WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulsed bremsstrahlung-induced prompt

  1. Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    September 2012 Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John Kingman Road Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060 Office of Naval Research One Liberty Center 875 North...from cosmic rays) can accumulate with long measurement time. An alternative to the linac approach relies on the use of TW-level pulsed-power...Without their considerable effort, this work would not have been possible. This work was funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Office of

  2. Timing of Pulsed Prompt Gamma Rays for Background Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Pausch, G.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Schoene, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2013-06-01

    In the context of particle therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several planes of position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density profile, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At Helmholtz- Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and OncoRay, a camera prototype has been developed consisting of two scatter planes (CdZnTe cross strip detectors) and an absorber plane (Lu 2 SiO 5 block detector). The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT platform. The prototype was tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which was set up to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons. Their spectrum has similarities with the one expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical case, and these are also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured signals was used for background discrimination, achieving a time resolution of 3 ns (2 ns) FWHM for the CZT (LSO) detector. A time-walk correction was applied for the LSO detector and improved its resolution to 1 ns. In conclusion, the detectors are suitable for time-resolved background discrimination in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the test of the imaging algorithms and the quantitative comparison with simulations. Further experiments will be performed at proton accelerators. (authors)

  3. Pulsed neutron uranium borehole logging with prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, H.M.; Smith, G.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    The gross count natural gamma log normally used for uranium borehole logging is seriously affected by disequilibrium. Methods for the direct measurement of uranium, such as neutron logging, which are not affected by disequilibrium have been the object of considerable effort in recent years. This paper describes a logging system for uranium which uses a small accelerator to generate pulses of 14 MeV neutrons to detect and assay uranium by the measurement of prompt fission neutrons in the epithermal energy range. After an initial feasibility study, a prototype logging probe was built for field evaluation which began in January 1976. Physical and operational characteristics of the prototype probe, the neutron tube-transformer assembly, and the neutron tube are described. In logging operations, only the epithermal prompt fission neutrons detected between 250 microseconds to 2500 microseconds following the excitation neutron pulse are counted. Comparison of corrected neutron logs with the conventional gross count natural gamma logs and the chemical assays of cores from boreholes are shown. The results obtained with this neutron probe clearly demonstrate its advantages over the gross count natural gamma log, although at this time the accuracy of the neutron log assay is not satisfactory under some conditions. The necessary correction factors for various borehole and formation parameters are being determined and, when applied, should improve the assay accuracy

  4. Bremsstrahlung-induced highly penetrating probes for nondestructive assay and defect analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, F A; Harmon, J F; Kwofie, J; Spaulding, R; Erickson, G; Roney, T

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive assay and defect analysis probes based on bremsstrahlung-induced processes have been developed to identify elements and probe defects in large volume samples. Bremsstrahlung beams from (electron accelerators) with end-point energies both above and below neutron emission threshold have been used. Below neutron emission threshold these beams (from 6 MeV small pulsed linacs), which exhibit high penetration, create positrons via pair production inside the material and produce X-ray fluorescence (XRF) radiation. Chemical assays of heavy elements in thick samples up to 10 g/cm sup 2 thick are provided by energy dispersive XRF measurements. The pair-produced positrons annihilate within the material, thereby emitting 511 keV gamma radiation. Doppler broadening spectroscopy of the 511 keV radiation can be performed to characterize the material and measure defects in samples of any desired thickness. This technique has successfully measured induced strain due to tensile stress in steel samples of 0.64 cm...

  5. Thermoelastic expansion in prompt-critical neutron pulse idealized in a fissile metallic sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, D.E.G.; Ribeiro, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    Prompt critical pulses in solid and homogeneous spheres of enriched uranium (93%) and metallic plutonium are studied. The feedback mechanism of the negative inserted reactivity is given by the elastic expansion due to the increase of the temperature in the sphere. Thermomechanical behavior and the capability of the system to become subcritical without a very large increase of energy released in the pulse are analysed. The neutronic and thermoelasticity equations are solved in the time. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. LIMITS ON PROMPT, DISPERSED RADIO PULSES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannister, K. W.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reynolds, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for prompt radio emission from nine gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a 12 m telescope at 1.4 GHz, with a time resolution of 64 μs to 1 s. We detected single dispersed radio pulses with significances >6σ in the few minutes following two GRBs. The dispersion measures of both pulses are well in excess of the expected Galactic values, and the implied rate is incompatible with known sources of single dispersed pulses. The arrival times of both pulses also coincide with breaks in the GRB X-ray light curves. A null trial and statistical arguments rule out random fluctuations as the origin of these pulses with >95% and ∼97% confidence, respectively, although a simple population argument supports a GRB origin with confidence of only 2%. We caution that we cannot rule out radio frequency interference (RFI) as the origin of these pulses. If the single pulses are not related to the GRBs, we set an upper limit on the flux density of radio pulses emitted between 200 and 1800 s after a GRB of 1.27w –1/2 Jy, where 6.4 × 10 –5 s –3 s is the pulse width. We set a limit of less than 760 Jy for long timescale (>1 s) variations. These limits are some of the most constraining at high time resolution and GHz frequencies in the early stages of the GRB phenomenon.

  7. Internal electromagnetic pulse produced by the prompt-γ photons in the rectanglar cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taichun; Wang Yuzhi

    1986-01-01

    The internal electromagnetic pulses produced by the prompt-γ photons were calculated by self-consistent and non-self-consistent method respectively in the rectanglar cavity of the matel. The computational results were analyzed. Under the condition that the electric field is weak and the cavity is small, the results obtained by the self-consistent method is in agreement with the results by the non-self-consistent

  8. Stability evaluation and correction of a pulsed neutron generator prompt gamma activation analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source output stability is important for accurate measurement in prompt gamma neutron activation. This is especially true when measuring low-concentration elements such as in vivo nitrogen (~2.5% of body weight). We evaluated the stability of the compact DT neutron generator within an in vivo nitrog...

  9. On the possibility of a quantum bremsstrahlung induced self-modulation of a relativistic beam channeling in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskij, V.I.; Vorontsov, V.I.; Kuz'min, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    Physical predictions and quantitative estimations of a new physical effect - the phenomenon of quantum bremsstrahlung induced selfmodulation of a fast beam channeling in the crystals are considered and carried out. The occurrence of induced self-modulation results from nonstationary interference of proper waves of a channeled particle in the range of mutual coherence and with account of difference of selective bremsstrahlung losses of these waves. The modulation frequency for superrelativistic particles is shown to lie within the range from soft X-ray to hard gamma range. It proceeds from the estimations that modulation at these frequencies is preserved within the limits of macroscopically large ranges after the crystal attaining several meters. The maximum frequency of modulation for nonrelativistic heavy particles (protons) corresponds to the optical range

  10. Combined treatment of methylprednisolone pulse and memantine hydrochloride prompts recovery from neurological dysfunction and cerebral hypoperfusion in carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Konosuke; Ikeda, Ken; Mizumura, Sunao; Tachiki, Kazuhiro; Yanagihashi, Masaru; Iwasaki, Yasuo

    2014-03-01

    A 49-year-old healthy man developed sudden unconsciousness under inadequate ventilation. Blood gas analysis showed carboxyhemoglobin of 7.3%. After normobaric oxygen therapy, he recovered completely 7 days later. At 3 weeks after carbon monoxide (CO) exposures, memory and gait disturbances appeared. Neurological examination revealed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 5 of 30 points, leg hyper-reflexia with Babinski signs, and Parkinsonism. Brain fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging disclosed symmetric hypointense lesions in the thalamus and the globus pallidus, and hyperintense lesions in the cerebral white matter. Brain single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) scanning with (99m)Technesium-ethyl cysteinate dimer displayed marked hypoperfusion in the cerebellum, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and the entire cerebral cortex. He was diagnosed as CO poisoning and treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The neurological deficits were not ameliorated. At 9 weeks after neurological onset, methylprednisolone (1000 mg/day, intravenous, 3 days) and memantine hydrochloride (20 mg/day, per os) were administered. Three days later, MMSE score was increased from 3 to 20 points. Neurological examination was normal 3 weeks later. Brain SPECT exhibited 20% increase of regional cerebral blood flows in the cerebellum, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and the entire cerebral cortex. These clinicoradiological changes supported that the treatment with steroid pulse and memantine hydrochloride could prompt recovery from neurological dysfunction and cerebral hypoperfusion. Further clinical trials are warranted whether such combined therapy can attenuate neurological deficits and cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with CO poisoning. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prompt Radiation Protection Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    with the following design assumptions (Dillon and Kane 2017): - All buildings are square - Interior mass is modeled as distributed foam columns in...3 2.2. Building Design ...this report include the methodology of calculation of the prompt PFs, with a description of the buildings’ design and computational model, results

  12. Prompt effects of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Conflicting theories on the mechanisms of supernova production are examined. Supernova as sources of other phenomena such as comic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, and electromagnetic pulses are considered. 32 references

  13. Prompt neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that Ramanna and Rao's tentative conclusion that prompt fission neutrons are emitted (in the fragment system) preferentially in the direction of fragment motion is not necessitated by their angular distribution measurements, which are well explained by the usual assumptions of isotropic emission with a Maxwell (or Maxwell-like) emission spectrum. The energy distribution (Watt spectrum) and the angular distribution, both including the effects of anisotropic emission, are given. (author) [fr

  14. Distributed PROMPT-LTL Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen Jacobs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the synthesis of distributed implementations for specifications in Prompt Linear Temporal Logic (PROMPT-LTL, which extends LTL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. For single process synthesis it is well-established that such parametric extensions do not increase worst-case complexities. For synchronous systems, we show that, despite being more powerful, the distributed realizability problem for PROMPT-LTL is not harder than its LTL counterpart. For asynchronous systems we have to consider an assume-guarantee synthesis problem, as we have to express scheduling assumptions. As asynchronous distributed synthesis is already undecidable for LTL, we give a semi-decision procedure for the PROMPT-LTL assume-guarantee synthesis problem based on bounded synthesis.

  15. Kinetic analysis of sub-prompt-critical reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutronic analysis of safety-related kinetics problems in experimental neutron multiplying assemblies has been carried out using a sub-prompt-critical reactor model. The model is based on the concept of a sub-prompt-critical nuclear reactor and the concept of instantaneous neutron multiplication in a reactor system. Computations of reactor power, period and reactivity using the model show excellent agreement with results obtained from exact kinetics method. Analytic expressions for the energy released in a controlled nuclear power excursion are derived. Application of the model to a Pulsed Fast Reactor gives its sensitivity between 4 and 5. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Prompt nuclear analysis bibliography 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.; Campbell, B.L.; Cawley, R.J.

    1978-05-01

    A prompt nuclear analysis bibliography published in 1974 has been updated to include literature up to the end of 1976. The number of publications has more than doubled since mid-1973. The bibliography is now operated as a computer file and searches can be made on key words and parameters. Tables of references are given for each of the categories: backscattering, ion-ion, ion-gamma, ion-neutron, neutron-gamma, neutron-neutron and gamma-ray-induced reactions

  17. Prompt fission neutron spectra and average prompt neutron multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    We present a new method for calculating the prompt fission neutron spectrum N(E) and average prompt neutron multiplicity anti nu/sub p/ as functions of the fissioning nucleus and its excitation energy. The method is based on standard nuclear evaporation theory and takes into account (1) the motion of the fission fragments, (2) the distribution of fission-fragment residual nuclear temperature, (3) the energy dependence of the cross section sigma/sub c/ for the inverse process of compound-nucleus formation, and (4) the possibility of multiple-chance fission. We use a triangular distribution in residual nuclear temperature based on the Fermi-gas model. This leads to closed expressions for N(E) and anti nu/sub p/ when sigma/sub c/ is assumed constant and readily computed quadratures when the energy dependence of sigma/sub c/ is determined from an optical model. Neutron spectra and average multiplicities calculated with an energy-dependent cross section agree well with experimental data for the neutron-induced fission of 235 U and the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. For the latter case, there are some significant inconsistencies between the experimental spectra that need to be resolved. 29 references

  18. Prompt neutron emission; Emission des neutrons prompts de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    It is shown that Ramanna and Rao's tentative conclusion that prompt fission neutrons are emitted (in the fragment system) preferentially in the direction of fragment motion is not necessitated by their angular distribution measurements, which are well explained by the usual assumptions of isotropic emission with a Maxwell (or Maxwell-like) emission spectrum. The energy distribution (Watt spectrum) and the angular distribution, both including the effects of anisotropic emission, are given. (author) [French] On montre que la conclusion experimentale de Ramanna et Rao selon laquelle les neutrons prompts de fission sont emis (dans le systeme de reference des fragments) preferentiellement dans la direction du mouvement du fragment, ne decoule pas necessairement de leurs mesures de distribution angulaire. Celles-ci sont bien expliquees par l'hypothese classique de l'emission isotrope et d'un spectre d'emission maxwellien (ou quasi-maxwellien). On donne la distribution en energie (ou spectre de Watt) et la distribution angulaire, comprenant toutes les deux les effets d'emission anisotrope. (auteur)

  19. Physical model of reactor pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, A.; Ravnik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse experiments have been performed at J. Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor since 1991. In total, more than 130 pulses have been performed. Extensive experimental information on the pulse physical characteristics has been accumulated. Fuchs-Hansen adiabatic model has been used for predicting and analysing the pulse parameters. The model is based on point kinetics equation, neglecting the delayed neutrons and assuming constant inserted reactivity in form of step function. Deficiencies of the Fuchs-Hansen model and systematic experimental errors have been observed and analysed. Recently, the pulse model was improved by including the delayed neutrons and time dependence of inserted reactivity. The results explain the observed non-linearity of the pulse energy for high pulses due to finite time of pulse rod withdrawal and the contribution of the delayed neutrons after the prompt part of the pulse. The results of the improved model are in good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  20. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.

    2003-01-01

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a technique for the analysis of elements present in solid, liquid and gaseous samples by measuring the capture gamma rays emitted from the sample during neutron irradiation. The technique is complementary to conventional neutron activation analysis (NAA) as it can be used in number of cases where NAA fails. Though the technique was first used in sixties, the advantage of the technique was first highlighted by Lindstrom and Anderson. PGNAA is increasingly being used as a rapid, instrumental, nondestructive and multielement analysis technique. A monograph and several excellent reviews on this topic have appeared recently. In this review, an attempt has been made to bring out the essential aspects of the technique, experimental arrangement and instrumentation involved, and areas of application. Some of the results will also be presented

  1. Prompt burst energetics experiments: fresh oxide/sodium series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1978-08-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been performed to provide information on thermal energy to work conversion under prompt burst excursion (PBE) conditions. These consisted of single pin tests using fresh uranium oxide or uranium carbide fuel in a capsule geometry, with either stagnant sodium or helium in the coolant channel. The experiments were irradiated with single or double pulses in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to provide energy depositions up to 2900 J/g. This report covers the seven single and five double pulse UO 2 sodium-in tests. Experimental data includes pressure and linear motion transducer histories, measured work-energy conversion efficiencies, and post-irradiation examination. Analysis includes derived work-energy conversion efficiencies (up to 0.54%), pin failure modeling, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the channel, and piston stopping effects. Initial pressure events in the single pulse experiments appear to be dominated by fuel vapor pressure. Definite fuel-coolant interactions were observed in several experiments, including some that were coincident with stopping of the linear motion transducer piston, suggesting a possible triggering effect by the deceleration pressure

  2. Prompt Burst Energetics in the oxide/sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of twelve Prompt Burst Energetics (PBE) experiments utilizing fresh uranium dioxide fuel pins in stagnant sodium coolant has been performed in Sandia Laboratories' Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR). Results and analysis described in the paper include: observation of FCIs (pressures up to 32 MPa) in the UO 2 /Na system, some apparently triggered by small pressure transients (2 MPa); prediction of failure times via the pin model EXPAND; observed thermal-to-mechanical energy conversion ratios up to approximately 0.4%; and identification of potential reactivity effects caused by the pre- and post-failure motion of fuel

  3. Utilization of actively-induced, prompt radiation emission for nonproliferation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, B.W.; Jones, J.L.; Moss, C.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Hunt, A.W.; Harmon, F.; Watson, S.M.; Johnson, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    The pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) technique, which has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded nuclear material, is based on utilizing delayed neutrons and photons between accelerator pulses. While most active interrogation systems have focused on delayed neutron and gamma-ray signatures, there is an increasing need to bring faster detection and acquisition capabilities to field inspection applications. This push for decreased interrogation times, increased sensitivity, and mitigation of false positives requires that detection systems take advantage of all available information. Collaborative research between Idaho National Lab (INL), Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has focused on exploiting actively-induced, prompt radiation signatures from nuclear material within a pulsed photonuclear environment. To date, these prompt emissions have not been effectively exploited due to difficulties in detection and signal processing inherent in the prompt regime as well as an overall poor understanding of the magnitude and yields of these emissions. Exploitation of prompt radiation (defined as during an accelerator pulse/photofission event and/or immediately after (<1 μs)) has the potential to dramatically reduce interrogation times since neutron yields are more than two orders of magnitude greater than delayed emissions. Recent preliminary experiments conducted at the IAC suggest that it is indeed possible to extract prompt neutron information within a pulsed photon environment. Successful exploitation of prompt emissions is critical for the development of an improved robust, high-throughput, low target dose inspection system for detection of shielded nuclear materials

  4. Utilization of Actively-induced, Prompt Radiation Emission for Nonproliferation Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. W. Blackburn; J. L. Jones; C. E. Moss; J. T. Mihalzco; A. W. Hunt; F. Harmon

    2006-01-01

    The pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technique, which has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded nuclear material, is based on utilizing delayed neutrons and photons between accelerator pulses. While most active interrogation systems have focused on delayed neutron and gamma-ray signatures, the current requirements of various agencies necessitate bringing faster detection and acquisition capabilities to field inspection applications. This push for decreased interrogation times, increased sensitivity and mitigation of false positives requires that detection systems take advantage of all available information. Collaborative research between Idaho National Lab (INL), Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has focused on exploiting actively-induced, prompt radiation signatures from nuclear material within a pulsed photonuclear environment. To date, these prompt emissions have not been effectively exploited due to difficulties in detection and signal processing inherent in the prompt regime as well as an overall poor understanding of the magnitude and yields of these emissions. Exploitation of prompt radiation (defined as during an accelerator pulse/(photo) fission event and/or immediately after (< l ms)) has the potential to dramatically reduce interrogation times since the yields are more than two orders of magnitude greater than delayed emissions. Recent preliminary experiments conducted at the IAC suggest that it is indeed possible to extract prompt neutron information within a pulsed photon environment. Successful exploitation of prompt emissions is critical for the development of an improved robust, high-throughput, low target dose inspection system for detection of shielded nuclear materials

  5. PROMPT: articulatietherapie vanuit tactiel-kinesthetische input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs M.F. Raaijmakers; Drs Sj. van der Meulen

    2005-01-01

    PROMPT is a tactile-kinesthetic approach for assessment and treatment of speech production disorders. PROMPT uses tactile-kinethetic cues to facilitate motor speech behaviors. Therapy is structured from basic motor speech patterns with much tactile-lkinesthetic cueing, towards complex motor speech

  6. Tragedy prompts depression awareness, suicide prevention campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.

  7. Prompt ignition of a unipolar arc on helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Takamura, Shuichi; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    A fibreform nanostructured layer is formed on a tungsten surface by helium plasma bombardment. The helium fluence was of the order of 10 26 m -2 , and the surface temperature and incident ion energy during helium irradiation were, respectively, 1900 K and 75 eV. By irradiating a laser pulse to the surface in the plasma, a unipolar arc, which many people have tried to verify in well-defined experiments, is promptly initiated and continued for a much longer time than the laser pulse width. The laser pulse width (∼0.6 ms) and power (∼5 MJ m -2 ) are similar to the heat load accompanied by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER. The unipolar arc is verified from an increase in the floating potential, a moving arc spot detected by a fast camera and arcing traces on the surface. This result suggests that the nanostructure on the tungsten surface formed by the bombardment of helium, which is a fusion product, could significantly change the ignition property of arcing, and ELMs become a trigger of unipolar arcing, which would be a great impurity source in fusion devices. (letter)

  8. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  9. The progress of neutron induced prompt gamma analysis technique in 1988-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuren; Jing Shiwei

    2003-01-01

    The new development of the neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (NIPGA) technology in 1988-2002 are described. The pulse fast-thermal neutron activation analysis method, which utilizes the inelastic reaction and capture reaction jointly is employed to measure the elemental content in the material more efficiently. The lifetime of the neutron generator is more than 10000 h and the capability of HPGe, TeZeCd and MCA (multi-channel analyser) reaches the high level. At the same time, Monte Carlo Library least-square method is used to solve the nonlinearity problem in the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis)

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Dainotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism responsible for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs is still a debated issue. The prompt phase-related GRB correlations can allow discriminating among the most plausible theoretical models explaining this emission. We present an overview of the observational two-parameter correlations, their physical interpretations, and their use as redshift estimators and possibly as cosmological tools. The nowadays challenge is to make GRBs, the farthest stellar-scaled objects observed (up to redshift z=9.4, standard candles through well established and robust correlations. However, GRBs spanning several orders of magnitude in their energetics are far from being standard candles. We describe the advances in the prompt correlation research in the past decades, with particular focus paid to the discoveries in the last 20 years.

  11. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E S; Farris, J C; Post, D S

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%.

  12. Correction factor for the experimental prompt neutron decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Sadovich, S.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of a spatial correction factor for the experimental prompt neutron decay constant. • Introduction of a MCNP6 calculation methodology to simulate Rossi-alpha distribution for pulsed neutron sources. • Comparison of MCNP6 results with experimental data for count rate, Rossi-alpha, and Feynman-alpha distributions. • Improvement of the comparison between numerical and experimental results by taking into account the dead-time effect. - Abstract: This study introduces a new correction factor to obtain the experimental effective multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by the point kinetics formulation. The correction factor is defined as the ratio between the MCNP6 prompt neutron decay constant obtained in criticality mode and the one obtained in source mode. The correction factor mainly takes into account the longer neutron lifetime in the reflector region and the effects of the external neutron source. For the YALINA Thermal facility, the comparison between the experimental and computational effective multiplication factors noticeably improves after the application of the correction factor. The accuracy of the MCNP6 computational model of the YALINA Thermal subcritical assembly has been verified by reproducing the neutron count rate, Rossi-α, and Feynman-α distributions obtained from the experimental data

  13. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  14. Isolated prompt photon production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    This note describes measurements of isolated prompt photon production at √s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF experiment. The measurements are compared to recent NLO QCD calculations, including recently obtained parton distribution functions. Qualitatively, the QCD calculation with the new parton distribution functions agrees better with the data than the previous parton distribution functions

  15. Prompt radiation detectors to monitor target conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned by basic scientists in the study of experimental nuclear physics can often go unnoticed by cyclotron operator’s intent on meeting a demanding schedule of tracer production. Prompt neutrons and gammas are the signature that the desired reaction is occurring, providing a robust meas...

  16. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  17. Drought prompts government to close nuclear plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday because a record drought left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. The plant supplies more than 10 percent of Romania's electricity and closure prompted fears of a price hike" (1/2 page).

  18. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  19. Essay Prompts and Topics: Minimizing the Effect of Mean Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates whether prompts and topic types affect writing performance of college freshmen taking the Manoa Writing Placement Examination (MWPE). Finds that the MWPE is reliable but that responses to prompts and prompt sets differ. Shows that differences arising in performance on prompts or topics can be minimized by examining mean scores and…

  20. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  1. A Pulsed Sphere Tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Dermott E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Here I attempt to explain what physically happens when we pulse an object with neutrons, specifically what we expect the time dependent behavior of the neutron population to look like. Emphasis is on the time dependent emission of both prompt and delayed neutrons. I also describe how the TART Monte Carlo transport code models this situation; see the appendix for a complete description of the model used by TART. I will also show that, as we expect, MCNP and MERCURY, produce similar results using the same delayed neutron model (again, see the appendix).

  2. Measurements of Prompt Radiation-Induced Conductivity of Pyralux®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, E. Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.; McLain, Michael Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.; Sheridan, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.; Preston, Eric F. [ITT Exelis, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Stringer, Thomas Arthur [ITT Exelis, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this report, measurements of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in 3 mil samples of Pyralux® are presented as a function of dose rate, pulse width, and applied bias. The experiments were conducted with the Medusa linear accelerator (LINAC) located at the Little Mountain Test Facility (LMTF) near Ogden, UT. The nominal electron energy for the LINAC is 20 MeV. Prompt conduction current data were obtained for dose rates ranging from ~2 x 109 rad(Si)/s to ~1.1 x 1011 rad(Si)/s and for nominal pulse widths of 50 ns and 500 ns. At a given dose rate, the applied bias across the samples was stepped between -1500 V and 1500 V. Calculated values of the prompt RIC varied between 1.39x10-8 Ω-1 · m-1 and 2.67x10-7 Ω-1 · m-1 and the prompt RIC coefficient varied between 1.25x10-18 Ω-1 · m-1/(rad/s) and 1.93x10-17 Ω-1 · m-1/(rad/s).

  3. Prompt radiation activation analysis, (1) Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Barouni, A. M.; Araddad, S. Y.; Mosbah, D. S.; Elfakhri, S. M.; Rateb, J. M.; Benghzail, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the prompt γ following neutron capture in the reaction has been extensively developed. In this method the gamma-ray intensity is depended only upon the radiative capture cross-section and not upon the half-life of the product nucleus. The prompt gamma-ray activation analysis method stems from the radiative capture process which results in the decay of the compound nucleus by the emission of characteristic gamma radiation, either as a single photon with kinetic energy equal to the excitation energy less the recoil energy or, more likely, by a cascade of two or more photons with the same energy. The equations and the computer program required to calculate the yield, the intensity and the K χ emission probability per disintegration, are given in this study.(author)

  4. Monadic, prompt lazy assertions in Haskell

    OpenAIRE

    Chitil, Olaf; Huch, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Assertions test expected properties of run-time values without disrupting the normal computation of a program. We present a library for enriching Haskell programs with assertions. Expected properties can be specified in a parser-combinator like language. The assertions are lazy: they do not force evaluation but only examine what is evaluated by the program. They are also prompt: assertion failure is reported as early as possible. The implementation is based on lazy observations and continuati...

  5. Development of prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.

    1982-01-01

    Application of prompt gamma-activation analysis to some environmental samples and NBS's standard reference materials were examined, using NBS reactor and the technique developed by the nuclear chemistry group of the University of Maryland. Concentration of several elements, Cd, B, S, Se, Sb, Zn, Ba, Cr, Cs, Co, Si, Hf, Ce, Yb, Lu, Th, Sc, Eu, Fe, Ta and Rb, were determined by both PGAA and INAA. (author)

  6. Multi Elemental Study Using Prompt Gamma Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normanshah Dahing; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Normanshah Dahing; Hanafi Ithnin; Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Hearie Hassan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10x10x10 cm 3 and 15x15x15 cm 3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with computer simulation, NAA and XRF as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed. (author)

  7. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  8. Prompt photon production in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Krzysztof

    2010-03-15

    This thesis presents measurement of the production of prompt photons in photoproduction with the H1 experiment at HERA. The analysis is based on the data taken in the years 2004-2007, with a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb{sup -1}. The main difficulty of the measurement comes from the high background of neutral mesons decaying into photons. It is accounted for with the help of multivariate analysis. Prompt photon cross sections are measured with the low negative four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} < 1GeV{sup 2} and in the inelasticity range 0.1 < y < 0.7 for photons with a transverse energy 6 < E{sub T}{sup {gamma}} < 15GeV and in the pseudorapidity range.1.0 < {eta}{sup {gamma}} < 2.4 as a function of photons transverse energy and its pseudorapidity. Cross sections for prompt photon events with an additional hadronic jet are measured as a function of the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet and of the momentum fractions x{sub {gamma}} and x{sub p} of the incident photon and proton carried by the constituents participating in the hard scattering process. Additionally, the transverse correlation between the photon and the jet is studied. The results are compared with predictions of a next-to-leading order calculation and a calculation based on the k{sub T} factorisation approach. Neither of calculations is able to describe all the aspects of the measurement. (orig.)

  9. A link between prompt optical and prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J A; Fenimore, E E; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Casperson, D; Davis, H; Evans, S; Galassi, M; McGowan, K E; Schier, J A; Asa, J W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; McLean, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Tueller, J

    2005-05-12

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with the gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from the medium. The timing of the uncorrelated optical emission is strongly dependent on the nature of the medium.

  10. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  11. Prompt photons in photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Zus, R.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Boer, Y. de; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, Ll.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nozicka, M.; Olsson, J.E.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Pokorny, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Olivier, B.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Del Degan, M.; Grab, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Sauter, M.; Zimmermann, T.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    The production of prompt photons is measured in the photoproduction regime of electron-proton scattering at HERA. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb -1 collected by the H1 experiment. Cross sections are measured for photons with transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in the range 6 T γ γ γ and x p carried by the partons entering the hard scattering process. The correlation between the photon and the jet is also studied. The results are compared with QCD predictions based on the collinear and on the k T factorization approaches. (orig.) 7

  12. Prompt-period measurement of the Annular Core Research Reactor prompt neutron generation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, R.L.; Talley, D.G.; Trowbridge, F.R.

    1994-07-01

    The prompt neutron generation time for the Annular Core Research Reactor was experimentally determined using a prompt-period technique. The resultant value of 25.5 μs agreed well with the analytically determined value of 24 μs. The three different methods of reactivity insertion determination yielded ±5% agreement in the experimental values of the prompt neutron generation time. Discrepancies observed in reactivity insertion values determined by the three methods used (transient rod position, relative delayed critical control rod positions, and relative transient rod and control rod positions) were investigated to a limited extent. Rod-shadowing and low power fuel/coolant heat-up were addressed as possible causes of the discrepancies

  13. Prompt photon production in photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Krzysztof

    2010-03-01

    This thesis presents measurement of the production of prompt photons in photoproduction with the H1 experiment at HERA. The analysis is based on the data taken in the years 2004-2007, with a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb -1 . The main difficulty of the measurement comes from the high background of neutral mesons decaying into photons. It is accounted for with the help of multivariate analysis. Prompt photon cross sections are measured with the low negative four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 2 and in the inelasticity range 0.1 T γ γ γ and x p of the incident photon and proton carried by the constituents participating in the hard scattering process. Additionally, the transverse correlation between the photon and the jet is studied. The results are compared with predictions of a next-to-leading order calculation and a calculation based on the k T factorisation approach. Neither of calculations is able to describe all the aspects of the measurement. (orig.)

  14. Prompt data reconstruction at the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Stewart, Graeme; Boyd, Jamie; Unal, Guillaume; Firmino da Costa, João; Tuggle, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC collider recorded more than 5 fb −1 data of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011. The recorded data are promptly reconstructed in two steps at a large computing farm at CERN to provide fast access to high quality data for physics analysis. In the first step, a subset of the data, corresponding to the express stream and having 10Hz of events, is processed in parallel with data taking. Data quality, detector calibration constants, and the beam spot position are determined using the reconstructed data within 48 hours. In the second step all recorded data are processed with the updated parameters. The LHC significantly increased the instantaneous luminosity and the number of interactions per bunch crossing in 2011; the data recording rate by ATLAS exceeds 400 Hz. To cope with these challenges the performance and reliability of the ATLAS reconstruction software have been improved. In this paper we describe how the prompt data reconstruction system quickly and stably provides high quality data to analysers.

  15. Detection of SNM by Pulsed Neutron Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Bent; Mayorov, Valeriy; Roesgen, Eric; Mosconi, Marita; Crochemore, Jean-Michel; Ocherashvili, Aharon; Beck, Arie; Ettedgui, Hanania

    2014-01-01

    A method for the detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) in shielded containers which is both sensitive and easily applicable under field conditions is presented. The method applies neutron induced fission in SNM by means of an external pulsed neutron source with subsequent detection of the fast prompt fission neutrons. Liquid scintillation detectors surrounding the container under investigation are able to discriminate gamma rays from fast neutrons by the so-called pulse shape discrimination technique (PSD)

  16. Evaluation of Multiple-Alternative Prompts during Tact Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Mitchell, Erin; Milne, Christine; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Jeremy; Leaf, Ron; Taubman, Mitch; McEachin, John; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared 2 methods of fading prompts while teaching tacts to 3 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The 1st method involved use of an echoic prompt and prompt fading. The 2nd method involved providing multiple-alternative answers and fading by increasing the difficulty of the discrimination. An adapted…

  17. 77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act... beginning January 1, 2013, and ending on June 30, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1-3/8 per centum... Prompt Payment Act, 31 U.S.C. 3902(a), provide for the calculation of interest due on claims at the rate...

  18. Correlated prompt fission data in transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talou, P.; Vogt, R.; Randrup, J.; Rising, M. E.; Pozzi, S. A.; Verbeke, J.; Andrews, M. T.; Clarke, S. D.; Jaffke, P.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Marcath, M. J.; Meierbachtol, K.; Nakae, L.; Rusev, G.; Sood, A.; Stetcu, I.; Walker, C.

    2018-01-01

    Detailed information on the fission process can be inferred from the observation, modeling and theoretical understanding of prompt fission neutron and γ-ray observables. Beyond simple average quantities, the study of distributions and correlations in prompt data, e.g., multiplicity-dependent neutron and γ-ray spectra, angular distributions of the emitted particles, n - n, n - γ, and γ - γ correlations, can place stringent constraints on fission models and parameters that would otherwise be free to be tuned separately to represent individual fission observables. The FREYA and CGMF codes have been developed to follow the sequential emissions of prompt neutrons and γ rays from the initial excited fission fragments produced right after scission. Both codes implement Monte Carlo techniques to sample initial fission fragment configurations in mass, charge and kinetic energy and sample probabilities of neutron and γ emission at each stage of the decay. This approach naturally leads to using simple but powerful statistical techniques to infer distributions and correlations among many observables and model parameters. The comparison of model calculations with experimental data provides a rich arena for testing various nuclear physics models such as those related to the nuclear structure and level densities of neutron-rich nuclei, the γ-ray strength functions of dipole and quadrupole transitions, the mechanism for dividing the excitation energy between the two nascent fragments near scission, and the mechanisms behind the production of angular momentum in the fragments, etc. Beyond the obvious interest from a fundamental physics point of view, such studies are also important for addressing data needs in various nuclear applications. The inclusion of the FREYA and CGMF codes into the MCNP6.2 and MCNPX - PoliMi transport codes, for instance, provides a new and powerful tool to simulate correlated fission events in neutron transport calculations important in

  19. Correlated prompt fission data in transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talou, P.; Jaffke, P.; Kawano, T.; Stetcu, I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear Physics Group, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States); Randrup, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rising, M.E.; Andrews, M.T.; Sood, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pozzi, S.A.; Clarke, S.D.; Marcath, M.J. [University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Verbeke, J.; Nakae, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Livermore, CA (United States); Jandel, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); University of Massachusetts, Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Lowell, MA (United States); Meierbachtol, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rusev, G.; Walker, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Detailed information on the fission process can be inferred from the observation, modeling and theoretical understanding of prompt fission neutron and γ-ray observables. Beyond simple average quantities, the study of distributions and correlations in prompt data, e.g., multiplicity-dependent neutron and γ-ray spectra, angular distributions of the emitted particles, n-n, n-γ, and γ-γ correlations, can place stringent constraints on fission models and parameters that would otherwise be free to be tuned separately to represent individual fission observables. The FREYA and CGMF codes have been developed to follow the sequential emissions of prompt neutrons and γ rays from the initial excited fission fragments produced right after scission. Both codes implement Monte Carlo techniques to sample initial fission fragment configurations in mass, charge and kinetic energy and sample probabilities of neutron and γ emission at each stage of the decay. This approach naturally leads to using simple but powerful statistical techniques to infer distributions and correlations among many observables and model parameters. The comparison of model calculations with experimental data provides a rich arena for testing various nuclear physics models such as those related to the nuclear structure and level densities of neutron-rich nuclei, the γ-ray strength functions of dipole and quadrupole transitions, the mechanism for dividing the excitation energy between the two nascent fragments near scission, and the mechanisms behind the production of angular momentum in the fragments, etc. Beyond the obvious interest from a fundamental physics point of view, such studies are also important for addressing data needs in various nuclear applications. The inclusion of the FREYA and CGMF codes into the MCNP6.2 and MCNPX-PoliMi transport codes, for instance, provides a new and powerful tool to simulate correlated fission events in neutron transport calculations important in nonproliferation

  20. PUCK: An Automated Prompting System for Smart Environments: Towards achieving automated prompting; Challenges involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Barnan; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Seelye, Adriana M

    2012-10-01

    The growth in popularity of smart environments has been quite steep in the last decade and so has the demand for smart health assistance systems. A smart home-based prompting system can enhance these technologies to deliver in-home interventions to users for timely reminders or brief instructions describing the way a task should be done for successful completion. This technology is in high demand given the desire of people who have physical or cognitive limitations to live independently in their homes. In this paper, with the introduction of the "PUCK" prompting system, we take an approach to automate prompting-based interventions without any predefined rule sets or user feedback. Unlike other approaches, we use simple off-the-shelf sensors and learn the timing for prompts based on real data that is collected with volunteer participants in our smart home test bed. The data mining approaches taken to solve this problem come with the challenge of an imbalanced class distribution that occurs naturally in the data. We propose a variant of an existing sampling technique, SMOTE, to deal with the class imbalance problem. To validate the approach, a comparative analysis with Cost Sensitive Learning is performed.

