoise to a series of double sound pulses varying in delay and frequency, while measuring the magnitudes of the evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs. We find that the recovery of the ABR to the second pulse is frequency dependent, and that a stapedial reflex therefore cannot account for the reduced hearing sensitivity at short pulse delays. We propose that toothed whale auditory time-varying gain control during echolocation is not enabled by the middle ear as in bats, but rather by frequency-dependent mechanisms such as forward masking and perhaps higher-order control of efferent feedback to the outer hair cells.

  1. Remote Water Temperature Measurements Based on Brillouin Scattering with a Frequency Doubled Pulsed Yb:doped Fiber Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorstein, Kai; Popescu, Alexandru; Göbel, Marco; Walther, Thomas

    2008-09-22

    Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

  2. Collective state of interwall excitons on GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells under pulse resonant excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A V; Hvam, J; Soerensen, K

    2002-01-01

    The time evolution and kinetics of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the interwall excitons under the pulse resonant excitation of the interwall excitons are studied in the GaAs/AlGaAs binary quantum well. It is established, that the collective exciton phase originates with the time delay relative to the exciting pulse (several nanoseconds), which is conditioned by the density and temperature relaxation to the equilibrium values.The origination of the collective phase of the interwall excitons is accompanied by the strong narrowing of the corresponding photoluminescence line, the superlinear growth of its intensity and large time of change in the degree of the circular polarization.The collective exciton phase originates at the temperatures < 6 K and the interwall excitons densities 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2

  3. Microcrystalline coatings deposited by series double-pole electro-pulse discharge and its high-temperature oxidation behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 何业东; 王德仁; 齐慧滨; 李正伟; 高唯

    2002-01-01

    A new technique--series electro-pulse discharge (SEPD)--was developed as a surface coating process. In this process, both positive and negative poles of a pulse power were used as the depositing electrodes and the substrate alloy was used as an induction electrode. The physical process for such SEPD was tested by measuring the relationship between the discharge voltages and gaps in a pin-plate-pin system. Microcrystalline Ni20Cr alloy coatings and oxide- dispersed Ni20Cr alloy coatings were prepared on Ni20Cr alloy surface by using a vibrating SEPD device. Oxidation at 950℃ in ambient air showed that the microcrystalline Ni20Cr alloy coatings greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the substrate alloy. The addition of dispersed Y2O3 nano-particles into the microcrystalline coatings was found to further reduce the oxidation rate and enhance the oxide spallation resistance.

  4. Generation of high-energy sub-20 fs pulses tunable in the 250-310 nm region by frequency doubling of a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Marcus; Ghotbi, Masood; Noack, Frank; Brida, Daniele; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio

    2009-03-15

    We report on the generation of powerful sub-20 fs deep UV pulses with 10 microJ level energy and broadly tunable in the 250-310 nm range. These pulses are produced by frequency doubling a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier and compressed by a pair of MgF2 prisms to an almost transform-limited duration. Our results provide a power scaling by an order of magnitude with respect to previous works.

  5. Photoionization of NaK molecule with a double-well potential in femtosecond pump-probe pulse laser fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jie; Wang Sen-Ming; Yuan Kai-Jun; Cong Shu-Lin

    2006-01-01

    The method of time-dependent quantum wave packet dynamics is used to calculate the femtosecond pump-probe photoelectron spectra and study the wave packet dynamic processes of the double-minimum potential state 61∑+ of NaK in intense laser fields. The evolutions of the wave packet and the photoelectron energy spectra with time and internuclear distance are described in detail. The wave packet dynamic information of the 61∑+ state can be extracted from the photoelectron energy spectra.

  6. Heavy electrons: Electron droplets generated by photogalvanic and pyroelectric effects

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnoholovets, V; Kukhtareva, T

    2009-01-01

    Electron clusters, X-rays and nanosecond radio-frequency pulses are produced by 100 mW continuous-wave laser illuminating ferroelectric crystal of LiNbO_3. A long-living stable electron droplet with the size of about 100 mcm has freely moved with the velocity 0.5 cm/s in the air near the surface of the crystal experiencing the Earth gravitational field. The microscopic model of cluster stability, which is based on submicroscopic mechanics developed in the real physical space, is suggested. The role of a restraining force plays the inerton field, a substructure of the particles' matter waves, which a solitary one can elastically withstand the Coulomb repulsion of electrons. It is shown that electrons in the droplet are heavy electrons whose mass at least 1 million of times exceeds the rest mass of free electron. Application for X-ray imaging and lithography is discussed.

  7. Generation of quasi-monoenergetic protons from a double-species target driven by the radiation pressure of an ultraintense laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Ki Hong; Kim, Chul Min; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-03-01

    In laser-driven proton acceleration, generation of quasi-monoenergetic proton beams has been considered a crucial feature of the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) scheme, but the required difficult physical conditions have hampered its experimental realization. As a method to generate quasi-monoenergetic protons under experimentally viable conditions, we investigated using double-species targets of controlled composition ratio in order to make protons bunched in the phase space in the RPA scheme. From a modified optimum condition and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we showed by varying the ion composition ratio of proton and carbon that quasi-monoenergetic protons could be generated from ultrathin plane targets irradiated with a circularly polarized Gaussian laser pulse. The proposed scheme should facilitate the experimental realization of ultrashort quasi-monoenergetic proton beams for unique applications in high field science.

  8. 6.5 µJ pulses from a compact dissipative soliton resonance mode-locked erbium-ytterbium double clad (DC) laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzempek, K.; Abramski, K.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a compact, all-fiber, dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) mode-locked erbium-ytterbium double clad laser emitting 6.517 µJ pulses directly from the cavity is presented. The laser was built in a figure-8 configuration and mode-locked using a nonlinear optical loop mirror. A DSR regime of operation was enforced in the cavity by large net-anomalous dispersion (-21.431 ps2), obtained by incorporating 1 km of SMF28 fiber in the resonator. The laser operated at a 201 kHz repetition rate, with maximum average output power of 1.31 W at 7.2 W of pump power, yielding an impressive 20% slope efficiency.

  9. Single and double core-hole ion emission spectroscopy of transient neon plasmas produced by ultraintense x-ray laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    Single core-hole (SCH) and double core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy is investigated systematically for neon gas in the interaction with ultraintense x-ray pulses with photon energy from 937 eV to 2000 eV. A time-dependent rate equation, implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation, is utilized to study the dynamical evolution of the level population and emission properties of the laser-produced highly transient plasmas. The plasma density effects on level populations are demonstrated with an x-ray photon energy of 2000 eV. For laser photon energy in the range of 937 - 1360 eV, resonant absorptions (RA) of 1s-np (n> = 2) transitions play important roles in time evolution of the population and DCH emission spectroscopy. For x-ray photon energy larger than 1360 eV, no RA exist and transient plasmas show different features in the DCH spectroscopy.

  10. Double carriers pulse DLTS for the characterization of electron-hole recombination process in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzazi, Boussairi, E-mail: sd08503@toyota-ti.ac.j [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2011-03-01

    A nitrogen-related electron trap (E1), located approximately 0.33 eV from the conduction band minimum of GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy, was confirmed by investigating the dependence of its density with N concentration. This level exhibits a high capture cross section compared with that of native defects in GaAs. Its density increases significantly with N concentration, persists following post-thermal annealing, and was found to be quasi-uniformly distributed. These results indicate that E1 is a stable defect that is formed during growth to compensate for the tensile strain caused by N. Furthermore, E1 was confirmed to act as a recombination center by comparing its activation energy with that of the recombination current in the depletion region of the alloy. However, this technique cannot characterize the electron-hole (e-h) recombination process. For that, double carrier pulse deep level transient spectroscopy is used to confirm the non-radiative e-h recombination process through E1, to estimate the capture cross section of holes, and to evaluate the energy of multi-phonon emission. Furthermore, a configuration coordinate diagram is modeled based on the physical parameters of E1. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Double carrier pulse DLTS method confirms the existence of SRH center. {yields} The recombination center in GaAsN depends on nitrogen concentration. {yields} Minority carrier lifetime in GaAsN is less than 1 ns. {yields} A non-radiative recombination center exits in GaAsN.

  11. Modeling of electron-electron collisions for particle-in-cell simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, D. d' ; Munz, C.D.; Schneider, R.

    2006-09-15

    The modeling of the physics of pulsed plasma thrusters requires the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for rarefied plasma flows where continuum assumptions fail. To tackle this challenging task, a cooperation between several institutes has been formed with the goal to develop a hybrid code based on Particle-In-Cell and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo techniques. These development activities are bundled in the project ''Numerische Simulation und Auslegung eines instationaeren gepulsten magnetoplasmadynamischen Triebwerks fuer eine Mondsonde'' which is funded by the Landesstiftung Baden-Wuerttemberg within the subject area ''Modellierung und Simulation auf Hochleistungscomputern''. In the frame of this project, the IHM is in charge to develop suitable physical-mathematical and numerical models to include charged particle collisions into the simulation. which can significantly affect the Parameters of such plasma devices. The intention of the present report is to introduce the Fokker-Planck approach for electron-electron interaction in Standard charged particle simulations. where the impact Parameter is usually large resulting in a small deflection angle. The theoretical and applicative framework is discussed in detail paying particular attention to the Particle-In-Cell approach in velocity space. a new technique which allows the self-consistent computation of the friction and diffusion coefficients arising from the Fokker-Planck treatment of collisions. These velocity-dependent coefficients thernselves are responsible for the change in velocity of the simulation particles, which is determined by the numerical solution of a Langevin-type equation. Simulation results for typical numerical experiments computed with the new developed Fokker-Planck solver are presented. demonstrating the quality. property and reliability of the applied numerical methods. (orig.)

  12. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: A potential tool for the analysis of contaminants and macro/micronutrients in organic mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; de Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz; Marangoni, Bruno Spolon; De Melo Benites, Vinícius; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2016-09-15

    Organic fertilizers are obtained from waste of plant or animal origin. One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is that, from the composting, it recycles waste-organic of urban and agriculture origin, whose disposal would cause environmental impacts. Fast and accurate analysis of both major and minor/trace elements contained in organic mineral and inorganic fertilizers of new generation have promoted the application of modern analytical techniques. In particular, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is showing to be a very promising, quick and practical technique to detect and measure contaminants and nutrients in fertilizers. Although, this technique presents some limitations, such as a low sensitivity, if compared to other spectroscopic techniques, the use of double pulse (DP) LIBS is an alternative to the conventional LIBS in single pulse (SP). The macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn) and contaminant (Cr) in fertilizer using LIBS in SP and DP configurations were evaluated. A comparative study for both configurations was performed using optimized key parameters for improving LIBS performance. The limit of detection (LOD) values obtained by DP LIBS increased up to seven times as compared to SP LIBS. In general, the marked improvement obtained when using DP system in the simultaneous LIBS quantitative determination for fertilizers analysis could be ascribed to the larger ablated mass of the sample. The results presented in this study show the promising potential of the DP LIBS technique for a qualitative analysis in fertilizers, without requiring sample preparation with chemical reagents.

  13. Efficient upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Burkett, Allan; Blackwell, Ashley; Taylor, Keylantra; Walker, Vernell; Sarkisov, Sergey; Koplitz, Brent

    2014-09-01

    We report on fabrication and investigation of optical and morphological properties of highly efficient (a quantum yield of 1%) upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the new technique of double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE). Polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host was evaporated on a silicon substrate using a 1064-nm pulsed laser beam using a target made of frozen (to the temperature of liquid nitrogen) solution of PMMA in chlorobenzene. Concurrently, the second 532-nm pulsed beam from the same laser was used to impregnate the polymer host with the inorganic nanoparticulate made of the rare earth upconversion compounds NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+, NaYF4: Yb3+, Ho3+, and NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+. The compounds were initially synthesized using the wet process, baked, and compressed in solid pellet targets. The proposed DB-MAPLE method has the advantage of making highly homogeneous nanocomposite films with precise control of the doping rate due to the optimized overlapping of the plumes produced by the ablation of the organic and inorganic target with the infrared and visible laser beams respectively. X-ray diffraction, electron and atomic force microscopy, and optical fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the inorganic nanoparticulate preserved its crystalline structure and upconversion properties (strong emission in green, red, and blue bands upon illumination with 980-nm laser diode) after being transferred from the target in the polymer nanocomposite film. The produced films can be used in applications varying from the efficiency enhancement of the photovoltaic cells, optical sensors and biomarkers to anti-counterfeit labels.

  14. Fs–ns double-pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of copper-based-alloys: Generation and elemental analysis of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarnaccio, A.; Parisi, G.P.; Mollica, D. [CNR-ISM, U.O.S. Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, 85050 Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); De Bonis, A. [CNR-ISM, U.O.S. Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, 85050 Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Teghil, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Santagata, A. [CNR-ISM, U.O.S. Tito Scalo, Zona Industriale, 85050 Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Evolution of nanoparticles ejected during ultra-short (250 fs) laser ablation of certified copper alloys and relative calibration plots of a fs–ns double-pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy orthogonal configuration is presented. All work was performed in air at atmospheric pressure using certified copper-based-alloy samples irradiated by a fs laser beam and followed by a delayed perpendicular ns laser pulse. In order to evaluate possible compositional changes of the fs induced nanoparticles, it was necessary to consider, for all samples used, comparable features of the detected species. With this purpose the induced nanoparticles black-body-like emission evolution and their relative temperature decay have been studied. These data were exploited for defining the distance between the target surface and the successive ns laser beam to be used. The consequent calibration plots of minor constituents (i.e. Sn, Pb and Zn) of the certified copper-based-alloy samples have been reported by taking into account self-absorption effects. The resulting linear regression coefficients suggest that the method used, for monitoring and ruling the fs laser induced nanoparticles, could provide a valuable approach for establishing the occurrence of potential compositional changes of the detected species. All experimental data reveal that the fs laser induced nanoparticles can be used for providing a coherent composition of the starting target. In the meantime, the fs–ns double-pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy orthogonal configuration here used can be considered as an efficient technique for compositional determination of the nanoparticles ejected during ultra-short laser ablation processes. - Highlights: • Laser induced NP continuum black-body-like emission was used for T determination. • Invariable composition of generated NPs was assumed in the range of 20 μs. • Fs-ns DP-LIBS was employed for the compositional characterization of NPs. • NPs obtained by fs

  15. Search for the neutrinoless double β-decay in GERDA phase I using a pulse shape discrimination technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Andrea

    2014-07-09

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, deploys high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double β-decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. An observation of this lepton number violating process, which is expected by many extensions of the Standard Model, would not only generate a fundamental shift in our understanding of particle physics, but also unambiguously prove the neutrino to have a non-vanishing Majorana mass component. A first phase of data recording lasted from November 2011 to May 2013 - resulting in a total exposure (defined as the product of detector mass and measurement time) of 21.6 kg.yr. Within this thesis a thorough study of this data with special emphasis on the development and scrutiny of an active background suppression technique by means of a signal shape analysis has been performed. Among several investigated multivariate approaches, particularly a selection algorithm based on an artificial neural network is found to yield the best performance; i.a. the background index close to the Q-value of the 0νββ-decay could be suppressed by 45% to 1.10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr), while still retaining a considerably high signal survival fraction of (83±3)% leading to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. The efficiency is derived by a simulation and further validated by substantiated consistency checks availing themselves of measurements taken with different calibration sources and physics data. No signal is observed and a new lower limit of T{sup 0ν}{sub 1/2} (90%C.L.)> 2.2. 10{sup 25} yr for the half-life of neutrinoless double β-decay of {sup 76}Ge is established.

  16. A triple resonance hyperfine sublevel correlation experiment for assignment of electron-nuclear double resonance lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Alexey; Epel, Boris; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2008-02-01

    A new, triple resonance, pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) sequence is described. It provides spin links between forbidden electron spin transitions (ΔMS=±1, ΔMI≠0) and allowed nuclear spin transitions (ΔMI=±1), thus, facilitating the assignment of nuclear frequencies to their respective electron spin manifolds and paramagnetic centers. It also yields the relative signs of the hyperfine couplings of the different nuclei. The technique is based on the combination of electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR experiments in a way similar to the TRIPLE experiment. The feasibility and the information content of the method are demonstrated first on a single crystal of Cu-doped L-histidine and then on a frozen solution of a Cu-histidine complex.

  17. CIDME: Short distances measured with long chirp pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Andrin; Qi, Mian; Godt, Adelheid; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-12-01

    Frequency-swept pulses have recently been introduced as pump pulses into double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiments. A limitation of this approach is that the pump pulses need to be short in comparison to dipolar evolution periods. The "chirp-induced dipolar modulation enhancement" (CIDME) pulse sequence introduced in this work circumvents this limitation by means of longitudinal storage during the application of one single or two consecutive pump pulses. The resulting six-pulse sequence is closely related to the five-pulse "relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement" (RIDME) pulse sequence: While dipolar modulation in RIDME is due to stochastic spin flips during longitudinal storage, modulation in CIDME is due to the pump pulse during longitudinal storage. Experimentally, CIDME is examined for Gd-Gd and nitroxide-nitroxide distance determination using a high-power Q-band spectrometer. Since longitudinal storage results in a 50% signal loss, comparisons between DEER using short chirp pump pulses of 64 ns duration and CIDME using longer pump pulses are in favor of DEER. While the lower sensitivity restrains the applicability of CIDME for routine distance determination on high-power spectrometers, this result is not to be generalized to spectrometers having lower power and to specialized "non-routine" applications or different types of spin labels. In particular, the advantage of prolonged CIDME pump pulses is demonstrated for experiments at large frequency offset between the pumped and observed spins. At a frequency separation of 1 GHz, where broadening due to dipolar pseudo-secular contributions becomes largely suppressed, a Gd-Gd modulation depth larger than 10% is achieved. Moreover, a CIDME experiment at deliberately reduced power underlines the potential of the new technique for spectrometers with lower power, as often encountered at higher microwave frequencies. With longitudinal storage times T below 10 μs, however, CIDME appears rather

  18. Adjunctive use of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes phototherapy on nonspecific knee pain: double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Johnson, Douglas Scott; Saltmarche, Anita; Demchak, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Phototherapy with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has arisen as an interesting alternative to drugs in treatments of musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of combined use of different wavelengths from different light sources like lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in skeletal muscle disorders. With this perspective in mind, this study aimed to investigate the effects of phototherapy with combination of different light sources on nonspecific knee pain. It was performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Eighty-six patients rated 30 or greater on the pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were recruited and included in study. Patients of LLLT group received 12 treatments with active phototherapy (with 905 nm super-pulsed laser and 875 and 640 nm LEDs, Manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical, Solon, OH, USA) and conventional treatment (physical therapy or chiropractic care), and patients of placebo group were treated at same way but with placebo phototherapy device. Pain assessments (VAS) were performed at baseline, 4th, 7th, and 10th treatments, after the completion of treatments and at 1-month follow-up visit. Quality of life assessments (SF-36®) were performed at baseline, after the completion of treatments and at 1-month follow-up visit. Our results demonstrate that phototherapy significantly decreased pain (p physical component summary at posttreatments and follow-up assessments compared to placebo. We conclude that combination of super-pulsed laser, red and infrared LEDs is effective to decrease pain and improve quality of life in patients with knee pain.

  19. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR2 2p 1 with p = 1, 2, 3, … . While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut =ωr / 2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50 kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of 13C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-13C2 ]alanine, [1,3-13C2 ]alanine, diammonium [1,4-13C2 ]fumarate, and [U-13 C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR2p 1 sequences with p ⩾ 3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR2p 1 schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions.