  1. Prompt Gamma Ray Spectroscopy for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, W.H.; Holmes, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Spectroscopy (PGRS) is a very powerful analytical technique able to measure many metallic, contamination problem elements. The technique involves measurement of gamma rays that are emitted by nuclei upon capturing a neutron. This method is sensitive not only to the target element but also to the particular isotope of that element. PGRS is capable of measuring dissolved metal ions in a flowing system. In the field, isotopic neutron sources are used to produce the desired neutron flux ( 252 Cf can produce neutron flux of the order of 10 8 neutrons/cm 2 --sec.). Due to high penetrating power of gamma radiation, high efficiency gamma ray detectors can be placed in an appropriate geometry to maximize sensitivity, providing real-time monitoring with low detection level capabilities

  2. New possibilities in prompt gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B; Barrandon, J N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Lab. du cyclotron; Pinault, J L [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    1977-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray spectrometry has been used as an analytical tool for many years. The high level of background noise does, however, remain a major problem with this technique. From simple theoretical consideration, conditions (particle, energy) were determined to reduce significantly the background noise under irradiation. Alpha particles of 3.5 MeV were chosen. Some fifty elements were studied, of which 24 gave interesting results. The detection limits obtained for a sample of niobium were as follows: approximately 1 ppm (10/sup -6/g/g) for the light elements Li, B, F and Na, and between 50 ppm and 1% for the others. Numerous applications may be envisaged in the geo- and cosmo-sciences.

  3. Prompt Photons in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2010-01-01

    The production of prompt photons is measured in the photoproduction regime of electron-proton scattering at HERA. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 340 pb^-1 collected by the H1 experiment. Cross sections are measured for photons with transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in the range 6 < Et < 15 GeV and -1.0 < eta < 2.4, respectively. Cross sections for events with an additional jet are measured as a function of the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, and as a function of the fractional momenta x_gamma and x_p carried by the partons entering the hard scattering process. The correlation between the photon and the jet is also studied. The results are compared with QCD predictions based on the collinear and on the k_T factorisation approaches.

  4. Prompt and delayed Coulomb explosion of doubly ionized hydrogen chloride molecules in intense femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junyang; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Hanxiao; Sun, Fenghao; Qiang, Junjie; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We experimentally investigate the dissociative double ionization of hydrogen chloride (HCl) molecules in intense femtosecond laser pulses. In addition to the prompt dissociation channels which occur on femtosecond timescales, long-lived hydrogen chloride dications which Coulomb-explode in flight towards the detector are clearly identified in the photoion-photoion coincidence spectrum. Different pathways leading to these prompt and delayed dissociation channels involving various bound and repulsive states of the HCl dication are discussed based on the observed kinetic energy release and momentum distributions. Our results indicate that the specific features of the HCl dication potential energy curves are responsible for the generation of the delayed fragmentation channels, which are expected to be general processes for the hydrogen halides.

  5. Assessing Efficiency of Prompts Based on Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Backhaus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Personalized prompting research has shown the significant learning benefit of prompting. The current paper outlines and examines a personalized prompting approach aimed at eliminating performance differences on the basis of a number of learner characteristics (capturing learning strategies and traits. The learner characteristics of interest were the need for cognition, work effort, computer self-efficacy, the use of surface learning, and the learner’s confidence in their learning. The approach was tested in two e-modules, using similar assessment forms (experimental n = 413; control group n = 243. Several prompts which corresponded to the learner characteristics were implemented, including an explanation prompt, a motivation prompt, a strategy prompt, and an assessment prompt. All learning characteristics were significant correlates of at least one of the outcome measures (test performance, errors, and omissions. However, only the assessment prompt increased test performance. On this basis, and drawing upon the testing effect, this prompt may be a particularly promising option to increase performance in e-learning and similar personalized systems.

  6. Prompt mechanism of type II supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    We report in this Letter on an extensive set of hydrodynamical simulations of the stellar collapse of the cores of massive stars. A new hydro technique and a series of state-of-the art equations of state were employed. The purpose of this project was to understand in detail core implosion and immediate postbounce behavior (first 25 ms) and to investigate the viability of the hydrodynamic mechanism for Type II supernovae. We find that the bounce-shock always stalls upon encountering the massive infalling outer core for the calculated cores of stars between 8 and 25 M/sub sun/ and the standard input physics. In particular, it is found that Nomoto's 8l8 m/sub sun/ star and Woosley, Weaver, and Taam's 10 M/sub sun/ star do not explode via the prompt mechanism. Our conclusions appear to depend not on the details of the progenitor structure calculated by others but rather on the generic nature of these structures

  7. Prompt nuclear coal analysis ups profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.

    1982-01-01

    To maximise profitability it is essential that products should comply with specification, while ensuring that mining procedures are designed to optimise fully the exploitation of coal reserves. For the producer to realise maximum profits, it is necessary to produce a consistently satisfactory product, while utilising the lowest possible quality of reserves. For the potential need for on-stream analysis, a comprehensive research program, produced several unique systems. The Nucoalyzer CONAC has been developed to analyse continuously a coal sample stream of up to 13 t/h. On-stream analysis is also particularly appropriate as a means of controlling a coal beneficiation plant, especially where coal have a high middling content. Major coal users such as thermal power stations and Synfuel processes can also realise substantial economic benefits through the use of on-stream analysis. On-stream analysis can again significantly reduce operating costs, as it offers the possibility of controlling the level of sulphur in the coal feed. The analytical principle employed in the various Nucoalyzer system is based on Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis

  8. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  9. Prompt single muon production by protons on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Breedon, R.; Coleman, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    A new experiment has been performed at Fermilab to measure the hadronic production of prompt single muons. A preliminary analysis of a sample of the data indicates approximately equal production of prompt single μ + 's and μ - 's in 350 GeV p-Fe interactions. The observed momentum distributions of prompt single μ + 's and μ - 's can satisfactorily be fit by the hypothesis of central production of D mesons with a cross section of 16 +- 4 μb/nucleon

  10. PNG-300 a nanosecond pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztaricskai, T.; Vasvary, L.; Petoe, G.C.; Devkin, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a nanosecond-pulse neutron generator is reported. It was constructed for the measurement of prompt neutron and gamma radiation in experimental studies of fast neutron reactions by time of flight techniques. The acceleration voltage is 300 kV and the total resolution of the generator-neutron spectrometer system is 2 ns. The ion-optical system, the vacuum system and the control of the neutron generator is described in detail. The equipment was used for prompt neutron and gamma radiation induced in construction materials. (R.P.)

  11. 3. barriers to prompt malaria treatment among under five children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    strategy need to be established. Therefore, this study aimed at determining barriers to prompt malaria treatment among this vulnerable age group in Mpika district. Objective: To determine the barriers to prompt malaria treatment among children under five years of age with malaria in Mpika district. Study design: This was an ...

  12. 75 FR 82146 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act... beginning January 1, 2011, and ending on June 30, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\5/8\\ per... calculation of interest due on claims at the rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary...

  13. 77 FR 38888 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act... beginning July 1, 2012, and ending on December 31, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per... interest due on claims at the rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the...

  14. 75 FR 37881 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act... beginning July 1, 2010, and ending on December 31, 2010, the prompt payment interest rate is 3\\1/8\\ per... of interest due on claims at the rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of...

  15. 78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act..., 2013, and ending on December 31, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum... authority to specify the rate by which the interest shall be computed for interest payments under section 12...

  16. 76 FR 38742 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act... beginning July 1, 2011, and ending on December 31, 2011, the prompt payment interest rate is 2\\1/2\\ per.... 3902(a), provide for the calculation of interest due on claims at the rate established by the Secretary...

  17. 76 FR 82350 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act... beginning January 1, 2012, and ending on June 30, 2012, the prompt payment interest rate is 2 per centum per... of interest due on claims at the rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of...

  18. 31 CFR 10.23 - Prompt disposition of pending matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prompt disposition of pending matters. 10.23 Section 10.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE... Revenue Service § 10.23 Prompt disposition of pending matters. A practitioner may not unreasonably delay...

  19. 31 CFR 8.32 - Prompt disposition of pending matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prompt disposition of pending matters. 8.32 Section 8.32 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE... Prompt disposition of pending matters. No attorney, certified public accountant, or enrolled practitioner...

  20. MADNIX a code to calculate prompt fission neutron spectra and average prompt neutron multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, A.C.

    1986-03-01

    A code has been written and tested on the CDC Cyber-170 to calculate the prompt fission neutron spectrum, N(E), as a function of both the fissioning nucleus and its excitation energy. In this note a brief description of the underlying physical principles involved and a detailed explanation of the required input data (together with a sample output for the fission of 235 U induced by 14 MeV neutrons) are presented. Weisskopf's standard nuclear evaporation theory provides the basis for the calculation. Two important refinements are that the distribution of fission-fragment residual nuclear temperature and the cooling of the fragments as neutrons are emitted approximately taken into account, and also the energy dependence of the cross section for the inverse process of compound nucleus formation is included. This approach is then used to calculate the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission, v-bar p . At high excitation energies, where fission is still possible after neutron emission, the consequences of the competition between first, second and third chance fission on N(E) and v-bar p are calculated. Excellent agreement with all the examples given in the original work of Madland and Nix is obtained. (author) [pt

  1. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  2. 3. barriers to prompt malaria treatment among under five children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    age are accessing prompt malaria treatment at health facilities. ... been mentioned include cultural beliefs about the cause, treatment or ..... Factors Perceived by Caretakers as Barriers to Health. Care for ... Asia Pacific J Public Health. 2001 ...

  3. Measurement of Prompt Photon Cross Sections in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Results are presented on the photoproduction of isolated prompt photons, inclusively and associated with jets, in the gamma p center of mass energy range 142 4.5 GeV. They are measured differentially as a function of E_T^gamma, E_T^jet, the pseudorapidities eta^gamma and eta^jet and estimators of the momentum fractions x_gamma and x_p of the incident photon and proton carried by the constituents participating in the hard process. In order to further investigate the underlying dynamics, the angular correlation between the prompt photon and the jet in the transverse plane is studied. Predictions by perturbative QCD calculations in next to leading order are about 30% below the inclusive prompt photon data after corrections for hadronisation and multiple interactions, but are in reasonable agreement with the results for prompt photons associated with jets. Comparisons with the predictions of the event generators PYTHIA and HERWIG are also presented.

  4. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  5. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.

  6. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibideau, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 10 6 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  7. Applicability of the activation analysis with prompt neutron in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghubian-Malhami, R.

    1975-04-01

    The concentrations of boron and cadmium in the human body are of great importance in medicine. The author determined their concentration by prompt neutron activation analysis in aqueous solutions and in urine. The results show that this technique may be used in medical diagnosis. The author discusses the qualities and the applicability of delayed and prompt neutron activation analysis in biology and medicine. (C.R.)

  8. Thermal and prompt photons at RHIC and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, Jean-François [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Shen, Chun [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Denicol, Gabriel [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Luzum, Matthew [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Travessa R, no. 187, 05508-090, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (Brazil); Schenke, Björn [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Thermal and prompt photon production in heavy ion collisions is evaluated and compared with measurements from both RHIC and the LHC. An event-by-event hydrodynamical model of heavy ion collisions that includes shear and bulk viscosities is used, along with up-to-date photon emission rates. Larger tension with measurements is observed at RHIC than at the LHC. The center-of-mass energy and centrality dependence of thermal and prompt photons is investigated.

  9. Finite fission chain length and symmetry around prompt-criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qilin; Yin Yanpeng; Gao Hui; Huang Po; Fang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Probability distribution of finite fission chain length was derived by assuming that all neutrons behave identically. Finite fission chain length was also calculated using a zero-dimension Monte-Carlo method based on point kinetics. Then symmetry of finite fission chain length probability distribution around prompt-criticality was deduced, which helps understanding the emission rate of delayed neutrons and initiation of fission chain in super-prompt-critical system. (authors)

  10. Maximizing Reading Narrative Text Ability by Probing Prompting Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwied Pratiwi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know whether Probing Prompting Learning Technique can be used to get the maximum effect of students’ reading narrative ability in teaching and learning process. This research was applied collaborative action reEsearch, this research was done in two cycle. The subject of this research was 23 students at tenth grade of SMA Kartikatama Metro. The result of the research showed that the Probing Prompting Learning Technique is useful and effective to help students get maximum effect of their reading. Based on the results of the questionnaire obtained an average percentage of 95%, it indicated that application of Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching l reading was appropriately applied. In short that students’ responses toward Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching reading was positive. In conclusion, Probing Prompting Learning Technique can get maximum effect of students’ reading ability. In relation to the result of the reserach, some suggestion are offered to english teacher, that  the use of Probing Prompting learning Technique in teaching reading will get the maximum effect of students’ reading abilty.

  11. PROMPT: Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichart, D.; Nysewander, M.; Moran, J. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2005-07-15

    Funded by $1.2M in grants and donations, we are now building PROMPT at CTIO. When completed in late 2005, PROMPT will consist of six 0.41-meter diameter Ritchey-Chretien telescopes on rapidly slewing mounts that respond to GRB alerts within seconds, when the afterglow is potentially extremely bright. Each mirror and camera coating is being optimized for a different wavelength range and function, including a NIR imager, two red-optimized imager, a blue-optimized imager, an UV-optimized imager, and an optical polarimeter. PROMPT will be able to identify high-redshift events by dropout and distinguish these events from the similar signatures of extinction. In this way, PROMPT will act a distance-finder scope for spectroscopic follow up on the larger 4.1-meter diameter SOAR telescope, which is also located at CTIO. When not chasing GRBs, PROMPT serves broader educational objectives across the state of north Carolina. Enclosure construction and the first two telescopes are now complete and functioning: PROMPT observed Swift's first GRB in December 2004. We upgrade from two to four telescope in February 2005 and from four to six telescopes in mid-2005.

  12. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu2SiO5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  13. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso-González, F; Golnik, C; Berthel, M; Dreyer, A; Enghardt, W; Kormoll, T; Rohling, H; Pausch, G; Fiedler, F; Heidel, K; Schöne, S; Schwengner, R; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu 2 SiO 5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  14. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  15. Fast digitization and discrimination of prompt neutron and photon signals using a novel silicon carbide detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott M. Watson; David L. Chichester; James L. Jones; Frank H. Ruddy; John G. Seidel; Robert W. Flammang

    2007-01-01

    Current requirements of some Homeland Security active interrogation projects for the detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) necessitate the development of faster inspection and acquisition capabilities. In order to do so, fast detectors which can operate during and shortly after intense interrogation radiation flashes are being developed. Novel silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor Schottky diodes have been utilized as robust neutron and photon detectors in both pulsed photon and pulsed neutron fields and are being integrated into active inspection environments to allow exploitation of both prompt and delayed emissions. These detectors have demonstrated the capability of detecting both photon and neutron events during intense photon flashes typical of an active inspection environment. Beyond the inherent insensitivity of SiC to gamma radiation, fast digitization and processing has demonstrated that pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in combination with amplitude discrimination can further suppress unwanted gamma signals and extract fast neutron signatures. Usable neutron signals have been extracted from mixed radiation fields where the background has exceeded the signals of interest by >1000:1

  16. Prompt photon measurements with PHENIX's MPC-EX detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; PHENIX Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The MPC-EX detector is a Si-W preshower extension to the existing Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC). The MPC-EX consists of eight layers of alternating W absorber and Si mini-pad sensors. Located at forward rapidity, 3.1 80 GeV, a factor of four improvement over current capabilities. Not only will the MPC-EX strengthen PHENIX's existing forward π0 and jet measurements, it will provide sufficient prompt photon and π0 separation to make a prompt photon measurement possible. Prompt photon yields at high pT, pT > 3 GeV/c, can be statistically extracted using the double ratio method. In transversely polarized p+p collisions, the measurement of the prompt photon single spin asymmetry, AN, will resolve the sign discrepancy between the Sivers and twist-3 extractions of AN. In p+Au collisions, the prompt photon RpAu will quantify the level of gluon saturation in the Au nucleus at low-x, x ~ 10-3, with a projected systematic error band a factor of four smaller than EPS09's current allowable range. The MPC-EX detector will expand our understanding of the gluon nuclear parton distribution functions, providing important information about the initial state of heavy ion collisions, and clarify how the valence parton's transverse momentum and spin correlates to the proton spin.

  17. Estimation of neutron energy distributions from prompt gamma emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Udupi, Ashwini; Sarkar, P. K.

    2017-11-01

    A technique of estimating the incident neutron energy distribution from emitted prompt gamma intensities from a system exposed to neutrons is presented. The emitted prompt gamma intensities or the measured photo peaks in a gamma detector are related to the incident neutron energy distribution through a convolution of the response of the system generating the prompt gammas to mono-energetic neutrons. Presently, the system studied is a cylinder of high density polyethylene (HDPE) placed inside another cylinder of borated HDPE (BHDPE) having an outer Pb-cover and exposed to neutrons. The emitted five prompt gamma peaks from hydrogen, boron, carbon and lead can be utilized to unfold the incident neutron energy distribution as an under-determined deconvolution problem. Such an under-determined set of equations are solved using the genetic algorithm based Monte Carlo de-convolution code GAMCD. Feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated theoretically using the Monte Carlo calculated response matrix and intensities of emitted prompt gammas from the Pb-covered BHDPE-HDPE system in the case of several incident neutron spectra spanning different energy ranges.

  18. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  19. Pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshields, H.; Seddon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    This supplement to two bibliographies published in 1970 and 1972 lists 734 references to the literature of pulse radiolysis, arranged under eight broad subject headings. The references were compiled by searching Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Weekly List of Papers in Radiation Chemistry issued by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center of Notre Dame University. Full bibliographic data is given for papers published in the period 1971 to 1974. A personal author index listing more than 600 authors and a similar number of co-authors is included

  20. Kinetic studies on a repetitively pulsed fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.

    1982-01-01

    Neutronic analysis of an earlier proposed periodically pulsed fast reactor at Kalpakkam (KPFR) has been carried out numerically under equilibrium and transient conditions using the one-point model of reactor kinetics and the experimentally measured total worth of reactivity modulator, the parabolic coefficient of reactivity of the movable reflector and the mean prompt neutron lifetime. Results of steady-state calculations - treated on the basis of delayed neutron precursor and energy balances during a period of operation - have been compared with the analytical formulae of Larrimore for a parabolic reactivity input. Empirical relations for half-width of the fast neutron pulse, the peak pulse power and the power at first crossing of prompt criticality have been obtained and shown to be accurate enough for predicting steady-state power pulse characteristics of a periodically pulsed fast reactor. The concept of a subprompt-critical reactor has been used to calculate the fictitious delayed neutron fraction, β of the KPFR through a numerical experiment. Relative pulse height stability and pulse shape sensitivity to changes of maximum reactivity is discussed. With the aid of new safety concepts, the Power Amplification Factor (PAF) and the Pulse Growth Factor (Rsub(p)), the dynamics KPFR under accidental conditions has been studied for step and ramp reactivity perturbations. All the analysis has been done without taking account of reactivity feedback. (orig.)

  1. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  2. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-01-01

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  3. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott; Farris, John C.; Post, David S.

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%. PMID:16795418

  4. Status report on the development of a prompt fission neutron uranium borehole logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.W.

    1977-05-01

    The prompt fission neutron (PFN) method of direct uranium measurement was studied. The PFN uranium logging technique measures the enhanced epithermal neutron population created by the prompt thermal fission of 235 U to assay uranium mineralization around a borehole. This neutron population exists for several hundred microseconds after a pulsed neutron source produces a burst of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons. A feasibility study established the basic relationship between the uranium concentration and the enhanced epithermal neutron count, and defined the major measurement perturbing factors. Following the feasibility study, development of a PFN prototype field probe was undertaken. A laboratory type neutron generator, the Controlatron, was modified for use in the probe. Field evaluation of the prototype system began in January 1976. Comparisons of neutron logs and natural gamma logs taken during this evaluation period clearly define many disequilibrium conditions as verified by ore grade estimates from core samples. The feasibility of the PFN logging technique to detect uranium in-situ has now been demonstrated

  5. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  6. Millisecond-Period Meltdown Experiments on Prompt - Burst Effects and Molten-Tin-Water Dropping Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.W.; Coats, R.L.; Schmidt, T.R.; Arakeri, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a program of confirmatory research for the safety assessment of LMFBR plants. In the sodium-fuel interactions area, this research includes a series of real-time in-pile experiments on the pressure and work potential of prompt-burst excursions as well as laboratory dropping experiments with molten tin and water. The in-pile experiments are performed by Sandia Laboratories in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR), which has a minimum period of 1.3 milliseconds. These single-pin experiments are performed in a piston-loaded, stagnant-sodium autoclave, that is conceptually similar to the one used in the S-11 TREAT test. Unlike the S-11 test, however, realistic radial temperature profiles are obtained in the fuel, the cladding, and the sodium by pre-pulsing the reactor about 1/2 second before the main pulse. A series of preparatory runs have been made with helium-filled capsules and at low energy with sodium-filled capsules. The first significant fuel-coolant interaction run is scheduled for late March 1976. This will be a double-pulsed run at 2700 j/gm UO 2 . A continuing series of experiments is planned with oxide and advanced fuels in both fresh and irradiated form. In molten-tin-water dropping experiments at UCLA, microsecond duration multi-flash photography has been used for event diagnostics. Transition or nucleate boiling was found to trigger energetic interactions or vapor explosions. Temperature stratification in the water was found to reduce the threshold tin temperature necessary to produce vapor explosions below that the predicted by the coolant homogeneous nucleation hypothesis. Interaction zone growth times of a few msec were measured

  7. Asymptotic inverse periods of reflected reactors above prompt critical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the kinetic behavior of reflected and unreflected reactors is identical. In particular, it is often accepted that a given reactivity change in either type of system will result in an identical asymptotic inverse period. This is generally true for reactivities below prompt critical. For reactivities above prompt critical, however, the asymptotic inverse period can vary in a highly nonlinear fashion with system reactivity depending on the reflector return fraction, the neutron lifetime in the core, and the neutron lifetime in the reflector

  8. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ν-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10 - 15 second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ν-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ν-ray spectra. 14 figures

  9. Exotic Prompt and Non-Prompt Leptonic Decays as a Window to the Dark Sector with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Miriam; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Results of searches for both prompt and non-prompt leptonic decays of new dark sector particles in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector are presented. Searches that encompass a wide range of new particle masses, lifetimes and degrees of collimation of leptonic decay products are discussed. The results are interpreted in the context of models containing new gauge bosons (dark photons or dark Z bosons) that give rise to lepton-jets or to more general displaced leptonic signatures that could be a viable dark matter candidate.

  10. Prompt photon measurements with the PHENIX MPC-EX detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The MPC-EX detector is a preshower extension to PHENIX's Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC). It consists of eight layers of alternating W absorber and Si mini-pad sensors. Located at forward rapidity, 3.180 GeV, allowing the measurement of prompt photons using the double ratio method. At forward rapidities, prompt photons are dominated by direct photons produced by quark-gluon Compton scattering. In transversely polarized p+p collisions, the prompt photon single spin asymmetry measurement, AN, will resolve the sign discrepancy between the Sivers and twist-3 extractions of AN. In p+Au collisions, the prompt photon RpAu will quantify the level of gluon saturation in the Au nucleus at low-x, 10-3, with a projected systematic error band a factor of four smaller than EPS09's current allowable range. The MPC-EX detector will expand our understanding of gluon nuclear parton distribution functions, providing information about the initial state of heavy ion collisions, and clarify how valence parton's pT and spin correlate to the proton spin.

  11. Calculation of prompt neutron spectra for curium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1997-03-01

    With the aim of checking the existing evaluations contained in JENDL-3.2 and providing new evaluations based on a methodology proposed by the author, a series of calculations of prompt neutron spectra have been undertaken for curium isotopes. Some of the evaluations in JENDL-3.2 was found to be unphysically hard and should be revised. (author)

  12. Sensitivity of prompt searches to long-lived particles

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Berlingen, Javier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of "prompt" searches to long-lived particles is evaluated, in the context of SUSY models with variable RPV couplings. The experimental aspects and the information required for the correct treatment in public recast tools are discussed in detail.

  13. Environmental Consciousness in Daily Activities Measured by Negative Prompts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Hiramatsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gap between people’s attitude and action as regards environmental issues has been pointed out even while surveys registered an increase in people’s environmental awareness. Among the possible reasons is that people tend to automatically answer “yes”, as most surveys on environmental consciousness use positively-phrased questions or prompts. To remove the “yes-bias” in previous surveys, this present study conducted in Japan a large-scale questionnaire survey on environmental consciousness using negative prompts and free-answered prompts on which behaviors people feel good/bad/uncertain for the environment. This study also investigated peoples’ psychological factors and concrete pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs in daily life. The results of the questionnaire with negative prompts showed that the rate of people’s consciousness to the environment was lower compared with other surveys. Through factor analysis, five psychological factors were extracted as the explanatory factors of environmental attitude. Demographic effects on the consciousness and PEBs were also observed. Comparison of free-answers on concrete daily behaviors among five different environmentally conscious groups showed there were certain phases in the perception of PEBs based on consciousness level. Similar common behaviors were highly ranked as both PEB and doubtful behaviors, indicating that people were worried about actions that involve a trade-off relationship from diversified standpoints.

  14. Video Modeling and Prompting in Practice: Teaching Cooking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Mourra, Kjerstin; Morgan, Robert L.; Riesen, Tim; Glasgow, Malinda; Huddleston, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of video modeling (VM) and video prompting (VP) interventions for teaching novel multi-step tasks to individuals with disabilities. This article reviews factors to consider when selecting skills to teach, and students for whom VM/VP may be successful, as well as the difference between VM and VP and circumstances…

  15. 32 CFR 806.6 - Prompt action on requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source, records were part of the Air Force's decision-making process or are privileged. (d) Expedited... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.6 Prompt action on requests. (a) Examples of letters to FOIA... processing. (1) Examples of letters to FOIA requesters (e.g., letters to individuals who have had their FOIA...

  16. Investigation of some approximation used in promptly emitted particle models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.; La Rana, G.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Barranco, M.; Pi, M.; Vinas, X.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate three effects which can be taken into account in a model for promptly emitted particles: the Pauli blocking, the velocity of the window separating the two ions with respect to each of the fragments and the spatial extension of the window

  17. Application of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Park, Kwang Won; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This technical report is written for the promotion to utilization of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis facility to be installed in HANARO reactor. It is described for a practical aspects including experiment and equipments, methodology, current status of the research and development and its applications. 102 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  18. Prompt neutrons from {sup 236}U fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldeman, J W; Musgrove, A.R. de L.; Walsch, R L

    1971-03-01

    Measurements were made of prompt neutron emission in the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U. The mean neutron emission per fragment was obtained for particular values of the fragment mass and total kinetic energy. A direct neutron counting method was employed and a comparison made with data from previous experiments of this type. (author)

  19. Swift captures the spectrally evolving prompt emission of GRB070616

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, R. L. C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Willingale, R.; Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; de Pasquale, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Onda, K.; Norris, J. P.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Kodaka, N.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Page, M. J.; Perri, M.; Markwardt, C. B.

    2008-02-01

    The origins of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission are currently not well understood and in this context long, well-observed events are particularly important to study. We present the case of GRB070616, analysing the exceptionally long-duration multipeaked prompt emission, and later afterglow, captured by all the instruments on-board Swift and by Suzaku Wide-Band All-Sky Monitor (WAM). The high-energy light curve remained generally flat for several hundred seconds before going into a steep decline. Spectral evolution from hard to soft is clearly taking place throughout the prompt emission, beginning at 285s after the trigger and extending to 1200s. We track the movement of the spectral peak energy, whilst observing a softening of the low-energy spectral slope. The steep decline in flux may be caused by a combination of this strong spectral evolution and the curvature effect. We investigate origins for the spectral evolution, ruling out a superposition of two power laws and considering instead an additional component dominant during the late prompt emission. We also discuss origins for the early optical emission and the physics of the afterglow. The case of GRB070616 clearly demonstrates that both broad-band coverage and good time resolution are crucial to pin down the origins of the complex prompt emission in GRBs. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Francesca Tamburelli who died during its production. Francesca played a fundamental role within the team which is in charge of the development of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) data analysis software at the Italian Space Agency's Science Data Centre in Frascati. She is sadly missed. E-mail: rlcs1@star.le.ac.uk

  20. Comparison of Everyday and Every-Fourth-Day Probe Sessions with the Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Wolery, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous prompting is a response-prompting procedure requiring two daily sessions: an instructional session in which a controlling prompt is provided on all trials, and a probe session in which no prompt is provided on any trials. In this study, two schedules of conducting the probe sessions (daily vs. every fourth day) were compared using the…

  1. The study of prompt and delayed muon induced fission III. The ratios of prompt to delayed fission yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rösel, Ch.; Hänscheid, H.; Hartfiel, J.; Mutius, von R.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.; David, P; Janszen, H.; Johansson, T.; Konijn, J.; Krogulski, T.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Paganetti, H.; Petitjean, C.; Polikanov, S.M.; Reist, H.W.; Risse, F.; Schaller, L.A.; Schrieder, W.; Sinha, A.K.; Taal, A.; Theobald, J.P.; Tibell, G.; Trautmann, N.

    1993-01-01

    The ratios of prompt to delayed fission yields for the isotopes U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-242, and Pu-244 and the fission probabilities relative to each other have been investigated experimentally. Using the value of the total fission probability for Np-237 the absolute

  2. Evaluation and measurement of prompt k0-factors to use in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Nair, A.G.C.; Acharya, R.N.; Sudarshan, K.; Scindia, Y.M.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of experimental k 0 -factors is important due to uncertainties on absolute values of cross sections and prompt gamma-ray intensities. Determination of absolute full-energy peak detection efficiency and elemental sensitivity are required to obtain experimental k 0 -factor

  3. The bremsstrahlung induced by 0.3-2 keV electron scattering by Ar atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnatchenko, E.V.; Tkachenko, A.A.; Verkhovtseva, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    The differential spectra of a bremsstrahlung resulting from a 0.3-2 keV electron scattering by Ar atoms are studied. Photon energies within the ultrasoft X-ray band from 124 to 190.8 eV, which is characterized by the low dynamic polarizability of the Ar atom, are considered. For the entire spectrum of photon energies (124-190.8 eV), the intensity of the bremsstrahlung differential spectra first grows with an increase in the electron energy from 0.3 to 0.7 keV and then decreases as the electron energy increases from 0.7 to 2 keV. The increase in intensity is directly proportional, and the decrease is inversely proportional to the square root of the energy of the scattered electrons. Within the context of a 'low-energy' approximation, the increase in the number of photons with the electron energy is due to the contribution of the atomic excitation and ionization channels being available during the bremsstrahlung process

  4. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  5. A method for prediction of prompt fission neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashin, A.F.; Lepeshkin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    Three-parameter formula for the prompt-fission-neutron integral spectrum is derived from a thermodynamical model. Two parameters, scission-neutron weight p = 11 % and anisotropy factor for accelerated fragments b = 10 %, are determined from experimental data, the same values being assumed for any type of fission. The thermodynamical theory provides the value of the third parameter, temperature τ, thus prognozing neutron spectrum and average energy with an error about 1 %. (author)

  6. Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    emission. During the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings , the prompt radiation contributed from 40%-70% of the free-in-air dose depending on distance from...intermediate- and low-yield thermonuclear weapons for initial radiation shielding calculations No Gritzner, et al. 1976 ( EM -1, Low, Henre...DNA 4267F ( EM -1 Fission) Neutron Gritzner, et al. 1976 1.00 x 1023 Glasstone (Thermonuclear) Neutron Glasstone & Dolan 1977 1.445 x 1023 ORNL-TM

  7. Prompt γ energy spectrum by associated particle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Li; He Tie; Guo Haiping; Yang Jian; Zheng Pu; Wang Xinhua; Chen Yuan; Mou Yunfeng; Zhu Chuanxin; Yang Xiaofei

    2010-01-01

    The basic principle of associated alpha particle technique and the measurement system were introduced. The characteristic prompt gamma-rays coming from water, graphite, liquid nitrogen, ammonium nitrate, melamine and simulated samples induced by D-T neutron from generator were gained by single alpha particle detector and gamma-ray detector. The complex gamma-ray spectra were deconvolved. The element ratio between the experiment and chemic molecular formula is agreement in 10%. (authors)

  8. Prompt loss of beam ions in KSTAR plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For a toroidal plasma facility to realize fusion energy, researching the transport of fast ions is important not only due to its close relation to the heating and current drive efficiencies but also to determine the heat load on the plasma-facing components. We present a theoretical analysis and orbit simulation for the origin of lost fast-ions during neutral beam injection (NBI heating in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR device. We adopted a two-dimensional phase diagram of the toroidal momentum and magnetic moment and describe detectable momentums at the fast-ion loss detector (FILD position as a quadratic line. This simple method was used to model birth ions deposited by NBI and drawn as points in the momentum phase space. A Lorentz orbit code was used to calculate the fast-ion orbits and present the prompt loss characteristics of the KSTAR NBI. The scrape-off layer deposition of fast ions produces a significant prompt loss, and the model and experimental results closely agreed on the pitch-angle range of the NBI prompt loss. Our approach can provide wall load information from the fast ion loss.

  9. PROMPT DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, H.; Dauffy, L.; Sitaraman, S.; Brereton, S.

    2008-01-01

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately understand the prompt radiation environment within NIF. Prompt dose values are calculated for different phases of NIF operation. Results of the analysis were used to determine the final thicknesses of the Target Bay (TB) and secondary doors as well as the required shield thicknesses for all unused penetrations. Integrated dose values at different locations within the facility are needed to formulate the personnel access requirements within different parts of the facility. The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration; (2) All shielding requirements for Phase I operation are met; (3) Negligible dose values (a fraction of mrem) are expected in normally occupied areas during Phase I; (4) In preparation for the Ignition Campaign and Phase IV of operation, all primary and secondary shield doors will be installed; (5) Unused utility penetrations in the Target Bay and Switchyard walls (∼50%) will be shielded by 1 foot thick concrete to reduce prompt dose inside and outside the NIF facility; (6) During Phase IV, a 20 MJ shot will produce acceptable dose levels in the occupied areas as well as at the nearest site boundary; (7) A comprehensive radiation monitoring plan will be put in place to monitor dose values at large number of locations; and (8) Results of the dose monitoring will be used to modify personnel access requirements if needed

  10. Proton current measurements using the prompt gamma ray diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Burns, E.J.T.; Johnson, D.J.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray signals from the nuclear reaction 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be have been used to make time resolved proton current measurements. In these measurements, the proton beam was allowed to strike cylindrical thick lithium metal targets. The time integrated proton current was measured using gamma activation of copper via the reaction 63 Cu(γ,n) 62 Cu(β+). The positron activity of the copper sample was easily measured using coincidence counting techniques. The number of 62 Cu atoms produced per proton incident on a thick Li metal target was determined with separate calibration runs performed on the Sandia 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The time history of the prompt gamma production was measured using six EGG NPM-54 scintillator photomultiplier combinations shielded by 96.5 cm of concrete and 5.1 cm of Pb. The use of six scintillator photomultiplier combinations was necessary to increase the statistical precision of the data. The normalization of the prompt gamma time history data with the total time integrated proton-current measurement yielded the absolute time resolved proton current on target. Data from runs performed on the Sandia Proto I accelerator will be presented

  11. The prompt atmospheric neutrino flux in the light of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Sarkar, Subir; Talbert, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of very high energy cosmic neutrinos by IceCube heralds the beginning of neutrino astronomy. At these energies, the dominant background to the astrophysical signal is the flux of ‘prompt’ neutrinos, arising from the decay of charmed mesons produced by cosmic ray collisions in the atmosphere. In this work we provide predictions for the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux in the framework of perturbative QCD, using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo event generators. Our calculation includes the constraints set by charm production measurements from the LHCb experiment at 7 TeV, recently validated with the corresponding 13 TeV data. Our result for the prompt flux is a factor of about 2 below the previous benchmark calculation, in general agreement with other recent estimates, but with an improved estimate of the uncertainty. This alleviates the existing tension between the theoretical prediction and IceCube limits, and suggests that a direct detection of the prompt flux is imminent.