  20. Multivariate approach to the chemical mapping of uranium in sandstone-hosted uranium ores analyzed using double pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus, Jakub; Mikysek, Petr; Prochazka, David; Pořízka, Pavel; Prochazková, Petra; Novotný, Jan; Trojek, Tomáš; Novotný, Karel; Slobodník, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to provide high resolution mapping of uranium in sandstone-hosted uranium ores using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. In order to obtain chemical image with highest possible spatial resolution, LIBS system in orthogonal double pulse (DP LIBS) arrangement was employed. Owing to this experimental arrangement the spot size of 50 μm in diameter resulting in lateral resolution of 100 μm was reached. Despite the increase in signal intensity in DP LIBS modification, the detection of uranium is challenging. The main cause is the high density of uranium spectral lines, which together with broadening of LIBS spectral lines overreaches the resolution of commonly used spectrometers. It results in increased overall background radiation with only few distinguishable uranium lines. Three different approaches in the LIBS data treatment for the uranium detection were utilized: i) spectral line intensity, ii) region of apparent background and iii) multivariate data analysis. By utilizing multivariate statistical methods, a specific specimen features (in our case uranium content) were revealed by processing complete spectral information obtained from broadband echelle spectrograph. Our results are in a good agreement with conventional approaches such as line fitting and show new possibilities of processing spectral data in mapping. As a reference technique to LIBS was employed X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The XRF chemical images used in this paper have lower resolution (approximately 1-2 mm per image point), nevertheless the elemental distribution is apparent and corresponds to presented LIBS experiments.

  1. Pulse Electron Double Resonance Detected Multinuclear NMR Spectra of Distant and Low Sensitivity Nuclei and Its Application to the Structure of Mn(II) Centers in Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Eduardo M; Warner, Melissa T; Thomine, Sébastien; Tabares, Leandro C; Un, Sun

    2015-10-29

    The ability to characterize the structure of metal centers beyond their primary ligands is important to understanding their chemistry. High-magnetic-field pulsed electron double resonance detected NMR (ELDOR-NMR) is shown to be a very sensitive approach to measuring the multinuclear NMR spectra of the nuclei surrounding Mn(II) ions. Resolved spectra of intact organisms with resonances arising from (55)Mn, (31)P, (1)H, (39)K, (35)Cl, (23)Na, and (14)N nuclei surrounding Mn(2+) centers were obtained. Naturally abundant cellular (13)C could be routinely measured as well. The amplitudes of the (14)N and (2)H ELDOR-NMR spectra were found to be linearly dependent on the number of nuclei in the ligand sphere. The evolution of the Mn(II) ELDOR-NMR spectra as a function of excitation time was found to be best described by a saturation phenomenon rather than a coherently driven process. Mn(II) ELDOR-NMR revealed details about not only the immediate ligands to the Mn(II) ions but also more distant nuclei, providing a view of their extended structures. This will be important for understanding the speciation and chemistry of the manganese complexes as well as other metals found in organisms.

  2. Double carriers pulse DLTS for the characterization of electron-hole recombination process in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzazi, Boussairi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2011-03-01

    A nitrogen-related electron trap (E1), located approximately 0.33 eV from the conduction band minimum of GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy, was confirmed by investigating the dependence of its density with N concentration. This level exhibits a high capture cross section compared with that of native defects in GaAs. Its density increases significantly with N concentration, persists following post-thermal annealing, and was found to be quasi-uniformly distributed. These results indicate that E1 is a stable defect that is formed during growth to compensate for the tensile strain caused by N. Furthermore, E1 was confirmed to act as a recombination center by comparing its activation energy with that of the recombination current in the depletion region of the alloy. However, this technique cannot characterize the electron-hole (e-h) recombination process. For that, double carrier pulse deep level transient spectroscopy is used to confirm the non-radiative e -h recombination process through E1, to estimate the capture cross section of holes, and to evaluate the energy of multi-phonon emission. Furthermore, a configuration coordinate diagram is modeled based on the physical parameters of E1.

  3. Electron-electron scattering in linear transport in two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Flensberg, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    We describe a method for numerically incorporating electron-electron scattering in quantum wells for small deviations of the distribution function from equilibrium, within the framework of the Boltzmann equation. For a given temperature T and density n, a symmetric matrix needs to be evaluated only...... once, and henceforth it can be used to describe electron-electron scattering in any Boltzmann equation linear-response calculation for that particular T and n. Using this method, we calculate the distribution function and mobility for electrons in a quantum well, including full finite...

  4. Electron-electron interactions in graphene field-induced quantum dots in a high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlof, A.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of electron-electron interaction in graphene quantum dots defined by an external electrostatic potential and a high magnetic field. To account for the electron-electron interaction, we use the Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that electron screening causes the formation...... of compressible strips in the potential profile and the electron density. We numerically solve the Dirac equations describing the electron dynamics in quantum dots, and we demonstrate that compressible strips lead to the appearance of plateaus in the electron energies as a function of the magnetic field. Finally...

  5. Dynamic screening and electron electron scattering in low-dimensional metallic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkin, V. M.; Quijada, M.; Muiño, R. Díez; Chulkov, E. V.; Echenique, P. M.

    2007-09-01

    The modification of dynamic screening in the electron-electron interaction in systems with reduced dimensionality and tunable one-particle electronic structure is studied. Two examples of such systems are considered, namely, the adsorbate-induced quantum well states at the Na adlayer covered Cu(1 1 1) surface, and metal clusters of sizes up to few nanometers. The dependence of the electron-electron decay rates on the Na coverage in the former case and on the cluster size in the latter is investigated. The role played by the dynamical screened interaction in such processes is addressed as well.

  6. Electron-electron correlations in square-well quantum dots: direct energy minimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidekazu; Hirose, Kikuji

    2011-04-01

    Electron-electron correlations in two-dimensional square-well quantum dots are investigated using the direct energy minimization scheme. Searches for groundstate charges and spin configurations are performed with varying the sizes of dots and the number of electrons. For a two-electron system, a standout difference between the configurations with and without counting correlation energy is demonstrated. The emergence and melting of Wigner-molecule-like structures arising from the interplay between the kinetic energy and Coulombic interaction energy are described. Electron-electron correlation energies and addition energy spectra are calculated, and special electron numbers related to peculiar effects of the square well are extracted.

  7. Electron-Electron Luminosity in the Next Linear COLLIDER—A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Thompson, K. A.; Helm, R. H.

    In this paper, we discuss some operational aspects of electron-electron collisions at the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and estimate the luminosity attainable in such a machine. We also consider the use of two future technologies which could simplify the operation and improve the luminosity in an e-e- collider: polarized rf guns and plasma lenses.

  8. Efficient computation of electron-electron bremsstrahlung emission in a hot thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, E.

    1989-07-01

    A formula for the cross section of electron-electron bremsstrahlung (EEB) in the center-of-mass system is used to calculate the spectrum of EEB in a hot thermal plasma as well as the total rate of energy loss due to EEB with a minimum amount of computing time.

  9. Magneto-Coulomb Drag: Interplay of Electron-Electron Interactions and Landau Quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    effect. The presence of both electron-electron interactions and Landau quantization results in (i) a twin-peaked structure of rho(21)(B) in the interplateau regions at low temperatures and (ii) for the chemical potential at the center of a Landau level band, a peaked temperature dependence of rho(21)(T...

  10. Does the Higgs mechanism favour electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons $QED_{3}$?

    CERN Document Server

    Belich, H; Helayël-Neto, José A

    2000-01-01

    The low-energy electron-electron scattering potential is derived and discussed for the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model coupled to QED_3 with spontaneous symmetry breaking. One shows that the Higgs mechanism might favour electron-electron bound states.

  11. Direct generation of 2  W average-power and 232  nJ picosecond pulses from an ultra-simple Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Xiong, Fengfu; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Huiying; Fu, Hongyan

    2015-03-15

    We report the generation of 2.06 W average-power and 232 nJ picosecond mode-locked pulses directly from an ultra-simple Yb-doped fiber laser. A section of Yb-doped double-clad fiber pumped by a 976 nm laser diode provides the large gain, and the linear cavity is simply formed by a 1064 nm highly reflective fiber Bragg grating and a fiber loop mirror (FLM) using a 5/95 optical coupler. The asymmetric FLM not only acts as the output mirror for providing ∼20% optical feedback, but also equivalently behaves as a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) to initiate the mode-locking operation in this cavity. Stable mode-locking is therefore achieved over a pump power of 3.76 W. The mode-locked pulses show the dissipative soliton resonance (DSR), which has the pulse duration of 695 ps to ∼1  ns, and the almost unchanged peak power of ∼200  W as increasing the pump power. In particular, this laser can emit 232 nJ high-energy DSR pulses with an average output power of >2  W. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of such an ultra-simple, mode-locked fiber laser that enables watt-level, high energy, picosecond DSR pulses.

  12. Further study of CdWO4 crystal scintillators as detectors for high sensitivity double beta experiments: scintillation properties and pulse-shape discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Bardelli, L; Bizzeti, P G; Carraresi, L; Danevich, F A; Fazzini, T F; Grinyov, B V; Ivannikova, N V; Kobychev, V V; Kropivyansky, B N; Maurenzig, P R; Nagornaya, L L; Nagorny, S S; Nikolaiko, A S; Pavlyuk, A A; Poda, D V; Solsky, I M; Sopinskyy, M V; Stenin, Y G; Taccetti, F; Tretyak, V I; Vasiliev, Y V; Yurchenko, S S; Stenin, Yu. G.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

    2006-01-01

    Energy resolution, light yield, non-proportionality in the scintillation response, alpha/beta ratio, pulse shape for gamma rays and alpha particles were studied with CdWO4 crystal scintillators. Some indication for a difference in the emission spectra for gamma rays and alpha particles was observed. No dependence of CdWO4 pulse shape on emission spectrum wavelengths under laser, alpha particles and gamma ray excitation was observed. Dependence of scintillation pulse shape for gamma quanta and alpha particles and pulse-shape discrimination ability on temperature was measured in the range of 0-24 degrees.

  13. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markmann, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.markmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Nong, Hanond, E-mail: nong.hanond@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8551 CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris 6, 75005 Paris (France); Marcadet, Xavier [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Route Départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  14. Electron transport through nano-MOSFET in presence of electron-electron interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Simchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electron-electron interaction on voltage distribution, charge distribution and current-voltage curve of two dimensional nano-MOSFETs with dimension equal to 1 × 1 nm2, 3 × 3 nm2, and 6 × 6 nm2 by using non-equilibrium Green function method. It is shown that the turn on voltage increases by decreasing the size of sample because of size quantization. Also we show that for a critical drain-source voltage a negative resistance is seen at current-voltage curve of 1 × 1 nm2 sample because of electron-electron interaction, and in consequence it can tolerate lower gate voltage in real practical applications.

  15. Observation of autoionization in O 2 by an electron-electron coincidence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, J. P.; Yang, J.; Cooper, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    A strong transition to an autoionizing stata has been observed in O 2 at 16.83 ± 0.11 eV by means of a new electron-electron conincidence method. The method uses the fact that electrons arising from autoionizing states appear at a constant energy loss corresponding to the excitation energy of the autoionizing state rather than at a constant ionization potential as do electrons produced by direct ionization. Comparison of the present data with previous photoionization studies suggests that the autoionizing O 2 state is the same state deduced to be responsible for abnormal vibrational intensities in the O 2+X 2Πg ground state when 16.85 eV Ne(I) photons are used. These electron-electron coincidence experiments provide a direct new method for the study of autoionization produced by electron impact.

  16. Spin Relaxation in GaAs: Importance of Electron-Electron Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gionni Marchetti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study spin relaxation in n-type bulk GaAs, due to the Dyakonov–Perel mechanism, using ensemble Monte Carlo methods. Our results confirm that spin relaxation time increases with the electronic density in the regime of moderate electronic concentrations and high temperature. We show that the electron-electron scattering in the non-degenerate regime significantly slows down spin relaxation. This result supports predictions by Glazov and Ivchenko. Most importantly, our findings highlight the importance of many-body interactions for spin dynamics: we show that only by properly taking into account electron-electron interactions within the simulations, results for the spin relaxation time—with respect to both electron density and temperature—will reach good quantitative agreement with corresponding experimental data. Our calculations contain no fitting parameters.

  17. Pure electron-electron dephasing in percolative aluminum ultrathin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Wei; Wu, Yue-Han; Chang, Li; Liang, Chi-Te; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully grown ultrathin continuous aluminum film by molecular beam epitaxy. This percolative aluminum film is single crystalline and strain free as characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The weak anti-localization effect is observed in the temperature range of 1.4 to 10 K with this sample, and it reveals that, for the first time, the dephasing is purely caused by electron-electron inelastic scattering in aluminum.

  18. Molten Pool Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Double-Sided Synchronization GTA Welded Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wei; Wang, Kehong; Feng, Yuehai; Chen, Jiahe

    2016-12-01

    Double-sided synchronization vertical gas tungsten arc welding (DSSVW) procedure was used to weld high-nitrogen low-nickel stainless steel Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N without groove and filler wire. First, the molten pool behaviors and appearances of pulsed current DSSVW (PC-DSSVW) and constant current DSSVW (CC-DSSVW) were comparatively analyzed. The periodic variation occurs in the width of both the anode region of the arc and the molten pool tail during PC-DSSVW, while the contact angle first increases and then decreases, and both the width of the anode region and the length of arc plume increase progressively in CC-DSSVW. It is found that the weld appearance of PC-DSSVW is superior to that of CC-DSSVW. Second, the forces of the DSSVW molten pool were analyzed. The result indicates that the molten pool of the DSSVW procedure is in a state of unstable equilibrium, and it will easily lose balance after being disturbed, resulting in the asymmetrical weld or hump bead. Third, the PC-DSSVW experiments at various welding speeds were conducted to study the influence of welding speed on the weld profile, microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness. Furthermore, the solidification mode of Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N was predicted to help determine the microstructure of the welded joint. Results indicate that the weld width, weld reinforcement and melting area all increase with decreasing welding speed, and Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N solidifies as A mode. The microstructure of the base metal (BM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) is equiaxed austenite and that of the fusion zone (FZ) is austenite dendrite with some chromium carbides dispersed in the grain boundary; with decreasing welding speed, grains become coarse. The maximum tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of PC-DSSVW joint are 860 MPa and 8.1%, and the elongation decreases dramatically with decreasing welding speed. The impact toughness decreases substantially compared to the BM, achieving 48.2% of the BM.

  19. Molten Pool Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Pulsed Current Double-Sided Synchronization GTA Welded Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wei; Wang, Kehong; Feng, Yuehai; Chen, Jiahe

    2017-02-01

    Double-sided synchronization vertical gas tungsten arc welding (DSSVW) procedure was used to weld high-nitrogen low-nickel stainless steel Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N without groove and filler wire. First, the molten pool behaviors and appearances of pulsed current DSSVW (PC-DSSVW) and constant current DSSVW (CC-DSSVW) were comparatively analyzed. The periodic variation occurs in the width of both the anode region of the arc and the molten pool tail during PC-DSSVW, while the contact angle first increases and then decreases, and both the width of the anode region and the length of arc plume increase progressively in CC-DSSVW. It is found that the weld appearance of PC-DSSVW is superior to that of CC-DSSVW. Second, the forces of the DSSVW molten pool were analyzed. The result indicates that the molten pool of the DSSVW procedure is in a state of unstable equilibrium, and it will easily lose balance after being disturbed, resulting in the asymmetrical weld or hump bead. Third, the PC-DSSVW experiments at various welding speeds were conducted to study the influence of welding speed on the weld profile, microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness. Furthermore, the solidification mode of Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N was predicted to help determine the microstructure of the welded joint. Results indicate that the weld width, weld reinforcement and melting area all increase with decreasing welding speed, and Fe-18Cr-17Mn-Ni-N solidifies as A mode. The microstructure of the base metal (BM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) is equiaxed austenite and that of the fusion zone (FZ) is austenite dendrite with some chromium carbides dispersed in the grain boundary; with decreasing welding speed, grains become coarse. The maximum tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of PC-DSSVW joint are 860 MPa and 8.1%, and the elongation decreases dramatically with decreasing welding speed. The impact toughness decreases substantially compared to the BM, achieving 48.2% of the BM.

  20. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality...... a multilayered sense of time and space that is central to the sensory experience of Pulse Room as a whole. Pulse Room is, at the very same time, an anthropomorfized archive of a past intimacy and an all-encompassing immersive environment modulating continuously in real space-time....

  1. Properties of pulse single-frequency laser and extra-cavity double frequency green laser%脉冲单频 Nd∶YVO4激光器及其倍频输出特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董磊; 刘欣悦; 陈浩

    2015-01-01

    In order to manufacture a pulse single-frequency laser with master oscillator power amplifier( MO-PA) structure used for laser coherence imaging, the properties of acousto-optic Q-switched pulse single-fre-quency 1 064 nm laser used as MOPA laser seed, and properties of extra-cavity double frequency green laser were studied in the paer.1 064 nm pulse laser output with more than 20 ns pulse width was realized by means of acousto-optics Q-switch, and single-frequency running was realized by means of loop cavity and etalons with different thickness.The linewidth of 1 064 nm and 532 nm pulse lasers were studied.The experiment results show that there is almost complete coherence in all of the pulse width;1 064 nm pulse single-frequency laser with 28 nm pulse width and 6 .5 kW peak power and 532 nm laser with 20 ns pulse width and 0.5 kW peak power are obtained respectively.The efficiency of extra-cavity double-frequency is about 5.6%.The effect of laser pulse reduction by extra-cavity double-frequency is also validated by experiments.%为了研制激光干涉成像所需的主振荡功率放大( MOPA)结构脉冲单频激光器,本文完成MOPA激光器的种子源即声光调Q脉冲单频1064 nm激光器的特性研究,同时完成种子源腔外倍频绿光特性研究。脉冲单频激光器采用声光调Q模块实现脉宽约20 ns的1064 nm脉冲激光输出,采用环形腔设计并采用一组不同厚度的标准具实现单纵模运转。实验研究基频1064 nm和倍频532 nm激光脉冲的线宽,得出在全脉宽范围内都具有较高时间相干性的结论。实验分别获得脉宽约28 ns峰值功率约6.5 kW的1064 nm脉冲单频激光和脉宽约20 ns、峰值功率约0.5 kW的532 nm脉冲单频激光,腔外倍频效率为5.6%。实验同时也验证了腔外倍频的激光脉宽压缩效应。

  2. Pulse saturation recovery, pulse ELDOR, and free induction decay electron paramagnetic resonance detection using time-locked subsampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froncisz, W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Hyde, James S.

    2001-03-01

    Time locked subsampling (TLSS) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) involves the steps of (i) translation of the signal from a microwave carrier to an intermediate frequency (IF) carrier where the (IF) offset between the signal oscillator and local oscillator frequencies is synthesized, (ii) sampling the IF carrier four times in an odd number of cycles, say 4 in 3, where the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is driven by a frequency synthesizer that has the same clock input as the IF synthesizer, (iii) signal averaging as required for adequate signal to noise, (iv) separating the even and odd digitized words into two separate signal channels, which correspond to signals in phase and in quadrature with respect to the IF carrier, i.e., I and Q, and (v) detecting the envelope of I and also of Q by changing the signs of alternate words in each of the two channels. TLSS detection has been demonstrated in three forms of pulse EPR spectroscopy at X band: saturation recovery, pulse electron-electron double resonance, and free induction decay. The IF was 187.5 MHz, the A/D converter frequency was 250 MHz, the overall bandwidth was 125 MHz, and the bandwidths for the separate I and Q channels were each 62.5 MHz. Experiments were conducted on nitroxide radical spin labels. The work was directed towards development of methodology to monitor bimolecular collisions of oxygen with spin labels in a context of site-directed spin labeling.

  3. Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas; Cima, O.M. del [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2002-04-01

    By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e{sup -}e{sup -} interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e{sup -}e{sup -} binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. (author)

  4. Tunable Electron-Electron Interactions in LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The interface between the two complex oxides LaAlO_{3} and SrTiO_{3} has remarkable properties that can be locally reconfigured between conducting and insulating states using a conductive atomic force microscope. Prior investigations of “sketched” quantum dot devices revealed a phase in which electrons form pairs, implying a strongly attractive electron-electron interaction. Here, we show that these devices with strong electron-electron interactions can exhibit a gate-tunable transition from a pair-tunneling regime to a single-electron (Andreev bound state tunneling regime where the interactions become repulsive. The electron-electron interaction sign change is associated with a Lifshitz transition where the d_{xz} and d_{yz} bands start to become occupied. This electronically tunable electron-electron interaction, combined with the nanoscale reconfigurability of this system, provides an interesting starting point towards solid-state quantum simulation.

  5. Experimental investigation of collisionless electron-electron microinstabilities. Final technical report for the period August 1, 1997-October 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2000-12-11

    This is the final report for the Office of Fusion Energy sponsored project entitled, "Experimental Investigation of Collisionless Electron-Electron Microinstabilities." The report summarizes the scientific and human resource development accomplishments supported through this project.