  12. Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Correlations: Selection and Instrumental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Amati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z ≈ 9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discriminate among the most plausible theoretical models. Nowadays, the objective is to make GRBs standard candles, similar to supernovae (SNe) Ia, through well-established and robust correlations. However, differently from SNe Ia, GRBs span over several order of magnitude in their energetics, hence they cannot yet be considered standard candles. Additionally, being observed at very large distances, their physical properties are affected by selection biases, the so-called Malmquist bias or Eddington effect. We describe the state of the art on how GRB prompt correlations are corrected for these selection biases to employ them as redshift estimators and cosmological tools. We stress that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for these effects, GRB correlations can be used to discriminate among the theoretical models of prompt emission, to estimate the cosmological parameters and to serve as distance indicators via redshift estimation.

  13. Search for prompt neutrinos with AMANDA-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzini, Sara Rebecca

    2008-09-11

    The investigation performed in this work aims to identify and disentangle the signal of prompt neutrinos from the inclusive atmospheric spectrum. We have analysed data recorded in the years 2000-2003 by the AMANDA-II detector at the geographical South Pole. After a tight event selection, our sample is composed of about 4 . 10{sup 3} atmospheric neutrinos. Prompt neutrinos are decay products of heavy quark hadrons, which are produced in the collision of a cosmic ray particle with a nucleon in the atmosphere. The technique used to recognise prompt neutrinos is based on a simulated information of their energy spectrum, which appears harder than that of the conventional component from light quarks. Models accounting for different hadron production and decay schemes have been included in a Monte Carlo simulation and convoluted with the detector response, in order to reproduce the different spectra. The background of conventional events has been described with the Bartol 2006 tables. The energy spectrum of our data has been reconstructed through a numerical unfolding algorithm. The reconstruction is based on a Monte Carlo simulation and uses as an input three parameters of the neutrino track which are correlated with the energy of the event. Numerical regularisation is introduced to achieve a result free of unphysical oscillations, typical unfortunate feature of unfolding. The reconstructed data spectrum has been compared with different predictions using the model rejection factor technique. The prompt neutrino models differ in the choice of the hadron interaction model, the set of parton distribution functions and the numerical parameterisation of the fragmentation functions describing the transition from quark to hadrons. Here we considered mainly three classes of models, known in the literature as the Recombination Quark Parton Model, the Quark Gluon String Model and the Perturbative QCD model. Upper limits have been set on the expected flux predictions, based on our

  14. Search for prompt neutrinos with AMANDA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzini, Sara Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The investigation performed in this work aims to identify and disentangle the signal of prompt neutrinos from the inclusive atmospheric spectrum. We have analysed data recorded in the years 2000-2003 by the AMANDA-II detector at the geographical South Pole. After a tight event selection, our sample is composed of about 4 . 10 3 atmospheric neutrinos. Prompt neutrinos are decay products of heavy quark hadrons, which are produced in the collision of a cosmic ray particle with a nucleon in the atmosphere. The technique used to recognise prompt neutrinos is based on a simulated information of their energy spectrum, which appears harder than that of the conventional component from light quarks. Models accounting for different hadron production and decay schemes have been included in a Monte Carlo simulation and convoluted with the detector response, in order to reproduce the different spectra. The background of conventional events has been described with the Bartol 2006 tables. The energy spectrum of our data has been reconstructed through a numerical unfolding algorithm. The reconstruction is based on a Monte Carlo simulation and uses as an input three parameters of the neutrino track which are correlated with the energy of the event. Numerical regularisation is introduced to achieve a result free of unphysical oscillations, typical unfortunate feature of unfolding. The reconstructed data spectrum has been compared with different predictions using the model rejection factor technique. The prompt neutrino models differ in the choice of the hadron interaction model, the set of parton distribution functions and the numerical parameterisation of the fragmentation functions describing the transition from quark to hadrons. Here we considered mainly three classes of models, known in the literature as the Recombination Quark Parton Model, the Quark Gluon String Model and the Perturbative QCD model. Upper limits have been set on the expected flux predictions, based on our

  15. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  16. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  17. Stability region for a prompt power variation of a coupled-core system with positive prompt feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Nishina, K.

    1984-01-01

    A stability analysis using a one-group model is presented for a coupled-core system. Positive prompt feedback of a γp /SUB j/ form is assumed, where p /SUB j/ is the fractional power variation of core j. Prompt power variations over a range of a few milliseconds after a disturbance are analyzed. The analysis combines Lapunov's method, prompt jump approximation, and the eigenfunction expansion of coupling region response flux. The last is treated as a pseudo-delayed neutron precursor. An asymptotic stability region is found for p /SUB j/. For an asymmetric flux variation over a system of two coupled cores, either p /SUB I/ or p /SUB II/ can slightly exceed, by virtue of the coupling effect, the critical value (β/γ-1) of a single-core case. Such a stability region is increased by additional inclusion of the coupling region fundamental mode in the treatment. The coupling region contributes to stability through its delayed response and coupling. An optimum core separation distance for stability is found

  18. Prompt and non-prompt J/$\\psi$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Porteboeuf, Sarah; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Neuland, Maike Brigitte; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J A; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A T; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J M; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Parker, William; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The production of J/psi mesons is studied in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is based on a dimuon sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 314 inverse nanobarns. The J/psi differential cross section is determined, as a function of the J/psi transverse momentum, in three rapidity ranges. A fit to the decay length distribution is used to separate the prompt from the non-prompt (b hadron to J/psi) component. Integrated over J/psi transverse momentum from 6.5 to 30 GeV/c and over rapidity in the range |y| < 2.4, the measured cross sections, times the dimuon decay branching fraction, are 70.9 \\pm 2.1 (stat.) \\pm 3.0 (syst.) \\pm 7.8(luminosity) nb for prompt J/psi mesons assuming unpolarized production and 26.0 \\pm 1.4 (stat.) \\pm 1.6 (syst.) \\pm 2.9 (luminosity) nb for J/psi mesons from b-hadron decays.

  19. A Comparison of Prompting Tactics for Teaching Intraverbals to Young Adults with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedora, Joseph; Conant, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Several researchers have compared the effectiveness of tact or textual prompts to echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior to young children with autism. We extended this line of research by comparing the effectiveness of visual (textual or tact) prompts to echoic prompts to teach intraverbal responses to three young adults with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with 2 to 3 comparisons for each participant. The results were mixed and did not reveal a more effective prompting procedure across participants, suggesting that the effectiveness of a prompting tactic may be idiosyncratic. The role of one's learning history and the implications for practitioners teaching intraverbal behavior to individuals with autism are discussed.

  20. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high- pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  1. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  2. Intensive neutron source based on powerful electron linear accelerator LIA-30 and pulsed nuclear reactor FR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossamykin, V S; Koshelev, A S; Gerasimov, A I; Gordeev, V S; Grishin, A V; Averchenkov, V Ya; Lazarev, S A; Maslov, G N; Odintsov, Yu M [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Some results are given of investigations on joint operation modes of the linear induction electron accelerator LIA-30 ({approx} 40 MeV, {approx} 100 kA, {approx} 20 ns) and the pulsed reactor FR-1 with a compact metal core, aimed at achieving high intensity neutron fluxes. The multiplication factor Q for prompt neutrons in the FR-1 booster mode operation increased from 100 to 4500. The total output of prompt neutrons from FR-1 at Q = 2570 was 1.4 x 10{sup 16} 1/pulse with a pulse half width of {approx} 25 {mu}s. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. Fuel-coolant interaction-phenomena under prompt burst conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.; Young, M.F.; Reil, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    The Prompt Burst Energetics (PBE) experiments conducted at Sandia Laboratories are a series of in-pile tests with fresh uranium oxide or uranium carbide fuel pins in stagnant sodium. Fuel-coolant-interactions in PBE-9S (oxide/sodium system) and PBE-SG2 (carbide/sodium) have been analyzed with the MURTI parametric FCI code. The purpose is to gain insight into possible FCI scenarios in the experiments and sensitivity of results to input parameters. Results are in approximate agreement for the second (triggered) event in PBE-9S (32 MPa peak) and the initial interaction in PBE-SG2

  4. Renormalization group approach to Sudakov resummation in prompt photon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, Paolo; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    We prove the all-order exponentiation of soft logarithmic corrections to prompt photon production in hadronic collisions, by generalizing an approach previously developed in the context of Drell-Yan production and deep-inelastic scattering. We show that all large logs in the soft limit can be expressed in terms of two dimensionful variables, and we use the renormalization group to resum them. The resummed results that we obtain are more general though less predictive than those proposed by other groups, in that they can accommodate for violations of Sudakov factorization

  5. Application of prompt gamma ray analysis to biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Enomoto, Shuichi [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Prompt {gamma}-ray activation analysis using the internal monostandard method was applied to organs taken from rats. After B, Cd, or Hg was injected into the rats, the content ratios of B/H, Cd/H, and Hg/H were determined in the brain, kidney, liver, bone, and muscle to study their distribution and metabolism. B was distributed in all organs but was metabolized rapidly. Cd slowly accumulated in the liver and kidney throughout the 65 hours study but no Cd was detected in the brain. Hg accumulated mainly in the kidney 3 hrs after the injection. (author)

  6. Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.

    1992-01-01

    Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)

  7. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  8. Prompt lepton production in a proton beamdump experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the results of a 400 GeV proton on copper beam dump experiment performed at the European centre for high energy physics CERN in Geneva are described, concerning the production of prompt neutrinos and muons. The CHARM-I neutrino detector, a fine-grained sampling calorimeter with large fiducial mass, was used to record neutrino interactions. The muon energy spectrum was determined by measuring the muon flux at several depths in an iron muon shield just downstream of the dump. The prompt event rates were separated from the conventional event rates by the technique of extrapolation to 'infinite' target density. Two targets of different density were used, one made of solid copper and a copper/air segmented one, with one-third density of the first. The distance between dump and neutrino detector was 490 m. The amount of protons on the high density target was 13.26x10 17 and on the low density target 6.35x10 17 . The assymetry between prompt muon neutrinos and prompt electron neutrinos was found to be 0.21 ] 0.08 ] 0.03 for neutrino energy above 20 GeV. A review of results from other experiments on this asymmetry is presented. The production of charmed hadrons is discussed. A cross-section for the production of D-mesons was found 921 ] 150 (stat.) ] 149 (syst.) per nucleus for 400 GeV protons on copper with A = 63.5. For the relative coupling strengths of ν e and ν μ to the weak neutral current a value of 1.05 + 0.15 - 0.18 is derived. This value is in agreement with universality of electron neutrino and muon neutrino for the weak interaction. Concerning the production of tau neutrinos, an 90% C.L. upper limit was found for the tau-neutrino flux of -6 with 90% C.L. (author). 111 refs.; 58 figs.; 50 tabs

  9. Monitoring of the prompt GRB afterglow with the REM telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covino, S.; Zerbi, F.; Chincarini, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Conconi, P.; Molinari, E.; Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Antonelli, L.A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z', J, H, K) camera and an Optical slitless spectrograph (ROSS) optimized for the monitoring of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts. Covering the NIR domain REM can discover objects at extremely high red-shift and trigger large telescopes to observe them when they are still bright. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena

  10. Prompt gamma-ray analysis of archaeological bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oura, Y.; Saito, A.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.; Tomizawa, T.; Nishikawa, T.; Yonezawa, C.; Matsue, H.; Sawahata, H.

    1999-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray analysis using the internal monostandard method was applied to voluminous archaeological bronze mirrors produced in ancient China. Sn/Cu content ratios were determined nondestructively by this method. Furthermore, Au/Cu, As/Cu, and Sb/Cu content ratios were determined by means of measuring decay γ-rays emitted from radioactive nuclides produced within samples via (n,γ) reactions. It is clear that the Sn/Cu content ratios in bronze mirrors produced in the Sung era is smaller than in ones produced in between the Han and the Tung era. (author)

  11. 78 FR 33008 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...-0162] Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During... address prompt remediation of residual radioactivity during the operational phase of licensed material... radioactivity during the operational phase with the objective of avoiding complex decommissioning challenges...

  12. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  13. Hydrodynamic analysis of the LMFBR prompt burst excursion (PBE) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been conducted at Sandia Laboratories to provide information on pressure levels and conversion of thermal energy into mechanical work in LMFBR cores during hypothetical, superprompt-critical excursions. Pressures generated in these experiments are recorded by a pressure transducer located at the top and bottom of a sodium channel surrounding a single, fresh UO 2 fuel pin. Work energy conversion is measured by a linear motion transducer connected to a piston at the top of the sodium column. Since the pressure transducers are located fairly far from the location of pin failure, it becomes necessary to determine the effect of channel geometry and piston motion on the observed pressure data. A two-dimensional, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the fuel pin-coolant channel geometry was therefore performed using the CSQII computer code. The initial series of PBE experiments consists of single, fresh UO 2 pins surrounded by a sodium-filled or dry-coolant channel contained in a closed test capsule. The capsule is subjected to a maximum pulse in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) resulting in an energy deposition of from 2350 to 2900 J/g (14 and 20 percent enriched pins). The pulse width at half maximum (PWHM) is about 5 ms

  14. Bone marrow equivalent prompt dose from two common fallout scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.D.; Jones, T.D.; Young, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    A cell-kinetics model for radiation-induced myelopoiesis has been derived for mice, rats, dogs, sheep, swine, and burros. The model was extended to humans after extensive comparisons with molecular and cellular data from biological experiments and an assortment of predictive/validation tests on animal mortality, cell survival, and cellular repopulation following irradiations. One advantage of the model is that any complex pattern of protracted irradiation can be equated to its equivalent prompt dose. Severity of biological response depends upon target-organ dose, dose rate, and dose fractionation. Epidemiological and animal data are best suited for exposures given in brief periods of time. To use those data to assess risk from protracted human exposures, it is obligatory to model molecular repair and compensatory proliferation in terms of prompt dose. Although the model is somewhat complex both mathematically and biologically, this note describes simple numerical approximations for two common exposure scenarios. Both approximations are easily evaluated on a simple pocket calculator by a health physicist or emergency management officer. 12 refs., 5 figs

  15. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Kazanas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approx. 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular. one can this may obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the (nu)F(sub nu), spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  16. Prompt-gamma detection towards absorbed energy monitoring during hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Dauvergne, D.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite de Lyon 1, IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Krimmer, J.; Freud, N.; L' etang, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard (France); Herault, J.; Amblard, R.; Angellier, G. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France)

    2015-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is an emerging technique which exploits the fact that a large quantity of the energy of the incident particles is deposited at the end of their flight path. This allows a conformation of the applied dose to the tumor volume and a simultaneous sparing of surrounding healthy tissue. A real-time control of the ion range during the treatment is possible via the detection of prompt secondary radiation (gamma rays or charged particles). Besides a monitoring of the ion range, the knowledge of the total energy absorbed inside the patient is also of importance for an improvement of the treatment quality. It has been shown that the ambient dose in a treatment room is correlated to the monitoring units, i.e. the number of protons of the beam delivery system. The present study consists in applying time-of-flight (TOF) information to identify prompt gamma-rays generated by interactions inside the patient which provides a direct information on the energy imparted. Results from test measurements will be given, which show that events generated in the nozzle and the target phantom can be discriminated. Furthermore, a standalone detection system is being developed which will be read out by a standard PC. The status of the developments for the corresponding electronics will be presented. (authors)

  17. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  18. A Bulk Comptonization Model for the Prompt GRM Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2010-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approximately 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor F and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model are sources of potentially very rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular, one can this way obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the nu F(sub nu) spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  19. Feynman-α correlation analysis by prompt-photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kengo; Yamada, Sumasu; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Tetsuo

    1998-01-01

    Two-detector Feynman-α measurements were carried out using the UTR-KINKI reactor, a light-water-moderated and graphite-reflected reactor, by detecting high-energy, prompt gamma rays. For comparison, the conventional measurements by detecting neutrons were also performed. These measurements were carried out in the subcriticality range from 0 to $1.8. The gate-time dependence of the variance-and covariance-to-mean ratios measured by gamma-ray detection were nearly identical with those obtained using standard neutron-detection techniques. Consequently, the prompt-neutron decay constants inferred from the gamma-ray correlation data agreed with those from the neutron data. Furthermore, the correlated-to-uncorrelated amplitude ratios obtained by gamma-ray detection significantly depended on the low-energy discriminator level of the single-channel analyzer. The discriminator level was determined as optimum for obtaining a maximum value of the amplitude ratio. The maximum amplitude ratio was much larger than that obtained by neutron detection. The subcriticality dependence of the decay constant obtained by gamma-ray detection was consistent with that obtained by neutron detection and followed the linear relation based on the one-point kinetic model in the vicinity of delayed critical. These experimental results suggest that the gamma-ray correlation technique can be applied to measure reactor kinetic parameters more efficiently

  20. Bulk density calculations from prompt gamma ray yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Nagadi, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.; Maslehuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The gamma ray yield from a Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup is a linear function of element concentration and neutron flux in a the sample with constant bulk density. If the sample bulk density varies as well, then the element concentration and the neutron flux has a nonlinear correlation with the gamma ray yield [1]. The measurement of gamma ray yield non-linearity from samples and a standard can be used to estimate the bulk density of the samples. In this study the prompt gamma ray yield from Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash, Silica Fumes and Superpozz cements samples have been measured as a function of their calcium and silicon concentration using KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup [2]. Due to different bulk densities of the blended cement samples, the measured gamma ray yields have nonlinear correlation with calcium and silicon concentration of the samples. The non-linearity in the yield was observed to increase with gamma rays energy and element concentration. The bulk densities of the cement samples were calculated from ratio of gamma ray yield from blended cement and that from a Portland cement standard. The calculated bulk densities have good agreement with the published data. The result of this study will be presented

  1. Prompt fission neutron spectra and anti νp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.

    Methods used to obtain the evaluated prompt fisson neutron spectrum N(E) and the average prompt neutron multiplicity anti ν/sub p/ are reviewed. The relative influence of experimental data; interpolated, extrapolated, and fitted experimental data; systematics; and nuclear theory are considered for the cases where (a) abundant experimental data exist, (b) some experimental data exist, and (c) no experimental data exist. The Maxwellian and Watt distributions, and the determination of the parameters of these distributions by data fitting, are described and compared to recent new theoretical work on the calculation of N(E). Similarly, various expressions for anti γ/sub p/ that have been obtained by data fitting and systematics are described and compared to recent new theoretical work. Complications in the evaluation of N(E) and anti γ/sub p/ due to the onset of multiple-chance fission and the interrelationships between N(E), anti γΔ/sub p/ and the multiple-chance fission cross section are discussed using the example of the fission of 235 U. Some statistics and comments are given on the evaluations of N(E) and anti γ/sub p/ contained in ENDF/B-V, and a number of concluding recommendations are made for future evaluation work

  2. Electrical bioimpedance enabling prompt intervention in traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Fernando; Atefi, S. Reza

    2017-05-01

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is a well spread technology used in clinical practice across the world. Advancements in Textile material technology with conductive textile fabrics and textile-electronics integration have allowed exploring potential applications for Wearable Measurement Sensors and Systems exploiting. The sensing principle of electrical bioimpedance is based on the intrinsic passive dielectric properties of biological tissue. Using a pair of electrodes, tissue is electrically stimulated and the electrical response can be sensed with another pair of surface electrodes. EBI spectroscopy application for cerebral monitoring of neurological conditions such as stroke and perinatal asphyxia in newborns have been justified using animal studies and computational simulations. Such studies have shown proof of principle that neurological pathologies indeed modify the dielectric composition of the brain that is detectable via EBI. Similar to stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) also affects the dielectric properties of brain tissue that can be detected via EBI measurements. Considering the portable and noninvasive characteristics of EBI it is potentially useful for prehospital triage of TBI patients where. In the battlefield blast induced Traumatic Brain Injuries are very common. Brain damage must be assessed promptly to have a chance to prevent severe damage or eventually death. The relatively low-complexity of the sensing hardware required for EBI sensing and the already proven compatibility with textile electrodes suggest the EBI technology is indeed a candidate for developing a handheld device equipped with a sensorized textile cap to produce an examination in minutes for enabling medically-guided prompt intervention.

  3. Periodic email prompts to re-use an internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle program: influence of prompt content and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math; van de Kar, Angelique; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2013-01-31

    Adherence to Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions using multiple tailoring is suboptimal. Therefore, it is essential to invest in proactive strategies, such as periodic email prompts, to boost re-use of the intervention. This study investigated the influence of content and timing of a single email prompt on re-use of an Internet-delivered computer-tailored (CT) lifestyle program. A sample of municipality employees was invited to participate in the program. All participants who decided to use the program received an email prompting them to revisit the program. A 2×3 (content × timing) design was used to test manipulations of prompt content and timing. Depending on the study group participants were randomly assigned to, they received either a prompt containing standard content (an invitation to revisit the program), or standard content plus a preview of new content placed on the program website. Participants received this prompt after 2, 4, or 6 weeks. In addition to these 6 experimental conditions, a control condition was included consisting of participants who did not receive an additional email prompt. Clicks on the uniform resource locator (URL) provided in the prompt and log-ins to the CT program were objectively monitored. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prompt content and/or prompt timing predicted clicking on the URL and logging in to the CT program. Of all program users (N=240), 206 participants received a subsequent email prompting them to revisit the program. A total of 53 participants (25.7%) who received a prompt reacted to this prompt by clicking on the URL, and 25 participants (12.1%) actually logged in to the program. There was a main effect of prompt timing; participants receiving an email prompt 2 weeks after their first visit clicked on the URL significantly more often compared with participants that received the prompt after 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 3.069, 95% CI 1.392-6.765, P=.005) and after 6 weeks (OR 4

  4. A Comparison of Prompting Tactics for Teaching Intraverbals to Young Adults with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Vedora, Joseph; Conant, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have compared the effectiveness of tact or textual prompts to echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior to young children with autism. We extended this line of research by comparing the effectiveness of visual (textual or tact) prompts to echoic prompts to teach intraverbal responses to three young adults with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with 2 to 3 comparisons for each participant. The results were mixed and did not reveal a more effec...

  5. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive learning hypothesis, the learners who received

  6. Pulse to pulse klystron diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Davidson, V.; Genova, L.; Johnson, R.; Reagan, D.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes a system used to study the behavior of SLAC high powered klystrons operating with a twice normal pulse width of 5 μs. At present, up to eight of the klystrons installed along the accelerator can be operated with long pulses and monitored by this system. The report will also discuss some of the recent findings and investigations

  7. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency... Medicaid agency. (a) A State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act must provide for prompt.... Prompt notice must also include all relevant information as prescribed by the State medicaid agency for...

  8. A Prompting Procedure for Increasing Sales in a Small Pet Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Jacqueline; Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    A simple prompting procedure involving index cards was used to increase suggestive selling by the owner/operator of a small pet grooming business. Over a year of baseline data revealed that no sales prompts were given and few pet products were sold. When the owner was prompted by an index card to ask customers if they wanted to purchase pet…

  9. Comparison of Self-Prompting of Cooking Skills via Picture-Based Cookbooks and Video Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Stephens, Erin

    2009-01-01

    This investigation compared the use of static picture prompting, in a cookbook format, and video prompting to self-prompt four students with moderate intellectual disabilities to independently complete multi-step cooking tasks. An adapted alternating treatments design (AATD) with baseline, alternating treatments, and final treatment condition, was…

  10. Constructing Student Knowledge in the Online Classroom: The Effectiveness of Focal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ginger S.; LaCour, Misty M.; McGlawn, Penny A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three Structured Divergent discussion board prompt designs on knowledge construction in a graduate online course. According to Andrews (1980), the form of the question affects the extent of the response within a discussion. The Playground prompt, the Brainstorming prompt, and the Focal prompt…

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the scattered component of neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analyzer responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a major part of our efforts to simulate the entire spectral response of the neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analyzer for bulk media (or conveyor belt) samples by the Monte Carlo method. This would allow one to use such a model to augment or, in most cases, essentially replace experiments in the calibration and optimum design of these analyzers. In previous work, we simulated the unscattered gamma-ray intensities, but would like to simulate the entire spectral response as we did with the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analyzers. To accomplish this, one must account for the scattered gamma rays as well as the unscattered and one must have available the detector response function to translate the incident gamma-ray spectrum calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation into the detected pulse-height spectrum. We recently completed our work on the germanium detector response function, and the present paper describes our efforts to simulate the entire spectral response by using it with Monte Carlo predicted unscattered and scattered gamma rays

  12. Prompt payment depends on revenue-cycle diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert L

    2002-12-01

    How effectively you manage the revenue cycle is reflected in the cycle's outcome-whether you receive full and timely payment for all services billed to payers. To ensure prompt and full payment, you should: Educate your patient financial services (PFS) staff on all relevant laws and regulations regarding payment for healthcare services. Make sure your staff is well versed in all of the provisions of your payer contracts. Implement a state-of-the-art patient accounting system that is capable of producing drill-down reports of all aspects of contract performance by payer. Enforce payer compliance by maintaining complete records of dates of service, final billing dates, dates claims were mailed or electronically submitted to the payer, all actions performed by your staff regarding claims, and all communications with the payer.

  13. Decreased mortality associated with prompt Gram staining of blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfanger, Joan; Graham, Donald R; Kolluri, Lavanya; Sangwan, Gaurav; Lawhorn, Jerry; Drake, Cheryl A; Verhulst, Steven J; Peterson, Ryan; Moja, Lauren B; Ertmoed, Matthew M; Moja, Ashley B; Shevlin, Douglas W; Vautrain, Robert; Callahan, Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Gram stains of positive blood cultures are the most important factor influencing appropriate therapy. The sooner appropriate therapy is initiated, the better. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the sooner Gram stains are performed, the better. To determine the value of timely Gram stains and whether improvement in Gram stain turnaround time (TAT) is feasible, we compared data for matched pairs of patients with cultures processed promptly ( or =1 hour TAT) and then monitored TAT by control charting.In 99 matched pairs, average difference in time to detection of positive blood cultures within a pair of patients was less than 0.1 hour. For the less than 1 hour TAT group, the average TAT and crude mortality were 0.1 hour and 10.1%, respectively; for the 1 hour or longer TAT group, they were 3.3 hours and 19.2%, respectively (P Gram stains.

  14. Massive lepton pairs as a prompt photon surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger L, Edmond; Gordon E, Lionel; Klasen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The authors discuss the transverse momentum distribution for the production of massive lepton-pairs in hadron reactions at fixed target and collider energies within the context of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. For values of the transverse momentum Q T greater than the pair mass Q, Q T > Q, they show that the differential cross section is dominated by subprocesses initiated by incident gluons. Massive lepton-pair differential cross sections are an advantageous source of constraints on the gluon density, free from the experimental and theoretical complications of photon isolation that beset studies of prompt photon production. They compare calculations with data and provide predictions for the differential cross section as a function of Q T in proton-antiproton reactions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 TeV, and in proton-nucleon reactions at fixed target and LHC energies

  15. Time dependent non-extinction probability for prompt critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregson, M. W.; Prinja, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The time dependent non-extinction probability equation is presented for slab geometry. Numerical solutions are provided for a nested inner/outer iteration routine where the fission terms (both linear and non-linear) are updated and then held fixed over the inner scattering iteration. Time dependent results are presented highlighting the importance of the injection position and angle. The iteration behavior is also described as the steady state probability of initiation is approached for both small and large time steps. Theoretical analysis of the nested iteration scheme is shown and highlights poor numerical convergence for marginally prompt critical systems. An acceleration scheme for the outer iterations is presented to improve convergence of such systems. Theoretical analysis of the acceleration scheme is also provided and the associated decrease in computational run time addressed. (authors)

  16. Sudakov Resummation for Prompt-Photon Production in Hadron Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S; Nason, P

    1998-01-01

    We present the explicit expressions for the resummation of large-x Sudakov effects in the transverse-energy distribution of prompt-photons produced in hadronic collisions, to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. Fragmentation processes do not contribute to the Sudakov resummation at NLL level. In Mellin space, the resummed radiative factor factorizes in the product of independent radiators for the two initial and the one final coloured partons appearing in the Born process, times a simple factor describing the soft-gluon interferences between initial and final states. The formulae are given in terms of Mellin moments, and can be used for phenomenological applications using standard techniques for the inverse-Mellin transforms. The calculations presented in this work, when added to the existing works on DY and DIS production, complete the theoretical ground-work necessary to carry out global fits of parton densities with a uniform NLL accuracy in the large-x region.

  17. [Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in 2005: prompt, agressive and customized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerne, P-A; Stingelin-Guerne, S

    2005-03-09

    Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in 2005: prompt, aggressive and customized Rheumatoid arthritis can be extremely serious (joint destruction, functional loss, decrease in life expectancy). Fortunately, our therapeutic means have recently progressed enormously (better appreciation of efficacy and ways to use DMARDs combinations and new molecules such as leflunomide and anti-TNFs, understanding of the importance of early adequate and intensive treatments when necessary). Huge progresses have also been performed with regards to evaluation and follow-up strategies (disease activity score--DAS, health assessment questionnaire--HAQ), which allows us to adapt the treatment much better. The goal now can and must be quick and total remission of the disease in all patients thus avoiding as much as possible irreversible joint damages with accompanying morbidities.

  18. Radiation-Induced Prompt Photocurrents in Microelectronics Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodd, P E; Buller, D L; Doyle, B L; Vizkelethy, G; Walsh, D S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of photocurrents in nuclear weapons induced by proximal nuclear detonations are well known and remain a serious hostile environment threat for the US stockpile. This report describes the final results of an LDRD study of the physical phenomena underlying prompt photocurrents in microelectronic devices and circuits. The goals of this project were to obtain an improved understanding of these phenomena, and to incorporate improved models of photocurrent effects into simulation codes to assist designers in meeting hostile radiation requirements with minimum build and test cycles. We have also developed a new capability on the ion microbeam accelerator in Sandia's Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory (the Transient Radiation Microscope, or TRM) to supply ionizing radiation in selected micro-regions of a device. The dose rates achieved in this new facility approach those possible with conventional large-scale dose-rate sources at Sandia such as HERMES III and Saturn. It is now possible to test the phy...

  19. Configuration Design of Detector Shielding for Gamma Prompt Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin-Nuraini; Darsono; Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    Configuration on design of detector shielding for gamma prompt analysishas been performed. The aim of this design is to obtain effective shieldingmaterial and configuration that able to protect the detector for fastneutron. The result shown that detector shielding configuration that obtainedby configuration of water and concrete, would be able to absorb fast neutronup to 99.5 %. The neutron flux that passed through shielding configuration is2.4 x 10 3 n/cm 2 dt, in the detector position of 60 cm (forward neutron beamdirection) on the X axis and 30 cm (side ward neutron beam direction) on theZ axis of target. On this position (60,30) counting result was 104358 for Pbcollimator and 246652 for PVC collimator. From examination result shown thatthe weight of silicon is in order 175 gram. (author)

  20. Implementation of the Prompt Gamma facility in the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Delfin L, A.; Aguilar H, F.

    2002-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technique is based on the reaction of a neutron and an atom emitting gamma radiation in an immediate form and it is used for the elemental identification and characterization. This is a non-destructive technique and presents advantages compared with the X-ray fluorescence analysis technique since it has the advantage of the ability for the neutron penetration which allows a complete analysis in volume of material while the X-ray penetration is not very deep, it is superficial and other advantage of PGNAA is that can detects light elements while by mean of the X-ray fluorescence technique it is not possible. In this work it is shown the implementation of this technique un the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the way in which this technique is applied with a radiation source of the TRIGA Mark III reactor from which thermal neutrons were isolated. (Author)

  1. Utilisation of prompt fission neutron technology in Greenfields uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally, gamma detection technology has been used in uranium exploration programs for the initial detection of uranium as well as for a determination of uranium concentration. Geophysical logging companies use wireline gamma probes to measure uranium within boreholes, and field technicians utilise hand held gamma meters to detect uranium in rock samples, drill cuttings and cores. Borehole geophysical logging equipment typically records the uranium concentration as %eU 3 O8, where e represents an equivalent determination of uranium concentration as opposed to a laboratory assay. This method of uranium determination is an indirect method, as it measures gamma radiation from uranium-238 (U-238) isotope decay chain progeny; principally the bismuth-214 (Bi-214) isotope. Consequently, the uranium determination can be inaccurate due to natural disequilibrium between the U-238 parent and the decay chain progeny. This is especially true in sedimentary hosted uranium deposits, where the uranium and daughter progeny may have been geochemically separated. The gamma detection method for uranium can also be rendered inaccurate by detecting the gamma signature from potassium in clays as well as from thorium; both of which can provide a false (enhanced) eU 3 O8 determination. Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) technology is a geophysical wireline logging technology used in the same manner as conventional gamma logging. The difference is that PFN provides a direct determination of uranium within a borehole, irrespective of natural disequilibrium or the presence of other radioactive elements. This paper provides a brief description of natural uranium and radioactivity as a basis for explaining the conventional use of gamma radiation detectors for the detection and determination of uranium concentration in exploration boreholes, including the potential pitfalls of this technology. A detailed description of prompt fission neutron technology is also presented, along with a discussion

  2. Prompt and Non-prompt $J/\\psi$ Elliptic Flow in Pb+Pb Collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jorge; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The elliptic flow of prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ was measured in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\text{NN}}=5.02$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of $0.42~\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ with ATLAS at the LHC. The prompt and non-prompt signals are separated using a two-dimensional simultaneous fit of the invariant mass and pseudo-proper time in the dimuon decay channel. The measurement is performed in the kinematic range $9prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ mesons have non-zero elliptic flow. Prompt $J/\\psi$ $v_2$ decreases as a function of $p_\\mathrm{T}$, while non-prompt $J/\\psi$ $v_2$ is flat over the studied kinematical region. There is no observed dependence on rapidity or centrality.

  3. Implementation of the Prompt Gamma facility in the ININ; Implementacion de la instalacion del Prompt Gamma en el ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Delfin L, A.; Aguilar H, F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technique is based on the reaction of a neutron and an atom emitting gamma radiation in an immediate form and it is used for the elemental identification and characterization. This is a non-destructive technique and presents advantages compared with the X-ray fluorescence analysis technique since it has the advantage of the ability for the neutron penetration which allows a complete analysis in volume of material while the X-ray penetration is not very deep, it is superficial and other advantage of PGNAA is that can detects light elements while by mean of the X-ray fluorescence technique it is not possible. In this work it is shown the implementation of this technique un the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the way in which this technique is applied with a radiation source of the TRIGA Mark III reactor from which thermal neutrons were isolated. (Author)

  4. Body composition to climate change studies - the many facets of neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.

    2008-01-01

    In-vivo body composition analysis of humans and animals and in-situ analysis of soil using fast neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture induced prompt-gamma rays have been described. By measuring carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), protein, fat and water are determined. C determination in soil has become important for understanding below ground carbon sequestration process in the light of climate change studies. Various neutron sources ranging from radio isotopic to compact 14 MeV neutron generators employing the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique or micro-second pulsing were implemented. Gamma spectroscopy using recently developed digital multi-channel analyzers has also been described

  5. Body composition to climate change studies - the many facets of neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra,S.

    2008-11-17

    In-vivo body composition analysis of humans and animals and in-situ analysis of soil using fast neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture induced prompt-gamma rays have been described. By measuring carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), protein, fat and water are determined. C determination in soil has become important for understanding below ground carbon sequestration process in the light of climate change studies. Various neutron sources ranging from radio isotopic to compact 14 MeV neutron generators employing the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique or micro-second pulsing were implemented. Gamma spectroscopy using recently developed digital multi-channel analyzers has also been described.

  6. Millisecond-period meltdown experiments on prompt-burst effects and molten-tin-water dropping experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.W.; Coats, R.L.; Schmidt, T.R.; Arakeri, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a program of confirmatory research for the safety assessment of LMFBR plants. In the sodium-fuel interactions area, this research includes a series of real-time in-pile experiments on the pressure and work potential of prompt-burst excursions as well as laboratory dropping experiments with molten tin and water. The in-pile experiments are performed by Sandia Laboratories in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR), which has a minimum period of 1.3 milliseconds. These single-pin experiments are performed in a piston-loaded, stagnent-sodium autoclave, that is conceptually similar to the one used in the S-11 TREAT test. Unlike the S-11 test, however, realistic radial temperature profiles are obtained in the fuel, the cladding, and the sodium by pre-pulsing the reactor about 1/2 second before the main pulse. A series of preparatory runs have been made with helium-filled capsules and at low energy with sodium-filled capsules. The first significant fuel-coolant interaction run is scheduled for late March 1976. This will be a double-pulsed run at 2700 j/gm UO 2 . A continuing series of experiments is planned with oxide and advanced fuels in both fresh and irradiated form. In molten-tin-water dropping experiments at UCLA, microsecond duration multi-flash photography has been used for event diagnostics. Transition or nucleate boiling was found to trigger energetic interactions or vapor explosions. Temperature stratification in the water was found to reduce the threshold tin temperature necessary to produce vapor explosions below that the predicted by the coolant homogeneous nucleation hypothesis. Interaction zone growth times of a few msec. were measured. (auth.)

  7. Pulsed Power: Sandia's Plans for the New Millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, Jeffrey P.

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed power science and engineering activities at Sandia National Laboratories grew out of a programmatic need for intense radiation sources to advance capabilities in radiographic imaging and to create environments for testing and certifying the hardness of components and systems to radiation in hostile environments. By the early 1970s, scientists in laboratories around the world began utilizing pulsed power drivers with very short (10s of nanoseconds) pulse lengths for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. In the United States, Defense Programs within the Department of Energy has sponsored this research. Recent progress in pulsed power, specifically fast-pulsed-power-driven z pinches, in creating temperatures relevant to ICF has been remarkable. Worldwide developments in pulsed power technologies and increased applications in both defense and industry are contrasted with ever increasing stress on research and development tiding. The current environment has prompted us at Sandia to evaluate our role in the continued development of pulsed power science and to consider options for the future. This presentation will highlight our recent progress and provide an overview of our plans as we begin the new millennium

  8. Theoretical description of prompt neutron multiplicity and spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manailescu, C.

    2013-02-01

    The present work concerns two of successful models used today: PbP (Point by Point) and the Monte-Carlo approaches for providing all quantities characterizing the prompt neutron and gamma-ray emission. Therefore the thesis is structured as described below. The description of the PbP model and of the extended Los Alamos model for higher energies that takes into account the secondary chains and ways is given in Chapter II. In this chapter are detailed also examples of PbP and most probable fragmentation approach calculations for various quantities which characterize prompt emission: multi-parametric matrices [meaning different quantities as a function of fragment and of TKE (Total Kinetic Energy of the fission fragments)], quantities as a function of fragment mass, quantities as a function of the TKE and total average quantities, for different spontaneous and neutron induced fissioning systems. Special care was given to the TXE (Total Excitation Energy) partition between the fully accelerated fission fragments, two partition methods used in the PbP model being discussed in details. In Chapter III is given the description of the Monte Carlo treatment included in the FIFRELIN code. Only those aspects that differ from the PbP treatment are emphasized, namely the treatment of the moment of inertia entering the rotational energy calculation and the TXE partition method based on a mass dependent temperature ratio law. A special attention is given to the latest developments of the code concerning the inclusion of the energy dependent compound nucleus cross-section of the inverse process of neutron evaporation from fragments. In this chapter examples of calculation with the FIFRELIN code for the case of the standard fissioning system 252 Cf (SF) are given. Original results for several plutonium spontaneous fissioning systems ( 236,238,240,242,244 Pu) and one neutron induced fissioning system ( 239 Pu(nth,f)) obtained with both PbP and Monte-Carlo treatments are given in

  9. Marginally fast cooling synchrotron models for prompt GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have considered synchrotron as the emission mechanism for prompt gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These works have shown that the electrons must cool on a time-scale comparable to the dynamic time at the source in order to satisfy spectral constraints while maintaining high radiative efficiency. We focus on conditions where synchrotron cooling is balanced by a continuous source of heating, and in which these constraints are naturally satisfied. Assuming that a majority of the electrons in the emitting region are contributing to the observed peak, we find that the energy per electron has to be E ≳ 20 GeV and that the Lorentz factor of the emitting material has to be very large 103 ≲ Γem ≲ 104, well in excess of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet inferred from GRB afterglows. A number of independent constraints then indicate that the emitters must be moving relativistically, with Γ΄ ≈ 10, relative to the bulk frame of the jet and that the jet must be highly magnetized upstream of the emission region, σup ≳ 30. The emission radius is also strongly constrained in this model to R ≳ 1016 cm. These values are consistent with magnetic jet models where the dissipation is driven by magnetic reconnection that takes place far away from the base of the jet.

  10. Prompt gamma-ray analysis of steel slag in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Akhtar Abbas; Garwan, Muhammad Ahmad; Nagadi, Mahmoud Mohammad; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Raashid, Mohammad; Masalehuddin Mohiuddin, Mohammad; Al-Amoudi, Omar Saeed Baghabra

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) is added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly its corrosion resistance. Monitoring the concentration of BFS in concrete for quality control purposes is desired. In this study, the concentration of BFS in concrete was measured by utilizing an accelerator-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the BFS cement concrete specimen that produces the maximum intensity of gamma rays at the detector location was calculated through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally validated through the gamma-ray yield measurement from BFS cement concrete specimens having different radii. The concentration of BFS in the cement concrete specimens was assessed through calcium and silicon gamma-ray yield measurement from cement concrete specimens containing 5 to 80 wt% BFS. The yield of calcium gamma rays decreases with increasing BFS concentration in concrete while the yield of silicon gamma rays increases with increasing BFS concentration in concrete. The calcium-to-silicon gamma-ray yield ratio has an inverse relation with BFS concentration in concrete. (author)

  11. Lifetime measurement of prompt neutrons using the neutronic noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Servin, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate the life of the prompt neutrons, i, of a nuclear reactor utilizing the neutron noise analysis. This technique carry to development of mathematical model that is valid for lower powers reactor. The equation resulting convey to the observation about power spectrum behaviour respect to the frecquency. In this case, the reactor in study is the Triga Mark III of Nuclear Center of Mexico that it was provided of fission chambers for register the neutron fluxes. These fluxes was digitized and storage in computer disc as signals dependents of time, for later apply the Fourier Transformation and obtain the spectras. The spectras measured to different reactor powers were adjusted to the development equation before, using the method of square minimum and so estimate the parameter i. The analysis of results throw a value of 22.73 +/- 0.92 μs. On the other hand, the calculate value to the resolve the kinetic equation of reactor defer in lower than 4 % about the estimate. Of this, it concludes that the model utilized is trusty with a good mistake margin, moreover of that the technique of Neutron Noise analysis demonstrate be competitive (Author)

  12. A PROMPT METHODOLOGY TO GEOREFERENCE COMPLEX HYPOGEA ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Troisi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Actually complex underground structures and facilities occupy a wide space in our cities, most of them are often unsurveyed; cable duct, drainage system are not exception. Furthermore, several inspection operations are performed in critical air condition, that do not allow or make more difficult a conventional survey. In this scenario a prompt methodology to survey and georeferencing such facilities is often indispensable. A visual based approach was proposed in this paper; such methodology provides a 3D model of the environment and the path followed by the camera using the conventional photogrammetric/Structure from motion software tools. The key-role is played by the lens camera; indeed, a fisheye system was employed to obtain a very wide field of view (FOV and therefore high overlapping among the frames. The camera geometry is in according to a forward motion along the axis camera. Consequently, to avoid instability of bundle adjustment algorithm a preliminary calibration of camera was carried out. A specific case study was reported and the accuracy achieved.

  13. a Prompt Methodology to Georeference Complex Hypogea Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, S.; Baiocchi, V.; Del Pizzo, S.; Giannone, F.

    2017-02-01

    Actually complex underground structures and facilities occupy a wide space in our cities, most of them are often unsurveyed; cable duct, drainage system are not exception. Furthermore, several inspection operations are performed in critical air condition, that do not allow or make more difficult a conventional survey. In this scenario a prompt methodology to survey and georeferencing such facilities is often indispensable. A visual based approach was proposed in this paper; such methodology provides a 3D model of the environment and the path followed by the camera using the conventional photogrammetric/Structure from motion software tools. The key-role is played by the lens camera; indeed, a fisheye system was employed to obtain a very wide field of view (FOV) and therefore high overlapping among the frames. The camera geometry is in according to a forward motion along the axis camera. Consequently, to avoid instability of bundle adjustment algorithm a preliminary calibration of camera was carried out. A specific case study was reported and the accuracy achieved.

  14. A prompt start: Implementing the framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayes, A.; Skolnikoff, E.B.; Victor, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Framework Convention on Climate Change is under active negotiation in the United Nations with the expectation it will be ready for Signature at the Rio Conference this June. Under the most optimistic projections, a Convention will not come into force and be an effective instrument for months, probably years. In recognition of the several institutional tasks that will be of crucial importance whatever the detailed content of the Convention a small group of high international organizations involved in the negotiations was convened at the Rockefeller Foundation's Conference Center at Bellagio in January. The discussions at Bellagio on the need for a Prompt Start on these institutional tasks benefitted from earlier meetings at Harvard in March and at Bermuda in May, 1991, that the co-organizers convened to discuss these and related aspects of the negotiations on a Climate Convention. Those meetings were attended by members of the academic community, officials from the United Nations, and representatives of governments involved in the negotiations

  15. Prompt gamma analysis of chlorine in concrete for corrosion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-02-15

    Measurement of chlorine in concrete is very important for studying of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is primarily ascribed to the penetration of chloride ions to the steel surface. Preventive measures for avoiding concrete structure reinforcement corrosion requires monitoring the chloride ion concentration in concrete so that its concentration does not exceed a threshold limit to initiate reinforcement concrete corrosion. An accelerator based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed for non-destructive analysis of elemental composition of concrete samples. The setup has been used to measure chlorine concentration in concrete samples over a 1-3 wt% concentration range. Although a strong interference has been observed between the chlorine {gamma}-rays and calcium {gamma}-rays from concrete, the chlorine concentration in concrete samples has been successfully measured using the 1.164 and 7.643 MeV chlorine {gamma}-rays. The experimental data were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. An excellent agreement has been achieved between the experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations. The study has demonstrated the successful use of the accelerator-based PGNAA setup in non-destructive analysis of chlorine in concrete samples.

  16. Visual Prompts or Volunteer Models: An Experiment in Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Yin Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful long-term programs for urban residential food waste sorting are very rare, despite the established urgent need for them in cities for waste reduction, pollution reduction and circular resource economy reasons. This study meets recent calls to bridge policy makers and academics, and calls for more thorough analysis of operational work in terms of behavioral determinants, to move the fields on. It takes a key operational element of a recently reported successful food waste sorting program—manning of the new bins by volunteers—and considers the behavioral determinants involved in order to design a more scalable and cheaper alternative—the use of brightly colored covers with flower designs on three sides of the bin. The two interventions were tested in a medium-scale, real-life experimental set-up that showed that they had statistically similar results: high effective capture rates of 32%–34%, with low contamination rates. The success, low cost and simple implementation of the latter suggests it should be considered for large-scale use. Candidate behavioral determinants are prompts, emotion and knowledge for the yellow bin intervention, and for the volunteer intervention they are additionally social influence, modeling, role clarification, and moderators of messenger type and interpersonal or tailored messaging.

  17. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  18. Summary Report of Second Research Coordination Meeting on Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Major Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.

    2013-09-01

    A summary is given of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides. Experimental data and modelling methods on prompt fission neutron spectra were reviewed. Extensive technical discussions held on theoretical methods to calculate prompt fission spectra. Detailed coordinated research proposals have been agreed. Summary reports of selected technical presentations at the meeting are given. The resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme is summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)

  19. Differential and integral characteristics of prompt fission neutrons in the statistical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, B.F.; Rubchenya, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory is the most consistent approach to the calculation of both spectra and prompt fission neutrons characteristics. On the basis of this approach a statistical model for calculation of differential prompt fission neutrons characteristics of low energy fission has been proposed and improved in order to take into account the anisotropy effects arising at prompt fission neutrons emission from fragments. 37 refs, 6 figs

  20. Reproducibility of prompts in computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.G.; Champness, J.; Reddy, M.; Taylor, P.; Potts, H.W.W.; Given-Wilson, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: We evaluated the reproducibility of prompts using the R2 ImageChecker M2000 computer-aided detection (CAD) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty selected two-view mammograms of women with breast cancer were digitized and analysed using the ImageChecker on 10 separate occasions. The mammograms were chosen to provide both straightforward and subtle signs of malignancy. Data analysed included mammographic abnormality, pathology, and whether the cancer was prompted or given an emphasized prompt. RESULTS: Correct prompts were generated in 86 out of 100 occasions for screen-detected cancers. Reproducibility was less in the other categories of more subtle cancers: 21% for cancers previously missed by CAD, a group that contained more grade 1 and small (<10 mm) tumours. Prompts for calcifications were more reproducible than those for masses (76% versus 53%) and these cancers were more likely to have an emphasized prompt. CONCLUSIONS: Probably the most important cause of variability of prompts is shifts in film position between sequential digitizations. Consequently subtle lesions that are only just above the threshold for display may not be prompted on repeat scanning. However, users of CAD should be aware that even emphasized prompts are not consistently reproducible

  1. Interferences in Prompt {gamma} Analysis of corrosive contaminants in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-12-21

    An accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed to measure the concentration of corrosive chloride and sulfate contaminants in concrete. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) limit of chlorine and sulfur in the concrete depends upon the {gamma}-ray used for elemental analysis. For more interfering {gamma}-rays, the MDC limit is higher than that for less interfering {gamma}-rays. The MDC limit of sulfur in concrete measured for the KFUPM PGNAA setup was calculated to be 0.60{+-}0.19 wt%. The MDC limit is equal to the upper limit of sulfur concentration in concrete set by the British Standards. The MDC limit of chlorine in concrete for the KFUPM PGNAA setup, which was calculated for less interfering 1.165 MeV {gamma}-rays, was found to be 0.075{+-}0.025 wt%. The lower limits of the MDC of chlorine in concrete was 73% higher than the limit set by American Concrete Institute. The limit of the MDC can be improved to the desired standard by increasing the intensity of neutron source. For moreinterfering 5.715 and 6.110 MeV chlorine {gamma}-rays the MDC limit was found to be 2-3 times larger than that of 1.165 MeV {gamma}-rays. When normalized to the same intensity of the neutron source, the MDC limits of chlorine and sulfur in concrete from the KFUPM PGNAA setup are better than MDC limits of chlorine in concrete obtained with the {sup 241}Am-Be source-based PGNAA setup. This study has shown that an accelerator-based PGNAA setup can be used in chlorine and sulfur analysis of concrete samples.

  2. Pulsed laser manipulation of an optically trapped bead: Averaging thermal noise and measuring the pulsed force amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindballe, Thue Bjerring; Kristensen, Martin V. G.; Keiding, Søren Rud

    2013-01-01

    An experimental strategy for post-eliminating thermal noise on position measurements of optically trapped particles is presented. Using a nanosecond pulsed laser, synchronized to the detection system, to exert a periodic driving force on an optically trapped 10 polystyrene bead, the laser pulse-bead...... interaction is repeated hundreds of times. Traces with the bead position following the prompt displacement from equilibrium, induced by each laser pulse, are averaged and reveal the underlying deterministic motion of the bead, which is not visible in a single trace due to thermal noise. The motion of the bead...... is analyzed from the direct time-dependent position measurements and from the power spectrum. The results show that the bead is on average displaced 208 nm from the trap center and exposed to a force amplitude of 71 nanoNewton, more than five orders of magnitude larger than the trapping forces. Our...

  3. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  5. Sources of pulsed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table

  6. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  7. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  8. PULSTRI-1 computer program for mixed core pulse calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Mele, I.; Dimic, V.

    1990-01-01

    PUISTRI-1 is a computer code designed for calculations of the pulse parameters of TRIGA Mark II reactor with mixed core. The code is provided with data for four types of fuel elements: standard 8.5 and 12 w/o, LEU and FLIP. The pulse parameters, such as maximum power, prompt pulse energy and average fuel temperatures are calculated in adiabatic point kinetics, approximation, modified by taking into account temperature dependence of fuel temperature reactivity coefficient and thermal capacity factor averaged over all elements in the core. Maximal fuel temperature at power peaking location is calculated from total released energy using total power peaking factor and heat capacity of the element at the location of the power peaking. Results of the code were compared to data found in references (mainly General Atomics safety analysis reports) showing good agreement for all main pulse parameters. The most important parameters, average and maximal fuel temperature, are found to be systematically slightly overpredicted (20 C and 50 C, respectively). Other parameters (energy, peak power, width) agree within ± 10 % to the reference values. The code is written in FORTRAN for IBM PC computer. The input is user friendly. running time of IBM PC AT is a few seconds. It is designed for practical applications in pulse experiments as an analytical tool for predicting pulse parameters. (orig.)

  9. Pulse induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A S; Kachanov, B Y; Kogan, B V

    1993-12-31

    Induction heating and three types of pulse processes were studied. It was found that in pulse processes the frequency and pulse duration of heat treatments do not remain constant. High frequency pulse heat treatments can be used on sprayed coatings; such treatments will result in stronger surfaces with no cracks. For induction hardening, the rate of specific power was 1 to 1.5 kW/sq.cm, for forging it was 0.2 to 0.3 kW/sq.cm and for melting it was 0.05 to 0.1 kW/sq.cm. The application of pulse heating will result in higher rates of specific power.

  10. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  11. Accelerated prompt gamma estimation for clinical proton therapy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Brent F. B.; Létang, J. M.; Testa, É.; Sarrut, D.

    2016-11-01

    There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities. El Kanawati et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8067-86) described a variance reduction method (pgTLE) that accelerates the PG estimation by precomputing PG production probabilities as a function of energy and target materials, but has as a drawback that the proposed method is limited to analytical phantoms. We present a two-stage variance reduction method, named voxelized pgTLE (vpgTLE), that extends pgTLE to voxelized volumes. As a preliminary step, PG production probabilities are precomputed once and stored in a database. In stage 1, we simulate the interactions between the treatment plan and the patient CT with low statistic MC to obtain the spatial and spectral distribution of the PGs. As primary particles are propagated throughout the patient CT, the PG yields are computed in each voxel from the initial database, as a function of the current energy of the primary, the material in the voxel and the step length. The result is a voxelized image of PG yield, normalized to a single primary. The second stage uses this intermediate PG image as a source to generate and propagate the number of PGs throughout the rest of the scene geometry, e.g. into a detection device, corresponding to the number of primaries desired. We achieved a gain of around 103 for both a geometrical heterogeneous phantom and a complete patient CT treatment plan with respect to analog MC, at a convergence level of 2% relative

  12. Systematic evaluation of prompt neutron spectra in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Takaaki

    1995-01-01

    To create the nuclear data fail JEND-32, the prompt fission neutron spectra X(E) of 233 U, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu were reevaluated and some improvement were added to the calculation models. We tried to extend the calculation method of fission spectra of nuclides with poor measurement data in consideration of increasing the importance of nuclear data of minor actinoids. We improved and extended the following five points. (1) On JENDL-3.1, the fission spectra of principal fissible materials had been calculated by the Modland-Nix model which the neutron emissions of fragments were calculated under the approximation of the constant inverse process cross section. In the paper, the spectra were calculated by the use of the inverse process cross section depend on the energy obtained by the calculation of the optical model. The result showed the increase of low energy components and the softening effect of spectra (2) On JENDL-3.1, the all fission processes were assumed to undergo (n,f) reaction. In the paper, they were calculated by the multi-chance fission such as (n, n'f), (n, 2nf) and (n, 3nf) etc. Softening of the spectra (En > 6 MeV) was obtained by this method. (3) The level density parameter (LDP) has been assumed as a = A/C in either case of light fragment (LF) and heavy fragment (HF) in the original Madland-Nix model. But we used LDP based on the Ignatyuk model under consideration of the shell effects of nuclear fragments, hence the neutron spectra of heavy fragments were hardening. (4) Nuclear temperature of both fragments had been assumed to be the same at original model, but now R T = Tm/TmH was derived to calculate them. The ratio of middle/both side components of spectra was changed. (5) Unknown neutron fission spectra of minor actinide were able to the assumed on the basis of Moriyama-Ohnishi model. (S.Y.)

  13. {sup 235}U(n,F) prompt fission neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, M.V.; Tetereva, N.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research, Minsk-Sosny (Belarus); Pronyaev, V.P.; Kagalenko, A.B. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Granier, T.; Morillon, B. [CEA, Centre DAM-IIe de France, 91 - Arpajon (France); Hambsch, F.J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Sublet, J.C. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    The longstanding problem of inconsistency of integral thermal data testing and differential prompt fission neutron spectra data (PFNS) is mostly due to rather poor fits of differential PFNS data in major data libraries. The measured database is updated by using modern standards including Manhart's evaluation of the spontaneous fission neutron spectra of {sup 252}Cf(sf). That largely removes the inconsistency of older thermal neutron-induced PFNS measurements with newest data of JRC IRMM by Hambsch et al. (2009). A phenomenological approach, developed by Kornilov et al. (1999), for the first-chance fission and extended for the emissive fission domain by Maslov et al. (2005) is calibrated at E{sub th} to predict both the PFNS average energy and PFNS shape up to 20 MeV. The latter is extremely important, since rather close values in fact correspond to quite discrepant spectra shapes, which influences reactor neutronics strongly. The proposed phenomenological representation of the PFNS reproduces both soft and hard energy tails of {sup 235}U(n{sub th},F) PFNS at thermal incident neutron energy E{sub th}. In the first-chance and emissive fission domain evaluated PFNS are consistent with the data by Ethvignot et al. (2005). A compiled MF=5 Endf/B-formatted file of the {sup 235}U(n,F) PFNS largely removes the inconsistencies of the evaluated differential PFNS with integral data benchmarks. Almost perfect fits are attained for available differential PFNS data from E{sub th} up to E{sub n}=14.7 MeV, with few exceptions at E{sub n}=2.9 and E{sub n}=5 MeV. Fast integral critical experiment like GODIVA or Flattop benchmarks might be reproduced almost with the same accuracy as with the PFNS of the major data libraries. That reveals a rather delicate compensation effect, since present and previous PFNS shapes are drastically different from each other. Thermal assemblies benchmarking reveals positive biases in k(eff), which might be attributed to the influence of

  14. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  15. Teaching Leisure Skills to an Adult with Developmental Disabilities Using a Video Prompting Intervention Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Lambdin, Lindsay; Van Laarhoven, Toni; Johnson, Jesse W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used a video prompting plus least-to-most prompting treatment package to teach a 35-year-old Caucasian man with Down Syndrome three leisure skills. Each leisure skill was task analyzed and the researchers created brief videos depicting the completion of individual steps. Using a multiple probe across behaviors design, the video…

  16. A Further Evaluation of Picture Prompts during Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Charlotte L.; Peterson, Sean P.; Arkel, Amber J.; Petursdottir, Anna I.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication and extension of Fisher, Kodak, and Moore (2007), in which a picture prompt embedded into a least-to-most prompting sequence facilitated acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with autism; 2 had limited prior receptive skills, and 2 had…

  17. Enhancing engagement with a digital intervention using email and text message prompts: a usability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah ALKHALDI

    2015-10-01

    Findings will inform health behaviour researchers and DI providers about the optimal content of prompt that can lead to enhanced engagement with DIs. Findings will also be used to test the effectiveness of different prompt content and delivery mode on engagement in a randomised controlled study.

  18. A constraint on prompt supernova cosmic ray production from γ-ray observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Drury, L.O'C.

    1981-01-01

    The consequences of prompt cosmic ray production intrinsic to supernovae are examined for supernova explosions occurring in dense molecular clouds. For reasonable parameters it is shown that prompt cosmic ray production cannot exceed 10 48 erg per supernova. This suggests that cosmic ray production takes place mainly in the intercloud medium. (author)

  19. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnow, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to use a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy to teach students with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed…

  20. Using Progressive Video Prompting to Teach Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability to Shoot a Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…

  1. Prompt γ-ray data evaluation of thermal-neutron capture for A = 1-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei

    1999-01-01

    The method of prompt γ-ray data evaluation for thermal-neutron capture has been briefly presented. The prompt capture γ-ray data of stable nuclei for A = 1 - 25 are evaluated. The evaluated data have been changed into the ENSDF format and the checks of physics and format have been made

  2. Comprehensive overview of the Point-by-Point model of prompt emission in fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudora, A. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Hambsch, F.J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate G - Nuclear Safety and Security, Unit G2, Geel (Belgium)

    2017-08-15

    The investigation of prompt emission in fission is very important in understanding the fission process and to improve the quality of evaluated nuclear data required for new applications. In the last decade remarkable efforts were done for both the development of prompt emission models and the experimental investigation of the properties of fission fragments and the prompt neutrons and γ-ray emission. The accurate experimental data concerning the prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy for {sup 252}Cf(SF) and {sup 235}U(n,f) recently measured at JRC-Geel (as well as other various prompt emission data) allow a consistent and very detailed validation of the Point-by-Point (PbP) deterministic model of prompt emission. The PbP model results describe very well a large variety of experimental data starting from the multi-parametric matrices of prompt neutron multiplicity ν(A,TKE) and γ-ray energy E{sub γ}(A,TKE) which validate the model itself, passing through different average prompt emission quantities as a function of A (e.g., ν(A), E{sub γ}(A), left angle ε right angle (A) etc.), as a function of TKE (e.g., ν(TKE), E{sub γ}(TKE)) up to the prompt neutron distribution P(ν) and the total average prompt neutron spectrum. The PbP model does not use free or adjustable parameters. To calculate the multi-parametric matrices it needs only data included in the reference input parameter library RIPL of IAEA. To provide average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, of TKE and total average quantities the multi-parametric matrices are averaged over reliable experimental fragment distributions. The PbP results are also in agreement with the results of the Monte Carlo prompt emission codes FIFRELIN, CGMF and FREYA. The good description of a large variety of experimental data proves the capability of the PbP model to be used in nuclear data evaluations and its reliability to predict prompt emission data for fissioning

  3. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  4. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  5. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  6. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  7. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  8. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  9. Pulsed atomic soliton laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, L.D.; Brand, J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that simultaneously changing the scattering length of an elongated, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate from positive to negative and inverting the axial portion of the trap, so that it becomes expulsive, results in a train of self-coherent solitonic pulses. Each pulse is itself a nondispersive attractive Bose-Einstein condensate that rapidly self-cools. The axial trap functions as a waveguide. The solitons can be made robustly stable with the right choice of trap geometry, number of atoms, and interaction strength. Theoretical and numerical evidence suggests that such a pulsed atomic soliton laser can be made in present experiments

  10. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  11. Multiphoton photoemission from a copper cathode illuminated by ultrashort laser pulses in an RF photoinjector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Cultrera, L; Ferrario, M; Filippetto, D; Gatti, G; Gutierrez, M S; Moody, J T; Moore, N; Rosenzweig, J B; Scoby, C M; Travish, G; Vicario, C

    2010-02-26

    In this Letter we report on the use of ultrashort infrared laser pulses to generate a copious amount of electrons by a copper cathode in an rf photoinjector. The charge yield verifies the generalized Fowler-Dubridge theory for multiphoton photoemission. The emission is verified to be prompt using a two pulse autocorrelation technique. The thermal emittance associated with the excess kinetic energy from the emission process is comparable with the one measured using frequency tripled uv laser pulses. In the high field of the rf gun, up to 50 pC of charge can be extracted from the cathode using a 80 fs long, 2 microJ, 800 nm pulse focused to a 140 mum rms spot size. Taking into account the efficiency of harmonic conversion, illuminating a cathode directly with ir laser pulses can be the most efficient way to employ the available laser power.

  12. Multiphoton Photoemission from a Copper Cathode Illuminated by Ultrashort Laser Pulses in an rf Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, P.; Gutierrez, M. S.; Moody, J. T.; Moore, N.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Scoby, C. M.; Travish, G.; Cultrera, L.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Vicario, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we report on the use of ultrashort infrared laser pulses to generate a copious amount of electrons by a copper cathode in an rf photoinjector. The charge yield verifies the generalized Fowler-Dubridge theory for multiphoton photoemission. The emission is verified to be prompt using a two pulse autocorrelation technique. The thermal emittance associated with the excess kinetic energy from the emission process is comparable with the one measured using frequency tripled uv laser pulses. In the high field of the rf gun, up to 50 pC of charge can be extracted from the cathode using a 80 fs long, 2 μJ, 800 nm pulse focused to a 140 μm rms spot size. Taking into account the efficiency of harmonic conversion, illuminating a cathode directly with ir laser pulses can be the most efficient way to employ the available laser power.

  13. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  14. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  15. IAE pulsed electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.P.; Ganzhelyuk, M.L.; Kozlov, L.D.; Koltypin, E.A.; Molchanov, Yu.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The modernized pulse electrostatic accelerator using the klystron ion grouping and the beam interruption system prior to acceleration is described. The accelerator is modernized in order to improve parameters of a current pulse and to decrease the background in the measurement room. The ion beam of needed dimensions is obtained with the help of a high-frequency source and a beam grouping and deflection system. The general view of the beam grouping and deflection system is shown. The ion beam forming process is considered in detail. The modernized electrostatic accelerator permits to obtain a pulse current with a pulse length of 1.5 ns and an amplitude of 1.5 - 2 μA. With the repetition frequency of 2 MHz, the average target current is about 6 μA

  16. International Year of Pulses 2016 | 2016 International Year of Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Year in collaboration with Governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and the composition of pulses Image 4 Wrapping up the International Year of Pulses The 5 key messages to food security Infographic Pulses and climate change International Year of Pulses 2016 The 68th UN

  17. Realtime aspects of pulse-to-pulse modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.; Riedel, C.; Roesch, W.

    1992-01-01

    The pulse-to-pulse modulation of the SIS-ESR control system is described. Fast response to operator interaction and to changes in process conditions is emphasized as well as the essential part played by the timing system in pulse-to-pulse modulation. (author)

  18. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  19. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  20. Treating speech subsystems in childhood apraxia of speech with tactual input: the PROMPT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Philip S; Hayden, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT; Hayden, 2004; Hayden, Eigen, Walker, & Olsen, 2010)-a treatment approach for the improvement of speech sound disorders in children-uses tactile-kinesthetic- proprioceptive (TKP) cues to support and shape movements of the oral articulators. No research to date has systematically examined the efficacy of PROMPT for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Four children (ages 3;6 [years;months] to 4;8), all meeting the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2007) criteria for CAS, were treated using PROMPT. All children received 8 weeks of 2 × per week treatment, including at least 4 weeks of full PROMPT treatment that included TKP cues. During the first 4 weeks, 2 of the 4 children received treatment that included all PROMPT components except TKP cues. This design permitted both between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons to evaluate the effect of TKP cues. Gains in treatment were measured by standardized tests and by criterion-referenced measures based on the production of untreated probe words, reflecting change in speech movements and auditory perceptual accuracy. All 4 children made significant gains during treatment, but measures of motor speech control and untreated word probes provided evidence for more gain when TKP cues were included. PROMPT as a whole appears to be effective for treating children with CAS, and the inclusion of TKP cues appears to facilitate greater effect.

  1. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  2. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) is a unique and innovative coal-fueled technology that has the potential to meet these conditions and provide heat and/or process steam to small industrial, commercial, institutional and residential complexes. The potential of Pulse Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (PAFBC) technology has been amply demonstrated under the sponsorship of a previous DOE/METC contract (DE-AC21-88MC25069). The environmental performance of a coal-fired laboratory-scale system (1.5 million British Thermal Units per hour) (MMBtu/hr) significantly surpassed that of conventional bubbling and circulating fluidized-bed combustion units (see Table 1 for performance comparison). Prompted by these encouraging results in combustion, sulfur capture, emissions control, and enhanced heat transfer, Island Creek Coal Company (ICC) and Baltimore Thermal Energy Corporation expressed interest in the technology and offered to participate by providing host sites for field testing. EA's have been submitted independently for each of these field test sites. This submission addresses the preliminary testing of the PAFBC unit at Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International's (MTCI) Baltimore, MD facility

  3. Facility at CIRUS reactor for thermal neutron induced prompt γ-ray spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, D.C.; Danu, L.S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kinage, L.A.; Prashanth, P.N.; Goswami, A.; Sahu, A.K.; Shaikh, A.M.; Chatterjee, A.; Choudhury, R.K.; Kailas, S.

    2013-01-01

    A facility for prompt γ-ray spectroscopic studies using thermal neutrons from a radial beam line of Canada India Research Utility Services (CIRUS) reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), has been developed. To carry out on-line spectroscopy experiments, two clover germanium detectors were used for the measurement of prompt γ rays. For the first time, the prompt γ–γ coincidence technique has been used to study the thermal neutron induced fission fragment spectroscopy (FFS) in 235 U(n th , f). Using this facility, experiments have also been carried out for on-line γ-ray spectroscopic studies in 113 Cd(n th , γ) reaction

  4. Determination of protein content in grains by radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma rays analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma rays technique can be used to determinate the nitrogen content in grains without chemical destruction, with good precision and relative rapidity. This determination is based on the detection of prompt gamma rays emitted by the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction product. The samples has been irradiated the tanGencial tube of the IEA-R1 research reator and a pair spectrometer has been used for the detection of the prompt gamma rays. The nitrogen content is determinated in several samples of soybean, commonbean, peas and rice, and the results is compared with typical nitrogen content for each grain. (Autor) [pt

  5. Dynamics of traveling reaction pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovzhenko, A. Yu.; Rumanov, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of activator losses is accompanied by the decay of a traveling reaction pulse. In a ring reactor, this propagation threshold is present simultaneously with a threshold related to the ring diameter. The results of numerical experiments with pulses of an exothermal reaction reveal the transition from pulse propagation to a homogeneous hot regime, established regimes with periodic variations of the pulse velocity, and oscillatory decay of the pulse. When the medium becomes 'bistable' as a result of the variation in parameters, this factor does not prevent the propagation of pulses, but leads to changes in the pulse structure

  6. Prompt HO2 formation following the reaction of OH with aromatic compounds under atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Sascha; Bohn, Birger; Wahner, Andreas

    2012-06-21

    The secondary formation of HO(2) radicals following OH + aromatic hydrocarbon reactions in synthetic air under normal pressure and temperature was investigated in the absence of NO after pulsed production of OH radicals. OH and HO(x) (=OH + HO(2)) decay curves were recorded using laser-induced fluorescence after gas-expansion. The prompt HO(2) yields (HO(2) formed without preceding NO reactions) were determined by comparison to results obtained with CO as a reference compound. This approach was recently introduced and applied to the OH + benzene reaction and was extended here for a number of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The measured HO(2) formation yields are as follows: toluene, 0.42 ± 0.11; ethylbenzene, 0.53 ± 0.10; o-xylene, 0.41 ± 0.08; m-xylene, 0.27 ± 0.06; p-xylene, 0.40 ± 0.09; 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 0.31 ± 0.06; 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 0.37 ± 0.09; 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 0.29 ± 0.08; hexamethylbenzene, 0.32 ± 0.08; phenol, 0.89 ± 0.29; o-cresol, 0.87 ± 0.29; 2,5-dimethylphenol, 0.72 ± 0.12; 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, 0.45 ± 0.13. For the alkylbenzenes HO(2) is the proposed coproduct of phenols, epoxides, and possibly oxepins formed in secondary reactions with O(2). In most product studies the only quantified coproducts were phenols whereas only a few studies reported yields of epoxides. Oxepins have not been observed so far. Together with the yields of phenols from other studies, the HO(2) yields determined in this work set an upper limit to the combined yields of epoxides and oxepins that was found to be significant (≤0.3) for all investigated alkylbenzenes except m-xylene. For the hydroxybenzenes the currently proposed HO(2) coproducts are dihydroxybenzenes. For phenol and o-cresol the determined HO(2) yields are matching the previously reported dihydroxybenzene yields, indicating that these are the only HO(2) forming reaction channels. For 2,5-dimethylphenol and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol no complementary product studies are available.