  6. Tunable Electron-Electron Interactions in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Lee, Hyungwoo; Lu, Shicheng; Veazey, Josh P.; Huang, Mengchen; Irvin, Patrick; Ryu, Sangwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Daley, Andrew; Pekker, David; Levy, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The interface between the two complex oxides LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 has remarkable properties that can be locally reconfigured between conducting and insulating states using a conductive atomic force microscope. Prior investigations of "sketched" quantum dot devices revealed a phase in which electrons form pairs, implying a strongly attractive electron-electron interaction. Here, we show that these devices with strong electron-electron interactions can exhibit a gate-tunable transition from a pair-tunneling regime to a single-electron (Andreev bound state) tunneling regime where the interactions become repulsive. The electron-electron interaction sign change is associated with a Lifshitz transition where the dx z and dy z bands start to become occupied. This electronically tunable electron-electron interaction, combined with the nanoscale reconfigurability of this system, provides an interesting starting point towards solid-state quantum simulation.

  7. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality......“Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... of the visitor’s beating heart to the blink of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the blinking light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant...

  8. Electron-electron attractive interaction in Maxwell-Chern-Simons QED{sub 3} at zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: belich@cbpf.br; manojr@cbpf.br; helayel@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br

    2001-04-01

    One discusses the issue of low-energy electron-electron bound states in the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model coupled to QED{sub 3} with spontaneous breaking of a local U(1)-symmetry. The scattering potential, in the non-relativistic limit, steaming from the electron-electron Moeller scattering, mediated by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca gauge field and the Higgs scalar, might be attractive by fine-tuning properly the physical parameters of the model. (author)

  9. Observation of strongly forbidden solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions via electron-electron double resonance detected NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.

  10. Observation of strongly forbidden solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions via electron-electron double resonance detected NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Albert A; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M; Griffin, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization--suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.

  11. Two-photon absorption measurements in graphene fragments: Role of electron-electron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A.; Roberts, A.; Aryanpour, K.; Shukla, A.; Mazumdar, S.

    2012-02-01

    Many-body interactions in graphene are an active field of research. There is a clear evidence of strong electron correlation effects in other carbon based materials which have the same sp^2 hybridization as graphene. For example, in linear-polyenes, the electron-electron interactions are considered responsible for the occurrence of lowest two-photon state below the optical one-photon state. The electronic correlation in these linear systems is a strong function of the chain length. Thus, it is pertinent to question if the two-dimensional graphene fragments also exhibit strong correlation effects and how these effects scale with fragment size. Using a white light super-continuum source, we perform z-scan measurements to extract frequency-dependent two-photon absorption coefficients in symmetric molecular fragments of graphene, e.g. coronene and hexabenzocoronene. A comparison of one-photon and two-photon absorption coefficients is then used to uncover the extent of correlation effects. In the smallest fragment, coronene, our results indicate a strong signature of the Coulomb interactions. We will discuss how the importance of electron-electron interaction varies with system size and its implication for the correlation effects in graphene.

  12. Rippled area formed by surface plasmon polaritons upon femtosecond laser double-pulse irradiation of silicon: the role of carrier generation and relaxation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Krüger, Jörg; Itina, Tatiana E.; Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Bonse, Jörn

    2014-10-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) upon irradiation of silicon with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of femtosecond laser pulse pairs (pulse duration 150 fs, central wavelength 800 nm) is studied numerically using a rate equation system along with a two-temperature model accounting for one- and two-photon absorption and subsequent carrier diffusion and Auger recombination processes. The temporal delay between the individual equal-energy fs-laser pulses was varied between 0 and ˜4 ps for quantification of the transient carrier densities in the conduction band of the laser-excited silicon. The results of the numerical analysis reveal the importance of carrier generation and relaxation processes in fs-LIPSS formation on silicon and quantitatively explain the two time constants of the delay-dependent decrease of the low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) area observed experimentally. The role of carrier generation, diffusion and recombination is quantified individually.

  13. Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone versus standard prednisolone treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (PREDICT study): a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, I.N. van; Eftimov, F.; Doorn, P.A. van; Brusse, E.; Berg, L.H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der; Faber, C.G.; Oostrom, J.C. van; Vogels, O.J.M.; Hadden, R.D.; Kleine, B.U.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Verschuuren, J.J.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Vermeulen, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone induced long-lasting remission in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) in a pilot study. The PREDICT study aimed to compare remission rates in patients with CIDP treated with high-dose dexamethasone with rates in pa

  14. Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone versus standard prednisolone treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (PREDICT study) : a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Ivo N.; Eftimov, Filip; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Brusse, Esther; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van der Pol, W. Ludo; Faber, Catharina G.; van Oostrom, Joost C. H.; Vogels, Oscar J. M.; Hadden, Rob D. M.; Kleine, Bert U.; van Norden, Anouk G. W.; Verschuuren, Jan J. G. M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Vermeulen, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone induced long-lasting remission in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) in a pilot study. The PREDICT study aimed to compare remission rates in patients with CIDP treated with high-dose dexamethasone with rates in pat

  15. Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone versus standard prednisolone treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (PREDICT study): a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.N. van Schaik; F. Eftimov; P.A. van Doorn; E. Brusse; L.H. van den Berg; W.L. van der Pol; C.G. Faber; J.C. van Oostrom; O.J. Vogels; R.D. Hadden; B.U. Kleine; A.G. van Norden; J.J. Verschuuren; M.G. Dijkgraaf; M. Vermeulen

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone induced long-lasting remission in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) in a pilot study. The PREDICT study aimed to compare remission rates in patients with CIDP treated with high-dose dexamethasone with rates in pat

  16. Vibrationally dependent electron-electron interactions in resonant electron transport through single-molecule junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, A.; Härtle, R.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of electronic-vibrational coupling in resonant electron transport through single-molecule junctions, taking into account that the corresponding coupling strengths may depend on the charge and excitation state of the molecular bridge. Within an effective-model Hamiltonian approach for a molecule with multiple electronic states, this requires to extend the commonly used model and include vibrationally dependent electron-electron interaction. We use Born-Markov master equation methods and consider selected models to exemplify the effect of the additional interaction on the transport characteristics of a single-molecule junction. In particular, we show that it has a significant influence on local cooling and heating mechanisms, it may result in negative differential resistance, and it may cause pronounced asymmetries in the conductance map of a single-molecule junction.

  17. The effect of electron-electron correlation on the attoclock experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanouilidou, A; Hofmann, C; Keller, U; Landsman, A S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate multi-electron effects in strong-field ionization of Helium using a semi-classical model that, unlike other commonly used theoretical approaches, takes into account electron-electron correlation. Our approach has an additional advantage of allowing to selectively switch off different contributions from the parent ion (such as the remaining electron or the nuclear charge) and thereby investigate in detail how the final electron angle in the attoclock experiment is influenced by these contributions. We find that the bound electron exerts a significant effect on the final electron momenta distribution that can, however, be accounted for by an appropriately selected mean field. Our results show excellent agreement with other widely used theoretical models done within a single active electron approximation.

  18. Percolated Superconductivity and Electron-Electron Exchange Mechanism in Ba-La-Cu-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ruibao

    It is found that the oxygen vacancies at the Cu-O basal plane of oxide (La1-xBax)2CuO4-y (Balacuo) will break the bonds of Cu-O-Cu to make the hopping between those coppers disappear so that the electrical conduction in the Cu-O basal plane would become a bond percolation system consisting of an infinite cluster carrying the current with a great number of finite clusters hanging around. It is favorable to create some mechanism of electron-electron exchange so that the transition temperature Tc of superconductivity could be increased significantly. The comparison with Y1Ba2Cu3O9-y is also discussed briefly.

  19. Pseudogap in the Eliashberg approach based on electron-phonon and electron-electron-phonon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesniak, R. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa (Poland); Durajski, A.P.; Duda, A.M. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    The properties of the superconducting and the anomalous normal state were described by using the Eliashberg method. The pairing mechanism was reproduced with the help of the Hamiltonian, which models the electron-phonon and the electron-electron-phonon interaction (EEPh). The set of the Eliashberg equations, which determines the order parameter function (φ), the wave function renormalization factor (Z), and the energy shift function (χ), was derived. It was proven that for the sufficiently large values of the EEPh potential, the doping dependence of the order parameter (φ/Z) has the analogous course to that observed experimentally in cuprates. The energy gap in the electron density of states is induced by Z and χ - the contribution from φ is negligible. The electron density of states possesses the characteristic asymmetric form and the pseudogap is observed above the critical temperature. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Efficacy of focused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for the management of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of focused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (FLIPUS) therapy on the functional and health status of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). A total of 106 subjects with bilateral KOA were randomized sequentially into two groups. Group I received FLIPUS + diclofenac sodium, and group II received sham FLIPUS + diclofenac sodium. The therapeutic effects of the interventions were evaluated by measuring changes in VAS pain, the WOMAC scores, and...

  1. Noncollinear parametric generation in LiIO(3) and beta-barium borate by frequency-doubled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V; Kalintsev, A; Rebane, A; Erni, D; Wild, U P

    1995-01-15

    In LiIO(3) and BBO crystals the wave-matching conditions for femtosecond noncollinear parametric light generation at lambda = 390 nm pumping wavelength are investigated. In the LiIO(3) crystal simultaneous phase- and group-velocity-matching angles are determined. Parametric generation occurred at 0.45-2.9-mu;m wavelengths by pumping with the second harmonic of 150-fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses and is in qualitative agreement with calculated directions in both crystals.

  2. Numerical simulations of single and double ionization of H{sub 2} in short intense laser pulses; Numerische Simulation zur Einfach- und Doppelionisation von H{sub 2} in kurzen intensiven Laserpulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, Silvio

    2008-07-01

    Rescattering is the dominant process leading to double ionization in atoms and molecules interacting with linearly polarized laser pulses with wavelengths around 800 nm and in an intensity regime of 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using numerical integrations of the two-electron Schroedinger equation of the Hydrogen molecule in appropriate reduced dimensions two mechanisms, namely correlated emission of the electrons and excitation followed by field ionization after rescattering, could be identified and characterized. With the help of a planar model in reduced dimensions these mechanisms were quantitatively compared by their dependence on the molecular alignment with respect to the polarization axis. Two additional mechanisms, which are also related to rescattering, could be identified as well. (orig.)

  3. Range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory applied to periodic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Usvyat, Denis; Toulouse, Julien; Sharkas, Kamal; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Quantum chemistry methods exploiting density-functional approximations for short-range electron-electron interactions and second-order M{{\\o}}ller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for long-range electron-electron interactions have been implemented for periodic systems using Gaussian-type basis functions and the local correlation framework. The performance of these range-separated double hybrids has been benchmarked on a significant set of systems including rare-gas, m...

  4. Transmission zero in a quantum dot with strong electron-electron interaction: Perturbative conductance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sejoong; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2006-05-01

    A pioneering experiment [E. Schuster, E. Buks, M. Heiblum, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, and Hadas Shtrikman, Nature 385, 417 (1997)] reported the measurement of the transmission phase of an electron traversing a quantum dot and found the intriguing feature of a sudden phase drop in the conductance valleys. Based on the Friedel sum rule for a spinless effective one-dimensional system, it has been previously argued [H.-W. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2358 (1999)] that the sudden phase drop should be accompanied by the vanishing of the transmission amplitude, or transmission zero. Here we address roles of strong electron-electron interactions on the electron transport through a two-level quantum dot where one level couples with the leads much more strongly than the other level does [P. G. Silvestrov and Y. Imry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2565 (2000)]. We perform a perturbative conductance calculation with an explicit account of large charging energy and verify that the resulting conductance exhibits transmission zero, in agreement with the analysis based on the Friedel sum rule.

  5. Metastable and spin-polarized states in electron systems with localized electron-electron interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablikov, Vladimir A.; Shchamkhalova, Bagun S.

    2014-05-01

    We study the formation of spontaneous spin polarization in inhomogeneous electron systems with pair interaction localized in a small region that is not separated by a barrier from surrounding gas of non-interacting electrons. Such a system is interesting as a minimal model of a quantum point contact in which the electron-electron interaction is strong in a small constriction coupled to electron reservoirs without barriers. Based on the analysis of the grand potential within the self-consistent field approximation, we find that the formation of the polarized state strongly differs from the Bloch or Stoner transition in homogeneous interacting systems. The main difference is that a metastable state appears in the critical point in addition to the globally stable state, so that when the interaction parameter exceeds a critical value, two states coexist. One state has spin polarization and the other is unpolarized. Another feature is that the spin polarization increases continuously with the interaction parameter and has a square-root singularity in the critical point. We study the critical conditions and the grand potentials of the polarized and unpolarized states for one-dimensional and two-dimensional models in the case of extremely small size of the interaction region.

  6. Electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: belich@cbpf.br; helayel@gft.ucp.br; Del Cima, O.M. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira, M.M. Jr. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: manojr@cbpf.br

    2002-10-01

    We start from a parity-breaking MCS QED{sub 3} model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential and for attainment of numerical values for the e{sup -}e{sup -} - bound state. Three expressions (V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {down_arrow}}, V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {up_arrow}}, V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {down_arrow}}) are obtained according to the polarization state of the scattered electrons. In an energy scale compatible with condensed matter electronic excitations, these potentials become degenerated. The resulting potential is implemented in the Schroedinger equation and the variational method is applied to carry out the electronic binding energy. The resulting binding energies in the scale of 10-100 meV and a correlation length in the scale of 10 - 30 Angstrom are possible indications that the MCS-QED{sub 3} model adopted may be suitable to address an eventual case of e{sup -}e{sup -} pairing in the presence of parity-symmetry breakdown. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 10-100 meV to fix the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)

  7. On the importance of electron-electron scattering for hot-carrier degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyaginov, Stanislav; Bina, Markus; Franco, Jacopo; Wimmer, Yannick; Kaczer, Ben; Grasser, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    Using our physics based model for hot-carrier degradation (HCD) we analyze the importance of the effect of electron-electron scattering (EES) on HCD in transistors with different channel lengths. The model is based on a thorough treatment of carrier transport and is implemented into the deterministic Boltzmann transport equation solver ViennaSHE. Two competing mechanism of Si-H bond-breakage are captured by the model: the one triggered by the multiple vibrational excitation of the bond and another which is due to excitation of one of the bonding electrons to an antibonding state by a solitary hot carrier. These processes are considered self-consistently as competing pathways of the same dissociation reaction. To analyze the importance of the EES process we use a series of nMOSFETs with identical architecture but different gate lengths. The gate length varies in the wide range of 44-300 nm to cover short-channel MOSFETs as well as their longer counterparts. According to previous findings, EES starts to become important at a channel length of 180 nm. This situation is captured in the targeted gate length interval. Our results show that the channel length alone is not a sufficient criterion on the importance of EES and that the applied bias conditions have to be taken into account as well.

  8. Van der Waals forces and electron-electron interactions in two strained graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anand; Harnish, Peter; Sylvester, Alexander; Kotov, Valeri N.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate the van der Waals (vdW) interaction energy at T=0 between two undoped graphene layers which are separated by a finite distance. Our study is carried out within the Random Phase Approximation and the interaction energy is obtained for variation in the strength of effective Coulomb interaction and anisotropy due to applied uniaxial strain. We consider the following three models for the anisotropic case: a) where one of the two layers is uniaxially strained, b) the two layers are strained in the same direction, and c) one of the layers is strained in the perpendicular direction. We find that for all the three models and any given value of the coupling, the vdW interaction energy increases with increasing anisotropy. The effect is most striking for the case when both the layers are strained in the parallel direction where we observe up to an order of magnitude increase in the strained graphene relative to the unstrained case. We also investigate the effect of intra-layer electron-electron interactions in the region of large separation between the strained graphene layers. We conclude that the many-body contributions to the correlation energy are non-negligible and the vdW interaction energy decreases as a function of increasing distance between the layers. Alexander Sylvester acknowledges financial assistance from the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program of the National Science Foundation (NSF) focussing on complex materials.

  9. On the basis set convergence of electron-electron entanglement measures: helium-like systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation of three different electron-electron entanglement measures, namely the von Neumann, the linear and the occupation number entropy at full configuration interaction level has been performed for the four helium-like systems hydride, helium, Li(+) and Be(2+) using a large number of different basis sets. The convergence behavior of the resulting energies and entropies revealed that the latter do in general not show the expected strictly monotonic increase upon increase of the one-electron basis. Overall, the three different entanglement measures show good agreement among each other, the largest deviations being observed for small basis sets. The data clearly demonstrates that it is important to consider the nature of the chemical system when investigating entanglement phenomena in the framework of Gaussian type basis sets: while in case of hydride the use of augmentation functions is crucial, the application of core functions greatly improves the accuracy in case of cationic systems such as Li(+) and Be(2+). In addition, numerical derivatives of the entanglement measures with respect to the nucleic charge have been determined, which proved to be a very sensitive probe of the convergence leading to qualitatively wrong results (i.e., the wrong sign) if too small basis sets are used.

  10. On the basis set convergence of electron-electron entanglement measures: helium-like systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Hofer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of three different electron--electron entanglement measures, namely the von Neumann, the linear and the occupation number entropy at full configuration interaction level has been performed for the four helium-like systems hydride, helium, lithium(I and beryllium(II using a large number of different basis sets. The convergence behaviour of the resulting energies and entropies was revealed that the latter do in general not show monotonic convergence upon increase of the one--electron basis. Overall, the three different entanglement measures show good agreement among each other, the largest deviations being observed for small basis sets. The data clearly demonstrates that it is important to consider the nature of the chemical system when investigating entanglement phenomena in the framework of Gaussian type basis sets: while in case of hydride the use of augmentation functions is crucial, the application of core functions greatly improves the accuracy in case of cationic systems such as lithium(I and beryllium(II.In addition, numerical derivatives of the entanglement measures with respect to the nucleic charge have been determined, which proved to be a very sensitive probe of the convergence leading to qualitatively wrong results if inadequate basis sets are used.

  11. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of a solid in water: Effect of hydrostatic pressure on laser induced plasma, cavitation bubble and emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Claros, M.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Gaudiuso, R.; Santagata, A.; De Giacomo, A.; Fortes, F. J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the development of sensors use in exploration of the deep ocean. Techniques for the chemical analysis of submerged solids are of special interest, as they show promise for subsea mining applications where a rapid sorting of materials found in the sea bottom would improve efficiency. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has demonstrated potential for this application thanks to its unique capability of providing the atomic composition of submerged solids. Here we present a study on the parameters that affect the spectral response of metallic targets in an oceanic pressure environment. Following laser excitation of the solid, the plasma persistence and the cavitation bubble size are considerably reduced as the hydrostatic pressure increases. These effects are of particular concern in dual pulse excitation as reported here, where a careful choice of the interpulse timing is required. Shadowgraphic images of the plasma demonstrate that cavitation bubbles are formed early after the plasma onset and that the effect of hydrostatic pressure is negligible during the early stage of plasma expansion. Contrarily to what is observed at atmospheric pressure, emission spectra observed at high pressures are characterized by self-absorbed atomic lines on continuum radiation resulting from strong radiative recombination in the electron-rich confined environment. This effect is much less evident with ionic lines due to the much higher energy of the levels involved and ionization energy of ions, as well as to the lower extent of absorption effects occurring in the inner part of the plasma, where ionized species are more abundant. As a result of the smaller shorter-lived cavitation bubble, the LIBS intensity enhancement resulting from dual pulse excitation is reduced when the applied pressure increases.

  12. Attractive electron-electron interactions at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prawiroatmodjo, Guenevere E D K

    state is found, and transport characteristics are described to originate from attractive electron-electron interactions that result in a negative effective charging energy U. Further, the excitation spectrum is explored and compared to calculations based on a single-orbital Anderson model with negative...