  7. Study of startup conditions of a pulsed annular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario Augusto Bezerra da

    2003-10-01

    A new concept of reactor, which combines features of pulsed and stationary reactors, was proposed so as to produce intense neutronic fluxes. Such a reactor, known as VICHFPR (Very Intense Continuous High Flux Pulsed Reactor), consists of a subcritical core with an annular geometry and pulsed by a rotating reflector which acts as a reactivity modulator as it produces a short pulse (approximately equal to 1 ms) of high intensity, guiding the region near the pulser to super-prompt critical state. This dissertation intends to analyze the startup conditions of a Pulsed Annular Reactor. The evolution of the neutron pulse intensity is analyzed when the reactivity modulator is brought upwards according to a helicoidal path from its initial position (far away from the core), when the multiplication factor has a subcritical value, up to the final position (near the core), in which a super-prompt critical state is reached. Part of the analysis is based on the variation of neutron reflection, which is a uniform function of the exit and reflection angles between the core and the modulator. It must be emphasized that this work is an approximation of the real situation. As the initial and final reactor parameters are known, a programming code in Fortran is worked out to provide the multiplication factor and the flux intensity evolution. According to the results obtained with this code, the conditions under which the modulator must be lifted up during the startup are established. Basically, these conditions are related to the analysis of the rising and the rotation velocities, the reflector saving and the initial distance between the reactor and the modulator. The Pulsed Annular Reactor startup was divided into three stages. Because of its negative reactivity in the first two stages, the neutron multiplication is not large, while the last one, having a positive reactivity, shows an intense multiplication as is usually expected when handling pulsed systems. This last stage is quite

  8. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  9. Assessment of Object Permanence in Severely Handicapped Students as a Function of Motor and Prompting Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The study assessed object permanence construct performance in 20 severely handicapped students (4 to 14 years old) who were differentiated by treatment (prompt) condition and motor ability level. Results revealed a trait (motor ability) x treatment interaction. (Author/SB)

  10. 76 FR 42074 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... radioactivity during the operational phase of licensed material sites and nuclear reactors. The NRC has not... to the decommissioning planning process by addressing remediation of residual radioactivity during...

  11. Recent improvements in the calculation of prompt fission neutron spectra: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.; LaBauve, R.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    We consider three topics in the refinement and improvement of our original calculations of prompt fission neutron spectra. These are an improved calculation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum N(E) from the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, a complete calculation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum matrix N(E,E n ) from the neutron-induced fission of 235 U, at incident neutron energies ranging from 0 to 15 MeV, and an assessment of the scission neutron component of the prompt fission neutron spectrum. Preliminary results will be presented and compared with experimental measurements and an evaluation. A suggestion is made for new integral cross section measurements. (author). 45 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  12. The role of the law in prompting parents to participate accountably ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discipline starts at home”,1 our article focuses on what South African law has contributed during the past 20 years to prompt parents participate accountably with partners in public school education, and how case law has defined parent ...

  13. Consultants' meeting on prompt fission neutron spectra of major actinides. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.; Maslov, V.; Bauge, E.; Ohsawa, T.; Vorobyev, A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Oberstedt, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Major Actinides' was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, to discuss the adequacy and quality of the recommended prompt fission neutron spectra to be found in existing nuclear data applications libraries. These prompt fission neutron spectra were judged to be inadequate, and this problem has proved difficult to resolve by means of theoretical modelling. Major adjustments may be required to ensure the validity of such important data. There is a strong requirement for an international effort to explore and resolve these difficulties and recommend prompt fission neutron spectra and uncertainty covariance matrices for the actinides over the neutron energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Participants also stressed that there would be a strong need for validation of the resulting data against integral critical assembly and dosimetry data. (author)

  14. Pulsed rf excited spectrometer having improved pulse width control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    RF excitation for a spectrometer is obtained by pulse width modulating an RF carrier to produce the desired broadband RF exciting spectrum. The RF excitation includes a train of composite RF pulses, each composite pulse having a primary pulse portion of a first RF phase and a second pulse portion of a second RF phase opposite that of the first. In this manner, the finite rise and fall times of the primary pulse portion are compensated for by the corresponding rise and fall times of the secondary pulse portion. The primary pulse portion is lengthened by an amount equal to the secondary pulse portion so that the secondary pulse portion cancels the added primary pulse portion. In a spectrometer, the compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands of the RF excitation caused by the finite rise and fall times of the applied RF pulses. The compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands associated with each of the resonant lines of the excited resonance spectrum of the sample under analysis, particularly for wide band RF excitation

  15. The parent-child relationship for prompt leptons and neutrinos produced in the forward direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, K.W.J.; Craigie, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    The authors discuss how the longitudinal spectrum of energetic prompt leptons and neutrinos detected in the forward direction can be used to determine the cross sections and longitudinal momentum distribution of the parent particles. The results are illustrated by showing how the recently observed prompt neutrino and lepton distribution can tell one much about the nature of the parent particle and the underlying processes producing it. (Auth.)

  16. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  17. Properties of prompt muons produced by 28 GeV proton interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Lai, K.W.; Larsen, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Prompt dimuon production from the interactions of 28.5 GeV protons with nuclear targets. The dimuon differential cross section dsigma/dx and the prompt muon to pion ratio are equal within errors to that found at an incident proton beam energy of 400 GeV. The atomic number dependence is found to be the same as that of the total proton nucleon cross section. The dimuon invariant mass distribution is presented. 13 references

  18. A feasibility study for a clinical decision support system prompting HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D R; Hall, C; Rae, C; Rayment, Ml; Branch, M; Littlewood, J; Sullivan, A

    2017-07-01

    Levels of undiagnosed HIV infection and late presentation remain high globally despite attempts to increase testing. The objective of this study was to evaluate a risk-based prototype application to prompt HIV testing when patients undergo routine blood tests. Two computer physician order entry (CPOE) systems were modified using the application to prompt health care workers (HCWs) to add an HIV test when other tests selected suggested that the patient was at higher risk of HIV infection. The application was applied for a 3-month period in two areas, in a large London hospital and in general practices in Teesside/North Yorkshire. At the end of the evaluation period, HCWs were interviewed to assess the usability and acceptability of the prompt. Numbers of HIV tests ordered in the general practice areas were also compared before and after the prompt's introduction. The system was found to be both useable and generally acceptable to hospital doctors, general practitioners and nurse practitioners, with little evidence of prompt/alert fatigue. The issue of the prompt appearing late in the patient consultation did lead to some difficulties, particularly around discussion of the test and consent. In the general practices, around 1 in 10 prompts were accepted and there was a 6% increase in testing rates over the 3-month study period (P = 0.169). Using a CPOE-based clinical decision support application to prompt HIV testing appears both feasible and acceptable to HCWs. Refining the application to provide more accurate risk stratification is likely to make it more effective. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  19. Herophilus on pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonasin, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first detailed study of the pulse (sphygmology is associated in antiquity with Herophilus (the end of the 4th century BCE, an Alexandrian physician, renowned for his anatomical discoveries. The scholars also attribute to him a discovery of a portable and adjustable water-clock, used for measuring ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural’ pulse and, accordingly, temperature of the patient. In the article we translate the principal ancient evidences and comment upon them. We study both the practical aspects of ancient sphygmology and the theoretical speculations associated with it. Ancient theory of proportion and musical harmony allowed to build a classification of the pulses, but the medical experience did not fit well in the Procrustean bed of this rather simple theory.

  20. Current Extensions on PULSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dragos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a learning management system (LMS is a common practise nowadays. Such instruments are used in educational institutions to enhance and support the teaching act as well as in industry for training purposes. In a computer science department of an university such instrument tends to be a basic requirement. That is because not only it allows a better management of courses and a better communication between students and professors, but can also serve as a perfect instrument for presenting teaching related materials for computer science subjects. During the years I have created and used several such instruments: a System with Interactive ackNowledgement and Evaluation of students work during laboratory sessions (SINE, a Php Utility used in Laboratories for Student Evaluation (PULSE, and PULSE Extended. The aim of this paper is to present the current enhancements of PULSE.

  1. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified.

  2. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified

  3. Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.C.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Fishler, B.; Murphy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutral beam prompt losses place appreciable power on an in-vessel tokamak antenna. • Simulations predict prompt loss power and inform protective tile design. • Experiments confirm the validity of the prompt loss simulations. - Abstract: Neutral beam prompt losses (injected neutrals that ionize such that their first poloidal transit intersects with the wall) can put appreciable power on the outer wall of tokamaks, and this power may damage the wall or other internal components. These prompt losses are simulated including a protruding helicon antenna installation in the DIII-D tokamak and it is determined that 160 kW of power will impact the antenna during the injection of a particular neutral beam. Protective graphite tiles are designed in response to this modeling and the wall shape of the installed antenna is precisely measured to improve the accuracy of these calculations. Initial experiments confirm that the antenna component temperature increases according to the amount of neutral beam energy injected into the plasma. In this case, only injection of beams that are aimed counter to the plasma current produce an appreciable power load on the outer wall, suggesting that the effect is of little concern for tokamaks featuring only co-current neutral beam injection. Incorporating neutral beam prompt loss considerations into the design of this in-vessel component serves to ensure that adequate protection or cooling is provided.

  4. A comparison of four prompt modes for route finding for community travellers with severe cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Fickas, Stephen; Hung, Pei-Fang; Fortier, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    Navigational skills are fundamental to community travel and, hence, personal independence and are often disrupted in people with cognitive impairments. Navigation devices are being developed that can support community navigation by delivering directional information. Selecting an effective mode to provide route-prompts is a critical design issue. This study evaluated the differential effects on pedestrian route finding using different modes of prompting delivered via a handheld electronic device for travellers with severe cognitive impairments. A within-subject comparison study was used to evaluate potential differences in route navigation performance when travellers received directions using four different prompt modes: (1) aerial map image, (2) point of view map image, (3) text based instructions/no image and (4) audio direction/no image. Twenty travellers with severe cognitive impairments due to acquired brain injury walked four equivalent routes using four different prompting modes delivered via a wrist-worn navigation device. Navigation scores were computed that captured accuracy and confidence during navigation. Results of the repeated measures Analysis of Variance suggested that participants performed best when given prompts via speech-based audio directions. The majority of the participants also preferred this prompting mode. Findings are interpreted in the context of cognitive resource allocation theory.

  5. Consideration of neutral beam prompt loss in the design of a tokamak helicon antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, D.C., E-mail: pacedc@fusion.gat.com; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Fishler, B.; Murphy, C.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Neutral beam prompt losses place appreciable power on an in-vessel tokamak antenna. • Simulations predict prompt loss power and inform protective tile design. • Experiments confirm the validity of the prompt loss simulations. - Abstract: Neutral beam prompt losses (injected neutrals that ionize such that their first poloidal transit intersects with the wall) can put appreciable power on the outer wall of tokamaks, and this power may damage the wall or other internal components. These prompt losses are simulated including a protruding helicon antenna installation in the DIII-D tokamak and it is determined that 160 kW of power will impact the antenna during the injection of a particular neutral beam. Protective graphite tiles are designed in response to this modeling and the wall shape of the installed antenna is precisely measured to improve the accuracy of these calculations. Initial experiments confirm that the antenna component temperature increases according to the amount of neutral beam energy injected into the plasma. In this case, only injection of beams that are aimed counter to the plasma current produce an appreciable power load on the outer wall, suggesting that the effect is of little concern for tokamaks featuring only co-current neutral beam injection. Incorporating neutral beam prompt loss considerations into the design of this in-vessel component serves to ensure that adequate protection or cooling is provided.

  6. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  7. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M.A.; Gary, C.K.; Harris, J.L.; Fuller, M.J.; Cremer, J.T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J.W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  8. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  9. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Saveliev, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093308 (2005). Ya. E. Krasik, A. Dunaevsky, and J. Felsteiner, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2466 (2001). D. Yarmolich, V. Vekselman, V. Tz. Gurovich, and Ya. E. Krasik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 075004 (2008). J. Z. Gleizer, Y. Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  10. Spallation neutrons pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the range of scientific applications which can use these pulsed neutrons sources: Studies on super fluids, measures to verify the crawling model for the polymers diffusion; these sources are also useful to study the neutron disintegration, the ultra cold neutrons. In certain applications which were not accessible by neutrons diffusion, for example, radiations damages, radionuclides production and activation analysis, the spallation sources find their use and their improvement will bring new possibilities. Among others contributions, one must notice the place at disposal of pulsed muons sources and neutrinos sources. (N.C.). 3 figs

  11. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  12. Pulse Synchronization System (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    This document is intended to serve as an operations manual, as well as a documentation of the backup analyses pertinent to the design as delivered. A history of earlier unsuccessful versions of the Pulse Synchronization System (PSS) is not included. The function of the PSS is to synchronize the time of arrival at the fusion target of laser pulses that are propagated through the 20 amplifier chains of the SHIVA laser. The positional accuracy requirement is +-1.5 mm (+-5 psec), and is obtained by the PSS with a wide margin factor

  13. Prompting in Web-Based Environments: Supporting Self-Monitoring and Problem Solving Skills in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas F.; Ge, Xun; Xie, Kui; Chen, Ching-Huei

    2008-01-01

    This study explored Metacognition and how automated instructional support in the form of problem-solving and self-reflection prompts influenced students' capacity to solve complex problems in a Web-based learning environment. Specifically, we examined the independent and interactive effects of problem-solving prompts and reflection prompts on…

  14. Invading Public Spaces: Exploring the Effects of Media Type and Social Prompts on Learning Outcomes in an Interactive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Edward; Erickson, Sarah; Borrett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    A 2 × 2, fully-crossed, quasi-experimental design was employed to determine if type of media (rich media vs. lean media) and social prompting (presence of prompts vs. absence of prompts) would differentially impact learning outcomes for patrons interacting with an aquatic invasive species exhibit. Results indicated that the lean-media condition…

  15. Circuit designs for measuring reactor period, peak power, and pulse fluence on TRIGA and other pulse reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.D.; Thome, F.V.; Williams, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Inexpensive circuits for use in evaluating reactor pulse prompt period, peak power, and pulse fluence (NVT) are presented. In addition to low cost, these circuits are easily assembled and calibrated and operate with a high degree of accuracy. The positive period measuring system has been used in evaluating reactivity additions as small as 5 cents (with an accuracy of ±0.1 cents) and as large as $4.50 (accuracy ±2 cents). Reactor peak power is measured digitally with a system accuracy of ±0.04% of a 10 Volt input (±4 mV). The NVT circuit measures over a 2-1/2 decade range, has 3 place resolution and an accuracy of better than 1%. (author)

  16. Time-resolved spectral analysis of prompt emission from long gamma-ray bursts with GeV emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Arikkala Raghurama; Basak Rupal; Bhattacharya Jishnu; Chandra Sarthak; Maheshwari Nikunj; Choudhury Manojendu; Misra Ranjeev

    2014-01-01

    We performed detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of bright long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which show significant GeV emissions (GRB 080916C, GRB 090902B and GRB 090926A). In addition to the standard Band model, we also use a model consisting of a black body and a power law to fit the spectra. We find that for the latter model there are indications of an additional soft component in the spectra. While previous studies have shown that such models are required for GRB 090902B, here we find that a composite spectral model consisting of two blackbodies and a power law adequately fits the data of all the three bright GRBs. We investigate the evolution of the spectral parameters and find several interesting features that appear in all three GRBs, like (a) temperatures of the blackbodies are strongly correlated with each other, (b) fluxes in the black body components are strongly correlated with each other, (c) the temperatures of the black body trace the profile of the individual pulses of the GRBs, and (d) the characteristics of power law components like the spectral index and the delayed onset bear a close similarity to the emission characteristics in the GeV regions. We discuss the implications of these results and the possibility of identifying the radiation mechanisms during the prompt emission of GRBs. (research papers)

  17. Study on variance-to-mean method as subcriticality monitor for accelerator driven system operated with pulse-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Hideto; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu

    2003-01-01

    Two types of the variance-to-mean methods for the subcritical system that was driven by the periodic and pulsed neutron source were developed and their experimental examination was performed with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly and a pulsed neutron generator. As a result, it was demonstrated that the prompt neutron decay constant could be measured by these methods. From this fact, it was concluded that the present variance-to-mean methods had potential for being used in the subcriticality monitor for the future accelerator driven system operated with the pulse-mode. (author)

  18. Pulse power modulators - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse power modulators are electronic devices to provide, high voltage, high current, power bursts. Ideally, a modulator, with the means to shape and control the pulses, acts as a switch between a high voltage power supply and its load. This article gives an overview of the pulse power modulators: starting with the basics of pulse and modulation, it covers modulation topologies, different types of modulators, major subsystems and pulse measurement techniques. The various applications of pulse power modulators and the recent trends have been included at the end. (author)

  19. Proton Pulse Radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H C; Nilsson, G; Reitberger, T; Thuomas, K A

    1973-03-15

    A 5 MeV proton accelerator (Van de Graaff) has been used for pulse radiolysis of a number of organic gases and the transient spectra obtained from the alkanes methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and neopentane have tentatively been assigned to alkyl radicals. Some methodological aspects of this new technique are discussed

  20. Lectures on pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, A.

    1988-08-01

    These lectures discuss some recent developments in pulsed NMR, emphasizing fundamental principles with selected illustrative applications. Major topics covered include multiple-quantum spectroscopy, spin decoupling, the interaction of spins with a quantized field, adiabatic rapid passage, spin temperature and statistics of cross-polarization, coherent averaging, and zero field NMR. 32 refs., 56 figs

  1. Lectures on pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, A.

    1986-09-01

    These lectures discuss some recent developments in pulsed NMR, emphasizing fundamental principles with selected illustrative applications. Major topics covered include multiple-quantum spectroscopy, spin decoupling, the interaction of spins with a quantized field, adiabatic rapid passage, spin temperature and statistics of cross-polarization, coherent averaging, and zero field NMR. 55 figs

  2. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  3. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  4. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  5. Performance of commercial off-the-shelf microelectromechanical systems sensors in a pulsed reactor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobert, Keith Edwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heger, Arlen S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccready, Steven S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-07-15

    Prompted by the unexpected failure of piezoresistive sensors in both an elevated gamma-ray environment and reactor core pulse tests, we initiated radiation testing of several MEMS piezoresistive accelerometers and pressure transducers to ascertain their radiation hardness. Some commercial off-the-shelf sensors are found to be viable options for use in a high-energy pulsed reactor, but others suffer severe degradation and even catastrophic failure. Although researchers are promoting the use of MEMS devices in radiation-harsh environment, we nevertheless find assurance testing necessary.

  6. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  7. KEEFEKTIFAN PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE PROBING-PROMPTING DENGAN PENILAIAN PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmatul Ulya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting dengan penilaian produk dan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting materi keliling dan luas lingkaran dapat mencapai ketuntasan belajar dan lebih baik dari pembelajaran ekspositori pada peserta didik kelas VIII. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah peserta didik kelas VIII MTs. Nurussalam Gebog Kudus tahun pelajaran 2011/2012. Dengan cara acak terpilih sampel yaitu peserta didik kelas VIIIA dan VIIIC sebagai kelas eksperimen 1 dan 2, serta VIIIB sebagai kelas kontrol. Diperoleh hasil penelitian bahwa rata-rata hasil belajar peserta didik kelas eksperimen 1 sebesar 79,91, kelas eksperimen 2 sebesar 73,21, dan kelas kontrol sebesar 66,10. Dari hasil uji ketuntasan belajar diperoleh peserta didik kelas eksperimen mencapai ketuntasan belajar (individual dan klasikal. Dari hasil uji Anava nilai Sig.= 0,000 < 0,05 artinya ada perbedaan rata-rata, kemudian dilakukan uji lanjut Scheffe menunjukkan adanya perbedaan rata-rata yang signifikan antara masing-masing kelas. Simpulan yang diperoleh adalah pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting yang disertai dengan penilaian produk dan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting materi keliling dan luas lingkaran dapat mencapai ketuntasan belajar, model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting dengan penilaian produk lebih baik dari pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting, dan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe probing-prompting lebih baik dari pembelajaran ekspositori. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cooperative learning of probing-prompting by assessing products of circle perimeter and circle area material could reach the completeness learning of students. The population of this study was the students of grade VIII MTs. Nurussalam Gebog Kudus year 2011/2012. Randomly, the selected samples were the students of VIIIA and VIIIC as the experiment classes 1

  8. Impact of shelf life on measured prompt fraction of spare Inconel in-core flux detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohindra, VK; Sadeghi, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Crouse, B. [Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Prompt fraction measurements associated with spare self-powered Inconel In-Core Flux Detectors (ICFDs) carried out a few years after installation on Shut Down System number 1 (SDS1) and Reactor Regulating System (RRS) at Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS), were found to be lower than those of the original detectors. These detectors, spares and originals, were manufactured in the late 80s, however, the former were kept at manufacturer's warehouse and latter were installed in the reactor core within a few years after manufacturing. Although the prompt fractions of the spare detectors were relatively low, the electronic/electrical behavior of the spare detectors was intact. The first batch of the original detectors performed as per the design requirements. Therefore, it is suspected that during shelf life, spare Inconel in-core flux detectors underwent changes that lowered their measured values of prompt fraction, which were taken within a few years after installation in the reactor. Detailed study of detectors' material composition and impurity concentrations revealed no association with the lower prompt fraction measurements. The evaluation of the limited data of the original and spare Inconel ICFDs installed at Darlington showed: 1. The reduction in prompt fraction was roughly proportional to the shelf life of the detectors; and 2. The rate of reduction in prompt fraction during storage was about double the rate of reduction during operation in the reactor. Above observations were based on the data provided by DNGS for a few detectors. The purpose of this paper is two fold, firstly to present the results of the complete study carried out to investigate the cause of relatively low prompt fractions measured on spare SDS1 and RRS Inconel ICFDs at DNGS, and secondly to generate interest/awareness within other CANDU utilities to add to the database of prompt fractions of spare Inconel ICFDs measured after installation. The data will help to improve

  9. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  10. Background Reduction around Prompt Gamma-ray Peaks from Korean White Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. N.; Sun, G. M.; Moon, J. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. E. [Chung-buk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is recognized as a very powerful and unique nuclear method in terms of its non-destruction, high precision, and no time-consuming advantages. This method is used for the analysis of trace elements in various types of sample matrix such as metallurgical, environmental, biological samples, etc. When a spectrum is evaluated, background continuum is a major disturbing factor for a precise and accurate analysis. Furthermore, a prompt gamma spectrum is complicate with a wide range. To make the condition free from this limitation, a reduction of the background is important for the PGAA analysis. The background-reducing methods are divided into using the electronic equipment like a suppression mode and principal component analysis (PCA) based on a multivariate statistical method. In PGAA analysis, Lee et al. compared the background reduction methods like PCA and wavelet transform for the prompt gamma-ray spectra. Lim et al. have applied the multivariate statistical method to the identification of the peaks with low-statistics from the explosives. In this paper, effective reduction of background in the prompt gamma spectra using the PCA is applied to the prompt gammaray peaks from Korean Baeksam (Korean white ginseng)

  11. Pulse pile-up IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1991-05-01

    The study of pulse pile-up is extended from the case of unipolar pulses, for which ruin theory is an excellent approximation, to the case of bipolar pulses for which ruin theory is not applicable to the effect of the back-kicks in reducing the pile-up: an appropriate solution is presented. (Author) 3 refs., 11 figs

  12. Pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, Pankaj; Shyam, Anurag, E-mail: surender80@gmail.com [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam (India); Sharma, Archana [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Longer duration high voltage pulse (∼ 100 kV, 260 ns) is generated and reported using helical pulse forming line in compact geometry. The transmission line characteristics of the helical pulse forming line are also used to develop fast repetition double pulse system with very short inter pulse interval. It overcomes the limitations caused due to circuit parameters, power supplies and load characteristics for fast repetitive high voltage pulse generation. The high voltage double pulse of 100 kV, 100 ns with an inter pulse repetition interval of 30 ns is applied across the vacuum field emission diode for pulsed electron beam generation. The electron beam is generated from cathode material by application of negative high voltage (> 100 kV) across the diode by explosive electron emission process. The vacuum field emission diode is made of 40 mm diameter graphite cathode and SS mesh anode. The anode cathode gap was 6 mm and the drift tube diameter was 10 cm. The initial experimental results of pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system are reported and discussed. (author)

  13. Pulsed current generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.D.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a current pulse generator with an auxiliary network consisting of a choke and diode in series designed to enlarge the range of pulse frequency control. One output of the network is connected to an adjustable valve cathode and via antoher auxiliary condenser to the point where the cathode of the main key unit is joined to the start of the magnetizing coil. A second output is connected to the anode of another adjustable valve and via another auxiliary condenser to the point where the anode of the other main key unit is joined to the end of the magnetizing coil. The generator can be used to excite the electromagnets of charged particle accelerators or in devices designed to produce magnetic fields. (author)

  14. Fast pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.

    1984-01-01

    This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr

  15. Linear pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjutju, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  16. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  17. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  18. Effects of picture prompts on story retelling performance in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Telling and retelling stories and facts are behavioral repertoires that are constantly recruited in social situations, no matter if these situations occur at school, with the family, or at leisure times. This study aimed at systematically evaluating if 11 first graders (age range six to seven, would perform better in retelling tasks when pictorial prompts were presented. Dependent variables were (a number of story categories inserted in the retelling tasks and (b number of retold words per story. The independent variable was the presentation of visual prompts during story retelling tasks. Results indicated that visual prompts did not result in consistent increase in performance when the number of story categories inserted was analyzed. Additionally, there was no consistent increase in the number of words retold when pictures were presented. Future studies should investigate whether repeated exposure to stories would result in a significant change in performance.

  19. Determination of protein content in seeds by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The protein level in seeds can be directly calculated through the determination of the nitrogen content in grains. The authors show here that the radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma-rays technique can be used to determine the nitrogen content in grains without chemical destruction, with good precision and relative rapidity, by detecting the prompt gamma rays emitted by the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction product. The samples were irradiated in the tangential tube of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in Sao Paulo, and a pair spectrometer was used for the detection of the prompt gamma-rays. The nitrogen content was determined in several samples of soybean, common bean, peas and rice and the results compared with typical nitrogen content values for each grain. 33 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  20. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Oshima, Masumi

    2006-10-01

    The workshop on 'Multiple Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis' was held on March 8, 2006 at Tokai. It is based on a project, 'Developments of real time, non-destructive ultra sensitive elemental analysis using multiple gamma-ray detections and prompt gamma ray analysis and its application to real samples', one of the High priority Cooperative Research Programs performed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tokyo. In this workshop, the latest results of the Multiple Prompt Gamma ray Analysis (MPGA) study were presented, together with those of Neutron Activation Analysis with Multiple Gamma-ray Detection (NAAMG). The 9 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Prompt gamma-based neutron dosimetry for Am-Be and other workplace neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udupi, Ashwini; Panikkath, Priyada; Sarkar, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    A new field-deployable technique for estimating the neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) by using the measured prompt gamma intensities emitted from borated high-density polyethylene (BHDPE) and the combination of normal HDPE and BHDPE with different configurations have been evaluated in this work. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code has been employed to calculate the responses from the prompt gammas emitted due to the monoenergetic neutrons interacting with boron, hydrogen, and carbon nuclei. A suitable linear combination of these prompt gamma responses (dose conversion coefficient (DCC)-estimated) is generated to approximate the International Commission on Radiological Protection provided DCC using the cross-entropy minimization technique. In addition, the shape and configurations of the HDPE and BHDPE combined system are optimized using the FLUKA code simulation results. The proposed method is validated experimentally, as well as theoretically, using different workplace neutron spectra with a satisfactory outcome. (author)

  3. Research on Mechanical Shim Application with Compensated Prompt γ Current of Vanadium Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β current, although it promptly reflects the flux change of the core. Based on the features of the prompt γ current, a method for configuration of the lead-lag dynamic compensator is proposed. The simulations indicate that the method can improve dynamic response significantly with negligible adverse effects on the steady response. The robustness of the design implies that the method is of great value for engineering applications.

  4. Research on mechanical shim application with compensated prompt γ current of vanadium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhi [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    Mechanical shim is an advanced technology for reactor power and axial offset control with control rod assemblies. To address the adverse accuracy impact on the ex-core power range neutron flux measurements-based axial offset control resulting from the variable positions of control rod assemblies, the lead-lag-compensated in-core self-powered vanadium detector signals are utilized. The prompt γ current of self-powered detector is ignored normally due to its weakness compared with the delayed β current, although it promptly reflects the flux change of the core. Based on the features of the prompt γ current, a method for configuration of the lead-lag dynamic compensator is proposed. The simulations indicate that the method can improve dynamic response significantly with negligible adverse effects on the steady response. The robustness of the design implies that the method is of great value for engineering applications.

  5. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs

  6. Prompt neutrino fluxes in the atmosphere with PROSA parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzelli, M.V.; Moch, S.; Placakyte, R.; Sigl, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.

    2016-11-01

    Effects on atmospheric prompt neutrino fluxes of present uncertainties affecting the nucleon composition are studied by using the PROSA fit to parton distribution functions (PDFs). The PROSA fit extends the precision of the PDFs to low x, which is the kinematic region of relevance for high-energy neutrino production, by taking into account LHCb data on charm and bottom hadroproduction. In the range of neutrino energies explored by present Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes, it is found that PDF uncertainties are far smaller with respect to those due to renormalization and factorization scale variation and to assumptions on the cosmic ray composition, which at present dominate and limit our knowledge of prompt neutrino fluxes. A discussion is presented on how these uncertainties affect the expected number of atmospheric prompt neutrino events in the analysis of high-energy events characterized by interaction vertices fully contained within the instrumented volume of the detector, performed by the IceCube collaboration.

  7. Prompt neutrino production in 400 GeV proton copper interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässler, H.; Dröge, W.; Idschok, U.; Kreutzmann, H.; Nellen, B.; Wünsch, B.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cundy, D. C.; Foeth, H.; Grant, A.; Harigel, G. G.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Nikolić, M.; Pape, L.; Parker, M. A.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Dris, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Bostock, P.; Krstić, J.; Myatt, G.; Radojicić, D.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bolognese, T.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Vignaud, D.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, Ch.; BEBC WA66 Collaboration

    1986-08-01

    The prompt electron neutrino and muon neutrino fluxes from proton copper interactions at 400 GeV/ c proton momentum have been measured. The asymmetry between the prompt electron (anti) neutrino and the prompt muon (anti) neutrino event rates above 20 GeV is A eμ = {(N e - N μ}/{(N c + N μ) } = 0.07 ± 0.08 corresponding to an Ne/ Nμ ratio of 1.14 -0.16-0.19. The cross section weighted charge asymmetry for electrons and muons combined is A ν overlineν = 0.15 ± 0.08 . The number of overlineD decays into overlineνeandoverlineνμis (4.1 ± 0.9) × 10 -4 per incident proton. No evidence for ντ interactions was found.

  8. Prompt neutrino production in 400 GeV proton copper interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessler, H.; Dris, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bolognese, T.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Bostock, P.; Krstic, J.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.

    1986-01-01

    The prompt electron neutrino and muon neutrino fluxes from proton copper interactions at 400 GeV/c proton momentum have been measured. The asymmetry between the prompt electron (anti)neutrino and the prompt muon (anti)neutrino event rates above 20 GeV is Asub(cμ)=(Nsub(e)-Nsub(μ))/Nsub(e)+Nsub(μ))=0.07+-0.08. The cross section weighted charge asymmetry for electrons and muons combined is Asub(ν)sub(anti ν)=0.15+-0.08. The number of anti D decays into anti νsub(e) and anti νsub(μ) is (4.1+-0.9) . 10 -4 per incident proton. No evidence for νsub(tau) interactions was found. (orig.)

  9. A Temporal Correlation in Quiescent Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission: Evidence for Prognitor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas L.; Giblin, Timothy; Hakkila, Jon E.

    2018-06-01

    In spite of the insight gained into the nature of the Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) from early and late-time X-Ray observations in the Swift era, GRB prompt emission continues to provide clues and new insight into the activity of the central engine. A comprehensive understanding of all emission components observed in GRBs, from the traditional prompt GRB emission to the long lived X-Ray and optical decay super- imposed with late-time flaring activity, currently remains allusive. Using data from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), we've identified and measured durations observed in GRBs that exhibit multi-episodic prompt emission behavior. Duration analysis of the burst attributes revealed no significant correlations between emissions and quiet time durations. This variability allows us to extrapolate that the central engine is constantly active.

  10. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  11. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  12. STUCTURE OF PULSED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bokun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of pulsed layer is proposed which can be suggested as a state of particulates that is blown by intermittent gas flow with speed which has the force to start material moving. Layer during one cycle is in a suspension, falling down and immobile state resulting in changes of particles arrangement as well as ways of gas flowing through layer. Moreover, it allows carrying out effective interphase heat exchange even adamant real granulation.The process of formation of impact flows is considered aw well as their influence on formation of air bubbles in pulsed layer. At startup of air blast the balance between the force of hydro-dynamic resistance is broken, on one side, and forces of gravity, particles inertia and their links with walls on the other side. The layer is transferred in the state of pulsed pseudo-fluidization, and presents gas-disperse mixture, inside of which impulse of pressure increasing is spreading to all sides as pressure waves (compression. These waves are the sources of impact flows’ formation, the force of which is two times more than during the stationary flow.The waves of pressure are divided into weak and strong ones depending on movement velocity within gas-disperse system. Weak waves are moving with a sound speed and strong ones in active phase of pulsed layer are moving over the speed of sound limit within gas-disperse system. The peculiarity of strong wave is that parameters of system (pressure, density and others are changing in discrete steps.The article describes the regime of layer’s falling down in the passive stage of cycle, which begins after finishing of gas impulse action. And suspension layer of moving up granular material is transferred in the state of falling resulting in change of the layer structure.

  13. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  14. Neutron-gamma discrimination based on pulse shape discrimination in a Ce:LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Atsushi, E-mail: a-yamazaki@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi; Uritani, Akira [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corporation (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa [Tokuyama Corporation (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate neutron-gamma discrimination based on a pulse shape discrimination method in a Ce:LiCAF scintillator. We have tried neutron-gamma discrimination using a difference in the pulse shape or the decay time of the scintillation light pulse. The decay time is converted into the rise time through an integrating circuit. A {sup 252}Cf enclosed in a polyethylene container is used as the source of thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-rays. Obvious separation of neutron and gamma-ray events is achieved using the information of the rise time of the scintillation light pulse. In the separated neutron spectrum, the gamma-ray events are effectively suppressed with little loss of neutron events. The pulse shape discrimination is confirmed to be useful to detect neutrons with the Ce:LiCAF scintillator under an intense high-energy gamma-ray condition.

  15. Measurements of prompt fission neutron spectra and double-differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections for 238U and 232Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru; Itoh, Nobuo; Maeda, Kazuto; Hirakawa, Naohiro; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka.

    1989-10-01

    This report presents the summary of experimental studies of prompt fission neutron spectra and double-differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 238 U and 232 Th. The experiments were performed at Tohoku University Fast Neutron Laboratory employing a time-of-flight technique and Dynamitron accelerator as the pulsed neutron generator. From the experiments, we obtained the following data for both nuclei; 1. prompt fission neutron spectrum for 2 MeV neutrons, 2. double-differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections for 1.2, 2.0, 4.2, 6.1 and 14.1 MeV incident neutrons. Both in experiments and data processing, cares were taken to obtain reliable data by avoiding systematic uncertainty. The experimental data were compared with those by other experiments, evaluations and model calculations. Through the data comparison, some fundamental problems were found in the experiments by previous authors and the evaluations. The present data will provide useful data base for refinement of the evaluated data and theoretical models. (author)

  16. Pulse radiolysis of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-04-01

    The pulse radiolysis equipment and technique are described and its relevance to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. Pulse radiolysis of a number of different chemical systems have been used to check the validity of the proposed mechanisms: 1) The hydrogen atom yield in the pulse radiolysis of H 2 was measured by four independent calibration techniques, using reactions of H with O 2 , C1NO, and HI. The H atom yield was compared with O 2 yields in pure O 2 and in O 2 /SF 6 mixtures which lead to a value G(H) = 17.6. The rate constants at room temperature of several reactions were determined. 2) OH radical reactions with tetraalkyllead at room temperature and with ethane, methane, and a series of C1- and F-substituted methanes at 300-400 K were studied. Arrhenius parameters, A and Esub(a), were determined for several reactions. The lifetime of Pb(CH 3 ) 4 and Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 in ambient air is estimated. CF 2 C1 2 was found to be a very efficient third body, M, in the reaction OH + OH + M arrow H 2 O 2 + M. 3) In the H 2 S systems the HS extinction coefficient at 3242 AA was determined to 9.5 x 10 2 cm -1 mol -1 . Four rate constants at room temperature were determined. (author)

  17. Verification of threshold activation detection (TAD) technique in prompt fission neutron detection using scintillators containing 19F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibczynski, P.; Kownacki, J.; Moszyński, M.; Iwanowska-Hanke, J.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Gójska, A.; Gierlik, M.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Jakubowska, E.; Kędzierski, G.; Kujawiński, Ł.; Wojnarowicz, J.; Carrel, F.; Ledieu, M.; Lainé, F.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study ⌀ 5''× 3'' and ⌀ 2''× 2'' EJ-313 liquid fluorocarbon as well as ⌀ 2'' × 3'' BaF2 scintillators were exposed to neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source and a Sodern Genie 16GT deuterium-tritium (D+T) neutron generator. The scintillators responses to β- particles with maximum endpoint energy of 10.4 MeV from the n+19F reactions were studied. Response of a ⌀ 5'' × 3'' BC-408 plastic scintillator was also studied as a reference. The β- particles are the products of interaction of fast neutrons with 19F which is a component of the EJ-313 and BaF2 scintillators. The method of fast neutron detection via fluorine activation is already known as Threshold Activation Detection (TAD) and was proposed for photofission prompt neutron detection from fissionable and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in the field of Homeland Security and Border Monitoring. Measurements of the number of counts between 6.0 and 10.5 MeV with a 252Cf source showed that the relative neutron detection efficiency ratio, defined as epsilonBaF2 / epsilonEJ-313-5'', is 32.0% ± 2.3% and 44.6% ± 3.4% for front-on and side-on orientation of the BaF2, respectively. Moreover, the ⌀ 5'' EJ-313 and side-on oriented BaF2 were also exposed to neutrons from the D+T neutron generator, and the relative efficiency epsilonBaF2 / epsilonEJ-313-5'' was estimated to be 39.3%. Measurements of prompt photofission neutrons with the BaF2 detector by means of data acquisition after irradiation (out-of-beam) of nuclear material and between the beam pulses (beam-off) techniques were also conducted on the 9 MeV LINAC of the SAPHIR facility.

  18. Asymmetry of prompt photon production in polarized pp collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoro, G.P.; Zupan, M. [Institute of Nuclear Science ' Vinca' , Faculty of Physics University of Belgrade, (Yugoslavia); Tokarev, M.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    The prompt photon production in polarized pp collision at high energies is studied. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} of the process of calculated by using the Monte Carlo code Sphinx. A possibility to discriminate the spin-dependent gluon distributions and to determine the sign of {delta}G is discussed. A detailed study of the expected background, such as {pi}{sup 0} production and decay, is given. Predictions for the longitudinal asymmetry A{sub LL} of the prompt photons and {pi}{sup 0}-meson production in the polarized pp collisions at RHIC energies have been made.

  19. Asymmetry of prompt photon production in polarized pp collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoro, G.P.; Zupan, M.; Tokarev, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    The prompt photon production in polarized pp collision at high energies is studied. The double-spin asymmetry A LL of the process of calculated by using the Monte Carlo code SPHINX. A possibility to discriminate the spin-dependent gluon distributions and to determine the sign of ΔG id discussed. A detailed study of the expected background, such as π 0 production and decay, is given. Predictions for the longitudinal asymmetry A LL of the prompt photons and π 0 -meson production in the polarized pp collisions at RHIC energies have been made

  20. Development of multielement neutron-capture prompt γ-rays activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuren; Xie Yali; Zhao Yunzhi; Liu Jiping; Meng Bonian

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between content of the measured elements and area of typical peaks of prompt γ-rays is presented. The root-mean square errors on both the regression value of instrumentation analysis and chemical analysis for some common elements are lower than 0.5wt%. Function of the slowing body was found and analysis sensitivity was enhanced obviously in the iron ore analysis. The FWHM of the spectrometer for the H prompt γ-ray peak (2.223 MeV) is 3 keV

  1. Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple γ-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt γ-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the γ-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described. (author)

  2. Reduction of Compton background from hydrogen in prompt gamma-ray analysis by multiple photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Furutaka, K.; Hatsukawa, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy photons produced by the Compton scattering from hydrogen increase the background in the lower-energy region of the gamma-ray spectrum. This results in an increase in the detection limit for trace elements. In multiple photon detection prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA), only those elements that simultaneously emit two or more prompt gamma-rays, which have cascade relation and are emitted within a short interval, can be measured. Therefore, the influence of hydrogen can be reduced. In this study, standard polymer and food samples are measured. The hydrogen background is reduced in MPGA. (author)

  3. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, William A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Headley, Daniel I.; Ives, Harry C.; Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell; Leeper, Ramon J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Olson, Craig L.; Porter, John L.; Wagoner; Tim C.

    2010-03-16

    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  4. Foundations of pulsed power technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehr, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed power technologies could be an answer to many cutting-edge applications. The challenge is in how to develop this high-power/high-energy technology to fit current market demands of low-energy consuming applications. This book provides a comprehensive look at pulsed power technology and shows how it can be improved upon for the world of today and tomorrow. Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology focuses on the design and construction of the building blocks as well as their optimum assembly for synergetic high performance of the overall pulsed power system. Filled with numerous design examples throughout, the book offers chapter coverage on various subjects such as: Marx generators and Marx-like circuits; pulse transformers; pulse-forming lines; closing switches; opening switches; multi-gigawatt to multi-terawatt systems; energy storage in capacitor banks; electrical breakdown in gases; electrical breakdown in solids, liquids and vacuum; pulsed voltage and current measurements; electromagnetic interferen...

  5. Development of prompt gamma measurement system for in vivo proton beam range verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Hee

    2011-02-01

    In radiation therapy, most research has focused on reducing unnecessary radiation dose to normal tissues and critical organs around the target tumor volume. Proton therapy is considered to be one of the most promising radiation therapy methods with its physical characteristics in the dose distribution, delivering most of the dose just before protons come to rest at the so-named Bragg peak; that is, proton therapy allows for a very high radiation dose to the tumor volume, effectively sparing adjacent critical organs. However, the uncertainty in the location of the Bragg peak, coming from not only the uncertainty in the beam delivery system and the treatment planning method but also anatomical changes and organ motions of a patient, could be a critical problem in proton therapy. In spite of the importance of the in vivo dose verification to prevent the misapplication of the Bragg peak and to guarantee both successful treatment and patient safety, there is no practical methodology to monitor the in vivo dose distribution, only a few attempts have been made so far. The present dissertation suggests the prompt gamma measurement method for monitoring of the in vivo proton dose distribution during treatment. As a key part of the process of establishing the utility of this method, the verification of the clear relationship between the prompt gamma distribution and the proton dose distribution was accomplished by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. First, the physical properties of prompt gammas were investigated on the basis of cross-section data and Monte Carlo simulations. Prompt gammas are generated mainly from proton-induced nuclear interactions, and then emitted isotropically in less than 10 -9 sec at energies up to 10 MeV. Simulation results for the prompt gamma yield of the major elements of a human body show that within the optimal energy range of 4-10 MeV the highest number of prompt gammas is generated from oxygen, whereas over the

  6. Development of the pulse transformer for NLC klystron pulse modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemoto, M.; Gold, S.; Koontz, R.; Krasnykh, A.

    1997-05-01

    We have studied a conventional pulse transformer for the NLC klystron pulse modulator. The transformer has been analyzed using a simplified lumped circuit model. It is found that a fast rise time requires low leakage inductance and low distributed capacitance and can be realized by reducing the number of secondary turns, but it produces larger pulse droop and core size. After making a tradeoff among these parameters carefully, a conventional pulse transformer with a rise time of 250ns and pulse droop of 3.6% has been designed and built. The transmission characteristics and pulse time-response were measured. The data were compared with the model. The agreement with the model was good when the measured values were used in the model simulation. The results of the high voltage tests are also presented

  7. Pulse transformer R and D for NLC klystron pulse modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemoto, M.; Gold, S.; Krasnykh, A.; Koontz, R.

    1997-07-01

    The authors have studied a conventional pulse transformer for the NLC klystron pulse modulator. The transformer has been analyzed using a simplified lumped circuit model. It is found that a fast rise time requires low leakage inductance and low distributed capacitance and can be realized by reducing the number of secondary turns, but it produces larger pulse droop and requires a larger core size. After making a tradeoff among these parameters carefully, a conventional pulse transformer with a rise time of 250ns and a pulse droop of 3.6% has been designed and built. The transmission characteristics and pulse time-response were measured. The data were compared with the model. The agreement with the model was good when the measured values were used in the model simulation. The results of the high voltage tests using a klystron load are also presented

  8. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices Within an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.

  9. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  10. High current transistor pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs

  11. Prompt neutron energy spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Boykov, G.S.; Vitenko, V.A.

    1985-06-01

    The prompt neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 has been measured in 0.01-10 MeV region by the time-of-flight technique using a fast ionization chamber with U-235 layers as the neutron detector. Numerical data for the spectrum are presented, with an error file. (author)

  12. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  13. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Samantha J; Leland, Louis S

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin.

  14. Increasing awareness and prompting HIV testing: Contributions of Amsterdam HIV Testing Week 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Daas, C; Meddens, E M; van Bergen, Jeam; de Bree, G J; Hogewoning, A A; Brinkman, K; de Wit, Jbf

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated Amsterdam HIV Testing Week (HTW) 2016 regarding its primary goals of raising awareness and prompting HIV testing. Participating services offered free, anonymous HIV testing, with a focus on reaching men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with a non-western migration background.

  15. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  16. Databases for BaBar Datastream Calibrations and Prompt Reconstruction Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, John E

    1998-01-01

    We describe the design of databases used for performing datastream calibrations in the BABAR experiment, involving data accumulated on multiple processors and possibly over several blocks of events (''ConsBlocks''). The database for tracking the history and status of the ConsBlocks, along with similar databases needed by ''Prompt Reconstruction'' are also described

  17. Verbal Prompting, Hand-over-Hand Instruction, and Passive Observation in Teaching Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Fairhall, J. L.; Raven, K. A.; Davey, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving six children (ages 5-13) with mental retardation found that overall passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling in teaching skills, and that passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling with response-contingent verbal prompting. (Author/CR)

  18. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt TeV gamma rays from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 789-792. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt. TeV gamma rays from gamma ray bursts ... The origin of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events with ... are proton and electron rest mass, respectively.

  19. Assessment of Geant4 Prompt-Gamma Emission Yields in the Context of Proton Therapy Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marco; Dauvergne, Denis; Freud, Nicolas; Krimmer, Jochen; Létang, Jean M.; Testa, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo tools have been long used to assist the research and development of solutions for proton therapy monitoring. The present work focuses on the prompt-gamma emission yields by comparing experimental data with the outcomes of the current version of Geant4 using all applicable proton inelastic models. For the case in study and using the binary cascade model, it was found that Geant4 overestimates the prompt-gamma emission yields by 40.2 ± 0.3%, even though it predicts the prompt-gamma profile length of the experimental profile accurately. In addition, the default implementations of all proton inelastic models show an overestimation in the number of prompt gammas emitted. Finally, a set of built-in options and physically sound Geant4 source code changes have been tested in order to try to improve the discrepancy observed. A satisfactory agreement was found when using the QMD model with a wave packet width equal to 1.3 fm2. PMID:26858937

  20. Effects of Most to Least Prompting on Teaching Simple Progression Swimming Skill for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Yanardag, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Effects of most to least prompting on teaching simple progression swimming skill for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across subjects with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week with session three times a week period using the single…

  1. The effect of longitudinal conductance variations on the ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Spiro, R.; Fejer, B.

    Ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields of magnetospheric origin, together with the atmospheric disturbance dynamo, represent the most important parameters controlling the storm-time dynamics of the low and mid-latitude ionosphere. These prompt penetration fields result from the disruption of region-2 field-aligned shielding currents during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Penetration electric fields con- trol, to a large extent, the generation and development of equatorial spread-F plasma instabilities as well as other dynamic space weather phenomena in the ionosphere equatorward of the auroral zone. While modeling studies typically agree with average patterns of prompt penetration fields, experimental results suggest that longitudinal variations of the ionospheric con- ductivities play a non-negligible role in controlling spread-F phenomena, an effect that has not previously been modeled. We present first results of modeling prompt pene- tration electric fields using a version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that allows for longitudinal variations in the ionospheric conductance tensor. The RCM is a first- principles numerical ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling model that solves for the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle distributions in the ionosphere and inner/middle magnetosphere. We compare these new theoretical results with electric field observations.

  2. Group Representation of the Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S.; Miller, K. A. [Safeguards Science and Technology Group (N-1), Nuclear Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos(United States)

    2011-12-15

    We review the spectral representation used for the prompt fission neutron spectrum of 252Cf in the International Organization for Standardization document ISO 8529-1. We find corrections to Table A.2, the discrete group structure form, of this report are needed. We describe the approach to generating replacement values and provide a new tabulation.

  3. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading, transporting...

  4. Effects of Teaching Simultaneous Prompting through Visual Supports to Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batu, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of visual supports on teaching simultaneous prompting procedure to mothers to provide home-based instruction to their children with developmental disabilities. Three preschool-aged children with moderate developmental disabilities and their mothers were the participants. A multiple probe…

  5. 41 CFR 105-55.031 - Prompt referral to the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-55.031 Section 105-55.031 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Department of Justice. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will promptly refer to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in accordance...

  6. Prompt Referral in the Nonoperative Treatment of Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Joe Azzi, MD

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. The subgroup of newborns with an Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes shows improved long-term shoulder function when promptly examined by an OBPI clinic. We recommend a “fast-track” referral for this time-sensitive population.

  7. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-price architect-engineer contracts. 52.232-26 Section 52.232-26 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-26 Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts...-Engineer Contracts (OCT 2008) Notwithstanding any other payment terms in this contract, the Government will...

  8. A novel method to assay special nuclear materials by measuring prompt neutrons from polarized photofission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.M., E-mail: mueller@tunl.duke.edu [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahmed, M.W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A novel method of measuring the enrichment of special nuclear material is presented. Recent photofission measurements using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam were performed on samples of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239,240}Pu. Prompt neutron polarization asymmetries, defined to be the difference in the prompt neutron yields parallel and perpendicular to the plane of beam polarization divided by their sum, were measured. It was discovered that the prompt neutron polarization asymmetries differed significantly depending on the sample. Prompt neutrons from photofission of even–even (non-fissile) targets had significant polarization asymmetries (∼0.2 to 0.5), while those from odd-A (generally fissile) targets had polarization asymmetries close to zero. This difference in the polarization asymmetries could be exploited to measure the fissile versus non-fissile content of special nuclear materials, and potentially to detect the presence of fissile material during active interrogation. The proposed technique, its expected performance, and its potential applicability are discussed.

  9. The effects of practice schedule and critical thinking prompts on learning and transfer of complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). The effects of practice schedule and critical thinking prompts on learning and transfer of complex judgment task. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 383-398. doi:10.1037/a0022370

  10. Investigating the Effects of Prompts on Argumentation Style, Consensus and Perceived Efficacy in Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Owen M.; Hogan, Michael J.; Broome, Benjamin; Hall, Tony; Ryan, Cormac

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of task-level versus process-level prompts on levels of perceived and objective consensus, perceived efficacy, and argumentation style in the context of a computer-supported collaborative learning session using Interactive Management (IM), a computer facilitated thought and action mapping methodology. Four…

  11. Thirty-six Cases of Pseudobulbar Palsy Treated by Needling with Prompt and Deep Insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Pseudobulbar palsy refers to bulbar paralysis due to the upper motor neuron injury, which is one of the severe complications of cerebrovascular diseases.The author has treated 36 cases of the disease with acupuncture by a prompt and deep insertion technique, and achieved satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of prompt-gamma emission during carbon ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Foulher, F.; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Henriquet, P.; Ray, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M. [Universite de Lyon 1, F-69003 Lyon (France); IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J. M. [Laboratoire de Controles Non Destructifs Par Rayonnements Ionisants, INSA-Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Karkar, S. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Plescak, R.; Schardt, D. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 tool-kit (version 9.1) were performed to study the emission of secondary prompt gamma-rays produced by nuclear reactions during carbon ion-beam therapy. These simulations were performed along with an experimental program and instrumentation developments which aim at designing a prompt gamma-ray device for real-time control of hadron therapy. The objective of the present study is twofold: first, to present the features of the prompt gamma radiation in the case of carbon ion irradiation; secondly, to simulate the experimental setup and to compare measured and simulated counting rates corresponding to various experiments. For each experiment, we found that simulations overestimate prompt gamma-ray detection yields by a factor of 12. Uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections and binary cascade model cannot explain such discrepancies. The so-called 'photon evaporation' model is therefore questionable and its modification is currently in progress. (authors)

  13. Dose profile monitoring with carbon ions by means of prompt-gamma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Le Foulher, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J.M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire de Controle Non-Destructif par Rayonnements Ionisants (France); Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Testa, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-03-15

    A key point in the quality control of ion therapy is real-time monitoring and imaging of the dose delivered to the patient. Among the possible signals that can be used to make such a monitoring, prompt gamma-rays issued from nuclear fragmentation are possible candidates, provided the correlation between the emission profile and the primary beam range can be established. By means of simultaneous energy and time-of-flight discrimination, we could measure the longitudinal profile of the prompt gamma-rays emitted by 73 MeV/u carbon ions stopping inside a PMMA target. This technique allowed us to minimize the shielding against neutrons and scattered gamma rays, and to find a good correlation between the prompt-gamma profile and the ion range. This profile was studied as a function of the observation angle. By extrapolating our results to higher energies and realistic detection efficiencies, we showed that prompt gamma-ray measurements make it feasible to control in real time the longitudinal dose during ion therapy treatments.

  14. An evaluation of the spontaneous fission prompt neutron spectrum of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojkov, G.S.; Yurevich, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of the spontaneous fission prompt neutron spectrum of 252 Cf from 1 keV to 20 MeV is described. Variance-covariance matrices for a number of recent experimental data sets were constructed and used to evaluate the neutron spectrum following a Bayesian procedure. The evaluated spectrum is compared with various experimental and theoretical representations. (author)

  15. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  16. Iterative method for obtaining the prompt and delayed alpha-modes of the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Degweker, S.B.; Modak, R.S.; Singh, Kanchhi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A method for obtaining α-modes of the neutron diffusion equation has been developed. → The difference between the prompt and delayed modes is more pronounced for the higher modes. → Prompt and delayed modes differ more in reflector region. - Abstract: Higher modes of the neutron diffusion equation are required in some applications such as second order perturbation theory, and modal kinetics. In an earlier paper we had discussed a method for computing the α-modes of the diffusion equation. The discussion assumed that all neutrons are prompt. The present paper describes an extension of the method for finding the α-modes of diffusion equation with the inclusion of delayed neutrons. Such modes are particularly suitable for expanding the time dependent flux in a reactor for describing transients in a reactor. The method is illustrated by applying it to a three dimensional heavy water reactor model problem. The problem is solved in two and three neutron energy groups and with one and six delayed neutron groups. The results show that while the delayed α-modes are similar to λ-modes they are quite different from prompt modes. The difference gets progressively larger as we go to higher modes.

  17. Content-Free Computer Supports for Self-Explaining: Modifiable Typing Interface and Prompting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Liang, Hung-Ta

    2009-01-01

    Self-explaining, which asks students to generate explanations while reading a text, is a self-constructive activity and is helpful for students' learning. Studies have revealed that prompts by a human tutor promote students' self-explanations. However, most studies on self-explaining focus on spoken self-explanations. This study investigates the…

  18. Prompt-Type Frequency, Auditory Pattern Discrimination, and EFL Learners' Production of "WH"-Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; De Vleeschauwer, Jindarat

    2012-01-01

    Recently researchers have suggested that syntactic priming may facilitate the production of "wh"-questions with obligatory auxiliary verbs, particularly when learners are prompted to produce those questions with a wide variety of lexical items (McDonough & Kim, 2009; McDonough & Mackey, 2008). However, learners' ability to benefit from syntactic…

  19. Solar-geophysical data number 389. Part I. Prompt reports. Data for December 1976--November 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighton, H.

    1977-01-01

    This prompt report provides December 1976 and November 1976 data on alert periods, daily solar indices, solar flares, solar radio waves, solar wind measurements, solar x-ray radiation, coronal holes, and inferred IP magnetic field polarities for December. It also provides data on daily solar activity center, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar radio waves, cosmic rays, geomagnetic indices and radio propagation indices for November

  20. Real-Time Online Monitoring of the Ion Range by Means of Prompt Secondary Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Della Negra, R.; Deng, S.M.; Ley, J.L.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Richard, M.H.; Reithinger, V.; Roellinghoff, F.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y.; Baudot, J.; Winter, M.; Brons, S.; Chabot, M.; Force, P.; Joly, B.; Insa, C.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L.; Magne, M.; Montarou, G.; Freud, N.; Letang, J.M.; Lojacono, X.; Maxim, V.; Prostk, R.; Herault, J.; La Tessa, C.; Pleskac, R.; Vanstalle, M.; Parodi, K.; Prieels, D.; Smeets, J.; Rinaldi, I.

    2013-06-01

    Prompt secondary radiations such as gamma rays and protons can be used for ion-range monitoring during ion therapy either on an energy-slice basis or on a pencil-beam basis. We present a review of the ongoing activities in terms of detector developments, imaging, experimental and theoretical physics issues concerning the correlation between the physical dose and hadronic processes. (authors)

  1. Using Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Independent Living and Leisure Skills to Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, Chad A.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Luke, Jaye K.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of independent living and leisure skills enables adults to experience an enhanced quality of life by increasing competence, self-reliance, and the development of autonomy. This study examined the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting to teach behavior chains (i.e., independent living and leisure skills) to adults with SID…

  2. 77 FR 59139 - Prompt Corrective Action, Requirements for Insurance, and Promulgation of NCUA Rules and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... accounting principles and voluntary audits; prompt corrective action for new credit unions; and assistance... in assets accounted for only 18 percent of losses, although accounting for 222, or over 84 percent... to adhere to fundamental federalism principles. This proposed rule and IRPS would not have a...

  3. 12 CFR 220.113 - Necessity for prompt payment and delivery in special cash accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...). (b) It appears that in a typical case the supervisors of the retirement system meet only once or... accept delivery and pay for the securities before some date more than seven business days after the date... creditor (broker-dealer) in good faith” that the customer will “promptly make full cash payment for the...

  4. 12 CFR 702.203 - Prompt corrective action for “significantly undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the applicable procedures for issuing, reviewing and enforcing directives set forth in subpart L of... union pays on shares as provided in § 702.202(b)(3); (4) Prohibiting or reducing asset growth. Prohibit... share to such officer; (11) Other actions to carry out prompt corrective action. Restrict or require...

  5. Interactivity of Question Prompts and Feedback on Secondary Students' Science Knowledge Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shiuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how question prompts and feedback influenced knowledge acquisition and cognitive load when learning Newtonian mechanics within a web-based multimedia module. Participants were one hundred eighteen 9th grade students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, forming a 2 x 2 factorial design with the…

  6. The Effects of Student Question-Generation with Online Prompts on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Pan, Kuan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effects of student-question generation with online prompts on student academic achievement, question-generation performance, learning satisfaction and learning anxiety. This study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. Two classes of eighth grade students (N = 64) from one middle school…

  7. An assessment of prompt neutron reproduction time in a reflector dominated fast critical system: ELECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvdantsetseg, E.; Wallenius, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prompt neutron reproduction time of ELECTRA is evaluated. • Static and dynamic reproduction times are distinguished for ELECTRA. • Avery-Cohn’s two-region prompt neutron theory is applied. - Abstract: In this paper, an accurate method to evaluate the prompt neutron reproduction time for a reflector dominated fast critical reactor, ELECTRA, is discussed. To adequately handle the problem, explicit time dependent Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP, applying repeated time cut-off technique, are used and compared against the σ∼1/v time dependent absorber method, applying artificial cross-section data in the Monte Carlo code SERPENT. The results show that when a reflector plays a major role in criticality for fast neutron reactor, the two methods predict different physical parameters (Λ=69±2 ns and Λ=83±1 ns for time cut-off and the 1/v method respectively). The reason is explained by applying Avery-Cohn’s two-region prompt neutron model

  8. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Since advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  9. Use of prompt gamma emissions from polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyada, P.; Sarkar, P.K., E-mail: pradip.sarkar@manipal.edu

    2015-06-11

    The possibility of using measured prompt gamma emissions from polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent is explored theoretically. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out using the FLUKA code to calculate the response of a high density polyethylene cylinder to emit prompt gammas from interaction of neutrons with the nuclei of hydrogen and carbon present in polyethylene. The neutron energy dependent responses of hydrogen and carbon nuclei are combined appropriately to match the energy dependent neutron fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The proposed method is tested initially with simulated spectra and then validated using experimental measurements with an Am–Be neutron source. Experimental measurements and theoretical simulations have established the feasibility of estimating neutron ambient dose equivalent using measured neutron induced prompt gammas emitted from polyethylene with an overestimation of neutron dose at very low energies. - Highlights: • A new method for estimating H{sup ⁎}(10) using prompt gamma emissions from HDPE. • Linear combination of 2.2 MeV and 4.4 MeV gamma intensities approximates DCC (ICRP). • Feasibility of the method was established theoretically and experimentally. • The response of the present technique is very similar to that of the rem meters.

  10. Use of borated polyethylene to improve low energy response of a prompt gamma based neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyada, P.; Ashwini, U.; Sarkar, P.K., E-mail: pradip.sarkar@manipal.edu

    2016-05-21

    The feasibility of using a combined sample of borated polyethylene and normal polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent from measured prompt gamma emissions is investigated theoretically to demonstrate improvements in low energy neutron dose response compared to only polyethylene. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out using the FLUKA code to calculate the response of boron, hydrogen and carbon prompt gamma emissions to mono energetic neutrons. The weighted least square method is employed to arrive at the best linear combination of these responses that approximates the ICRP fluence to dose conversion coefficients well in the energy range of 10{sup −8} MeV to 14 MeV. The configuration of the combined system is optimized through FLUKA simulations. The proposed method is validated theoretically with five different workplace neutron spectra with satisfactory outcome. - Highlights: • An improved method is proposed for estimating H⁎(10) using prompt gamma emissions. • A combination of BHDPE and HDPE cylinders is used as a sample. • Linear combination of prompt gamma intensities approximates ICRP-DCC closely. • Feasibility of the method was tested theoretically using workplace neutron spectra.

  11. Prompt and delayed NAA techniques for the characterization of specimen bank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossbach, M; Stoeppler, M [Institute of Applied Physical Chemistry, IPC, Research Center Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Byrne, A R [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1994-07-01

    The combined application of instrumental-, radiochemical- and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis to two spruce shoot materials from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) resulted in information on 50 elements, covering more than 50% of the total mass. Comparison of the element concentrations in the 'fingerprint' mode clearly indicated a different status of heavy metal pollution at the two distinct collecting sites. (author)

  12. Prompt and delayed NAA techniques for the characterization of specimen bank materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.; Byrne, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The combined application of instrumental-, radiochemical- and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis to two spruce shoot materials from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) resulted in information on 50 elements, covering more than 50% of the total mass. Comparison of the element concentrations in the 'fingerprint' mode clearly indicated a different status of heavy metal pollution at the two distinct collecting sites. (author)

  13. Solicited versus Unsolicited Metacognitive Prompts for Fostering Mathematical Problem Solving Using Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarski, Bracha; Friedman, Sheli

    2014-01-01

    The study examined how student control over metacognitive prompts in a multimedia environment affects students' ability to solve mathematical problems in immediate comprehension tasks using a multimedia program and a delayed-transfer test. It also examined the effect on metacognitive discourse, mental effort, and engagement with multimedia-based…

  14. Using Video Modeling and Video Prompting to Teach Core Academic Content to Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Edwards, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners are constantly searching for evidence-based practices that are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). Video modeling (VM) and video prompting have become popular instructional interventions for many students across a wide range of different disability classifications, including those with…

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Prompting Instrument to Support Learning within the Diffusion Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seolim; Lara, Miguel; Enfield, Jake; Frick, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Conducting an iterative usability testing, a set of prompts used as a form of instructional support was developed in order to facilitate the comprehension of the diffusion of innovations theory (Rogers, 2003) in a simulation game called the Diffusion Simulation Game (DSG) (Molenda & Rice, 1979). The six subjects who participated in the study…

  16. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  17. Effects of Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction during Small Group Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin; Ulke-Kurkcuoglu, Burcu

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relation between simultaneous prompting (SP), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and the receptive identification of target pictures (presented on laptop computer) for four preschool students with developmental disabilities. The students' acquisition of nontarget information through observational learning also…

  18. Measurement of prompt fission gamma-ray spectra in fast neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborie, J.M.; Belier, G.; Taieb, J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of prompt fission gamma-ray emission has been of major interest in reactor physics for a few years. Since very few experimental spectra were ever published until now, new measurements would be also valuable to improve our understanding of the fission process. An experimental method is currently being developed to measure the prompt fission gamma-ray spectrum from some tens keV up to 10 MeV at least. The mean multiplicity and total energy could be deduced. In this method, the gamma-rays are measured with a bismuth germanate (BGO) detector which has the advantage to present a high P/T ratio and a high efficiency compared to other gamma-ray detectors. The prompt fission neutrons are rejected by the time of flight technique between the BGO detector and a fission trigger given by a fission chamber or a scintillating active target. Energy and efficiency calibration of the BGO detector were carried out up to 10.76 MeV by means of the Al-27(p, gamma) reaction. First prompt fission gamma-ray spectrum measurements performed for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 and for 1.7 and 15.6 MeV neutron-induced fission of U-238 at the CEA, DAM, DIF Van de Graaff accelerator, will be presented. (authors)

  19. Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Embed Core Content When Teaching a Potential Employment Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Belva C.; Terrell, Misty; Test, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to examine the effects of using a simultaneous prompting procedure to teach four secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities the employment task of caring for plants in a greenhouse. The instructor also embedded photosynthesis science content as nontargeted information…

  20. A novel method to assay special nuclear materials by measuring prompt neutrons from polarized photofission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.M.; Ahmed, M.W.; Weller, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of measuring the enrichment of special nuclear material is presented. Recent photofission measurements using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam were performed on samples of 232 Th, 233,235,238 U, 237 Np, and 239,240 Pu. Prompt neutron polarization asymmetries, defined to be the difference in the prompt neutron yields parallel and perpendicular to the plane of beam polarization divided by their sum, were measured. It was discovered that the prompt neutron polarization asymmetries differed significantly depending on the sample. Prompt neutrons from photofission of even–even (non-fissile) targets had significant polarization asymmetries (∼0.2 to 0.5), while those from odd-A (generally fissile) targets had polarization asymmetries close to zero. This difference in the polarization asymmetries could be exploited to measure the fissile versus non-fissile content of special nuclear materials, and potentially to detect the presence of fissile material during active interrogation. The proposed technique, its expected performance, and its potential applicability are discussed

  1. The Varied Circumstances Prompting Requests for Emergency Contraception at School-Based Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey; Harrison, Patricia A.; Amidon, Donna; Finnegan, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the circumstances that prompt teenagers to request emergency contraception (EC). This evaluation was designed to refine the EC clinical protocol and improve pregnancy prevention efforts in high school-based clinics by analyzing information on EC use and subsequent contraception use of EC patients. Methods: Sites…

  2. Some Consequences of Prompting Novice Physics Students to Construct Force Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Andrew F.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the extent to which prompting the construction of a force diagram affects student solutions to simple mechanics problems. A total of 891 university introductory physics students were given typical force and motion problems under one of the two conditions: when a force diagram was or was not…

  3. Versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adduci, D.J.

    1979-05-01

    A description of the sequence of events and the decisions leading to the design of a versatile pulse programmer for pulsed NMR are presented. Background and application information is discussed in order that the reader might better understand the role of the pulse programmer in a NMR spectrometer. Various other design approaches are presented as a basis for comparison. Specifications for this design are proposed, the hardware implementation of the specifications is discussed, and the software operating system is presented

  4. Versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adduci, D.J.

    1979-05-01

    A description of the sequence of events and the decisions leading to the design of a versatile pulse programmer for pulsed NMR are presented. Background and application information is discussed in order that the reader might better understand the role of the pulse programmer in a NMR spectrometer. Various other design approaches are presented as a basis for comparison. Specifications for this design are proposed, the hardware implementation of the specifications is discussed, and the software operating system is presented.

  5. Pulsed power for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review which traces the development of high power pulsed accelerators from the original inception at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England, for Bremsstrahlung output, through the low impedance accelerators, to the double-sided accelerators for fusion will be given. Proto II is presently being assembled at Sandia and preliminary testing on the Marx has been completed. Examples of various techniques will be shown from Sandia accelerators. Requirements for accelerators capable of achieving fusion levels will be developed and problem areas outlined. The diode insulator flashover problem presently limits the maximum current available from the accelerators

  6. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  7. Charge pulse preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libs, Gerard.

    1973-01-01

    A charge pulse preamplifier with very low background noise is described. The inlet stage of that preamplifier comprises a cooled field-effect transistor receiving the signal to be amplified at its gate input. Preferably, the charge resistor of said transistor is a field effect transistor, the source inlet of which is connected to the drain inlet of the former transistor through a self-induction coil and a resistor mounted in series. This can be applied to the treatment of the signals delivered by a particle detector in the form of a semi-conductor [fr

  8. Narrowband pulse-enhanced upconversion of chirped broadband pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Kun; Yuan, Peng; Zhong, Haizhe; Zhang, Dongfang; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia; Chen, Liezun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an efficient sum-frequency mixing scheme based on narrowband and chirped broadband pulses. It combines the advantages of wider spectral acceptance bandwidth and of alleviating the temporal walk-off, which are both beneficial to higher conversion efficiency. Chirped sum-frequency pulses at 455 nm with energy up to 360 µJ, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of ∼ 40%, are obtained and the pulses can be compressed to ∼ 110 fs. The sum-frequency mixing scheme may provide a promising route to the efficient generation of deep-ultraviolet femtosecond pulses

  9. Criticality experiments: analysis, evaluation, and programs. 8. Prompt Neutron Decay Constants in Uranium Diluted with Matrix Material Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene; Loaiza, David; Brunson, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed on uranium diluted with matrix material systems to determine the prompt neutron decay constants. These constants represent an eigenvalue characteristic of these particular critical assemblies, which can be experimentally measured by the Rossi-Alpha or pulse neutron source techniques and calculated by a deterministic or Monte Carlo method. In the measurements presented in this paper, highly enriched foils diluted in various X/ 235 U ratios with polyethylene and SiO 2 , and polyethylene and aluminum were assembled to a high multiplication, and the prompt neutron decay constants were obtained by the Rossi-Alpha technique. The uranium diluted with matrix material experiments were fueled with highly enriched uranium foils. The average dimensions of the bare foils were 22.86 cm squared and 0.00762 cm thick. The foils were laminated with plastic sheets to reduce the amount of airborne contamination. Each foil weighed ∼70 g. The diluent material consisted of SiO 2 , or 6061 aluminum plates, which were embedded into polyethylene plates. The SiO 2 and aluminum plates were 22.86 cm square and 0.64 cm thick. The polyethylene plates were 39.12 cm square and 1.91 cm thick. Each polyethylene plate had a central recess whose dimensions were 22.86 cm by 22.86 cm by 0.64 cm deep and was used to accommodate the SiO 2 , or aluminum plates as well as the uranium foils. There were eight 39.12-cm-squared by 2.54-cm-thick high density polyethylene plates that form the top and bottom reflectors (four at the top and four at the bottom). Also, one of the polyethylene plates located in the center of the assembly had holes drilled in a radial direction to accommodate neutron detectors. Four 3 He detectors were placed in this plate. The 3 He detectors were 1.27 cm in diameter and ∼15 cm long. Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed at several subcritical separations for both experiments. The data were collected with a type I time analyzer (PATRM

  10. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, R. F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sakamoto, T. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); De Pasquale, M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury Road, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), 18008 Granada (Spain); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Sugita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Pozanenko, A. [Space Research Institute (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Nissinen, M. [Taurus Hill Observatory, Haerkaemaeentie 88, 79480 Kangaslampi (Finland); Sahu, D. K. [CREST, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Im, M. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ukwatta, T. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Andreev, M. [Terskol Branch of Institute of Astronomy of RAS, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic 361605 (Russian Federation); Klunko, E., E-mail: zwk@umich.edu, E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Lermontov St., 126a, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt γ-ray emission in proton therapy using a specific track length estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kanawati, W; Létang, J M; Sarrut, D; Freud, N; Dauvergne, D; Pinto, M; Testa, É

    2015-01-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) variance reduction technique is developed for prompt-γ emitters calculations in proton therapy. Prompt-γ emitted through nuclear fragmentation reactions and exiting the patient during proton therapy could play an important role to help monitoring the treatment. However, the estimation of the number and the energy of emitted prompt-γ per primary proton with MC simulations is a slow process. In order to estimate the local distribution of prompt-γ emission in a volume of interest for a given proton beam of the treatment plan, a MC variance reduction technique based on a specific track length estimator (TLE) has been developed. First an elemental database of prompt-γ emission spectra is established in the clinical energy range of incident protons for all elements in the composition of human tissues. This database of the prompt-γ spectra is built offline with high statistics. Regarding the implementation of the prompt-γ TLE MC tally, each proton deposits along its track the expectation of the prompt-γ spectra from the database according to the proton kinetic energy and the local material composition. A detailed statistical study shows that the relative efficiency mainly depends on the geometrical distribution of the track length. Benchmarking of the proposed prompt-γ TLE MC technique with respect to an analogous MC technique is carried out. A large relative efficiency gain is reported, ca. 10 5 . (paper)

  12. Characterization of high density SiPM non-linearity and energy resolution for prompt gamma imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Cozzi, G.; Ferri, A.; Fiorini, C.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.; Rucatti, D.; Zappalà, G.; Zorzi, N.; Gola, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) (Trento, Italy) has recently introduced High Density (HD) and Ultra High-Density (UHD) SiPMs, featuring very small micro-cell pitch. The high cell density is a very important factor to improve the linearity of the SiPM in high-dynamic-range applications, such as the scintillation light readout in high-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy and in prompt gamma imaging for proton therapy. The energy resolution at high energies is a trade-off between the excess noise factor caused by the non-linearity of the SiPM and the photon detection efficiency of the detector. To study these effects, we developed a new setup that simulates the LYSO light emission in response to gamma photons up to 30 MeV, using a pulsed light source. We measured the non-linearity and energy resolution vs. energy of the FBK RGB-HD e RGB-UHD SiPM technologies. We considered five different cell sizes, ranging from 10 μm up to 25 μm. With the UHD technology we were able to observe a remarkable reduction of the SiPM non-linearity, less than 5% at 5 MeV with 10 μm cells, which should be compared to a non-linearity of 50% with 25 μm-cell HD-SiPMs. With the same setup, we also measured the different components of the energy resolution (intrinsic, statistical, detector and electronic noise) vs. cell size, over-voltage and energy and we separated the different sources of excess noise factor.