  13. A Time-Domain Asymptotic Approach to Predict Saddle-Node and Period Doubling Bifurcations in Pulse Width Modulated Piecewise Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Aroudi A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper closed-form conditions for predicting the boundary of period-doubling (PD bifurcation or saddle-node (SN bifurcation in a class of PWM piecewise linear systems are obtained from a time-domain asymptotic approach. Examples of switched system considered in this study are switching dc-dc power electronics converters, temperature control systems and hydraulic valve control systems among others. These conditions are obtained from the steady-state discrete-time model using an asymptotic approach without resorting to frequency-domain Fourier analysis and without using the monodromy or the Jacobian matrix of the discrete-time model as it was recently reported in the existing literature on this topic. The availability of such design-oriented boundary expressions allows to understand the effect of the different parameters of the system upon its stability and its dynamical behavior.

  14. Determination of the distance between the two neutral flavin radicals in augmenter of liver regeneration by pulsed ELDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christopher W M; Elsässer, Celine; Bittl, Robert; Farrell, Scott R; Thorpe, Colin

    2006-01-11

    Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) has been used to obtain structural information from a FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase, Augmenter of Liver Regeneration (ALR). ALR is a homodimer with each subunit containing a noncovalently bound FAD cofactor. Both FADs may be converted into the blue neutral radical form by aerobic treatment with DTT. From three-pulse and four-pulse ELDOR experiments, a distance of 26.1 +/- 0.8 A could be determined between the FAD cofactors in human ALR. Taking into account the electron spin density distribution in a neutral flavin radical obtained from density functional theory calculations, a distance of 26.9 A could be estimated for the separation of the spin centers in the X-ray structure of rat ALR. The good agreement confirms that rat ALR may be used as a model for mechanistic discussions of human ALR. The experiments also demonstrate that neutral flavin radicals have the appropriate properties to be used as intrinsic spin labels for distance determinations in proteins.

  15. A high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for multi-dimensional, multi-frequency, and multi-phase pulsed measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, F. H. [Department of Physics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Stepanov, V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Takahashi, S., E-mail: susumu.takahashi@usc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We describe instrumentation for a high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy. The instrumentation is operated in the frequency range of 107−120 GHz and 215−240 GHz and in the magnetic field range of 0−12.1 T. The spectrometer consisting of a high-frequency high-power solid-state source, a quasioptical system, a phase-sensitive detection system, a cryogenic-free superconducting magnet, and a {sup 4}He cryostat enables multi-frequency continuous-wave EPR spectroscopy as well as pulsed EPR measurements with a few hundred nanosecond pulses. Here we discuss the details of the design and the pulsed EPR sensitivity of the instrumentation. We also present performance of the instrumentation in unique experiments including PELDOR spectroscopy to probe correlations in an insulating electronic spin system and application of dynamical decoupling techniques to extend spin coherence of electron spins in an insulating solid-state system.

  16. Long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-mastectomy pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-control, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; El-Sodany, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    We assess the long-term effect of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in the treatment of the post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). A total of 61 women participated in this study (30 in the laser group and 31 in the placebo laser group), with a mean age of 53.56 ± 1.11 years. Patients who were randomly assigned to the laser group received HILT three times per week for 4 weeks, plus a routine physical therapy program (RPTP). The placebo laser group received placebo HILT plus RPTP. The outcomes measured were pain level by visual analog scale (VAS), shoulder range of motion (ROM), and quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the differences between baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up for both groups. The level of statistical significance was set at P placebo group. VAS results showed a significant decrease post-treatment in the laser group relative to the placebo group, and QOL results showed a significant improvement in the laser group compared with the placebo group and still improved after 12 weeks of follow-up. HILT combined with an RPTP appears to be more effective in patients with PMPS than a placebo laser procedure with RPTP.

  17. Generation of a quasi-monoenergetic high energy proton beam from a vacuum-sandwiched double layer target irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Kim, Kyung; Lee, Kitae, E-mail: klee@kaeri.re.kr; Hee Park, Seong; Young Lee, Ji; Uk Jeong, Young; Vinokurov, Nikolay [Center for Quantum-Beam-based Radiation Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Gi Kim, Yong [Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    An acceleration mechanism to generate a high energy proton beam with a narrow energy spread in the laser-induced plasma acceleration of a proton beam is proposed; this mechanism employs two thin foils separated by a narrow vacuum gap. Instead of a thin sheath field at the plasma surfaces, it utilizes an electrostatic field formed in the bulk of the plasma. From a one-dimensional fluid analysis, it has been found that with an appropriate target thickness, protons on the front surface of the second layer can be fed into the plasma, in which the protons are accelerated by an electrostatic field built into the bulk of the plasma. This leads to a proton beam with higher energy and a narrower energy spread than those accelerated at the rear surface of the second layer. The acceleration mechanism is also verified by a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. With a 27-fs long and 2×10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} intense laser pulse, a proton beam with an 18-MeV peak energy and a 35% energy spread is generated. The peak energy is higher than that from the rear surface of the second layer by a factor of 3.

  18. Crossover of electron-electron interaction effect in Sn-doped indium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Gao, Kuang-Hong; Li, Zhi-Qing, E-mail: zhiqingli@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-03-09

    We systematically study the structures and electrical transport properties of a series of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with thickness t ranging from ∼5 to ∼53 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results indicate that the t ≲ 16.8 nm films are polycrystalline, while those t ≳ 26.7 nm films are epitaxially grown along [100] direction. For the epitaxial films, the Altshuler and Aronov electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect governs the temperature behaviors of the sheet conductance σ{sub □} at low temperatures, and the ratios of relative change of Hall coefficient ΔR{sub H}/R{sub H} to relative change of sheet resistance ΔR{sub □}/R{sub □} are ≈2, which is quantitatively consistent with Altshuler and Aronov EEI theory and seldom observed in other systems. For those polycrystalline films, both the sheet conductance and Hall coefficient vary linearly with logarithm of temperature below several tens Kelvin, which can be well described by the current EEI theories in granular metals. We extract the intergranular tunneling conductance of each film by comparing the σ{sub □}(T) data with the predication of EEI theories in granular metals. It is found that when the tunneling conductance is less than the conductance of a single indium tin oxide (ITO) grain, the ITO film reveals granular metal characteristics in transport properties; conversely, the film shows transport properties of homogeneous disordered conductors. Our results indicate that electrical transport measurement can not only reveal the underlying charge transport properties of the film but also be a powerful tool to detect the subtle homogeneity of the film.

  19. Electron-electron interactions and lattice distortions in the perovskite titanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjaalie, Lars

    A two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with the unprecedented high density of 3x1014 (corresponding to 1/2 electron per interface unit cell area) can be formed at the interface between SrTiO3 and a rare-earth titanate (RTiO3). The 2DEG resides in the SrTiO3, and arises from a polar discontinuity at the interface. The formation of this 2DEG has led us to study these perovskite titanates in detail. Some of these compounds are Mott insulators, where a Mott-Hubbard gap opens up between partially filled Ti 3 d bands. This talk focuses on the importance of the interplay between electron-electron interactions and lattice distortions in these complex oxides, which we study with density functional theory using a hybrid functional, capable of correctly describing electron localization and Mott-insulating behavior. These effects are crucial to understanding the metal-to-insulator transition as a function of electron density. Indeed, very thin SrTiO3 layers inserted in GdTiO3 show insulating behavior, in contrast to the metallic character of thicker layers in which the electrons form a 2DEG. The same physics is observed in bulk SrTiO3 when doped with 1/2 electron per Ti atom. Charge localization and lattice distortions also govern the formation of small hole polarons in the rare-earth titanates. We demonstrate that these polarons impact the optical absorption measurements commonly used to determine the value of the Mott-Hubbard gap. Work performed in collaboration with Anderson Janotti, Burak Himmetoglu, and Chris G. Van de Walle, and supported by NSF and ARO.

  20. A simple approach for electron-electron scattering in nonequilibrium Green's function simulations (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, David O.; Franckie, Martin; Verozzi, Claudio; Wacker, Andreas; Pereira, Mauro F.

    2016-10-01

    Regardless of all the success of Mid Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), they still do not operate at room temperature in the THz range. The main temperature degrading mechanism for THz QCLs is not known in time of writing this abstract and it is still a topic of debate by the community [S. Khanal et al, J. Opt. 16 094001, 2014]. This is a challenge to theory and it is crucial to treat all possible scattering channels with the same mathematical footing. A summary of different methods for simulating these structures is found in [C. Jirauschek et al, Appl. Phys. Rev. 1 011307, 2014]. In this work we include and study the effects of electron-electron scattering via the Single Plasmon Pole Approximation (SPPA). In this approximation we capture both the static limit as well as dynamic effects. This gives an energy dependent (non-local in time) interaction beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. This has been studied in a similar model with promising results [T. Schmielau and M.F. Pereira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 231111, 2009], and with this work we want to adapt the idea into the model described in Ref. [A. Wacker et a, IEEE Journal of Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron.,19 1200611, 2013]. We start by summarizing the theory underlying the SPPA and we show how it is implemented in the context of our formalism, by showing good agreement with the results for a four well quantum cascade laser [M. Amanti et al, New J. Phys. 11 125022, 2009].

  1. Quantitative analysis of deuterium in zircaloy using double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) and helium gas plasma without a sample chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto, H; Lie, Z S; Niki, H; Kagawa, K; Fukumoto, K; Rinda, Hedwig; Abdulmadjid, S N; Marpaung, A M; Pardede, M; Suliyanti, M M; Hidayah, A N; Jobiliong, E; Lie, T J; Tjia, M O; Kurniawan, K H

    2012-03-06

    A crucial safety measure to be strictly observed in the operation of heavy-water nuclear power plants is the mandatory regular inspection of the concentration of deuterium penetrated into the zircaloy fuel vessels. The existing standard method requires a tedious, destructive, and costly sample preparation process involving the removal of the remaining fuel in the vessel and melting away part of the zircaloy pipe. An alternative method of orthogonal dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) is proposed by employing flowing atmospheric helium gas without the use of a sample chamber. The special setup of ps and ns laser systems, operated for the separate ablation of the sample target and the generation of helium gas plasma, respectively, with properly controlled relative timing, has succeeded in producing the desired sharp D I 656.10 nm emission line with effective suppression of the interfering H I 656.28 nm emission by operating the ps ablation laser at very low output energy of 26 mJ and 1 μs ahead of the helium plasma generation. Under this optimal experimental condition, a linear calibration line is attained with practically zero intercept and a 20 μg/g detection limit for D analysis of zircaloy sample while creating a crater only 10 μm in diameter. Therefore, this method promises its potential application for the practical, in situ, and virtually nondestructive quantitative microarea analysis of D, thereby supporting the more-efficient operation and maintenance of heavy-water nuclear power plants. Furthermore, it will also meet the anticipated needs of future nuclear fusion power plants, as well as other important fields of application in the foreseeable future.

  2. Development of a double plasma gun device for investigation of effects of vapor shielding on erosion of PFC materials under ELM-like pulsed plasma bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge localized modes (ELMs) could limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. We have investigated surface damage of tungsten (W) materials under transient heat and particle loads by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is 144 kJ (2.88 mF, 10 kVmax). Surface melting of a W material was clearly observed at the energy density of ˜2 MJ/m2. It is known that surface melting and evaporation during a transient heat load could generate a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material [1]. Then, the subsequent erosion could be reduced by the vapor shielding effect. In this study, we introduce a new experiment using two MCPG devices (MCPG-1, 2) to understand vapor shielding effects of a W surface under ELM-like pulsed plasma bombardment. The capacitor bank energy of MCPG-2 is almost same as that of MCPG-1. The second plasmoid is applied with a variable delay time after the plasmoid produced by MCPG-1. Then, a vapor cloud layer could shield the second plasma load. To verify the vapor shielding effects, surface damage of a W material is investigated by changing the delay time. In the conference, the preliminary experimental results will be shown.[4pt] [1] A. Hassanein et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 390-391, pp. 777-780 (2009).

  3. 双脉冲半导体激光脱毛的安全评估及临床观察%The safety and observation of double pulse semiconductor laser for hair removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费跃; 蔡茂季; 莫晓岚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects and safety of double pulse semiconductor laser for hair removal .Methods 260 cases had been selected ,of which ,318 sites that had been received Continuous -fast-moving treatments were collected and evaluated in parts , times ,each part of the energy value and safety .Results The effective ratet after at least 3 times was 96.8% ,and blister ,purpura ,pigmen-tation and scar were not be seen .Each part and times of the treatment and energy value are not the same .Conclusion Double pulse semi-conductor laser is effective and safe for hair removal .%目的:评估双脉冲半导体激光脱毛的临床疗效及安全性方法采用第三代双脉冲810nm 半导体激光器对298例患者共376个部位,应用连续发射快速移动技术做脱毛治疗,在患者的脱毛部位、脱毛次数、各部位能量总值和安全性方面进行评估。结果经6个月至2年随访,260例患者318个部位通过3-5次或以上的脱毛治疗,有效率为96.8%,效果明显,患者满意,无1例出现水泡、紫疲、色素沉着及疤痕。疗效与治疗次数相关;各部位治疗次数及能量总值均不相同。结论双脉冲半导体激光脱毛疗效明显,安全可靠,不良反应及并发症少。

  4. Arc Spectrum Diagnostic and Heat Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Double Wire Pulsed MIG Welding%双丝脉冲MIG焊接电弧光谱诊断及热源耦合机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永强; 李桓; 杨立军; 郑凯; 高莹

    2015-01-01

    A double wire pulsed MIG welding test system was built in the present paper ,in order to analyze the heat-coupling mechanism of double wire pulsed MIG welding ,and study arc temperature field .Spectroscopic technique was used in diagnostic analysis of the arc ,plasma radiation was collected by using hollow probe method to obtain the arc plasma optical signal .The electron temperature of double wire pulsed MIG welding arc plasma was calculated by using Boltzmann diagram method ,the electron temperature distribution was obtained ,a comprehensive analysis of the arc was conducted combined with the high speed camera technology and acquisition means of electricity signal .The innovation of this paper is the combination of high-speed cam-era image information of arc and optical signal of arc plasma to analyze the coupling mechanism for dual arc ,and a more intuitive analysis for arc temperature field was conducted .The test results showed that a push-pull output was achieved and droplet trans-fer mode was a drop in a pulse in the welding process ;Two arcs attracted each other under the action of a magnetic field ,and shifted to the center of the arc in welding process ,so a new heat center was formed at the geometric center of the double arc ,and flowing up phenomenon occurred on the arc ;Dual arc electronic temperature showed an inverted V-shaped distribution overall , and at the geometric center of the double arc ,the arc electron temperature at 3 mm off the workpiece surface was the highest , which was 16 887.66 K ,about 4 900 K higher than the lowest temperature 11 963.63 K .%搭建了双丝脉冲M IG焊接试验系统,为了分析研究双丝脉冲M IG焊接的热源耦合机理以及电弧温度场,采用光谱技术对其电弧进行了诊断分析,采用中空探针法进行等离子体的辐射采集,得到电弧等离子体的光信号,利用Boltzmann图法计算了双丝脉冲M IG焊接电弧等离子体的电子温度,得出了电弧等离子体

  5. Transient optical response of ultrafast nonequilibrium excited metals: Effects of electron-electron contribution to collisional absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Audouard, Eric; Stoian, Razvan

    2008-01-01

    Approaching energy coupling in laser-irradiated metals, we point out the role of electron-electron collision as an efficient control factor for ultrafast optical absorption. The high degree of laser-induced electron-ion nonequilibrium drives a complex absorption pattern with consequences on the transient optical properties. Consequently, high electronic temperatures determine largely the collision frequency and establish a transition between absorptive regimes in solid and plasma phases. In particular, taking into account umklapp electron-electron collisions, we performed hydrodynamic simulations of the laser-matter interaction to calculate laser energy deposition during the electron-ion nonequilibrium stage and subsequent matter transformation phases. We observe strong correlations between optical and thermodynamic properties according to the experimental situations. A suitable connection between solid and plasma regimes is chosen in accordance with models that describe the behavior in extreme, asymptotic re...

  6. Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rogier H. M.; Sprik, Rudolf; Lagendijk, Ad

    1995-05-01

    We show experimentally that the electron distribution of a laser-heated metal is a nonthermal distribution on the time scale of the electron-phonon (e-ph) energy relaxation time τE. We measured τE in 45-nm Ag and 30-nm Au thin films as a function of lattice temperature (Ti=10-300 K) and laser-energy density (Ul=0.3-1.3 J cm-3), combining femtosecond optical transient-reflection techniques with the surface-plasmon polariton resonance. The experimental effective e-ph energy relaxation time decreased from 710-530 fs and 830-530 fs for Ag and Au, respectively, when temperature is lowered from 300 to 10 K. At various temperatures we varied Ul between 0.3-1.3 J cm-3 and observed that τE is independent from Ul within the given range. The results were first compared to theoretical predictions of the two-temperature model (TTM). The TTM is the generally accepted model for e-ph energy relaxation and is based on the assumption that electrons and lattice can be described by two different time-dependent temperatures Te and Ti, implying that the two subsystems each have a thermal distribution. The TTM predicts a quasiproportional relation between τE and Ti in the perturbative regime where τE is not affected by Ul. Hence, it is shown that the measured dependencies of τE on lattice temperature and energy density are incompatible with the TTM. It is proven that the TTM assumption of a thermal electron distribution does not hold especially under our experimental conditions of low laser power and lattice temperature. The electron distribution is a nonthermal distribution on the picosecond time scale of e-ph energy relaxation. We developed a new model, the nonthermal electron model (NEM), in which we account for the (finite) electron-electron (e-e) and electron-phonon dynamics simultaneously. It is demonstrated that incomplete electron thermalization yields a slower e-ph energy relaxation in comparison to the thermalized limit. With the NEM we are able to give a consistent

  7. Effect of electron-electron interactions on Rashba-like and spin-split systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandradinata, A.; Hirsch, J. E.

    2010-11-01

    The role of electron-electron interactions is analyzed for Rashba-like and spin-split systems within a tight-binding single-band Hubbard model with on-site and all nearest-neighbor matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction. By Rashba-like systems we refer to the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit-coupled phases while spin-split systems have spin-up and spin-down Fermi surfaces shifted relative to each other. Both systems break parity but preserve time-reversal symmetry. They belong to a class of symmetry-breaking ground states that satisfy: (i) electron crystal momentum is a good quantum number, (ii) these states have no net magnetic moment, and (iii) their distribution of “polarized spin” in momentum space breaks the lattice symmetry. For all members of this class, the relevant Coulomb matrix elements are found to be nearest-neighbor exchange J , pair hopping J' , and nearest-neighbor repulsion V . These ground states lower their energy most effectively through J , hence we name them class J states. The competing effects of V-J' on the direct and exchange energies determine the relative stability of class J states. We show that the spin-split and Rashba-like phases are the most favored ground states within class J because they have the minimum anisotropy in polarized spin. We analyze these two states on a square lattice and find that the spin-split phase is always favored for near-empty bands; above a critical filling, we predict a transition from the paramagnetic to the Rashba-like phase at a critical J(Jc1) and a second transition from the Rashba-like to the spin-split state at Jc2>Jc1 . An energetic comparison with ferromagnetism highlights the importance of the role of V in the stability of class J states. We discuss the relevance of our results to (i) the α and β phases proposed by Wu and Zhang in the Fermi-liquid formalism and (ii) experimental observations of spin-orbit splitting in Au(111) surface states.

  8. Effective mass in bilayer graphene at low carrier densities: The role of potential disorder and electron-electron interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Tan, L. Z.; Zou, K.; Stabile, A. A.; Seiwell, D. J.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Louie, Steven G.; Zhu, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a two-dimensional electron gas, the electron-electron interaction generally becomes stronger at lower carrier densities and renormalizes the Fermi-liquid parameters, such as the effective mass of carriers. We combine experiment and theory to study the effective masses of electrons and holes me* and mh* in bilayer graphene in the low carrier density regime on the order of 1 ×1011c m-2 . Measurements use temperature-dependent low-field Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations observed in high-mobility hexagonal boron nitride supported samples. We find that while me* follows a tight-binding description in the whole density range, mh* starts to drop rapidly below the tight-binding description at a carrier density of n =6 ×1011c m-2 and exhibits a strong suppression of 30% when n reaches 2 ×1011c m-2 . Contributions from the electron-electron interaction alone, evaluated using several different approximations, cannot explain the experimental trend. Instead, the effect of the potential fluctuation and the resulting electron-hole puddles play a crucial role. Calculations including both the electron-electron interaction and disorder effects explain the experimental data qualitatively and quantitatively. This Rapid Communication reveals an unusual disorder effect unique to two-dimensional semimetallic systems.

  9. High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  10. High-power picosecond laser pulse recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high-power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering-based light sources. We demonstrate up to 40x average power enhancement of frequency-doubled submillijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  11. CFD modeling and experimental verification of a single-stage coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without either double-inlet or multi-bypass operating at 30-35 K using mixed stainless steel mesh regenerator matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Zhao, Yibo

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the CFD modeling and experimental verifications of a single-stage inertance tube coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30-35 K using mixed stainless steel mesh regenerator matrices without either double-inlet or multi-bypass. A two-dimensional axis-symmetric CFD model with the thermal non-equilibrium mode is developed to simulate the internal process, and the underlying mechanism of significantly reducing the regenerator losses with mixed matrices is discussed in detail based on the given six cases. The modeling also indicates that the combination of the given different mesh segments can be optimized to achieve the highest cooling efficiency or the largest exergy ratio, and then the verification experiments are conducted in which the satisfactory agreements between simulated and tested results are observed. The experiments achieve a no-load temperature of 27.2 K and the cooling power of 0.78 W at 35 K, or 0.29 W at 30 K, with an input electric power of 220 W and a reject temperature of 300 K.

  12. MEDEA II two-pulse generator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Honig, J.; Theby, E. A.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses improvements in the efficiency, output power, and operational flexibility of MEDEA II, a double-pulse electron beam accelerator at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. A modified charging circuit, based on the triple-resonance pulse transformer concept, was implemented on both of MEDEA II's two stages. The output switches were modified to increase maximum output voltages, and a new, second output switch with asymmetric breakdown characteristics was developed. To avoid degradation of the second-pulse output waveform at the diode, a keep-alive circuit was installed. The effects of diode closure on double-pulse operation are also discussed.

  13. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  14. Parity-violating electric-dipole transitions in helium induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, J.G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nuez-Lagos, R.; Pacheco, A.F.

    1984-04-01

    The parity-violating E1 transitions between the n = 2 levels of atomic helium, induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction have been computed by using Coulomb-type wave functions and (up to 84 parameter) Hylleraas wave functions. The parity-violating matrix elements turn out to be of the same order of magnitude as those due to the electron-nucleus weak interaction, thus allowing one to conclude that the relative importance of both effects is to be traced to their corresponding effective coupling constants.

  15. Effect of electron-electron interaction on the magnetic moment and susceptibility of a parabolic GaAs quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Aalu; Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Sankar, I. V.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    The problem of a parabolically confined two-dimensional semiconductor GaAs quantum dot with two interacting electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field and the spin-Zeeman interaction is studied using a method of numerical diagonalization. The energy spectrum is calculated as a function of the magnetic field. The magnetic moment (M) and the magnetic susceptibility (χ) show zero temperature diamagnetic peaks due to the exchange induced singlet-triplet transitions. The position and the number of these peaks depend both on the confinement strength of the quantum dot and the strength of the electron-electron interaction (β) .

  16. Effect of connecting wires on the decoherence due to electron-electron interaction in a metallic ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Christophe

    2007-10-01

    We consider the weak localization in a ring connected to reservoirs through leads of finite length and submitted to a magnetic field. The effect of decoherence due to electron-electron interaction on the harmonics of Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak [JETP Lett. 33, 94 (1981)] oscillations is studied, and more specifically the effect of the leads. Two results are obtained for short and long lead regimes. The scale at which the crossover occurs is discussed. The long lead regime is shown to be more realistic experimentally.

  17. Electron-electron interactions in the chemical bond: ``1/3” Effect in the bond length of hydrogen molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Ganguly

    2001-10-01

    The prominent ``1/3” effect observed in the Hall effect plateaus of twodimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems has been postulated to indicating 1/3 fractional charge quasiparticle excitations arising from electron-electron interactions. Tunneling shot-noise experiments on 2DEF exhibiting fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) shows evidence for tunnelling of particles with and /3 charges for a constant band mass. A ``1/3” effect in the hydrogen molecule is seen in as much as its internuclear distance, - = - + +, with |+/-| = 1/3. This is examined in terms of electron-electron interactions involving electron- and hole quasiparticles, (-) and (ℎ+), equivalent to those observed in FQHE shot-noise experiments. The (/) ratio of the (-) and (ℎ+) quasiparticles is kept at 1: -3. Instead of a 2DEG, these particles are treated as being in flat Bohr orbits. A treatment in the language of charge-flux tube composites for the hydrogen atom as well as the hydrogen molecule is attempted. Such treatment gives important insights into changes in chemical potential and bond energy on crossing a phase boundary during the atom-bond transition as well as on models for FQHE itself.

  18. Investigation of pulsed voltage limiters characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimov A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for measuring the voltage limit is offered. It has been designed to measure high-power pulsed current of voltage limiters. The error of this method is half as much as the error of the known method of direct measurement. The investigation of dependence of power capability of single-crystal and double-crystal voltage limiters and of the pulsed operation time on pulse duration.

  19. Research and Application of Realizing Thyristor Trigger Using “Double Narrow Pulse” by the Microcomputer Control High-frequency Pulse Column%微机控制高频脉冲列实现晶闸管“双窄脉冲触发”的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘觉民; 付义; 向增; 秦攀; 祖映翔

    2011-01-01

    运用冲量定理深入分析了高频脉冲列触发晶闸管的机理;通过建立励磁回路和晶闸管触发回路数学模型,由晶闸管开通时间、擎住电流、励磁回路与触发回路模型参数等数据,计算出感性负载下晶闸管触发的最小脉冲宽度和高频脉冲列周期与脉宽,据此设计出微机控制高频脉冲列晶闸管“双窄脉冲触发”程序.样机试验表明,晶闸管三相可控整流桥各路高频脉冲列和励磁电压波形稳定、对称性好,晶闸管触发精度高,达到励磁装置设计要求.%By using impulse theorem, we have analyzed the mechanism of trigger thyristor by high-frequency pulse instead of width pulse . Through the establishment of an excitation circuit and a trigger thyristor circuit mathematical model and with the thyristor switch time, latching current, perceptual load and pulse transformer model parameters, we have calculated the thyristor conduction of minimum pulse width, cycle and pulse-width of equivalent high-frequency pulse column. Accordingly, we have designed thyristor "double narrow pulse triggering" program based on microcomputer control high-frequency pulse column. A prototype test waveforms and data of trigger microcomputer excitation system have shown that high-frequency pulse column and the excitation voltage waveform of three-phase controlled thyristor rectifier bridge rostrum are stable and have good symmetry. Also, the excitation voltage is stable and continuously adjustable. It has satisfied the requirements of wide pulse triggering.

  20. A study of ultrafast electron diffusion kinetics in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian-Jun; Liu Wei-Wei; Zhu Xiao-Nong

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the electron diffusion in metallic targets, where the electron-electron collision is the dominant process, is investigated with the help of an extended two-temperature model. In sharp contrast to the low electron temperature case, where only the electron-phonon collisions are commonly considered, the electron diffusion process underlying the high electron temperatures evolves dramatically different in both temporal and spatial domains.Calculated results of the ablation yield at different pulse durations are presented for a copper plate impinged by ultrashort laser pulses with energy fluences ranging from 0.1 J/cm2 to 10 J/cm2. The excellent agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data indicates the significant role of electron-electron collisions in material ablations using intense ultrashort laser pulses.

  1. Density-functional calculations of transport properties in the nondegenerate limit and the role of electron-electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael P.; Scullard, Christian R.; Benedict, Lorin X.; Whitley, Heather D.; Redmer, Ronald

    2017-03-01

    We compute electrical and thermal conductivities of hydrogen plasmas in the nondegenerate regime using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and an application of the Kubo-Greenwood response formula, and demonstrate that for thermal conductivity, the mean-field treatment of the electron-electron (e-e) interaction therein is insufficient to reproduce the weak-coupling limit obtained by plasma kinetic theories. An explicit e-e scattering correction to the DFT is posited by appealing to Matthiessen's Rule and the results of our computations of conductivities with the quantum Lenard-Balescu (QLB) equation. Further motivation of our correction is provided by an argument arising from the Zubarev quantum kinetic theory approach. Significant emphasis is placed on our efforts to produce properly converged results for plasma transport using Kohn-Sham DFT, so that an accurate assessment of the importance and efficacy of our e-e scattering corrections to the thermal conductivity can be made.

  2. Doubled-ended ceramic thyratron

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The double-ended ceramic thyratron CX 1171 B, with its coaxial voltage divider for the SPS. Such a switch, paralleled by three ignitrons in series forms the "thyragnitron" arrangement, and can switch 10 kA, 25 ms pulses, with very fast rise times.

  3. Pulse Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of pulse voltammetry, indicating that its widespread use arises from good sensitivity and detection limits and from ease of application and low cost. Provides analytical and mechanistic applications of the procedure. (JN)

  4. Controlling double ionization of atoms in pump-probe experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bauch, S; Bonitz, M

    2010-01-01

    The ionization dynamics of a two-electron atom in an attosecond XUV-infrared pump-probe experiment is simulated by solving the time-dependent two-electron Schr\\"odinger equation. A dramatic change of the double ionization (DI) yield with variation of the pump-probe delay is reported and the governing role of electron-electron correlations is shown. The results allow for a direct control of the DI yield and of the relative strength of double and single ionization.

  5. Nonlinear temporal pulse cleaning techniques and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; Xu; Jianzhou; Wang; Yansui; Huang; Yanyan; Li; Xiaomin; Lu; Yuxin; Leng

    2013-01-01

    Two different pulse cleaning techniques for ultra-high contrast laser systems are comparably analysed in this work.The first pulse cleaning technique is based on noncollinear femtosecond optical-parametric amplification(NOPA)and second-harmonic generation(SHG)processes.The other is based on cross-polarized wave(XPW)generation.With a double chirped pulse amplifier(double-CPA)scheme,although temporal contrast enhancement in a high-intensity femtosecond Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification(CPA)laser system can be achieved based on both of the techniques,the two different pulse cleaning techniques still have their own advantages and are suitable for different contrast enhancement requirements of different laser systems.

  6. Tree-level equivalence between a Lorentz-violating extension of QED and its dual model in electron-electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H. G.; Brito, L. C. T.; Scarpelli, A. P. Baêta

    2017-02-01

    S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter.

  7. Tree-level equivalence between a Lorentz-violating extension of QED and its dual model in electron-electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter. (orig.)

  8. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime impo

  9. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  10. Development of pulsed positron beam line with compact pulsing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Masaki, E-mail: maekawa.masaki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kawasuso, Atsuo [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed slow positron beam with a pulse width of less than 200 ps and a period of 25 ns. The beam apparatus is composed of a Munich-type pre-buncher, a chopper and a buncher. Instead of the conventional RF cavity, a simple double-cylinder electrode is used for the buncher. The beam will be used for positron lifetime measurements. The time resolution of the whole system including lifetime measurement circuits is 250 ps, which is adequate for studying semiconductors and metals.

  11. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  12. Millijoule pulse energy picosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yang; Xiaohong Hu; Yishan Wang; Wei Zhang; Wei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    @@ The efficient generation of a 1.17-mJ laser pul8e with 360 ps duration using an ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber amplifier chain seeded by a homemade mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally.A specially designed figure-of-eight fiber laser acts as the seed source of a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system and generates mode-locked pulse8 with hundreds of picosecond widths.Two kinds of large-mode-area (LMA) double-clad Yb-doped fibers are employed to construct the pre-amplifier and main amplifier, All of the adopted instruments help avoid severe nonlinearity in fibers to raise sub-nanosecond pulse energy with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).The output spectrum of this fiber-based CPA system shows that amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is suppressed to better than 30 dB, and the onset of stimulated Raman scattering is excluded.%The efficient generation of a 1.17-mJ laser pulse with 360 ps duration using an ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber amplifier chain seeded by a homemade mode-locked fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally. A specially designed figure-of-eight fiber laser acts as the seed source of a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system and generates mode-locked pulses with hundreds of picosecond widths. Two kinds of large-mode-area (LMA) double-clad Yb-doped fibers are employed to construct the pre-amplifier and main amplifier. All of the adopted instruments help avoid severe nonlinearity in fibers to raise sub-nanosecond pulse energy with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The output spectrum of this fiber-based CPA system shows that amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is suppressed to better than 30 dB, and the onset of stimulated Raman scattering is excluded.

  13. ICI Alleviation in OFDM System Utilizing Scale Alpha Pulse Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adibah Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new pulse shaping method namely scale alpha is proposed for mitigating Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI effect in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM system. The suggested pulse shape is designed and simulated using MATLAB software. Results show that the new pulse shape has lower ICI power and better impulse response performance than Franks, raised cosine and double-jump pulses.

  14. Formation of Hubbard-like bands as a fingerprint of strong electron-electron interactions in FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew D.; Backes, Steffen; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Hoesch, Moritz; Kim, Timur K.; Coldea, Amalia I.; Valentí, Roser

    2017-02-01

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to explore the electronic structure of single crystals of FeSe over a wide range of binding energies and study the effects of strong electron-electron correlations. We provide evidence for the existence of "Hubbard-like bands" at high binding energies consisting of incoherent many-body excitations originating from Fe 3 d states in addition to the renormalized quasiparticle bands near the Fermi level. Many high-energy features of the observed ARPES data can be accounted for when incorporating the effects of strong local Coulomb interactions in calculations of the spectral function via dynamical mean-field theory, including the formation of a Hubbard-like band. This shows that over the energy scale of several eV, local correlations arising from the on-site Coulomb repulsion and Hund's coupling are essential for a proper understanding of the electronic structure of FeSe and other related iron-based superconductors.

  15. Ionization of atoms by chirped attosecond pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Fang; Peng Liang-You; Gong Qi-Huang

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the ionization dynamics of atoms by chirped attosecond pulses using the strong field approximation method. The pulse parameters are carefully chosen in the regime where the strong field approximation method is valid. We analyse the effects of the chirp of attosecond pulses on the energy distributions and the corresponding left-right asymmetry of the ionized electrons. For a single chirped attosecond pulse, the ionized electrons can be redistributed and the left-right asymmetry shows oscillations because of the introduction of the chirp. For time-delayed double attosecond pulses at different intensities with the weaker one chirped, exchanging the order of the two pulses shows a relative shift of the energy spectra, which can be explained by the different effective time delays of different frequency components because of the chirp.

  16. Attosecond double-slit experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, F; Schätzel, M G; Walther, H; Baltuska, A; Goulielmakis, E; Krausz, F; Milosević, D B; Bauer, D; Becker, W; Paulus, G G

    2005-07-22

    A new scheme for a double-slit experiment in the time domain is presented. Phase-stabilized few-cycle laser pulses open one to two windows (slits) of attosecond duration for photoionization. Fringes in the angle-resolved energy spectrum of varying visibility depending on the degree of which-way information are measured. A situation in which one and the same electron encounters a single and a double slit at the same time is observed. The investigation of the fringes makes possible interferometry on the attosecond time scale. From the number of visible fringes, for example, one derives that the slits are extended over about 500 as.

  17. Pulsed thermoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.; Nedelcu, M.

    2010-07-01

    A special mechanism of thermoelectric transport is described, consisting of pulses of charge carriers which "fly" periodically through the external circuit from the hot end of the sample to the cold end, with a determined duration of the "on" and "off" times of the electric contacts, while maintaining continuously the thermal contacts. It is shown that such a "resonant" ideal thermogenerator may work cyclically, with the same efficiency quotient as the ideal efficiency quotient of the thermoelectric devices operated in the usual stationary transport regime but the electric flow and power are increased, as a consequence of the concentration of the charge carriers on pulses of small spatial extent. The process is reversible, in the sense that it can be operated either as a thermoelectric generator or as an electrothermal cooler.

  18. Differential pulse voltammetry and additive differential pulse voltammetry with solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, J A; Serna, C; Molina, A; Gil, A

    2006-12-01

    The ion transfer across the water-solvent polymeric membrane interface is investigated by using a new device based on a modification of a commercial ion-selective electrode body that permits the accommodation of a platinum counter electrode inside the inner filling solution compartment and, therefore, use of a four-electrode potentiostat with ohmic drop compensation. This device is used here to apply two different double potential pulse techniques--differential pulse voltammetry and additive differential pulse voltammetry--which are more advantageous than other voltammetric techniques, such as normal pulse voltammetry or cyclic voltammetry, for the determination of the characteristic electrochemical parameters of the system. This is due to the concurrence of two factors in these double potential pulse techniques, the peak-shaped response together with a considerable reduction of undesirable current contributions.

  19. Picosecond pulse measurements using the active laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, James P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple method for measuring the pulse lengths of synchronously pumped dye lasers which does not require the use of an external nonlinear medium, such as a doubling crystal or two-photon fluorescence cell, to autocorrelate the pulses is discussed. The technique involves feeding the laser pulses back into the dye jet, thus correlating the output pulses with the intracavity pulses to obtain pulse length signatures in the resulting time-averaged laser power. Experimental measurements were performed using a rhodamine 6G dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The results agree well with numerical computations, and the method proves effective in determining lengths of picosecond laser pulses.

  20. Divided-pulse nonlinear amplification and simultaneous compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Qiang; Zhang, Qingshan; Sun, Tingting; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yuqing; Guo, Zhengru; Yang, Kangwen [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, and Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System, Ministry of Education, School of Optical Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Guo, Zhanhua [Shanghai Langyan Optoelectronic Science and Technology Co., LTD, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zeng, Heping, E-mail: hpzeng@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, and Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System, Ministry of Education, School of Optical Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2015-03-09

    We report on a fiber laser system delivering 122 fs pulse duration and 600 mW average power at 1560 nm by the interplay between divided pulse amplification and nonlinear pulse compression. A small-core double-clad erbium-doped fiber with anomalous dispersion carries out the pulse amplification and simultaneously compresses the laser pulses such that a separate compressor is no longer necessary. A numeric simulation reveals the existence of an optimum fiber length for producing transform-limited pulses. Furthermore, frequency doubling to 780 nm with 240 mW average power and 98 fs pulse duration is achieved by using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal at room temperature.

  1. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE 011 cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8 mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ˜60%). The resonator accepts 3 mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor ( Q L) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ( 1H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  2. Hollow-fiber compression of visible, 200 fs laser pulses to 40 fs pulse duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, I; Velotta, R; Altucci, C; Amoruso, S; Bruzzese, R; Wang, X; Tosa, V; Sansone, G; Vozzi, C; Nisoli, M

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate the use of a very simple, compact, and versatile method, based on the hollow-fiber compression technique, to shorten the temporal length of visible laser pulses of 100-300 fs to pulse durations shorter than approximately 50 fs. In particular, 200 fs, frequency-doubled, Nd:glass laser pulses (527 nm) were spectrally broadened to final bandwidths as large as 25 nm by nonlinear propagation through an Ar-filled hollow fiber. A compact, dispersive, prism-pair compressor was then used to produce as short as 40 fs, 150 microJ pulses. A very satisfactory agreement between numerical simulations and measurements is found.

  3. Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Simon; Böhme, Sabine; Krüger, André; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Klare, Johann P; Wittinghofer, Alfred

    2009-10-01

    MnmE, which is involved in the modification of the wobble position of certain tRNAs, belongs to the expanding class of G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs). Previous models suggested the protein to be a multidomain protein whose G domains contact each other in a nucleotide dependent manner. Here we employ a combined approach of X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to show that large domain movements are coupled to the G protein cycle of MnmE. The X-ray structures show MnmE to be a constitutive homodimer where the highly mobile G domains face each other in various orientations but are not in close contact as suggested by the GDP-AlF(x) structure of the isolated domains. Distance measurements by pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy show that the G domains adopt an open conformation in the nucleotide free/GDP-bound and an open/closed two-state equilibrium in the GTP-bound state, with maximal distance variations of 18 A. With GDP and AlF(x), which mimic the transition state of the phosphoryl transfer reaction, only the closed conformation is observed. Dimerization of the active sites with GDP-AlF(x) requires the presence of specific monovalent cations, thus reflecting the requirements for the GTPase reaction of MnmE. Our results directly demonstrate the nature of the conformational changes MnmE was previously suggested to undergo during its GTPase cycle. They show the nucleotide-dependent dynamic movements of the G domains around two swivel positions relative to the rest of the protein, and they are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanistic principles of this GAD.