  13. Supercoherent phenomena in pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter proposes the formulation of programs of basic physics research to transform Pulsed Power Technology (PPT) to Pulsed Power Science and Technology (PPS and T) by formulating the laws of the quantized microscopic electromagnetic field; applying the microscopic electromagnetic field theory to the generation, propagation and deposition of pulses in nonlinear networks; learning more about the basic super coherent ''micro-structure'' in space and time of the many-photon states of pulsed laser beams; learning more about the basic super coherent ''micro-structure'' in space and time of the many-electronstates of pulsed electron and ion laser beams; and learning everything about the ''micro-picture'' of so-called ''dielectric breakdown'' and the associated absolute time delays. Promotes the idea that laser, electron and ion beams are similar kinds of pulses in the microscopic electromagnetic field. Presents expression for the microscopic electromagnetic field in order to show the role of supercoherence in PPS and T

  14. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  15. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  16. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  17. Pulsed neutron sources at KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, I.M.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Craddock, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed KAON Factory facility at TRIUMF consists of a number of synchrotrons and storage rings which offer proton beams of energies between 0.45 and 30 GeV with varying pulse amplitudes, widths and repetition rates. Various possibilities for feeding these beams to a pulsed neutron facility and their potential for future development are examined. The incremental cost of such a pulsed neutron facility is estimated approximately. (author)

  18. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  19. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  20. Partial neutron capture cross sections of actinides using cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genreith, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237 Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241 Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242 Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237 Np was observed at an energy of E γ =182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σ γ =22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241 Am and of 242 Pu were observed at E γ =154.72(7) keV with σ γ =72.80(252) b and E γ =287.69(8) keV with σ γ =7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was

  1. Information and communication technology based prompting for treatment compliance for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Kaisa; Välimäki, Maritta; Hätönen, Heli M; Kuosmanen, Lauri M; Warwick-Smith, Katja; Adams, Clive E

    2014-06-17

    Non-compliance is a significant problem among people with serious mental disorders, presenting a challenge for mental health professionals. Prompts such as telephone calls, visits, and a posted referral letter to patients are currently used to encourage patient attendance at clinics and/or compliance with medication. More recently, the use of information and communication technology (ICT)-based prompting methods have increased. Methods include mobile text message (SMS - short message service), e-mail or use of any other electronic device with the stated purpose of encouraging compliance. To investigate the effects of ICT-based prompting to support treatment compliance in people with serious mental illness compared with standard care. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (31(st) May 2011 and 9(th) July 2012) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. Also, we inspected references of all identified studies for further trials and contacted authors of trials for additional information. Relevant randomised controlled trials involving adults with serious mental illness, comparing any ICT-based prompt or combination of prompts by automatic or semi-automatic system compared with standard care. Review authors reliably assessed trial quality and extracted data. We calculated risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a fixed-effect model. For continuous outcomes, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups, again with 95% confidence intervals. A 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE was created, and we assessed included studies for risk of bias. The search identified 35 references, with 25 studies, but we could only include two studies with a total of 358 participants. The studies had a moderate risk of bias, and therefore risk overestimating any positive effects of ICT-based prompting. Both included studies compared semi-automatised ICT

  2. Prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ suppression at high transverse momentum in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Álvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Ambroz, Luca; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amrouche, Cherifa Sabrina; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Anthony, Matthew; Antonelli, Mario; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asimakopoulou, Eleni Myrto; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Bailey, Adam; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barbe, William Mickael; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnea, Rotem; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batlamous, Souad; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behera, Arabinda; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Biswal, Jyoti Prakash; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brahimi, Nihal; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Brickwedde, Bernard; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabras, Grazia; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Calvetti, Milene; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Cao, Yumeng; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, David; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yu-Heng; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgeniya; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, I-huan; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioară, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coimbra, Artur Emanuel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, François; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Crane, Jonathan; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nick; Danninger, Matthias; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dartsi, Olympia; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Dias do Vale, Tiago; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyer, Timo; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dülsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Faisca Rodrigues Pereira, Rui Miguel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falke, Peter Johannes; Falke, Saskia; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feickert, Matthew; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores, Lucas Macrorie; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gadow, Philipp; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gamboa Goni, Rodrigo; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Guo, Ziyu; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Hönle, Andreas; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hayes, Christopher; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heath, Matthew Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heilman, Jesse; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellesund, Simen; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horn, Philipp; Horton, Arthur James; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huebner, Michael; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Igonkina, Olga; Iguchi, Ryunosuke; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivina, Anna; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jacka, Petr; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jäkel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeong, Jihyun; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Morales, Fabricio Andres; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Junggeburth, Johannes Josef; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Jörn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liem, Sebastian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Little, Jared David; Liu, Bingxuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Peilian; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lou, Xuanhong; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lozano Bahilo, Jose Julio; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Luise, Ilaria; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McKay, Madalyn; McLean, Kayla; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Mdhluli, Joyful Elma; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murin, Pavel; Murray, Bill; Murrone, Alessia; Muškinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Napolitano, Fabrizio; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen, Hoang Dai Nghia; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nibigira, Emery; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novak, Tadej; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Yuta; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parida, Bibhuti; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pasuwan, Patrawan; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pathak, Atanu; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; 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Polychronakos, Venetios; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Powell, Thomas Dennis; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Qureshi, Anum; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravina, Baptiste; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivera Vergara, Juan Cristobal; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodríguez Vera, Ana María; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Röhrig, Rainer; Roland, Christophe Pol A; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossini, Lorenzo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Sabatini, Paolo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakharov, Alexander; Salamani, Dalila; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; 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Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillaci, Zachary Michael; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Sebastiani, Cristiano David; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shahinian, Jeffrey David; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Abhishek; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silva Jr, Manuel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sopkova, Filomena; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, Ahmed; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarna, Grigore; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Tee, Amy Selvi; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Tosciri, Cecilia; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Trovato, Fabrizio; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsai, Fang-ying; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tzovara, Eftychia; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; 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Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zgubič, Miha; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Heling; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zhulanov, Vladimir; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zoch, Knut; Zorbas, Theodore Georgio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ production is presented. It is based on a data sample from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV and $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2015, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.42 nb$^{-1}$ and 25 pb$^{-1}$ in Pb+Pb and $pp$, respectively. The measurements of per-event yields, nuclear modification factors, and non-prompt fractions are performed in the dimuon decay channel for $9 < p_{T}^{\\mu\\mu} < 40$ GeV in dimuon transverse momentum, and $-2.0 < y_{\\mu\\mu} < 2.0$ in rapidity. Strong suppression is found in Pb+Pb collisions for both prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$, as well as for prompt and non-prompt $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$, increasing with event centrality. The suppression of prompt $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ is observed to be stronger than that of $J/\\psi$, while the suppression of non-prompt $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ is equal to that of the non-prompt $J/\\psi$ within uncertainties,...

  3. Prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ elliptic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\text{NN}}=5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The elliptic flow of prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ was measured in the dimuon decay channel in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\text{NN}}=5.02$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of 0.42 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ with ATLAS at the LHC. The prompt and non-prompt signals are separated using a two-dimensional simultaneous fit of the invariant mass and pseudo-proper time of the dimuon system from the \\jpsi decay. The measurement is performed in the kinematic range $9prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ mesons have non-zero elliptic flow. Prompt $J/\\psi$ $v_2$ decreases as a function of $p_\\mathrm{T}$, while non-prompt $J/\\psi$ $v_2$ is flat over the studied kinematical region. There is no observed dependence on rapidity or centrality.

  4. Prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ suppression at high transverse momentum in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS experiment arXiv

    CERN Document Server

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De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Dias do Vale, Tiago; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyer, Timo; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dülsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Faisca Rodrigues Pereira, Rui Miguel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falke, Peter Johannes; Falke, Saskia; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feickert, Matthew; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores, Lucas Macrorie; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gadow, Philipp; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gamboa Goni, Rodrigo; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Guo, Ziyu; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Hönle, Andreas; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hayes, Christopher; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heath, Matthew Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heilman, Jesse; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellesund, Simen; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horn, Philipp; Horton, Arthur James; Horyn, Lesya Anna; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huebner, Michael; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Igonkina, Olga; Iguchi, Ryunosuke; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivina, Anna; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jacka, Petr; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jäkel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeong, Jihyun; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Morales, Fabricio Andres; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Junggeburth, Johannes Josef; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Jörn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liem, Sebastian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Little, Jared David; Liu, Bingxuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Peilian; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lou, Xuanhong; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lozano Bahilo, Jose Julio; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Luise, Ilaria; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McKay, Madalyn; McLean, Kayla; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Mdhluli, Joyful Elma; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murin, Pavel; Murray, Bill; Murrone, Alessia; Muškinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Napolitano, Fabrizio; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen, Hoang Dai Nghia; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nibigira, Emery; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novak, Tadej; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Yuta; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parida, Bibhuti; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pasuwan, Patrawan; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pathak, Atanu; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Pereira Peixoto, Ana Paula; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Pham, Thu; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pitt, Michael; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Powell, Thomas Dennis; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Qureshi, Anum; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravina, Baptiste; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivera Vergara, Juan Cristobal; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodríguez Vera, Ana María; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Röhrig, Rainer; Roland, Christophe Pol A; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossini, Lorenzo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Sabatini, Paolo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakharov, Alexander; Salamani, Dalila; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawada, Ryu; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharmberg, Nicolas; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillaci, Zachary Michael; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Sebastiani, Cristiano David; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shahinian, Jeffrey David; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Abhishek; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silva Jr, Manuel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sopkova, Filomena; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, Ahmed; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarna, Grigore; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Tee, Amy Selvi; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Tosciri, Cecilia; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Trovato, Fabrizio; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsai, Fang-ying; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tzovara, Eftychia; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Loïc; Vallance, Robert Adam; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Vecchio, Valentina; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von Buddenbrock, Stefan; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Peilong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rongkun; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Christian; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Hanlin; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi-lin; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zgubič, Miha; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Heling; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zhulanov, Vladimir; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zoch, Knut; Zorbas, Theodore Georgio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    A measurement of $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ production is presented. It is based on a data sample from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV and $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2015, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $0.42\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$ and $25\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$ in Pb+Pb and $pp$, respectively. The measurements of per-event yields, nuclear modification factors, and non-prompt fractions are performed in the dimuon decay channel for $9 < p_{T}^{\\mu\\mu} < 40$ GeV in dimuon transverse momentum, and $-2.0 < y_{\\mu\\mu} < 2.0$ in rapidity. Strong suppression is found in Pb+Pb collisions for both prompt and non-prompt $J/\\psi$, as well as for prompt and non-prompt $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$, increasing with event centrality. The suppression of prompt $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ is observed to be stronger than that of $J/\\psi$, while the suppression of non-prompt $\\psi(2\\mathrm{S})$ is equal to that of the non-prompt $J/\\psi$ withi...

  5. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PROBING-PROMPTING BERBANTUAN LEMBAR KERJA BERSTRUKTUR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Diasputri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran Probing-Prompting Berbantuan Lembar Kerja Berstruktur terhadap hasil be/ajar siswa di suatu sekolah pada materi Hidrokarbon dan Minyak Bumi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik Purposive Sampling. Pada kelas eksperimen digunakan model pembelajaran probing-prompting berbantuan lembar kerja berstruktur, sedangkan kelas kontrol menggunakan metode konvesional. Setelah diberi perlakuan yang berbeda dan dilakukan post test dapat diketahui bahwa hasil be/ajar siswa kelas ekperimen lebih baik dibandingkan hasil be/ajar siswa kelas kontrol, yaitu masing-masing 77 dan 70. Berdasarkan uji perbedaan rata-rata hasil be/ajar, diperoleh thitung(4,074> trabe1(1,669, maka dapat dikatakan bahwa rata-rata hasil be/ajar kelompok eksperimen lebih baik dari kelompok kontrol. Pada uji ketuntasan be/ajar, persentase ketuntasan kelas eksperimen mencapai 91, 18% dan kelas kontrol mencapai 59,38%. Uji korelasi memperoleh harga koefisien biserial sebesar 0,5638. Dari seluruh hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa model pembelajaran probing-prompting berbantuan LKB berpengaruh terhadap hasil be/ajar siswa pada materi pokok Hidrokarbon dan Minyak bumi dengan memberikan kontribusi sebesar 32%.This study aimed to know the influence of the use of a learning model Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet on learning outcomes in an high school especially in the Hydrocarbon and Petroleum. Sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique. In the experimental class, learning used Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet, while in classroom control used conventional methods. After being given a different treatment and after post test was done, it can be concluded that students' learning outcomes in class experiment is better than the control class, respectively 77 and 70. Based on the analysis of difference average learning outcomes, it obtained fcounr

  6. New MR pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.E.; Flamig, D.P.; Griffey, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method for fat suppression for three-dimensional MR imaging. The FATS (fat-suppressed acquisition with echo time shortened) sequence employs a pair of opposing adiabatic half-passage RF pulses tuned on fat resonance. The imaging parameters are as follows: TR, 20 msec; TE, 21.7-3.2 msec; 1,024 x 128 x 128 acquired matrix; imaging time, approximately 11 minutes. A series of 54 examinations were performed. Excellent fat suppression with water excitation is achieved in all cases. The orbital images demonstrate superior resolution of small orbital lesions. The high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in cranial studies demonstrates excellent petrous bone and internal auditory canal anatomy

  7. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  8. Pulsed Compression Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestenberg, T. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-06-07

    The advantages of the Pulsed Compression Reactor (PCR) over the internal combustion engine-type chemical reactors are briefly discussed. Over the last four years a project concerning the fundamentals of the PCR technology has been performed by the University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands. In order to assess the feasibility of the application of the PCR principle for the conversion methane to syngas, several fundamental questions needed to be answered. Two important questions that relate to the applicability of the PCR for any process are: how large is the heat transfer rate from a rapidly compressed and expanded volume of gas, and how does this heat transfer rate compare to energy contained in the compressed gas? And: can stable operation with a completely free piston as it is intended with the PCR be achieved?.

  9. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-02-09

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  10. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  11. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  12. Measurement of the quark to photon fragmentation function through the inclusive production of prompt photons in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J R; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, S; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, I J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, F; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R J; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, M; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D; Kartvelishvili, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, M J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, A; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Plinks, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, o B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, a N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    The inclusive production of prompt photons with energy above 10 GeV is measured using the OPAL detector in hadronic Z^0 decays at LEP. In contrast to previous measurements, the prompt photons were not required to be isolated. The production rate and energy spectrum are found to be in agreement with QCD predictions for the quark-to-photon fragmentation function.

  13. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  14. Teaching Daily Living Skills to Seven Individuals with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison of Video Prompting to Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Fleming, Courtney; Chung, Yi-Cheih; Wheeler, Geoffrey M.; Basbagill, Abby R.; Singh, Angella H.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic replication of Cannella-Malone et al. by comparing the effects of video prompting to video modeling for teaching seven students with severe disabilities to do laundry and wash dishes. The video prompting and video modeling procedures were counterbalanced across tasks and participants and compared in an alternating…

  15. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  16. Investigating the Effects of Prompt Characteristics on the Comparability of TOEFL iBT™ Integrated Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeonsuk; Rijmen, Frank; Novák, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of prompt characteristics on the averages of all scores given to test taker responses on the TOEFL iBT[TM] integrated Read-Listen-Write (RLW) writing tasks for multiple administrations from 2005 to 2009. In the context of TOEFL iBT RLW tasks, the prompt consists of a reading passage and a lecture. To understand…

  17. Matrix effects in the determination of phosphorus and sodium by proton-induced prompt gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, C.; Morland, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    By measuring the yield of prompt gamma rays, induced by accelerated charged particles, the ratio of the ranges in sample and standard can be used in the average cross-section method to determine elemental or isotopic compositions. By spiking the sample with a known amount of a compound containing a non-analyte element (absent in the sample), the appropriate range in the sample can be determined by measuring the prompt gamma rays induced in the non-analyte spike. With lithium compounds as the non-analyte spike, sodium and phosphorus were determined in ivory. The method was tested by analysing the standard reference materials SRM 91, SRM 120c, and SRM 694. 2 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs

  18. Analysis of cadmium in food by multiple prompt γ-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Koizumi, M.; Osa, A.; Kimura, A.; Goto, J.; Hatsukawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Cd concentration in food is a public concern related to the human health. In order to remove Cd-polluted food, the development and validation of a rapid and sensitive method of Cd analysis is required. By applying the multiple γ-ray detection method to prompt γ-ray analysis (PGA), the influence from nuclei which emit only one prompt γ-ray at a time at every neutron capture reaction can be reduced, therefore the quantification limit of Cd is improved significantly. The limit of Cd contained in rice in the case of MPGA was evaluated, and under our proposed experimental conditions, it may be possible to quantify Cd content in rice to within 0.2 ppm in 10 min

  19. Clinical Efficacy of Proton Pump Inhibitor versus Prompt Endoscopy for Management of People with Dyspepsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans Christian; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Bo

      Title:   Clinical Efficacy of Proton Pump Inhibitor versus Prompt Endoscopy for Management of People with Dyspepsia: A Randomized Clinical Trial in General Practice.     Purpose: To compare the clinical efficacy of two strategies for management of dyspepsia in general practice in a RCT design.......   Setting: June 2000 to August 2002, 41 GPs, Aarhus County, Denmark   Methods: 368 people with dyspepsia (epigastric pain/discomfort, no alarm symptoms) were randomly assigned to treatment with omeprazol 40 mg/day for two weeks (PPI group, n:185) or endoscopy (endoscopy group, n:183). Due to migration......, dyspeptic contacts to GP or patients' satisfaction. Conclusions: Prompt endoscopy was superior to proton pump inhibitor concerning symptom improvement in management of dyspepsia in general practice when pain/discomfort was the primary symptom. There were no differences between the two strategies in respect...

  20. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madland, D.G., E-mail: dgm@lanl.gov; Kahler, A.C.

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a number of refinements to the original Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum and average prompt neutron multiplicity as derived in 1982. The four refinements are due to new measurements of the spectrum and related fission observables many of which were not available in 1982. They are also due to a number of detailed studies and comparisons of the model with previous and present experimental results including not only the differential spectrum, but also integral cross sections measured in the field of the differential spectrum. The four refinements are (a) separate neutron contributions in binary fission, (b) departure from statistical equilibrium at scission, (c) fission-fragment nuclear level-density models, and (d) center-of-mass anisotropy. With these refinements, for the first time, good agreement has been obtained for both differential and integral measurements using the same Los Alamos model spectrum.

  1. Prompt-delayed γ-ray spectroscopy with AGATA, EXOGAM and VAMOS++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H. [GANIL, CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Clement, E.; France, G. de; Goupil, J.; Jacquot, B.; Li, H.J.; Menager, L.; Morel, V.; Ropert, J.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL, CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Biswas, S.; Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Mumbai (India); Stefan, I. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Banik, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Bednarczyk, P.; Maj, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Krakow (Poland); Crawford, H.L.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ljungvall, J. [CSNSM, Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Perez-Vidal, R.M. [IFIC, Universitat de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-08-15

    A new experimental setup to measure prompt-delayed γ-ray coincidences from isotopically identified fission fragments, over a wide time range of 100 ns-200 μs, is presented. The fission fragments were isotopically identified, on an event-by-event basis, using the VAMOS++ large acceptance spectrometer. The prompt γ rays emitted at the target position and corresponding delayed γ rays emitted at the focal plane of the spectrometer were detected using, respectively, thirty two crystals of the AGATA γ-ray tracking array and seven EXOGAM HPGe Clover detectors. Fission fragments produced in fusion and transfer-induced fission reactions, using a {sup 238}U beam at an energy of 6.2 MeV/u impinging on a {sup 9}Be target, were used to characterize and qualify the performance of the detection system. (orig.)

  2. Search of prompt electrons in the NA14 photoproduction experiment at the CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Bouard, G.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to isolate a prompt electron signal from the data of the NA14 photoproduction experiment at CERN. For that aim, a fast data filtering program has been developed. In order to have a good understanding of the electrons behaviour in the electromagnetic calorimeter, electrons from photon conversion were selected. The observation of events with a reconstructed psi and the sharing between the different psi production mechanism leads to a clear excess of the inelastic process relative to a QCD theoretical expectation. The prompt electrons measurement method, when applied to events obtained from a π - beam, does not give any evidence for a signal. With incident photons, a strong signal is seen which cannot been explained by the Bethe Heitler mechanism and psi production alone. This signal is stronger than the photon-gluon fusion model prediction [fr

  3. Photon structure and the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, M.

    1999-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to hard photoproduction processes at HERA, including the production of jets, hadrons, and prompt photons. Recent theoretical developments in the three areas are reviewed. In summary, hard photoproduction processes can provide very useful information on the hadronic structure of the photon, in particular on the gluon density, which is complimentary to the information coming from deep inelastic photon-photon scattering at electron-positron colliders. Among the different hadronic final states, jets are most easily accessible experimentally and phenomenologically. On the other hand, inclusive hadron production offers the possibility to test the universality of hadron fragmentation functions and measure the photon structure down to very low values of p T and x γ . Prompt photon production suffers from a reduced cross section and limited data, but allows for the additional testing of photon fragmentation functions

  4. Prompt neutron decay constant estimation of RSG-GAS at high power noise experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jujuratisbela, U.; Kristedjo; Tukiran; Pinem, S.; Iman, J.; Puryono; Sanjaya, A.; Suwarno

    1998-01-01

    The determination of prompt neutron decay constant (α) of RGS-GAS by using low power noise experiment method at the equilibrium core indicated that the result is not good. The bad result was due to the small ratio of the noise signal to background which was caused by low detector efficiency or contaminated core after long time operation. To solve the problem is tried by using noise experiment technique at high power. The voltage output of neutron detectors at power of 5, 12, and 23 MW were connected to preamplifier and filter then to the Dynamic Signal Analyzer Version-2 and then the power spectral density of each channel of JKT04 and JKT03, the cut off frequency of each channel can be determined by using linear regression technique such that the prompt neutron decay constant can be estimated

  5. The 235U Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum in the BR1 Reactor at SCK•CEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Jan; Malambu, Edouard; Borms, Luc; Fiorito, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The BR1 research reactor at SCK•CEN has a spherical cavity in the graphite above the reactor core. In this cavity an accurately characterised Maxwellian thermal neutron field is present. Different converters can be loaded in the cavity in order to obtain other types of neutron (and gamma) irradiation fields. Inside the so-called MARK III converter a fast 235U(n,f) prompt fission neutron field can be obtained. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly related to the pure 235U(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectrum. For this purpose MARK III spectrum averaged cross sections for the most relevant fluence dosimetry reactions have been determined. A calibration factor for absolute measurements has been determined applying activation dosimetry following ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

  6. The 235U Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum in the BR1 Reactor at SCK•CEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagemans Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BR1 research reactor at SCK•CEN has a spherical cavity in the graphite above the reactor core. In this cavity an accurately characterised Maxwellian thermal neutron field is present. Different converters can be loaded in the cavity in order to obtain other types of neutron (and gamma irradiation fields. Inside the so-called MARK III converter a fast 235U(n,f prompt fission neutron field can be obtained. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly related to the pure 235U(n,f prompt fission neutron spectrum. For this purpose MARK III spectrum averaged cross sections for the most relevant fluence dosimetry reactions have been determined. A calibration factor for absolute measurements has been determined applying activation dosimetry following ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

  7. Analysis of prompt supercritical process with heat transfer and temperature feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU BO; ZHU Qian; CHEN Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    The prompt supercritical process of a nuclear reactor with temperature feedback and initial power as well as heat transfer with a big step reactivity (ρ0>β) is analyzed in this paper.Considering the effect of heat transfer on temperature of the reactor,a new model is set up.For any initial power,the variations of output power and reactivity with time are obtained by numerical method.The effects of the big inserted step reactivity and initial power on the prompt supercritical process are analyzed and discussed.It was found that the effect of heat transfer on the output power and reactivity can be neglected under any initial power,and the output power obtained by the adiabatic model is basically in accordance with that by the model of this paper,and the analytical solution can be adopted.The results provide a theoretical base for safety analysis and operation management of a power reactor.

  8. A Study of Online Review Promptness in a B2C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 technologies have attracted an increasing number of active online writers and viewers. A deeper understanding of when customers will review and what motivates them to write online reviews is of both theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, we present a novel methodological framework, which consists of theoretical modeling and text-mining technologies, to study the relationships among customers’ review promptness, their review opinions, and their review motivations. We first study customers’ online “purchase-review” behavior dynamics; then, we introduce the LDA method to mine customers’ opinion from their review text; finally, we propose a theoretical model to explore some motivations for those people publishing review online. The analytical and experimental results with real data from a Chinese B2C website demonstrate that the behavior dynamics of customers’ online review are influenced by the multidimensional motivations, and some of them can be observed from their review behaviors, such as review promptness.

  9. First complete study of hadroproduction of a $\\Upsilon$ meson associated with a prompt $J/\\psi$

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2016-08-05

    We present the first complete study of $\\Upsilon$ and prompt $J/\\psi$ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_S^6)$ color-singlet contribution, the $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_S^2\\alpha^2)$ electroweak contribution, the complete non-relativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study motivated by the recent evidence reported by D0 collaboration of prompt $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double parton scattering contribution made by D0. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is $\\sigma_{\\rm eff}\\le 8.2$ mb at $68\\%$ confidence level from D0 measurement.

  10. Source Correlated Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis for Material Identification and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Bonnie; McConchie, Seth; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the energy spectrum of photon signatures from an associated particle imaging deuterium tritium (API-DT) neutron generator interrogating shielded uranium. The goal is to investigate if signatures within the energy spectrum could be used to indirectly characterize shielded uranium when the neutron signature is attenuated. By utilizing the correlated neutron cone associated with each pixel of the API-DT neutron generator, certain materials can be identified and located via source correlated spectrometry of prompt neutron activation gamma rays. An investigation is done to determine if fission neutrons induce a significant enough signature within the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray energy spectrum in shielding material to be useful for indirect nuclear material characterization. The signature deriving from the induced fission neutrons interacting with the shielding material was slightly elevated in polyethylene-shielding depleted uranium (DU), but was more evident in some characteristic peaks from the aluminum shielding surrounding DU.

  11. Prompt gamma-ray analysis of chlorine in superpozz cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Ur-Rehman, Khateeb [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-21

    The chlorine concentration in Superpozz (SPZ) cement concrete was analyzed using a newly designed prompt gamma-ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup utilizing a portable neutron generator. The setup, which mainly consists of a neutron source along with its moderator placed side by side with a shielded gamma-ray detector, allows determining chloride concentration in a concrete structure from one side. The setup has been tested through chlorine detection in chloride-contaminated Superpozz (SPZ) cement concrete specimens using 6.11 and 2.86{+-}3.10 MeV chlorine prompt gamma-rays. The optimum 0.032{+-}0.012 wt% value of Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SPZ cement concrete measured in this study shows a successful application of a portable neutron generator in chloride analysis of concrete structure for corrosion studies.

  12. Prompt ντ fluxes in present and future τ neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We use a nonperturbative QCD approach, the quark-gluon string model, to compute the τ-neutrino fluxes produced by fixed target pA collisions (where A is a target material) for incident protons of energies ranging from 120 to 800 GeV. The purpose of this calculation is to estimate in a consistent way the prompt background for the ν μ (ν e )↔ν τ oscillation search in the on-going ν μ (ν e )↔ν τ oscillation search experiments CHORUS and NOMAD, as well as the expected prompt background in future experiments, such as COSMOS at Fermilab and a possible second-generation ν μ (ν e )↔ν τ search experiment at the CERN SPS. In addition, we compute the number of ν τ interactions expected by the experiment E872 at Fermilab. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Search for promptly produced heavy quarkonium states in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Maocun, C; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    A search has been made for direct production of heavy quarkonium states in more than 3 million hadronic Z^{0} decays in the 1991-1994 DELPHI data. Prompt J/\\psi, \\psi(2S) and \\Upsilon candidates have been searched for through their leptonic decay modes using criteria based on the kinematics and decay vertex positions. New upper limits are set at the 90 \\% confidence level for {Br( Z^0 \\rightarrow \\left( Q \\bar{Q} \\right) X ) / Br( Z^0 \\rightarrow \\mbox{hadrons})} for various strong production mechanisms of J/\\psi and \\Upsilon; these range down to 0.9 \\times 10^{-4}. The limits are set in the presence of a small excess (\\sim 1 \\% statistical probability of a background fluctuation) in the sum of candidates from prompt J/\\psi, \\psi(2S), \\Upsilon(1S), \\Upsilon(2S) and \\Upsilon(3S) relative to the estimated background.

  14. Use of a Modified Chaining Procedure with Textual Prompts to Establish Intraverbal Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L; Conine, Daniel E; Delfs, Caitlin H; Furlow, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    Echoic, tact, and textual transfer procedures have been proven successful in establishing simple intraverbals (Braam and Poling Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 279-302, 1983; Luciano Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 102, 346-357, 1986; Watkins et al. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 7, 69-81, 1989). However, these strategies may be ineffective for some children due to the complexity of the targeted intraverbals. The current study investigated the use of a novel procedure which included a modified chaining procedure and textual prompts to establish intraverbal behavior in the form of telling short stories. Visual prompts and rule statements were used with some of the participants in order to produce the desired behavior change. Results indicated that the procedure was effective for teaching retelling of short stories in three children with autism.

  15. Prompt neutron decay constants and subcritical measurements for material control and accountability in SHEBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Jaegers, P.

    1998-01-01

    Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed on the SHEBA assembly to determine the prompt neutron decay constants. These prompt neutron decay constants represent an eigenvalue characteristic of this particular assembly, which can be used to infer the amount of fissile material in the assembly. In addition, subcritical measurements using Rossi-Alpha and the source-jerk techniques were also performed on the SHEBA assembly. These measurements were compared against TWODANT calculations and agreed quite well. The subcritical measurements were also used to obtain a unique signature that represented the amount of material associated with the degree of subcriticality of the SHEBA assembly. Finally, the Feynman variance-to-mean technique in conjunction with TWODANT, were used to determine the effective delayed neutron fraction for the SHEBA assembly

  16. Monte Carlo Latching Studies of Prompt-Gamma Detection During Hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, M P W; Ferrari, A; Ortega, P G; Sala, P R

    2014-01-01

    Proton and carbon therapies of a human brain were simulated using FLUKA, with particular emphasis on treatment monitoring using the prompt gamma method where activities of the source proton/carbon in the patient's body are to be extracted from the positional profile of exit photons. Tissue heterogeneity ranging from hydrogen to zinc was represented in a VIP-Man anthropomorphic voxel phantom. Each photon exiting the head was scored with ancestry attributes such as the particle type of its parent, the originating collision type and site. These data, not accessible via physical detectors, were analysed to characterise the escaping photons, delineating signal from noise according to the gamma origin and scatter history. Combinations of energy, geometry, time and angle filters, aided by raytracing, were studied for the optimal compromise between a sufficiently featured exit profile and a statistically adequate count. These will be put in context with ongoing research in the field; our perspective for the prompt ga...

  17. The Vulcan pulse generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, C.N.; Edwards, C.B.; Wyatt, R.W.W.

    1985-01-01

    During the past two years several changes have been made to the front end system on the VULCAN pulse generating system. These changes give greater flexibility and a wider choice of operating conditions. This note gives an updated description of the system capabilities, and gives users of the facility an idea of the various pulse combinations that are available. (author)

  18. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy; Bontemps, P.; Rikken, Geert L J A

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Progress in pulsed power fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintenz, J P; Adams, R G; Bailey, J E [Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    Pulsed power offers an efficient, high energy, economical source of x-rays for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. Two main approaches to ICF driven with pulsed power accelerators are pursued: intense light ion beams and z-pinches. Recent progress in each approach and plans for future development is described. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs.

  20. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A Single-Pulse Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1974-01-01

    A single-pulse integrator is described. It gives a relative measure of the integral of the output signal from a coil monitor on the Risø 10 MeV linear accelerator, and displays the value on a digital voltmeter. The reproduccibility is found to be better than ±1% for an accelerated pulse charge...