  4. Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Meyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available MnmE, which is involved in the modification of the wobble position of certain tRNAs, belongs to the expanding class of G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs. Previous models suggested the protein to be a multidomain protein whose G domains contact each other in a nucleotide dependent manner. Here we employ a combined approach of X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to show that large domain movements are coupled to the G protein cycle of MnmE. The X-ray structures show MnmE to be a constitutive homodimer where the highly mobile G domains face each other in various orientations but are not in close contact as suggested by the GDP-AlF(x structure of the isolated domains. Distance measurements by pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER spectroscopy show that the G domains adopt an open conformation in the nucleotide free/GDP-bound and an open/closed two-state equilibrium in the GTP-bound state, with maximal distance variations of 18 A. With GDP and AlF(x, which mimic the transition state of the phosphoryl transfer reaction, only the closed conformation is observed. Dimerization of the active sites with GDP-AlF(x requires the presence of specific monovalent cations, thus reflecting the requirements for the GTPase reaction of MnmE. Our results directly demonstrate the nature of the conformational changes MnmE was previously suggested to undergo during its GTPase cycle. They show the nucleotide-dependent dynamic movements of the G domains around two swivel positions relative to the rest of the protein, and they are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanistic principles of this GAD.

  5. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  6. Universal increase in the superconducting critical temperature of two-dimensional semiconductors at low doping by the electron-electron interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Matteo; Zoccante, Paolo; Mauri, Francesco

    2015-02-20

    In two-dimensional multivalley semiconductors, at low doping, even a moderate electron-electron interaction enhances the response to any perturbation inducing a valley polarization. If the valley polarization is due to the electron-phonon coupling, the electron-electron interaction results in an enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature. By performing first-principles calculations beyond density functional theory, we prove that this effect accounts for the unconventional doping dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) and of the magnetic susceptibility measured in Li(x)ZrNCI. Finally, we discuss what are the conditions for a maximal T(c) enhancement in weakly doped two-dimensional semiconductors.

  7. Pulsed Green Laser for Time Resolved Raman Spectroscopy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of developing a fully packaged, efficient, short pulse, high repetition rate frequency doubled micro-chip...

  8. Spin decoherence in n-type GaAs: The effectiveness of the third-body rejection method for electron-electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Gionni, E-mail: gionnimarchetti@gmail.com; Hodgson, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.hodgson@york.ac.uk; D' Amico, Irene, E-mail: irene.damico@york.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of York, York, Heslington YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28

    We study the spin decoherence in n-type bulk GaAs for moderate electronic densities at room temperature using the Ensemble Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate that a technique called “third-body rejection method” devised by B. K. Ridley, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 10, 1589 (1977) can be successfully adapted to Ensemble Monte Carlo method and used to tackle the problem of the electron-electron contribution to spin decoherence in the parameter region under study, where the electron-electron interaction can be reasonably described by a Yukawa potential. This scattering technique is employed in a doping region where one can expect that multiple collisions may play a role in carrier dynamics. By this technique, we are able to calculate spin relaxation times which are in very good agreement with the experimental results found by Oertel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 13 (2008). Through this method, we show that the electron-electron scattering is overestimated in Born approximation, in agreement with previous results obtained by C. A. Kukkonen and H. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 8, 4601 (1973).

  9. Double-electron ionization driven by inhomogeneous fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chacón, A; Cucchietti, F; Suárez, N; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Ciappina, M F; Landsman, A S; Lewenstein, M

    2016-01-01

    Electron-electron correlation effects play an instrumental role in our understanding of sequential (SDI) and non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) mechanisms. Here, we present a theoretical study of NSDI driven by plasmonic-enhanced spatial inhomogeneous fields. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for a linear reduced model of He and a double-electron time-evolution probability analysis, we provide evidence for the enhancement effects in NSDI showing that the double ionization yield at lower laser peak intensities is increased due to the inhomogeneity of the laser field. Furthermore, our quantum mechanical model, as well as classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, show that inhomogeneous fields are a useful tool for splitting the binary and recoil processes in the rescattering scenario.

  10. Design and construction of a pulse magnetiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. M.; Gonzalez, F. J. G.; Avalos, E. C.; Rocha, G. G. L.; Llamazares, J. L. S.

    2005-10-01

    In the present paper we present the design and construction of a pulsed field magnetizer that has been set up at the IF-UASLP. The system is based on the discharge of the energy stored in a capacitor bank (C-total = 23.1 mF; U = 1/2CV(2) approximate to 2300 J) into a resistive double-layer copper solenoid supported by reinforcing glass fibers. This magnetizer is capable of generating pulsed magnetic field strengths up to 9.0 T, in a cylindrical volume of 17 mm diameter at the center of the solenoid, with a pulse duration of about 2.0 ms. The principle of operation of the magnetizer as well as the design of the field solenoid are described. A pick-up coil system combined with an electronic integrator is also available in the apparatus to monitor the shape of the field pulse, peak field, and pulse duration.

  11. High gain broadband amplification of ultraviolet pulses in optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Paweł; Stepanenko, Yuriy; Radzewicz, Czesław

    2010-04-12

    We report on a high gain amplification of broadband ultraviolet femtosecond pulses in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier. Broadband ultraviolet seed pulses were obtained by an achromatic frequency doubling of the output from a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Stretched seed pulses were amplified in a multipass parametric amplifier with a single BBO crystal pumped by a ns frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. A noncollinear configuration was used for a broadband amplification. The total (after compression) amplification of 2.510(5) was achieved, with compressed pulse energy of 30 microJ and pulse duration of 24 fs. We found that the measured gain was limited by thermal effects induced by the absorption of the pump laser by color centers created in the BBO crystal.

  12. Double supergeometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type II supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup ("pure spinors") define super-sections.

  13. Double screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  14. Interplay between electron spin and orbital pseudospin in double quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sooa; Yang, S. -R. Eric

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically spin and orbital pseudospin magnetic properties of a molecular orbital in parabolic and elliptic double quantum dots (DQDs). In our many body calculation we include intra- and inter-dot electron-electron interactions, in addition to the intradot exchange interaction of `p' orbitals. We find for parabolic DQDs that, except for the half or completely filled molecular orbital, spins in different dots are ferromagnetically coupled while orbital pseudospins are antifer...

  15. Development and use of a laser double pulse process for the optical investigation of the dynamics of cavitation phenomena in a plan or nozzle with fast flow through it; Entwicklung und Einsatz eines Lasser-Doppelpulsverfahrens zur optischen Untersuchung der Dynamik von Kavitationserscheinungen in einer schnell durchstroemten, planaren Duese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosen, P.; Kluitmann, S. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    1997-12-01

    A double pulse technique was developed for the datailed investigation of the dynamics of cavitating nozzle flow in a planar, optically accessible nozzle of realistic dimensions, which combines the short time of laser pulses with the freedom from speckles of wide-band radiation. The light from fluorescence radiators is used here, which in turn is excited by lasers to very short period illumination. This technique was used as light source for shade photographs and also for a particle trace follow-up in the planar nozzles. The technique was explained by results from examples and some conclusions were drawn regarding the characterisation of internal nozzle flow. The work was supported by the German Research Association in the context of the main programme `Transient Processes`. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur detaillierten Untersuchung der Dynamik kavitierender Duesenstroemungen in einer planaren, optisch zugaenglichen Duese realistischer Dimension wurde eine Doppelpulstechnik entwickelt, die die Kurzzeitigkeit von Laserpulsen mit der Specklefreiheit breitbandiger Strahlung verbindet. Hierbei wird das Licht von Fluoreszenzstrahlern ausgenutzt, die ihrerseits durch Laser zu sehr kurzzeitigem Leuchten angeregt werden. Diese Technik wurde als Lichtquelle fuer Schattenphotographien wie auch fuer eine Teilchenspurverfolgung in der planaren Duesen eingesetzt. An beispielhaften Ergebnissen wurde die Technik erlaeutert und einige Schluesse hinsichtlich der Charakterisierung der Dueseninnenstroemung gezogen. Die Arbeiten werden von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft im Rahmen des Schwerpunktprogramms `Transiente Vorgaenge` gefoerdert. (orig.)

  16. Pulse propagation near zero group-velocity dispersion in a femtosecond dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, F; Grangier, P; Georges, P; Brun, A

    1990-12-01

    The propagation of femtosecond pulses in a colliding-pulse mode-locked dye laser near zero group-velocity dispersion is studied. The pulse spectrum is shown to exhibit a double-peak structure. This structure and its dependence on the intracavity dispersion can be explained by nonlinear pulse propagation near zero dispersion. A value for the third-order dispersion of the laser cavity is deduced and is found to be predominant for pulses shorter than 50 fsec.

  17. Accurate Extraction of Nanometer Distances in Multimers by Pulse EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Silvia; Ackermann, Katrin; Pliotas, Christos; Huang, Hexian; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is gaining increasing importance in structural biology. The PELDOR (pulsed electron–electron double resonance) method allows extracting distance information on the nanometer scale. Here, we demonstrate the efficient extraction of distances from multimeric systems such as membrane‐embedded ion channels where data analysis is commonly hindered by multi‐spin effects. PMID:26865468

  18. Polarization sensitive anisotropic structuring of silicon by ultrashort light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Drevinskas, Rokas, E-mail: rd1c12@orc.soton.ac.uk; Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-27

    Imprinting of anisotropic structures on the silicon surface by double pulse femtosecond laser irradiation is demonstrated. The origin of the polarization-induced anisotropy is explained in terms of interaction of linearly polarized second pulse with the wavelength-sized symmetric crater-shaped structure generated by the linearly polarized first pulse. A wavefront sensor is fabricated by imprinting an array of micro-craters. Polarization controlled anisotropy of the structures can be also explored for data storage applications.

  19. Excimer Laser Pulse Compress With Pulse Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To attain a shorter laser pulse, a compressing technique called pulse feedback was developed from the saturation gain switch applied to the amplification in a discharge pumping excimer laser cavity. It can

  20. Double Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The government has been introducing a string of policies to stabilize the economy and cushion the impact of the global eco-nomic slowdown since October.These policies are generally deemed"timely"and"necessary,"but not a long-term cure for problems in China’s economy.Renowned economist Wu Jinglian says the country must address its"double imbalance"and further reform its economic growth mode.He made his comments at the First Annual Global Management Forum on December 6 in Shanghai.Excerptsf ollow:

  1. Correlation effects in double rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, P. (Lab. Aime Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2, 91 Orsay (France))

    1994-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the recent advances performed in alkaline-earth atoms by the selective laser preparation of autoionizing asymmetrical double Rydberg states which have, so far, not been observed in natural environments. Because the great amount of flexibility achieved by the sequential laser electron excitations, a wide choice of two-electron situations have been investigated and analyzed which exhibit spectral features due to long-range effects of the Coulomb electron-electron repulsion. To overcome the autoionization broadening of the lines, double Rydberg states with a non-core penetrating high-l outer electron were produced by combining temporal laser excitation technique with the electric-field switching method. The study of the spectral correlation signatures in N snl double Rydberg states versus l allow to understand their evolution from simple spectra (l [>=] 10) due to long-range dipole interaction to more complex data (l [<=] 7) induced by short-range multipole effects when two electrons start to influence more each other. (orig.).

  2. Matched Ultra Slow Optical Solitons in Double-A Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Xue; WU Xuan; WU Ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a double-A atomic system where two strong continuous-wave pump lasers and a weak pulsed probe laser produce an FWM generated pulse. We show that both the probe and FWM generated fields may evolve into bright and dark solitons with the same shape and the same ultraslow group velocity.

  3. Pulsed Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  4. Giant half-cycle attosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, H -C

    2011-01-01

    Half-cycle picosecond pulses have been produced from thin photo-conductors, when applying an electric field across the surface and switching on conduction by a short laser pulse. Then the transverse current in the wafer plane emits half-cycle pulses in normal direction, and pulses of 500 fs duration and 1e6 V/m peak electric field have been observed. Here we show that single half-cycle pulses of 50 as duration and up to 1e13 V/m can be produced when irradiating a double foil target by intense few-cycle laser pulses. Focused onto an ultra-thin foil, all electrons are blown out, forming a uniform sheet of relativistic electrons. A second layer, placed at some distance behind, reflects the drive beam, but lets electrons pass straight. Under oblique incidence, beam reflection provides the transverse current, which emits intense half-cycle pulses. Such a pulse may completely ionize even heavier atoms. New types of attosecond pump-probe experiments will become possible.

  5. High-power pulse trains excited by modulated continuous waves

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan; Li, Lu; Malomed, Boris A

    2015-01-01

    Pulse trains growing from modulated continuous waves (CWs) are considered, using solutions of the Hirota equation for solitons on a finite background. The results demonstrate that pulses extracted from the maximally compressed trains can propagate preserving their shape and forming robust arrays. The dynamics of double high-power pulse trains produced by modulated CWs in a model of optical fibers, including the Raman effect and other higher-order terms, is considered in detail too. It is demonstrated that the double trains propagate in a robust form, with frequencies shifted by the Raman effect.

  6. Electrolyte-gated charge transport in molecularly linked gold nanoparticle films: The transition from a Mott insulator to an exotic metal with strong electron-electron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, M.; Dhirani, A.-A.

    2016-09-01

    Strong electron-electron interactions experienced by electrons as they delocalize are widely believed to play a key role in a range of remarkable phenomena such as high Tc superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, and others. Strongly correlated electrons are often described by the Hubbard model, which is the simplest description of a correlated system and captures important gross features of phase diagrams of strongly correlated materials. However, open challenges in this field include experimentally mapping correlated electron phenomena beyond those captured by the Hubbard model, and extending the model accordingly. Here we use electrolyte gating to study a metal-insulator transition (MIT) in a new class of strongly correlated material, namely, nanostructured materials, using 1,4-butanedithiol-linked Au nanoparticle films (NPFs) as an example. Electrolyte gating provides a means for tuning the chemical potential of the materials over a wide range, without significantly modifying film morphology. On the insulating side of the transition, we observe Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping and a soft Coulomb gap, evidencing the importance of Coulomb barriers. On the metallic side of the transition, we observe signatures of strong disorder mediated electron-electron correlations. Gating films near MIT also reveal a zero-bias conductance peak, which we attribute to a resonance at the Fermi level predicted by the Hubbard and Anderson impurity models when electrons delocalize and experience strong Coulomb electron-electron interactions. This study shows that by enabling large changes in carrier density, electrolyte gating of Au NPFs is a powerful means for tuning through the Hubbard MIT in NPFs. By revealing the range of behaviours that strongly correlated electrons can exhibit, this platform can guide the development of an improved understanding of correlated materials.

  7. Tree-level equivalence between a Lorentz-violating extension of QED and its dual model in electron-electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toniolo, Giuliano R; Brito, L C T; Scarpelli, A P Baêta

    2016-01-01

    S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the quantum equivalence of dual models. We used an extended Quantum Electrodynamics with CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms, which was used in a process of gauge embedding, known as Noether dualizationn method (NDM), in order to generate its gauge-invariant dual model. The physical equivalence was established at tree-level and the cross section was calculated to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter.

  8. Increasing the magnetic helicity content of a plasma by pulsing a magnetized source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, S; Stallard, B W; McLean, H S; Hooper, E B; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B I; Hill, D N; Holcomb, C T; Moller, J; Wood, R D

    2004-11-12

    By operating a magnetized coaxial gun in a pulsed mode it is possible to produce large voltage pulses of duration approximately 500 mus while reaching a few kV, giving a discrete input of helicity into a spheromak. In the sustained spheromak physics experiment (SSPX), it is observed that pulsing serves to nearly double the stored magnetic energy and double the temperature. We discuss these results by comparison with 3D MHD simulations of the same phenomenon.

  9. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  10. The influence of laser pulse on the photoabsorption spectra of Li atom in strong external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Dehua; LIN; Shenglu

    2006-01-01

    Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and the calculation formula of the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of the atom in strong external fields, we calculate the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of Li atom in strong magnetic field for different pulse widths. The results show that a pulse of some width can reduce the contribution of the short period closed orbits and eliminate the contribution of the long period orbits. Compared with the single-pulse absorption spectra, we found that for some phase differences, the double-pulse laser absorption spectra are strengthened; while for others, they are reduced. Therefore, we can use the pulse laser to control the oscillation of the absorption spectra and obtain the optimization object.

  11. Programmable pulse generator

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Zhi Hua; Duan Xiao Hui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  12. Linear temperature behavior of thermopower and strong electron-electron scattering in thick F-doped SnO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qing, E-mail: zhiqingli@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-07-28

    Both the semi-classical and quantum transport properties of F-doped SnO{sub 2} thick films (∼1 μm) were investigated experimentally. We found that the resistivity caused by the thermal phonons obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law from ∼90 to 300 K, while only the diffusive thermopower, which varies linearly with temperature from 300 down to 10 K, can be observed. The phonon-drag thermopower is completely suppressed due to the long electron-phonon relaxation time in the compound. These observations, together with the fact that the carrier concentration has negligible temperature dependence, indicate that the conduction electrons in F-doped SnO{sub 2} films possess free-electron-like characteristics. At low temperatures, the electron-electron scattering dominates over the electron-phonon scattering and governs the inelastic scattering process. The theoretical predications of scattering rates of large- and small-energy-transfer electron-electron scattering processes, which are negligibly weak in three-dimensional disordered conventional conductors, are quantitatively tested in this lower carrier concentration and free-electron-like highly degenerate semiconductor.

  13. Double Conditional Expectation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-he

    2004-01-01

    The concept of double conditional expectation is introduced. A series of properties for the double conditional expectation are obtained several convergence theorems and Jensen inequality are proved. Finally we discuss the special cases and application for double conditional expectation.

  14. Coupling coefficient for TEA CO2 laser propulsion with variable pulse repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yijun Zheng; Rongqing Tan; Donglei Wang; Guang Zheng; Changjun Ke; Kuohai Zhang; Chongyi Wan; Jin Wu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Because pulse repetition rate affected directly the momentum coupling coefficient of transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser propulsion, a double pulse trigger, controlling high voltage switch of laser excitation circuit, was designed. The pulse interval ranged between 5 and 100 ms. The momentum coupling coefficient for air-breathing mode laser propulsion was studied experimentally. It was found that the momentum coupling coefficient decreased with the pulse repetition rate increasing.

  15. Experiments with double-SQUID qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerling, Bernhard; Poletto, Stefano; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Chiarello, Fabio [Instituto Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, Roma (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    A double-SQUID qubit (flash-qubit) allows the manipulation of quantum states by very short pulses of magnetic flux, without using microwaves. It consists of an rf-SQUID with a dc-SQUID replacing the single Josephson junction. The energy potential profile is controllable by dc bias fluxes threading the two loops. The initial qubit state in a double well is prepared by applying a dc flux pulse to one loop, thereby tilting the double well so that only one of the two states remains stable. To manipulate the state of the qubit a dc flux pulse is applied to the other loop to change the potential into a single well, where coherent Larmor oscillations between the two lowest eigenstates take place. Reading out the state is once again performed in the double well situation, where our readout dc-SQUID is able to discriminate between the two computational states due to their flux difference. We hope to present measurements done on a new sample, fabricated using shadow evaporation of aluminium and silicon nitride as the dielectric.

  16. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large...... oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double...... layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources...

  17. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied and it propagates towards the collector with a speed around the ion acoustic speed. When the collector is biased positively, large oscillations are obserced in the plasma current. These oscillations are found to be related to a recurring formation...... difference is applied between two plasmas in a Q-machine with two sources. In this case a stationary double layer forms in the plasma column, but the low potential tail is subject to "back and forth" oscillations leading to large amplitude current oscillations....

  18. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  19. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron-electron interactions, application to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron-electron (e-e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e-e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e-e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  20. Electron-electron interaction in strong electromagnetic fields: the two-electron contribution to the ground-state energy in He-like uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumberidze, A; Stöhlker, Th; Banaś, D; Beckert, K; Beller, P; Beyer, H F; Bosch, F; Cai, X; Hagmann, S; Kozhuharov, C; Liesen, D; Nolden, F; Ma, X; Mokler, P H; Orsić-Muthig, A; Steck, M; Sierpowski, D; Tashenov, S; Warczak, A; Zou, Y

    2004-05-21

    Radiative recombination transitions into the ground state of cooled bare and hydrogenlike uranium ions were measured at the storage ring ESR. By comparing the corresponding x-ray centroid energies, this technique allows for a direct measurement of the electron-electron contribution to the ionization potential in the heaviest He-like ions. For the two-electron contribution to the ionization potential of He-like uranium we obtain a value of 2248+/-9 eV. This represents the most accurate determination of two-electron effects in the domain of high-Z He-like ions, and the accuracy reaches already the size of the specific two-electron radiative QED corrections.

  1. Radial pulse (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart. The arteries are the vessels with the "pulse", a rhythmic pushing of the blood in the ... a refilling of the heart chamber. To determine heart rate, one feels the beats at a pulse point ...

  2. Wrist pulse (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To measure the pulse at the wrist, place the index and middle finger over the underside of the opposite wrist, below the base ... firmly with flat fingers until you feel the pulse in the radial artery.

  3. Pulse-Width Jitter Measurement for Laser Diode Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun-Hua; WANG Yun-Cai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of pulse-width jitter of diode laser pulses are presented. The expression of pulse power spectra with all amplitude jitter, timing jitter and pulse-width jitter is deduced.

  4. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  5. Scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay search

    CERN Document Server

    Gironi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In the field of Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, the use of high resolution detectors in which background can be actively discriminated is very appealing. Scintillating bolometers containing a Double Beta Decay emitter can largely fulfill this very interesting possibility. In this paper we present the latest results obtained with CdWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. Moreover we report, for the first time, a very interesting feature of CaMoO4 bolometers: the possibility to discriminate beta-gamma events from those induced by alpha particles thanks to different thermal pulse shape.

  6. Magnetization and susceptibility of a parabolic InAs quantum dot with electron-electron and spin-orbit interactions in the presence of a magnetic field at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    The magnetization and susceptibility of a two-electron parabolic quantum dot are studied in the presence of electron-electron and spin-orbit interactions as a function of magnetic field and temperature. The spin-orbit interactions are treated by a unitary transformation and an exactly soluble parabolic interaction model is considered to mimic the electron-electron interaction. The theory is finally applied to an InAs quantum dot. Magnetization and susceptibility are calculated using canonical ensemble approach. Our results show that Temperature has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility in the diamagnetic regime whereas electron-electron interaction reduces them. The temperature however reduces the height of the paramagnetic peak. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction is shown to shift the paramagnetic peak towards higher magnetic fields whereas the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction shifts it to the lower magnetic field side. Spin-orbit interaction has no effect on magnetization and susceptibility at larger temperatures.

  7. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and spectral shaping of a continuum generated in a photonic band gap fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugonnot, E; Somekh, M; Villate, D; Salin, F; Freysz, E

    2004-05-31

    A chirped pulse, spectrally broadened in a photonic bandgap optical fiber by 120 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulses, is parametrically amplified in a BBO crystal pumped by a frequency doubled nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse. Without changing the frequency of the Ti:Sapphire, a spectral tunability of the amplified pulses is demonstrated. The possibility to achieve broader spectral range amplification is confirmed for a non-collinear pump-signal interaction geometry. For optimal non-collinear interaction geometry, the pulse duration of the original and amplified pulse are similar. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two BBO crystals makes it possible to spectrally shape the amplified pulses.

  8. High voltage magnetic pulse generation using capacitor discharge technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high voltage magnetic pulse is designed by applying an electrical pulse to the coil. Capacitor banks are developed to generate the pulse current. Switching circuit consisting of Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT switches, thyristor, and triggering circuit is developed and tested. The coil current is measured using a Hall-effect current sensor. The magnetic pulse generated is measured and tabulated in a graph. Simulation using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM is done to compare the results obtained between experiment and simulation. Results show that increasing the capacitance of the capacitor bank will increase the output voltage. This technology can be applied to areas such as medical equipment, measurement instrument, and military equipment.

  9. Electron and phonon dynamics in laser short pulses-heated metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.

    2005-07-01

    The simultaneous electron and phonon relaxation dynamic in a metal film subjected to a laser pulse has been theoretically investigated. A system of two coupled time- and energy-dependent Boltzmann equations describing the electron and phonon dynamics has been numerically solved. The collision processes considered are electron-electron (e-e) and electron-phonon (e-p) collisions. Our results show the non-equilibrium electron distribution and the electron and phonon relaxation dynamics both after a femtosecond and a picosecond laser perturbations.

  10. Measurement of single cycle and sub-cycle pulse duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenglie Gong(龚正烈); Wenzhuo Ge(葛文卓); Guizhong Zhang(张贵忠); Wanghua Xiang(向望华)

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests that the linear interferometric correlation (LFC) can be used to measure pulse duration of a few cycles, single cycle or even sub-cycle light pulse. The relations between pulsewidth and LFC curve are derived for Gaussian- and hyperbolic secant-shaped pules. This new method abandons focusing,frequency doubling and filtering in the traditional second order correlation method, meanwhile the signalto-noise ratio (SNR) is improved.

  11. Pulse Designed Coherent Dynamics of a Quantum Dot Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gang; WANG Li; TU Tao; LI Hai-Ou; XIAO Ming; GUO Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We propose an effective method to design the working parameters of a pulse-driven charge qubit implemented with double quantum dot.It is shown that intrinsic qubit population leakage to undesired states in the control and measurement process can be determined by the simulation of coherent dynamics of the qubit and minimized by choosing proper working parameters such as pulse shape.The result demonstrated here bodes well for future quantum gate operations and quantum computing applications.

  12. Transport spectroscopy in bilayer graphene using double layer heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Jung, Jeil; Fallahazad, Babak; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-09-01

    We provide a comprehensive study of the chemical potential of bilayer graphene in a wide range of carrier density, at zero and high magnetic (B)-fields, and at different transverse electric (E)-fields, using high quality double bilayer graphene heterostructures. Using a direct thermodynamic transport spectroscopic technique, we probe the chemical potential as a function of carrier density in six samples. The data clearly reveal the non-parabolicity and electron-hole asymmetry of energy-momentum dispersion in bilayer graphene. The tight-binding hopping amplitudes, t 0, t 1, and t 4, renormalized by electron-electron interaction are extracted from the chemical potential versus density dependence. A diverse set of electron-electron interaction driven phenomena were also clearly discerned at zero and high B-fields. We measure the gaps at integer fillings with orbital index N  =  0, 1, and discuss about the dependence of the N  =  0, 1 quantum Hall phases on the carrier density (or filling factor), E-field, and B-field.

  13. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  14. A novel soft-switching twin arc pulse MAG welding inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenmin; XUE Jiaxiang; WANG Fuguang; HUANG Shisheng

    2007-01-01

    The high-speed double wire pulse metal-gas arc (MAG)welding process possesses advantages of automation and high efficiency and quality.Thus,it attracts much more attention nowadays.To meet the requirements of the double wire pulse MAG welding process,a novel double wire pulse MAG welding inverter integrated with technologies,such as soft-switching,double closed loop control,and synchronic control,is produced.A complete performance test was done for the pulsed MAG welding power supply by using a computer testing platform.The results of the experiment indicate that the novel welding inverter has an excellent performance both in the dynamic and the static characteristics.Also,the synchronic control between the master inverter and the slave inverter is reliable.

  15. Non-linear dynamics in pulse combustor: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sirshendu Mondal; Achintya Kukhopadhyay; Swarnendu Sen

    2015-03-01

    The state of the art of non-linear dynamics applied to pulse combustor theoretically and experimentally is reviewed. Pulse combustors are a class of air-breathing engines in which pulsations in combustion are utilized to improve the performance. As no analytical solution can be obtained for most of the nonlinear systems, the whole set of solutions can be investigated with the help of dynamical system theory. Many studies have been carried out on pulse combustors whose dynamics include limit cycle behaviour, Hopf bifurcation and period-doubling bifurcation. The dynamic signature has also been used for early prediction of extinction.

  16. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here.

  17. PulseSoar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, P.; Peglow, S.

    1992-07-21

    This paper is an introduction to the PulseSoar concept. PulseSoar is a hypervelocity airplane that uses existing airport facilities and current technologies to fly at the very edge of space. It will be shown that PulseSoar can fly between any two points on the globe in less than two hours with fuel efficiency exceeding current state of the art commercial airliners. In addition, it will be shown that PulseSoar avoids environmental issues concerning the ozone layer and sonic booms because of its unique flight profile. All of this can be achieved with current technology. PulseSoar does not require the development of enabling technology. It is a concept which can be demonstrated today. The importance of this idea goes beyond the technical significance`s of PulseSoar in terms of feasibility and performance. PulseSoar could provide a crucial economic advantage to America`s largest export market: commercial aircraft. PulseSoar is a breakthrough concept for addressing the emerging markets of long range and high speed aircraft. Application of PulseSoar to commercial transport could provide the US Aerospace industry a substantial lead in offering high speed/long range aircraft to the world`s airlines. The rapid emergence of a US developed high speed aircraft could also be important to our competitiveness in the Pacific Rim and South American economies. A quick and inexpensive demonstration vehicle is proposed to bang the concept to reality within two years. This discussion will address all the major technical subjects encompassed by PulseSoar and identifies several near-term, and low risk, applications which may be further explored with the initial demonstration vehicle. What is PulseSoar? PulseSoar could enable high speed, high altitude and long range flight without many of the difficulties encountered by traditional hypersonic vehicles.

  18. Linear Collider Test of a Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Mechanism in left-right Symmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner

    2012-01-01

    There are various diagrams leading to neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric theories based on the gauge group SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R. All can in principle be tested at a linear collider running in electron-electron mode. We argue that the so-called lambda-diagram is the most promising one. Taking the current limit on this diagram from double beta decay experiments, we evaluate the relevant cross section e e to W_L W_R, where W_L is the Standard Model W-boson and W_R the one from SU(2)_R. It is observable if the life-time of double beta decay and the mass of the W_R are close to current limits. Beam polarization effects and the high-energy behavior of the cross section are also analyzed.

  19. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  20. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  1. The influence of halides in polyoxotitanate cages; dipole moment, splitting and expansion of d-orbitals and electron-electron repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Schirin; Matthews, Peter D; Li, Ning; Luo, He-Kuan; Wright, Dominic S

    2017-01-03

    Metal-doped polyoxotitanate (M-POT) cages have been shown to be efficient single-source precursors to metal-doped titania [TiO2(M)] (state-of-the-art photocatalytic materials) as well as molecular models for the behaviour of dopant metal ions in bulk titania. Here we report the influence halide ions have on the optical and electronic properties of a series of halide-only, and cobalt halide-'doped' POT cages. In this combined experimental and computational study we show that halide ions can have several effects on the band gaps of halide-containing POT cages, influencing the dipole moment (hole-electron separation) and the structure of the valance band edge. Overall, the band gap behaviour stems from the effects of increasing orbital energy moving from F to I down Group 17, as well as crystal-field splitting of the d-orbitals, the potential effects of the Nephelauxetic influence of the halides and electron-electron repulsion.

  2. Influence of variations in the electron-electron interaction on the ground state metric space "band structure" of a two-electron magnetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, P. M.; D'Amico, I.

    2016-02-01

    We consider a model system of two electrons confined in a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, with the electrons interacting via an α / r2 potential, and subject to a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of confinement. Our results show that variations in the strength of the electron-electron interaction generate a "band structure" in ground state metric spaces, which shares many characteristics with those generated as a result of varying the confinement potential. In particular, the metric spaces for wavefunctions, particle densities, and paramagnetic current densities all exhibit distinct "bands" and "gaps". The behavior of the polar angle of the bands also shares traits with that obtained by varying the confinement potential, but the behavior of the arc lengths of the bands on the metric space spheres can be seen to be different for the two cases and opposite for a large range of angular momentum values. The findings here and in Refs. [1,2] demonstrate that the "band structure" that arises in ground state metric spaces when a magnetic field is applied is a robust feature.

  3. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  4. Double outlet right ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  5. Double-peak Splitting in High-order Harmonics Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yingsong; LIU Yaqing; YANG Xiaodong; XU Zhizhan

    2000-01-01

    When the intensity of the driving pulse is much higher than the saturation intensity of the media involved, the double-peak splitting in frequency domain emerges in the generated high-order harmonic spectra. The possible origins of this splitting are carefully investigated. The ionization of the gas media and the propagation effect of harmonic field are the main reason for the double-peak splitting observed.

  6. Measurement and Generation of Ultra-High Power Fiber Laser Pulses by Coherent Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    through a Michelson interferometer and generated a double pulse as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10. Experimental setup for testing and calibrating...Measuring the Free Spectral Range of the VIPA etalons Using the spectral fringes generated by the Michelson interferometer , we can quantify the spectral...Testing the FROG To test the FROG, we again used use the double pulse from a Michelson interferometer , which yields a FROG trace unlikely to occur by

  7. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  8. Secondary wavelength stabilization of unbalanced Michelson interferometers for the generation of low-jitter pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalloo, R J; Corner, L

    2016-09-01

    We present a double unbalanced Michelson interferometer producing up to four output pulses from a single input pulse. The interferometer is stabilized with the Hänsch-Couillaud method using an auxiliary low power continuous wave laser injected into the interferometer, allowing the stabilization of the temporal jitter of the output pulses to 0.02 fs. Such stabilized pulse trains would be suitable for driving multi-pulse laser wakefield accelerators, and the technique could be extended to include amplification in the arms of the interferometer.

  9. Pulse generation and compression using an asymmetrical porous silicon-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHU-WEN GUO; JIAN-WEI WU

    2016-12-01

    We propose an asymmetrical Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for efficient pulse generation and compression using porous silicon (PS) waveguide, fibre delay line and couplers. We show a pulse compression of about 0.4 ns at the output port with third-order super-Gaussian input pulse in ∼2 ns time duration and ∼40.3 W peak power level. Also, we show the possibility of obtaining compressed single- or double-pulse with judicious choice of various parameters like input peak power, delay time and input pulse width.

  10. Inter-carrier Interference Mitigation in OFDM System Using a New Pulse Shaping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adibah Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a new pulse shaping method namely scale alpha for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM system. The proposed pulse shape is designed and simulated using Matlab software. Results and discussions are made to analyze the performance of the new pulse shape, particularly regarding two parameters that are inter-carrier interference (ICI power reduction, and eye diagrams. It is shown that the new pulse is better in ICI power reduction performance than Franks, raised cosine, and double-jump pulses.

  11. Pulsed EPR and NMR spectroscopy of paramagnetic iron porphyrinates and related iron macrocycles: how to understand patterns of spin delocalization and recognize macrocycle radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, F Ann

    2003-07-28

    Pulsed EPR spectroscopic techniques, including ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) and pulsed ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance), are extremely useful for determining the magnitudes of the hyperfine couplings of macrocycle and axial ligand nuclei to the unpaired electron(s) on the metal as a function of magnetic field orientation relative to the complex. These data can frequently be used to determine the orientation of the g-tensor and the distribution of spin density over the macrocycle, and to determine the metal orbital(s) containing unpaired electrons and the macrocycle orbital(s) involved in spin delocalization. However, these studies cannot be carried out on metal complexes that do not have resolved EPR signals, as in the case of paramagnetic even-electron metal complexes. In addition, the signs of the hyperfine couplings, which are not determined directly in either ESEEM or pulsed ENDOR experiments, are often needed in order to translate hyperfine couplings into spin densities. In these cases, NMR isotropic (hyperfine) shifts are extremely useful in determining the amount and sign of the spin density at each nucleus probed. For metal complexes of aromatic macrocycles such as porphyrins, chlorins, or corroles, simple rules allow prediction of whether spin delocalization occurs through sigma or pi bonds, and whether spin density on the ligands is of the same or opposite sign as that on the metal. In cases where the amount of spin density on the macrocycle and axial ligands is found to be too large for simple metal-ligand spin delocalization, a macrocycle radical may be suspected. Large spin density on the macrocycle that is of the same sign as that on the metal provides clear evidence of either no coupling or weak ferromagnetic coupling of a macrocycle radical to the unpaired electron(s) on the metal, while large spin density on the macrocycle that is of opposite sign to that on the metal provides clear evidence of antiferromagnetic coupling

  12. Influence of Input Pulse Durations on Properties of Er3+/Yb3+ Co-doped DCFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Sheng-bao; ZHAO Shang-hong; SHI Lei; XU Jie; ZHAO Xiao-ming

    2006-01-01

    Based on propagation-rate equations,the influence of different input pulse durations on the properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped double-clad fiber amplifier at dynamic equilibrium was analyzed. The change characteristic of output power sag with pulse duration and repetition rate was shown. Whether single or multi-channel input pulses are amplified,the shorter the input pulse duration is,the smaller the power sags of output pulse will be. At low repetition rate,upper gain values(Gupper) of gain swing are almost the same for different input pulse durations,which tend to the small signal gain,but lower gain value(Glower) of short input pulse is larger than that of long input pulse. At high repetition rate,lower gain value(Glower) approaches to upper gain value(Gupper).

  13. Generation of 25-TW Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 515 nm with Extremely High Temporal Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hornung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the frequency doubling of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm center wavelength generated from the fully diode-pumped laser system POLARIS. The newly generated pulses at a center wavelength of 515 nm have a pulse energy of 3 J with a pulse duration of 120 fs. On the basis of initially ultra-high contrast seed pulses we expect a temporal intensity contrast better 10 17 200 ps before the peak of the main pulse. We analyzed the temporal intensity contrast from milliseconds to femtoseconds with a dynamic range covering more than 20 orders of magnitude. The pulses were focussed with a f/2-focussing parabola resulting in a peak intensity exceeding 10 20 W / cm 2 . The peak power and intensity are to the best of our knowledge the highest values for 515 nm-laser-pulses achieved so far.

  14. Double product reflects the predictive power of systolic pressure in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutte, Rudolph; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2013-01-01

    The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown.......The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown....

  15. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  16. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  17. Effect of dissociation pulse circuit inductance on the CuCl laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, A. A.; Nerheim, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the double-pulsed CuCl laser is improved by a decrease in the inductance of the dissociation pulse circuit. Higher efficiency is obtained due to a larger ground-state copper atom population and lower optimum dissociation energy.

  18. Repeatability of pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis in traditional Indian Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2012-01-01

    practice, education and research. The objective of this study is to study the methodology to evaluate the test-retest reliability (repeatability) of pulse and body constitution diagnosis. A double-blinded, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in Copenhagen. The same doctor, expert in Ayurvedic pulse...

  19. Determination of instantaneous pressure in a transonic base flow using four-pulse tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P.L.; Lynch, K.P.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    A tomographic four-pulse PIV system is used in a transonic axisymmetric base flow experiment at a nominal free stream Mach number of 0.7, with the objective to obtain flow acceleration and pressure data. The PIV system, consisting of two double-pulse lasers and twelve cameras, allows acquiring two v

  20. Holes and chaotic pulses of traveling waves coupled to a long-wave mode

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, H; Herrero, Henar; Riecke, Hermann

    1997-01-01

    Localized traveling-wave pulses and holes, i.e. localized regions of vanishing wave amplitude, are investigated in a real Ginzburg-Landau equation coupled to a long-wave mode. In certain parameter regimes the pulses exhibit a Hopf bifurcation which leads to a breathing motion. Subsequently the oscillations undergo period-doubling bifurcations and become chaotic.

  1. Holes and chaotic pulses of traveling waves coupled to a long-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Henar; Riecke, Hermann

    1997-02-01

    It is shown that localized traveling-wave pulses and holes can be stabilized by a coupling to a long-wave mode. Simulations of suitable real Ginzburg-Landau equations reveal a small parameter regime in which the pulses exhibit a breathing motion (presumably related to a front bifurcation), which subsequently becomes chaotic via period-doubling bifurcations.

  2. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  3. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  4. Pulsed electromagnetic energy therapy in third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D; Witt, S; Fairpo, C G

    1978-12-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic energy is being increasingly employed to reduced symptoms and enhance the healing process following tissue injury. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial has been carried out to assess the value of electromagnetic energy in third molar surgery, but no significant benefit has been found.

  5. Simultaneous observation of small- and large-energy-transfer electron-electron scattering in three-dimensional indium oxide thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Xin-Dian; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2016-05-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) disordered metals, the electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering is the sole significant inelastic process. Thus the theoretical prediction concerning the electron-electron (e\\text-e) scattering rate 1/τ_\\varphi as a function of temperature T in 3D disordered metal has not been fully tested thus far, though it was proposed 40 years ago (Schmid A., Z. Phys., 271 (1974) 251). We report here the simultaneous observation of small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering in 3D indium oxide thick films. In the temperature region T≳100 \\text{K} , the temperature dependence of resistivity of each film obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law, indicating that the films possess degenerate-semiconductor characteristics in electrical transport property. In the low-temperature regime, 1/τ_\\varphi as a function of T for each film can not be ascribed to e-ph scattering. To quantitatively describe the temperature behavior of 1/τ_\\varphi , both the 3D small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering processes should be considered. (The small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering rates are proportional to T3/2 and T 2, respectively.) In addition, the experimental prefactors of T3/2 and T 2 are proportional to k_F-5/2 \\ell-3/2 and E_F-1 (k F is the Fermi wave number, ℓ is the electron elastic mean free path, and E F is the Fermi energy), respectively, which are completely consistent with the theoretical predictions. Our experimental results fully demonstrate the validity of the theoretical predictions concerning both small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering rates.

  6. One-electron versus electron-electron interaction contributions to the spin-spin coupling mechanism in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: analysis of basic electronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Cremer, Dieter

    2004-12-22

    For the first time, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin coupling mechanism is decomposed into one-electron and electron-electron interaction contributions to demonstrate that spin-information transport between different orbitals is not exclusively an electron-exchange phenomenon. This is done using coupled perturbed density-functional theory in conjunction with the recently developed J-OC-PSP [=J-OC-OC-PSP: Decomposition of J into orbital contributions using orbital currents and partial spin polarization)] method. One-orbital contributions comprise Ramsey response and self-exchange effects and the two-orbital contributions describe first-order delocalization and steric exchange. The two-orbital effects can be characterized as external orbital, echo, and spin transport contributions. A relationship of these electronic effects to zeroth-order orbital theory is demonstrated and their sign and magnitude predicted using simple models and graphical representations of first order orbitals. In the case of methane the two NMR spin-spin coupling constants result from totally different Fermi contact coupling mechanisms. (1)J(C,H) is the result of the Ramsey response and the self-exchange of the bond orbital diminished by external first-order delocalization external one-orbital effects whereas (2)J(H,H) spin-spin coupling is almost exclusively mitigated by a two-orbital steric exchange effect. From this analysis, a series of prediction can be made how geometrical deformations, electron lone pairs, and substituent effects lead to a change in the values of (1)J(C,H) and (2)J(H,H), respectively, for hydrocarbons.

  7. Passively Q-switched Self-frequency Doubling NYAB laser with GaAs Saturable Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shengzhi(赵圣之); ZHENG Jiaan(郑加安); CHEN Lei(陈磊); CHENG Zhenxiang(程振祥); CHEN Huanchu(陈焕矗)

    2002-01-01

    By using a passive Q-switch with GaAs saturable absorber, the Q-switched self-frequency doubling NYAB laser at 0.531μm has been successfully realized. The pulse width and the single pulse energy are measured. The numerical solutions of the coupling wave rate equations are in agreement with the experimental results.

  8. 18 W pulse-bursts 532 nm picosecond laser system with four equal amplitude and spacing pulses at 1 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ming Liang; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2017-05-01

    An average power of 18 W pulse-burst 532 nm picosecond laser was obtained with four pulses in a burst at 1 kHz. A mode-locked laser and beam splitter mirrors were used to obtain seed pulse-bursts, that one single pulse was divided into four pulses and each pulse in bursts can be controlled. The pulses were broadened from 23.5 to 135 ps by single-pass volume Bragg gratings. After Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier and single-pass two Nd:YAG modules amplifier, 31.2 W in 1064 nm was got. The four pulses had equal amplitude and pulse spacing of 800 ps. Then, 18 W in 532 nm was obtained with nonlinear optical materials of LiB3O5 frequency doubling, the beam quality of the M2 factor was 1.24, and the pulse width was 50 ps. It is a very nice way to obtain high-power pulse-burst picosecond laser with equal pulse spacing and amplitude.

  9. Diode-pumped double passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; LIU Shu-shan; LI Lei; WANG Wei-wei; CHEN Fei; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Through using both Cr4+:YAG and GaAs saturable absorbers, a diode-pumped double passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser is realized and compared with a single passively Q-switched laser. This laser can generate symmetric pulse temporal profiles and shorter pulses. A laser pulse width of 17 ns has been achieved with the incident pump power of 8.5 W.

  10. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  11. A digital Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID for particle detector readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podt, M.; Keizer, D.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    2000-01-01

    Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are generated in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L–R shunt. We realized a DROS with the complete flux-locked loop circuitry on one single chip, the Smart DROS. The pulsed output of the Smart DROS enables a

  12. Efficient Pulsed Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Petzenhauser, I.; Spiller, P.; Tenholt, C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to raise the focusing gradient in case of bunched beam lines, a pulsed quadrupole was designed. The transfer channels between synchrotrons as well as the final focusing for the target line are possible applications. The quadrupole is running in a pulsed mode, which means an immense saving of energy by avoiding standby operation. Still the high gradients demand high currents. Hence a circuit had to be developed which is able to recover a significant amount of the pulsing energy for following shots. The basic design of the electrical circuit of the quadrupole is introduced. Furthermore more energy efficient circuits are presented and the limits of adaptability are considered.

  13. Pulse joining cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2016-08-23

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  14. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  15. Unintegrated double parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Golec-Biernat, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the construction of unintegrated double parton distribution functions which include dependence on transverse momenta of partons. We extend the formulation which was used to obtain the single unintegrated parton distributions from the standard, integrated parton distribution functions. Starting from the homogeneous part of the evolution equations for the integrated double parton distributions, we construct the unintegrated double parton distributions as the convolutions of the integrated double distributions and the splitting functions, multiplied by the Sudakov form factors. We show that there exist three domains of external hard scales which require three distinct forms of the unintegrated double distributions. The additional transverse momentum dependence which arises through the Sudakov form factors leads to non-trivial correlations in the parton momenta. We also discuss the non-homogeneous contribution to the unintegrated double parton distributions, which arises due to the splitting of a singl...

  16. On Double Vector Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo CHEN; Zhang Ju LIU; Yun He SHENG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.

  17. On Double Vector Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Zhangju; Sheng, Yunhe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.

  18. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE DOUBLE URETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Double ureter is a result of premature division of t he ureteric bud. The ureters may join in the lower third of their course and open thr ough a common orifice into the bladder. If they open independently into the bladder, the ureter draining the upper pelvis opens into the bladder below the opening of the other ureter. Patie nts with double ureter or double pelvis are more likely to develop urinary infection and calculi .

  19. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  20. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  1. Pulse Shape Discrimination in the IGEX Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    González, D; Cebrián, S; García, E; Irastorza, I G; Morales, A; De Solorzano, A O; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A; Aalseth, C E; Brodzinski, R L; Hensley, W K; Miley, H S; Reeves, J H; Kirpichnikov, I V; Klimenko, A A; Osetrov, S B; Smolnikov, A A; Vasenko, A A; Vasilev, S I; Pogosov, V S; Tamanyan, A G

    2003-01-01

    The IGEX experiment has been operating enriched germanium detectors in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) in a search for the neutrinoless double decay of 76Ge. The implementation of Pulse Shape Discrimination techniques to reduce the radioactive background is described in detail. This analysis has been applied to a fraction of the IGEX data, leading to a rejection of ~60 % of their background, in the region of interest (from 2 to 2.5 MeV), down to ~0.09 c/(keV kg y).

  2. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  3. Four pulse recoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneja, Navin; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes a family of novel recoupling pulse sequences in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, called four pulse recoupling. These pulse sequences can be employed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear recoupling experiments and are robust to dispersion in chemical shifts and rf-inhomogeneity. The homonuclear pulse sequence consists of a building block (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ°(π/2) 180 ° + ϕ°(3π/2) 180 ° where ϕ = π/n (ϕ° = 180°/n) , and n is number of blocks in a two rotor period. The heteronuclear recoupling pulse sequence consists of a building block (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ1 °(π/2) 180 ° +ϕ1 °(3π/2) 180 ° and (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ2 °(π/2) 180 ° +ϕ2 °(3π/2) 180 ° on channel I and S, where ϕ1 = 3π/2n, ϕ2 = π2/n and n is number of blocks in a two rotor period. The recoupling pulse sequences mix the y magnetization. We show that four pulse recoupling is more broadband compared to three pulse recoupling [1]. Experimental quantification of this method is shown for 13Cα-13CO, homonuclear recoupling in a sample of Glycine and 15N-13Cα, heteronuclear recoupling in Alanine. Application of this method is demonstrated on a sample of tripeptide N-formyl-[U-13C,15N]-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF).

  4. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Behrens, C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Coffee, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Decker, F. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Emma, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Field, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helml, W. [Technische Univ. Munchen, Garching (Germany); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krejcik, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krzywinski, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lutman, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marinelli, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Turner, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  5. Analysis of the power saturation method and using SR-ELDOR and global analysis to extract multiple rates from recovery curves. [SR-ELDOR (Saturation Recovery - Electron Electron Double Resonance)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility is investigated to extending the method of extracting the spin-lattice relaxation rate (R[sub 1e]) from Continuous Wave Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (CW-EPR) lineshapes under saturating conditions beyond the very fast motional region. The signal intensities of simulated [sup 14]N lineshapes under progressive saturation are analyzed for a wide range of motional rates. An adjustable parameter is included in the analysis to account for the changing degree of homogeneity of the EPR spectrum as the motion slows from the fast- to the slow-motion regime. The quantity R[sub 2], determined from the lineshape analysis, is shown to be a valid description of the homogeneous linewidth under saturation. Theoretical models for R[sub 2], constructed from spectral density functions, are compared. The standard theory works very well for motions faster than 5 ns; and, for slower motions, the modified theories qualitatively reproduce R[sub 2]. In the motional range of 10 to 200 ns, R[sub 2] remains roughly constant. This should therefore be the optimal range for obtaining relative values of R[sub 1e]. The electron and nuclear relaxation rates R[sub 1e] and R[sub 1n] have been measured, for the spin label TEMPOL in glycerol-water solutions, over a wide range of motion, from 10[sup [minus]11] to longer than 10[sup [minus]4] seconds. In the range 10[sup [minus]7] to 10[sup [minus]5] seconds, the motional correlation time is measured directly as one component of the SR-ELDOR relaxation curve. The functional dependence of R[sub 1e] and R[sub 1n] on the correlation time is clarified, based on the Electron Nuclear Dipolar effect, spin diffusion, and spin rotation. CW- and Saturation Transfer (ST-) EPR spectra provide independent measures of the correlation time. There is good agreement between simulations and ST-EPR spectra up to 5 [mu]s; for slower motions the simulations require additional convolution to quantitatively fit the data.

  6. Electrodialytic soil remediation enhanced by low frequency pulse current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, John; Sun, Tian Ran; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low frequency pulse current on decreasing the polarization and energy consumption during the process of electrodialytic soil remediation was investigated in the present work. The results indicated that the transportation of cations through the cation exchange membrane was the rate...... current experiment compared to the constant current experiment. At the cation exchange membrane, only the resistance caused by concentration polarization decreased. In the soil compartment, an average of +60 mV overpotential caused by the polarization of the electric double layer of the clay particles...... controlling step both in constant and pulse current experiments, thus responsible for the major energy consumption. After 180 h, a decrease in both the initial ohmic resistance in each pulse cycle and the resistance caused by concentration polarization of the anion exchange membrane were seen in the pulse...

  7. Reliability of pulse diagnosis in traditional Indian Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon;

    2013-01-01

    In Ayurveda, pulse diagnosis is an important diagnostic method to assess the status of three doshas (bio-entity: vata, pitta and kapha) in the patient. However, this is only justifiable if this method is reliable. The aim of this study is to test the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of pulse...... diagnosis in Ayurveda. A double-blinded, controlled clinical trial was conducted at Sri Sri College of Ayurvedic Science & Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. 15 Ayurvedic doctors examined the pulse of the 20 healthy subjects (10 male and 10 female) twice in a random order without seeing them. Doctors...... diagnosed various combinations of three bio-entities vata, pitta and kapha based on the qualitative description of pulse pattern in Ayurveda. Cohen's weighted kappa statistic was used as a measure of reliability and hypothesis of homogeneous diagnosis (random rating) was tested. The level of weighted kappa...

  8. Atmospheric propagation of two CO2 laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autric, M.; Caressa, J.-P.; Dufresne, D.; Bournot, Ph.

    1984-01-01

    At the intensity and fluence levels reached in an experimental investigation of high-energy laser beam propagation, air breakdown occurs through the interaction of the intense radiation with aerosol particles naturally suspended in the path of the beam. The air plasma created is found to expand rapidly and have a detrimental effect on energy propagation. It is determined that the energy transmitted through the breakdown plasma as a function of the incident average energy density is less than 15 percent for fluences greater than 300 J/sq cm, and that incident energy transmission may be increased through the generation of a precursor pulse as a function of double pulse separation times ranging from a few microsec to 0.1 sec. Maximum effects have been obtained at pulse separation intervals of 100-200 microsec, and these are ascribed to the vaporization of aerosol particles by the first pulse.

  9. Range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory applied to periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Usvyat, Denis; Toulouse, Julien; Sharkas, Kamal; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemistry methods exploiting density-functional approximations for short-range electron-electron interactions and second-order M{{\\o}}ller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for long-range electron-electron interactions have been implemented for periodic systems using Gaussian-type basis functions and the local correlation framework. The performance of these range-separated double hybrids has been benchmarked on a significant set of systems including rare-gas, molecular, ionic, and covalent crystals. The use of spin-component-scaled MP2 for the long-range part has been tested as well. The results show that the value of $\\mu$ = 0.5 bohr^{--1} for the range-separation parameter usually used for molecular systems is also a reasonable choice for solids. Overall, these range-separated double hybrids provide a good accuracy for binding energies using basis sets of moderate sizes such as cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ.

  10. Range-separated double-hybrid density-functional theory applied to periodic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Maschio, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.maschio@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Centre, Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Usvyat, Denis [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Toulouse, Julien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Sharkas, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Quantum chemistry methods exploiting density-functional approximations for short-range electron-electron interactions and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory for long-range electron-electron interactions have been implemented for periodic systems using Gaussian-type basis functions and the local correlation framework. The performance of these range-separated double hybrids has been benchmarked on a significant set of systems including rare-gas, molecular, ionic, and covalent crystals. The use of spin-component-scaled MP2 for the long-range part has been tested as well. The results show that the value of μ = 0.5 bohr{sup −1} for the range-separation parameter usually used for molecular systems is also a reasonable choice for solids. Overall, these range-separated double hybrids provide a good accuracy for binding energies using basis sets of moderate sizes such as cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVDZ.

  11. Double diffraction in an atomic gravimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Malossi, Nicola; Merlet, Sébastien; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the realization of a new scheme for cold atom gravimetry based on the use of double diffraction beamsplitters recently demonstrated in \\cite{Leveque}, where the use of two retro-reflected Raman beams allows symmetric diffraction in $\\pm \\hbar k_{eff}$ momenta. Though in principle restricted to the case of zero Doppler shift, for which the two pairs of Raman beams are simultaneously resonant, we demonstrate that such diffraction pulses can remain efficient on atoms with non zero velocity, such as in a gravimeter, when modulating the frequency of one of the two Raman laser sources. We use such pulses to realize an interferometer insensitive to laser phase noise and some of the dominant systematics. This reduces the technical requirements and would allow the realization of a simple atomic gravimeter. We demonstrate a sensitivity of $1.2\\times10^{-7}g$ per shot.

  12. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  13. Dual doubled geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio; Alvarez-Gaumé, L.

    2011-01-01

    We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes. i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundam

  14. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  15. Four-Electron Systems in a Coupled Double-Layer Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2003-01-01

    Making use of the method of few-body physics, the energy spectrum of a four-electron system consisting in a vertically coupled double-layer quantum dot as a function of the strength ofa magnetic field is investigated. Discontinuous ground-state transitions induced by an external magnetic field are shown. We find that, in the strong coupling case, the ground-state transitions depend not only on the external magnetic field B but also on the distance d between double-layer quantum dots. However, in the case of weak coupling, the ground-state transitions occur in the new sequence of the values of the magic angular momentum. Hence, the interlayer separation d and electron-electron interaction strongly affect the ground state of the coupled quantum dots.

  16. Angular distributions in the double ionization of DNA bases by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelladi, M. F.; Mansouri, A.; Dal Cappello, C.; Charpentier, I.; Hervieux, P. A.; Ruiz-Lopez, M. F.; Roy, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio calculations of the five-fold differential cross sections for electron-impact double ionization of thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine are performed in the first Born approximation for an incident energy close to 5500 eV. The wavefunctions of the DNA bases are constructed using the multi-center wave functions from the Gaussian 03 program. These multi-center wave functions are converted into single-center expansions of Slater-type functions. For the final state, the two ejected electrons are described by two Coulomb wave functions. The electron-electron repulsion between the two ejected electrons is also taken into account. Mechanisms of the double ionization are discussed for each case and the best choices of the kinematical parameters are determined for next experiments.

  17. Background suppression in fluorescence nanoscopy with stimulated emission double depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Prunsche, Benedikt; Zhou, Lu; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy is a powerful super-resolution imaging technique based on the confinement of fluorescence emission to the central subregion of an observation volume through de-excitation of fluorophores in the periphery via stimulated emission. Here, we introduce stimulated emission double depletion (STEDD) as a method to selectively remove artificial background intensity. In this approach, a first, conventional STED pulse is followed by a second, delayed Gaussian STED pulse that specifically depletes the central region, thus leaving only background. Thanks to time-resolved detection we can remove this background intensity voxel by voxel by taking the weighted difference of photons collected before and after the second STED pulse. STEDD thus yields background-suppressed super-resolved images as well as STED-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data. Furthermore, the proposed method is also beneficial when considering lower-power, less redshifted depletion pulses.

  18. Dynamical studies on the generation of periodic surface structures by femtosecond laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfeld A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration, 800 nm center wavelength is studied experimentally using a double pulse experiment with cross polarized pulse sequences and a trans illumination femtosecond time-resolved (0.1 ps – 1 ns pump-probe diffraction approach. The results in both experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition and the laser-induced free-electron plasma in the conduction band of the solids for the formation of LIPSS.

  19. Pulsed pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier at low repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changgeng Ye; Ping Yan; Mali Gong; Ming Lei

    2005-01-01

    A pulsed pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber (DCF) master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) at low repetition rate is reported. Seeded by a passive Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser, the fiber amplifier can generate 167-kW peak-power and 0.83-ns duration pulses at 200-Hz repetition rate. Because of the pulsed pump approach, the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and the spurious lasing between pulses are well avoided, and the repetition rate can be set freely from single-shot to 1 kHz. Peak power scaling limitations that arise from the fiber facet damage are discussed.

  20. Topological Quantum Double

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Philippe

    Following a preceding paper showing how the introduction of a t.v.s. topology on quantum groups led to a remarkable unification and rigidification of the different definitions, we adapt here, in the same way, the definition of quantum double. This topological double is dualizable and reflexive (even for infinite dimensional algebras). In a simple case we show, considering the double as the "zero class" of an extension theory, the uniqueness of the double structure as a quasi-Hopf algebra. A la suite d'un précédent article montrant comment l'introduction d'une topologie d'e.v.t. sur les groupes quantiques permet une unification et une rigidification remarquables des différentes définitions, on adapte ici de la même manière la définition du double quantique. Ce double topologique est alors dualisable et reflexif (même pour des algèbres de dimension infinie). Dans un cas simple on montre, en considérant le double comme la "classe zéro" d'une théorie d'extensions, l'unicité de cette structure comme algèbre quasi-Hopf.