  2. Progress in pulsed power fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed power offers an efficient, high energy, economical source of x-rays for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. Two main approaches to ICF driven with pulsed power accelerators are pursued: intense light ion beams and z-pinches. Recent progress in each approach and plans for future development is described. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs

  3. Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    dominates the photon emission. During the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings , the prompt radiation contributed from 40% to 70% of the free-in-air dose...spectra for high-, intermediate- and low-yield thermonuclear weapons for initial radiation shielding calculations No Gritzner, et al. 1976 ( EM -1...Glasstone (Fission) Neutron Glasstone & Dolan 1977 7.760 x 1022 Terrell Neutron Glasstone & Dolan 1977 7.760 x 1022 DNA 4267F ( EM -1 Fission

  4. Detection of mixed-range proton pencil beams with a prompt gamma slit camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priegnitz, M; Helmbrecht, S; Fiedler, F; Janssens, G; Smeets, J; Vander Stappen, F; Perali, I; Sterpin, E

    2016-01-01

    With increasing availability of proton and particle therapy centers for tumor treatment, the need for in vivo range verification methods comes more into the focus. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during the treatment is one of the possibilities currently under investigation. A knife-edge shaped slit camera was recently proposed for this task and measurements proved the feasibility of range deviation detection in homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets. In the present paper, we concentrate on laterally inhomogeneous materials, which lead to range mixing situations when crossed by one pencil beam: different sections of the beam have different ranges. We chose exemplative cases from clinical irradiation and assembled idealized tissue equivalent targets. One-dimensional emission profiles were obtained by measuring the prompt gamma emission with the slit camera. It could be shown that the resulting range deviations can be detected by evaluation of the measured data with a previously developed range deviation detection algorithm. The retrieved value, however, strongly depends on the target composition, and is not necessarily in direct relation to the ranges of both parts of the beam. By combining the range deviation detection with an analysis of the slope of the distal edge of the measured prompt gamma profile, the origin of the detected range deviation, i.e. the mixed range of the beam, is also identified. It could be demonstrated that range mixed prompt gamma profiles exhibit less steep distal slopes than profiles from beams traversing laterally homogeneous material. For future application of the slit camera to patient irradiation with double scattered proton beams, situations similar to the range mixing cases are present and results could possibly apply. (paper)

  5. Determination of prompt neutron decay constant of the AP-600 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surbakti, T.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of prompt neutron decay constant of the AP-600 reactor core has been performed using combination of two codes WIMS/D4 and Batan-2DIFF. The calculation was done at beginning of cycle and all of control rods pulled out. Cell generation from various kinds of core materials was done with 4 neutron energy group in 1-D transport code (WIMS/D4). The cell is considered for 1/4 fuel assembly in cluster model with square pitch arrange and then, the dimension of its unit cell is calculated. The unit cell consist of a fuel and moderator unit. The unit cell dimension as input data of WIMS/D4 code, called it annulus, is obtained from the equivalent unit cell. Macroscopic cross sections as output was used as input on neutron diffusion code Batan-2DIFF for core calculation as appropriate with three enrichment regions of the fuel of AP-600 core, namely 2, 2.5, and 3%. From result of diffusion code ( Batan-2DIFF) is obtained the value of delayed neutron fraction of 6.932E-03 and average prompt neutron life-time of 26.38 μs, so that the value of prompt neutron decay constant is 262.8 s-1. If it is compared the calculation result with the design value, the deviation are, for the design value of delayed neutron fraction is 7.5E-03, about 8% and the design value of average prompt neutron life time is 19.6 μs, about 34% respectively. The deviation because there are still unknown several core components of AP-600, so it didn't include in calculation yet

  6. Design and construction of prompt-gamma spectroscopy facility applied to the boron determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, Victor; Henriquez, Carlos; Klein, Juan; Navarro, Gustavo

    1996-01-01

    A prompt-gamma spectroscopy facility was developed using the south tangential neutron beam of the RECH-1 research reactor for boron determination. The implementation of a thermal neutron beam was performed considering different aspects such as biological protection of working area and the beam collimation for a Ge detector, design and sample holder selection, standards and sample preparation. One ppm of Boron in different samples with counting-rate of 20 minutes and a good accuracy were determined. (author)

  7. Solar-geophysical data number 391. Part I. Prompt reports. Data for February 1977--January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1977-03-01

    This prompt report provides data for February 1977 on alert periods, daily solar indices, solar flares, solar radio waves, solar X-ray radiation, coronal holes, solar wind measurements, spacecraft observations, inferred IP magnetic field polarities and mean solar magnetic field. It also provides data for January 1977 on daily solar activity center, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar radio waves, cosmic rays, geomagnetic indices and radio propagation indices

  8. The study of prompt neutron spectra of 238U fission induced by fast neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Anli; Bai Xixiang; Wang Yufeng; Wang Xiaozhong; Men Jiangchen; Huang Shengnian

    1990-01-01

    The measurements of prompt neutron time-of-flight spectra of U fission induced by 11 MeV neutrons were carried out at HI-13 Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator Laboratory in 1989. The block diagram of the electronics is shown. A fission neutron TOF spectrum for the sixth section of the fission plates and the left detector at low bias is given. The data accumulation time is 60 h

  9. Prompts to disrupt sitting time and increase physical activity at work, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann M; Rote, Aubrianne E; Welch, Whitney A; Maeda, Hotaka; Hart, Teresa L; Cho, Young Ik; Strath, Scott J

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess change in sitting and physical activity behavior in response to a workplace intervention to disrupt prolonged sitting time. Sixty office workers were randomized to either a Stand group (n = 29), which received hourly prompts (computer-based and wrist-worn) to stand up, or a Step group (n = 31), which received the same hourly prompts and an additional prompt to walk 100 steps or more upon standing. An ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sitting and physical activity behavior on the same 3 consecutive workdays during baseline and intervention periods. Mixed-effect models with random intercepts and random slopes for time were performed to assess change between groups and across time. Both groups significantly reduced duration of average sitting bouts (Stand group, by 16%; Step group, by 19%) and the number of sitting bouts of 60 minutes or more (Step group, by 36%; Stand group, by 54%). The Stand group significantly reduced total sitting time (by 6.6%), duration of the longest sitting bout (by 29%), and number of sitting bouts of 30 minutes or more (by 13%) and increased the number of sit-to-stand transitions (by 15%) and standing time (by 23%). Stepping time significantly increased in the Stand (by 14%) and Step (by 29%) groups, but only the Step group significantly increased (by 35%) the number of steps per workday. Differences in changes from baseline to intervention between groups were not significant for any outcome. Interventions that focus on disrupting sitting time only in the workplace may result in less sitting. When sitting time disruptions are paired with a physical activity prompt, people may be more likely to increase their workday physical activity, but the effect on sitting time may be attenuated.

  10. Calculation of conventional and prompt lepton fluxes at very high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gaisser, Thomas K; Riehn, Felix; Stanev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating inclusive conventional and prompt atmospheric leptons fluxes is presented. The coupled cascade equations are solved numerically by formulating them as matrix equation. The presented approach is very flexible and allows the use of different hadronic interaction models, realistic parametrizations of the primary cosmic-ray flux and the Earth's atmosphere, and a detailed treatment of particle interactions and decays. The power of the developed method is illustrated by calculating lepton flux predictions for a number of different scenarios.

  11. To act or not to act: responses to electronic health record prompts by family medicine clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael; Schleicher, Lauren; Green, Lee; Kileny, Paul; Rapai, Mary; Mulhem, Elie

    2017-03-01

    A major focus of health care today is a strong emphasis on improving the health and quality of care for entire patient populations. One common approach utilizes electronic clinical alerts to prompt clinicians when certain interventions are due for individual patients being seen. However, these alerts have not been consistently effective, particularly for less visible (though important) conditions such as hearing loss (HL) screening. We conducted hour-long cognitive task analysis interviews to explore how family medicine clinicians view, perceive, and use electronic clinical alerts, and to utilize this information to design a more effective alert using HL identification and referral as a model diagnosis. Four key direct barriers were identified that impeded alert use: poor standardization and formatting, time pressures in primary care, clinic workflow variations, and mental models of the condition being prompted (in this case, HL). One indirect barrier was identified: electronic health record and institution/government regulations. We identified that clinicians' mental model of the condition being prompted was probably the major barrier, though this was often expressed as time pressure. We discuss solutions to each of the 5 identified barriers, such as addressing physicians' mental models, by focusing on physicians' expertise rather than knowledge to improve their comfort when caring for patients with the conditions being prompted. To unleash the potential of electronic clinical alerts, electronic health record and health care institutions need to address some key barriers. We outline these barriers and propose solutions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Evaluation of the prompt alerting systems at four nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Keast, D.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents evaluations of the prompt notification siren systems at the following four US nuclear power facilities: Trojan, Three Mile Island, Indian Point, and Zion. The objective of these evaluations was to provide examples of an analytical procedure for predicting siren-system effectiveness under specific conditions in the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding nuclear power plants. This analytical procedure is discussed in report No. PNL-4227

  13. Prompt form of relativistic equations of motion in a model of singular lagrangian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajda, R.P.; Duviryak, A.A.; Klyuchkovskij, Yu.B.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to develope the way of transition from equations of motion in singular lagrangian formalism to three-dimensional equations of Newton type in the prompt form of dynamics in the framework of c -2 parameter expansion (s. c. quasireltativistic approaches), as well as to find corresponding integrals of motion. The first quasirelativistifc approach for Dominici, Gomis, Longhi model was obtained and investigated

  14. On the timing properties of germanium detectors: The centroid diagrams of prompt photopeaks and Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, I.; Andrejtscheff, W.; Protochristov, Ch.; Zhelev, Zh.

    1987-01-01

    In the applications of the generalized centroid shift method with germanium detectors, the energy dependence of the time centroids of prompt photopeaks (zero-time line) and of Compton background events reveal a peculiar behavior crossing each other at about 100 keV. The effect is plausibly explained as associated with the ratio of γ-quanta causing the photoeffect and Compton scattering, respectively, at the boundaries of the detector. (orig.)

  15. Prompt fissionγ-ray characteristics from neutron-induced fission on 239Pu and the time-dependence of prompt-γray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatera, Angélique; Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Moens, André; Oberstedt, Andreas; Oberstedt, Stephan; Sibbens, Goedele; Vanleeuw, David; Vidali, Marzio

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increased interest in prompt fission γ-ray (PFG) measurements motivated by a high priority request of the OECD/NEA for high precision data, mainly for the nuclear fuel isotopes 235U and 239Pu. Our group has conducted a PFG measurement campaign using state-of-the-art lanthanum halide detectors for all the main actinides to a precision better than 3%. The experiments were performed in a coincidence setup between a fission trigger and γ-ray detectors. The time-of-flight technique was used to discriminate photons, traveling at the speed of light, and prompt fission neutrons. For a full rejection of all neutrons below 20 MeV, the PFG time window should not be wider than a few nanoseconds. This window includes most PFG, provided that no isomeric states were populated during the de-excitation process. When isomeric states are populated, PFGs can still be emitted up to 1 yus after the instant of fission or later. To study these γ-rays, the detector response to neutrons had to be determined and a correction had to be applied to the γ-ray spectra. The latest results for PFG characteristics from the reaction 239Pu(nth,f) will be presented, together with an analysis of PFGs emitted up to 200 ns after fission in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf as well as for thermal-neutron induced fission on 235U and 239Pu. The results are compared with calculations in the framework of the Hauser-Feshbach Monte Carlo code CGMF and FIFRELIN.

  16. 50 mm Diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator for subcritical reactor test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Zhang Zhongshuai; Chi Qian; Liu Linmao

    2012-01-01

    A 50 mm diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator was developed with 25 mm ceramic drive-in target neutron tube. It was applied in the subcritical reactor test of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The generator can produce neutron in three modes: DC, pulse and multiple pulse. The maximum neutron yield of the generator is 1 × 10 8 n/s, while the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz, and the minimum pulse width is 10 μs. As a remote controlled generator, it is small in volume, easy to be connected and controlled. The tested results indicate that penning ion source has the feature of delay time in glow discharge, and it is easier for glow discharge to happen when switching the DC voltage of penning ion source into pulse. According to these two characteristics, the generator has been modified. This improved generator can be used in many other areas including Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), neutron testing and experiment.

  17. 50 mm Diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator for subcritical reactor test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gang; Zhang Zhongshuai [Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Chi Qian [Guang Hua College of Chang Chun University, Changchun 130117 (China); Liu Linmao, E-mail: ll888@nenu.edu.cn [Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2012-11-01

    A 50 mm diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator was developed with 25 mm ceramic drive-in target neutron tube. It was applied in the subcritical reactor test of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The generator can produce neutron in three modes: DC, pulse and multiple pulse. The maximum neutron yield of the generator is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} n/s, while the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz, and the minimum pulse width is 10 {mu}s. As a remote controlled generator, it is small in volume, easy to be connected and controlled. The tested results indicate that penning ion source has the feature of delay time in glow discharge, and it is easier for glow discharge to happen when switching the DC voltage of penning ion source into pulse. According to these two characteristics, the generator has been modified. This improved generator can be used in many other areas including Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), neutron testing and experiment.

  18. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  19. Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2018-01-01

    We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.

  20. A digital long pulse integrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesch, J.D.; Strait, E.J.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-10-01

    A prototype digital integrator with very long integration capabilities has been developed and field tested on an inductive magnetic sensor on the DIII-D Tokamak. The integrator is being developed for use on ITER with a pulse length of 1000 s, and has direct applications for other long pulse Tokamaks. Inductive magnetic sensors are routinely used on existing Tokamaks, are well understood, and are extremely robust, however, they require integration of the signal to determine the magnetic field strength. The next generation of Tokamaks, will have pulse lengths of 1000 s or longer, require integrators with drift and noise characteristics compatible with the very long pulse lengths. This paper will discuss the architecture, algorithms, and programming of the Long Pulse Integrator (LPI). Of particular interest are the noise control and the built-in offset correction techniques used in this application

  1. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PROBING-PROMPTING BERBANTUAN LEMBAR KERJA BERSTRUKTUR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Diasputri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the influence of the use of a learning model Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet on learning outcomes in an high school especially in the Hydrocarbon and Petroleum. Sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique. In the experimental class, learning used Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet, while in classroom control used conventional methods. After being given a different treatment and after post test was done, it can be concluded that students' learning outcomes in class experiment is better than the control class, respectively 77 and 70. Based on the analysis of difference average learning outcomes, it obtained t count (4,074> t table (1,669, so it can be concluded that the average  of learning outcomes in experimental class is better than the control class. In the test mastery learning, mastery percentage of experimental class reached 91.18% while control class reached 59.38%. Test correlation obtained biserial coefficient of 0.5638. It can be concluded that the learning model of Probing-prompting assisted by structured worksheet have significant effect on student learning outcomes on Hydrocarbons and Petroleum subject with contribution of 32%.

  2. Photospheric Emission in the Joint GBM and Konus Prompt Spectra of GRB 120323A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiriec, S.; Kouveliotou, C. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hartmann, D. H., E-mail: sylvain.guiriec@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics (United States)

    2017-09-10

    GRB 120323A is a very intense short gamma -ray burst (GRB) detected simultaneously during its prompt γ -ray emission phase with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Konus experiment on board the Wind satellite. GBM and Konus operate in the keV–MeV regime; however, the GBM range is broader toward both the low and the high parts of the γ -ray spectrum. Analyses of such bright events provide a unique opportunity to check the consistency of the data analysis as well as cross-calibrate the two instruments. We performed time-integrated and coarse time-resolved spectral analysis of GRB 120323A prompt emission. We conclude that the analyses of GBM and Konus data are only consistent when using a double-hump spectral shape for both data sets; in contrast, the single hump of the empirical Band function, traditionally used to fit GRB prompt emission spectra, leads to significant discrepancies between GBM and Konus analysis results. Our two-hump model is a combination of a thermal-like and a non-thermal component. We interpret the first component as a natural manifestation of the jet photospheric emission.

  3. Energy spectrum and angular distribution of prompt cosmic-ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale); Castellina, A; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G; Vernetto, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1984-07-01

    The energy spectrum and angular distribution of atmospheric prompt muons are calculated by using an integral solution for production of charmed particles, their decay and muon transport in the atmosphere. Current experimental information from accelerator and theoretical ideas about charm cross-section and semi-leptonic decay are used to give a reference prompt muon spectrum to compare with that from conventional sources (..pi.. and K decay). The obtained differential spectrum has an energy dependence which approaches that of the primary cosmic rays. The integral intensity of prompt muons is equal to the conventional one at about 250 TeV. The angular distribution is found to be practically flat in the range (0/80)/sup 0/ irrespective of the muon energy. On the basis of this analysis we estimate that accurate measurements of muon energy spectrum and angular distribution at energies greater than 10 TeV should allow one to obtain useful information regarding charm hadroproduction cross-section in the 100 TeV region.

  4. Effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime of Tehran research reactor mixed-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, A.; Khalafi, H.; Kazeminejad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor mixed-core have been calculated. ► Burn-up effect on TRR kinetics parameters has been studied. ► Replacement of LEU-CFE with HEU-CFE in the TRR core has been investigated. ► Results of each mixed core were compared to the reference core. ► Calculation of kinetic parameters are necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. - Abstract: In this work, kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor (TRR) mixed cores have been calculated. The mixed core configurations are made by replacement of the low enriched uranium control fuel elements with highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core. The MTR P C package, a nuclear reactor analysis tool, is used to perform the analysis. Simulations were carried out to compute effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime. Calculation of kinetic parameters is necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. The results of this research show that effective delayed neutron fraction decreases and prompt neutron lifetime increases with the fuels burn-up. Also, by increasing the number of highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core, the prompt neutron lifetime increases, but effective delayed neutron fraction does not show any considerable change

  5. Measurement and calculation of characteristic prompt gamma ray spectra emitted during proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polf, J C; Peterson, S; Beddar, S [M D Anderson Cancer Center, Univeristy of Texas, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Spiridon, A; Trache, L [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)], E-mail: jcpolf@mdanderson.org

    2009-11-21

    In this paper, we present results of initial measurements and calculations of prompt gamma ray spectra (produced by proton-nucleus interactions) emitted from tissue equivalent phantoms during irradiations with proton beams. Measurements of prompt gamma ray spectra were made using a high-purity germanium detector shielded either with lead (passive shielding), or a Compton suppression system (active shielding). Calculations of the spectra were performed using a model of both the passive and active shielding experimental setups developed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. From the measured spectra it was shown that it is possible to distinguish the characteristic emission lines from the major elemental constituent atoms (C, O, Ca) in the irradiated phantoms during delivery of proton doses similar to those delivered during patient treatment. Also, the Monte Carlo spectra were found to be in very good agreement with the measured spectra providing an initial validation of our model for use in further studies of prompt gamma ray emission during proton therapy. (note)

  6. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key; Sil Lee, Keum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations

  7. GUIDED USE OF WRITING PROMPTS TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC WRITING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Trigos Carrillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical data supporting the hypothesis that the systematic and guided use of academic writing prompts is a successful instructional strategy to improve the academic writing in Spanish of college students, mainly during their first semesters. A combined methodology, with pre- and post-tests, was used in this research project conducted from July 2009 to June 2010. The participants were freshmen students of different disciplines of the Human Sciences in a private university in Bogota, Colombia. The aim of this research project was twofold. First, it sought to identify the difficulties students faced in the writing process of academic texts when they are related to real communicative contexts. Second, it involved the design and application of the guided and systematic use of writing prompts for academic writing in a sequence called "The Cognitive Pedagogical Model of Writing for Higher Education". The results show empirical evidence supporting the use of writing prompts designed with specific academic purposes to improve the academic writing level of college students in their first stages of study. However, further research is needed to consolidate the results presented here.

  8. Development of neutron induced prompt γ-ray spectroscopy system using 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Joon; Song, Byung-Chul; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2003-01-01

    For the design and set-up of neutron induced prompt γ-ray spectroscopy system using 252 Cf neutron source, the effects of shielding and moderator materials have been examined. The 252 Cf source being used for TLD badge calibration in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was utilized for this preliminary experiment. The γ-ray background and prompt γ-ray spectrum of the sample containing Cl were measured using HPGe (GMX 69% relative efficiency) located at the inside of the system connected to notebook PC at the outside of the system (about 20 meter distance). The background activities of neutron and γ-rays were measured with neutron survey meter as well as γ-ray survey meters, respectively and the system was designed to minimize the activities. Prompt γ-ray spectrum was measured using γ-γ coincident system for reduce the background and the continuum spectrum. The optimum system was designed and set up using the experimental data obtained

  9. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Harrison, R. M. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Melandri, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Järvinen, A. [AIP—Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Jelínek, M., E-mail: drejc.kopac@fmf.uni-lj.si [ASU-CAS—Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles.

  10. Training neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: can it be improved by playing a musical prompt? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Simone K; Schmölzer, Georg M; Kelm, Marcus; Davis, Peter G; Schmalisch, Gerd; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requires 3:1 coordinated manual inflations (MI) and chest compressions (CC). We hypothesized that playing a musical prompt would help coordinate CC and MI during CPR. In this pilot trial we studied the effect the "Radetzkymarsch" (110 beats per minute) on neonatal CPR. Thirty-six medical professionals performed CPR on a neonatal manikin. CC and MI were recorded with and without the music played, using a respiratory function monitor and a tally counter. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon test. Without music, the median (interquartile range) rate of CC was 115 (100 to 129) per minute and the rate of MI was 38 (32 to 42) per minute. When listening to the auditory prompt, the rate of CC decreased significantly to 96 (96 to 100) per minute (p = 0.002) and the rate of MI to 32 (30 to 34) per minute (p = 0.001). The interquartile range of interoperator variability decreased up to 86%. Listening to an auditory prompt improved compliance with the recommended delivery rates of CC and MI during neonatal CPR. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Picciotto, A.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014)], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  12. Prompt gamma-ray analysis using JRR-3M cold and thermal neutron guide beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, C.; Haji Wood, A.K.; Magara, M.; Hoshi, M.; Tachikawa, E.; Sawahata, H.; Ito, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A permanent and stand-alone neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) system, usable at both cold and thermal neutron beam guides of JRR-3M has been constructed. Neutron flux at the sample positions were 1.4x10 8 and 2.4x10 7 n cm -2 s -1 for the cold and thermal neutrons, respectively. The γ-ray spectrometer is equipped to acquire three modes of spectra simultaneously: single mode, Compton suppression mode and pair mode, in an energy range up to 12 MeV. Owing to the cold neutron guide beam and the low γ-ray background system, analytical sensitivities and detection limits better than those in other PGA systems have been achieved. Analytical sensitivity and detection limit for 73 elements were measured. Boron, Gd, Sm and Cd are the most sensitive elements with detection limits down to 1 to 10 ng. For some elements such as F, Al, V, Eu and Hf, decay γ-rays are more sensitive compared to their respective prompt γ-ray. Analytical sensitivity of several heavy elements through detection of characteristic X-rays was higher than that through the prompt γ-ray detection. Analytical applicability of some sensitive elements such as B, H, Gd and Sm were examined. Isotopic analysis of Ni and Si were also examined. (author)

  13. Indication for double parton scatterings in W+ prompt J/ψ production at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe; Shao, Hua-Sheng; Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2018-06-01

    We re-analyse the associated production of a prompt J / ψ and a W boson in pp collisions at the LHC following the results of the ATLAS Collaboration. We perform the first study of the Single-Parton-Scattering (SPS) contributions at the Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) in αs in the Colour-Evaporation Model (CEM), an approach based on the quark-hadron-duality. Our study provides clear indications for Double-Parton-Scattering (DPS) contributions, in particular at low transverse momenta, since our SPS CEM evaluation, which can be viewed as a conservative upper limit of the SPS yields, falls short compared to the ATLAS experimental data by 3.1 standard deviations. We also determine a finite allowed region for σeff, inversely proportional to the size of the DPS yields, corresponding to the otherwise opposed hypotheses, namely our NLO CEM evaluation and the LO direct Colour-Singlet (CS) Model contribution. In both cases, the resulting DPS yields are significantly larger than that initially assumed by ATLAS based on jet-related analyses but is consistent with their observed raw-yield azimuthal distribution and with their prompt J / ψ + J / ψ and Z+ prompt J / ψ data.

  14. Effect of electronic real-time prompting on hand hygiene behaviors in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Steven; Holliday, Pamela; Fernie, Geoff

    2018-03-02

    Poor hand hygiene by health care workers is a major cause of nosocomial infections. This research evaluated the ability of an electronic monitoring system with real-time prompting capability to change hand hygiene behaviors. Handwashing activity was measured by counting dispenser activations on a single nursing unit before, during, and after installation of the system. The effect of changing the prompt duration on hand hygiene performance was determined by a cluster-randomized trial on 3 nursing units with 1 acting as control. Sustainability of performance and participation was observed on 4 nursing units over a year. All staff were eligible to participate. Between June 2015 and December 2016, a total of 459,376 hand hygiene opportunities and 330,740 handwashing events from 511 staff members were recorded. Dispenser activation counts were significantly influenced by use of the system (χ 2 [3] = 75.76; P Hand hygiene performance dropped from 62.61% to 24.94% (odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.38) when the prompting feature was removed. Staff participation had a negative trajectory of -0.72% (P Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inclusive prompt photon production in electron-nucleus scattering at small x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-05-01

    We compute the differential cross-section for inclusive prompt photon production in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) of electrons on nuclei at small x in the framework of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective theory. The leading order (LO) computation in this framework resums leading logarithms in x as well as power corrections to all orders in Q s, A 2 / Q 2, where Q s, A ( x) is the nuclear saturation scale. This LO result is proportional to universal dipole and quadrupole Wilson line correlators in the nucleus. In the soft photon limit, the Low-Burnett-Kroll theorem allows us to recover existing results on inclusive DIS dijet production. The k ⊥ and collinearly factorized expressions for prompt photon production in DIS are also recovered in a leading twist approximation to our result. In the latter case, our result corresponds to the dominant next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD contribution at small x. We next discuss the computation of the NLO corrections to inclusive prompt photon production in the CGC framework. In particular, we emphasize the advantages for higher order computations in inclusive photon production, and for fully inclusive DIS, arising from the simple momentum space structure of the dressed quark and gluon "shock wave" propagators in the "wrong" light cone gauge A - = 0 for a nucleus moving with P N + → ∞.

  16. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Melandri, A.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R.; Järvinen, A.; Jelínek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles

  17. Non prompt D-meson measurements with ALICE at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The production of hadrons with open heavy flavour (charm and beauty) in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is a powerful tool to study the properties of the deconfined phase of strongly interacting matter known as the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The production of charm and beauty quarks occurs in hard partonic scattering processes in the early stage of the collisions. ALICE is the LHC experiment devoted to the study of heavy-ion physics. It is able to reconstruct charmed mesons in exclusive decays (e.g. D"0→K"−π"+) and beauty hadrons in semi-inclusive decays (e.g. B→eX, B→J/ψ X) . At LHC energies a significant component of the inclusive D-meson yield originates from the decay of beauty-flavoured hadrons, whose knowledge is essential to determine the production of prompt D mesons coming from charm quarks. A precise determination of the non-prompt fraction combined with the determination of the inclusive D-meson yield would allow a measurement of beauty production. A data-driven method that exploits the different shapes of the distributions of the transverse-plane impact parameter to the primary vertex of prompt and feed-down D mesons in p-Pb collisions is used in ALICE. An alternative approach based on the D-meson decay length for Pb–Pb collisions is under study.

  18. Expected value of finite fission chain lengths of pulse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianjun; Zhou Zhigao; Zhang Ben'ai

    2007-01-01

    The average neutron population necessary for sponsoring a persistent fission chain in a multiplying system, is discussed. In the point reactor model, the probability function θ(n, t 0 , t) of a source neutron at time t 0 leading to n neutrons at time t is dealt with. The non-linear partial differential equation for the probability generating function G(z; t 0 , t) is derived. By solving the equation, we have obtained an approximate analytic solution for a slightly prompt supercritical system. For the pulse reactor Godiva-II, the mean value of finite fission chain lengths is estimated in this work and shows that the estimated value is reasonable for the experimental analysis. (authors)

  19. Pulsed neutron generator for use with pulsed neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-output, transportable, pulsed neutron generator has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use with Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) techniques. The PNA neutron generator generates > 10 10 14 MeV D-T neutrons in a 1.2 millisecond pulse. Each operation of the unit will produce a nominal total neutron output of 1.2 x 10 10 neutrons. The generator has been designed to be easily repaired and modified. The unit requires no additional equipment for operation or measurement of output

  20. Laser ablation comparison by picosecond pulses train and nanosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Filippov, M. N.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of laser ablation by a train of picosecond pulses and nanosecond pulses revealed a difference in laser craters, ablation thresholds, plasma sizes and spectral line intensities. Laser ablation with a train of picosecond pulses resulted in improved crater quality while ablated mass decreased up to 30%. A reduction in laser plasma dimensions for picosecond train ablation was observed while the intensity of atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was greater by a factor of 2-4 indicating an improved excitation and atomization in the plasma.

  1. Pulse on pulse: modulation and signification in Rafael Lozano-Hemmer's Pulse Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Carlson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006 by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy of the visitor's beating heart to the flashing of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the flashing light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant and pulsating “room”. Hence, the visitor in Pulse Room is invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic “rhythm of life” and instants of pure material processuality (flickering light bulbs; polyrhythmic layers. Taking our point of departure in a discussion of Gilles Deleuze's concepts of modulation and signaletic material in relation to electronic media, we examine how the complex orchestration of pulsation between signification and material modulation produces a multilayered sense of time and space that is central to the sensory experience of Pulse Room as a whole. Pulse Room is, at the very same time, a relational subject–object intimacy and an all-encompassing immersive environment modulating continuously in real space-time.

  2. Pulse shaping using a spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond pulse shaping can be done by different kinds of pulse shapers, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM), acousto optic modulators (AOM) and deformable and movable mirrors. A few applications where pulse shaping...

  3. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  4. Pulsed radiation decay logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    There are provided new and improved well logging processes and systems wherein the detection of secondary radiation is accomplished during a plurality of time windows in a manner to accurately characterize the decay rate of the secondary radiation. The system comprises a well logging tool having a primary pulsed radiation source which emits repetitive time-spaced bursts of primary radiation and detector means for detecting secondary radiation resulting from the primary radiation and producing output signals in response to the detected radiation. A plurality of measuring channels are provided, each of which produces a count rate function representative of signals received from the detector means during successive time windows occurring between the primary radiation bursts. The logging system further comprises means responsive to the measuring channels for producing a plurality of functions representative of the ratios of the radiation count rates measured during adjacent pairs of the time windows. Comparator means function to compare the ratio functions and select at least one of the ratio functions to generate a signal representative of the decay rate of the secondary radiation

  5. NEMP (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, H.K.

    The variety of measures discussed in this contribution can be used to achieve with minimum effort a damping of 10 6 :1 (120 dB) between the interfering pulses in the networks and lines outside the buildings and the lines leading to the semiconductors. Expert knowledge, experience, and insight into the systems are required to solve this task optimally. The procedure to be adopted for NEMP protection differs only slightly from that used for achieving electromagnetic compatibility and lightning protection. Industry has developed the equipment for overvoltage protection and offers graded protection systems, experienced experts and systems engineers are available. This potential of the industry could be used to sponsor a pilot project, e.g. by public research funds. One of the goals of such a project could be to work out reliable data for cost estimated for large projects. Even if one would not accept the hypothetical probability of a nuclear war as a reason good anough to start such a project, it would not be justified to deny the necessity of additional expenditure for setting up a ''NEMP emergency system'' for protection waterborne traffic on purely financial grounds. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Magnetic Alignment of Pulsed Solenoids Using the Pulsed Wire Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelaez, D.; Madur, A.; Lipton, T.M.; Waldron, W.L.; Kwan, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    A unique application of the pulsed-wire measurement method has been implemented for alignment of 2.5 T pulsed solenoid magnets. The magnetic axis measurement has been shown to have a resolution of better than 25 (micro)m. The accuracy of the technique allows for the identification of inherent field errors due to, for example, the winding layer transitions and the current leads. The alignment system is developed for the induction accelerator NDCX-II under construction at LBNL, an upgraded Neutralized Drift Compression experiment for research on warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion. Precise alignment is essential for NDCX-II, since the ion beam has a large energy spread associated with the rapid pulse compression such that misalignments lead to corkscrew deformation of the beam and reduced intensity at focus. The ability to align the magnetic axis of the pulsed solenoids to within 100 pm of the induction cell axis has been demonstrated.

  7. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  8. Pulse timing for cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that present pulse timing measurements of cataclysmic variables can be explained by models of accretion disks in these systems, and thus such measurements can constrain disk models. The model for DQ Her correctly predicts the amplitude variation of the continuum pulsation and can also perhaps explain the asymmetric amplitude of the pulsed lambda4686 emission line. Several other predictions can be made from the model. In particular, if pulse timing measurements that resolve emission lines both in wavelength and in binary phase can be made, the projected orbital radius of the white dwarf could be deduced

  9. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  10. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Tse Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder, based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts’ efficiency.

  11. Determination of the distal dose edge in a human phantom by measuring the prompt gamma distribution: a Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Chul Hee; Lee, Han Rim; Yeom, Yeon Su; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The close relationship between the proton dose distribution and the distribution of prompt gammas generated by proton-induced nuclear interactions along the path of protons in a water phantom was demonstrated by means of both Monte Carlo simulations and limited experiments. In order to test the clinical applicability of the method for determining the distal dose edge in a human body, a human voxel model, constructed based on a body-composition-approximated physical phantom, was used, after which the MCNPX code was used to analyze the energy spectra and the prompt gamma yields from the major elements composing the human voxel model; finally, the prompt gamma distribution, generated from the voxel model and measured by using an array-type prompt gamma detection system, was calculated and compared with the proton dose distribution. According to the results, effective prompt gammas were produced mainly by oxygen, and the specific energy of the prompt gammas, allowing for selective measurement, was found to be 4.44 MeV. The results also show that the distal dose edge in the human phantom, despite the heterogeneous composition and the complicated shape, can be determined by measuring the prompt gamma distribution with an array-type detection system.

  12. Responses to different types of inquiry prompts: college students' discourse, performance, and perceptions of group work in an engineering class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Casper, Anne Marie A.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.

    2017-08-01

    Working in small groups to solve problems is an instructional strategy that allows university students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines the opportunity to practice interpersonal and professional skills while gaining and applying discipline-specific content knowledge. Previous research indicates that not all group work prompts result in the same experiences for students. In this study we posed two types of prompts (guided and open) to undergraduate engineering students in a statics course as they participated in group work projects. We measured student discourse, student performance, and perceptions of group work. We found that guided prompts were associated with higher-level discourse and higher performance (project scores) than open prompts. Students engaged in guided prompts were more likely to discuss distribution of labour and design/calculation details of their projects than when students responded to open prompts. We posit that guided prompts, which more clearly articulate expectations of students, help students determine how to divide tasks amongst themselves and, subsequently, jump to higher levels of discourse.

  13. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can I look at my list? An evaluation of a 'prompt sheet' within an oncology outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynne-Jones, R; Ostler, P; Lumley-Graybow, S; Chait, I; Hughes, R; Grainger, J; Leverton, T J

    2006-06-01

    We introduced a patient 'prompt sheet' into our clinic between January 2004 and January 2005. The aim was to determine whether it would facilitate communication and help patients in obtaining their desired level of information about their illness, and assist with decision making. We conducted an audit survey to investigate the way follow-up takes place in our oncology clinic, to determine what works and what does not work in the clinic, and to examine how patients access the most useful information and to assess the utility of, and patient satisfaction with, a locally developed pilot prompt sheet. A single questionnaire was designed to elicit information on patients' information needs, overall satisfaction with the oncology clinic, and uptake and perceived usefulness of the prompt sheet. We carried out an audit survey in the form of a Likert-scale questionnaire (33 questions), followed immediately afterwards by a semi-structured interview. A specialist nurse asked a range of open questions about what was good and bad about the clinic and the prompt sheets. Despite efforts to ensure that all patients received the prompt-sheet leaflets, only 254 out of 300 (85%) received them. Of these, 195 (65%) felt that they were 'very helpful', and 30 (10%) found them 'fairly helpful'. However, 15 (5%) had no strong feelings and only three found them either fairly or completely unhelpful. One-third of the patients were able to ask more questions about their disease as a result of the prompt sheet, although they felt the doctor was busy and did not want to take up too much of their time. Men with prostate cancer found the prompt sheet particularly helpful to ask questions. This satisfaction audit suggests that our pilot prompt sheet is helpful to patients attending oncology outpatient appointments, particularly for men with prostate cancer. We aim to adapt the present prompt sheet on the basis of the replies obtained, and re-audit in the future.

  15. Statistical analysis for discrimination of prompt gamma ray peak induced by high energy neutron: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-Kun Yoon; Joo-Young Jung; Tae Suk Suh; Seong-Min Han

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is a statistical analysis for discrimination of prompt gamma ray peak induced by the 14.1 MeV neutron particles from spectra using Monte Carlo simulation. For the simulation, the information of 18 detector materials was used to simulate spectra by the neutron capture reaction. The discrimination of nine prompt gamma ray peaks from the simulation of each detector material was performed. We presented the several comparison indexes of energy resolution performance depending on the detector material using the simulation and statistics for the prompt gamma activation analysis. (author)

  16. Prompt neutron decay constant for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor with 20 wt % 235U enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of the prompt neutron decay constant at delayed criticality for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) using 20 wt % 235 U enriched fuel and compares these measurements with similar measurements using 93.2 wt % 235 U enriched fuel. This reactor parameter is of interest because it affects the transient behavior of the reactor in prompt criticality accident situations. This experiment is part of a program to investigate the differences in the performance of research reactors fueled with highly enriched and low enriched uranium. The prompt neutron decay constants were obtained using noise analysis measurement techniques for a core with newly fabricated, unirradiated fuel elements

  17. The rapid decline of the prompt emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Many gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have been observed with the Burst-Alert and X-Ray telescopes of the SWIFT satellite. The successive `pulses' of these GRBs end with a fast decline and a fast spectral softening, until they are overtaken by another pulse, or the last pulse's decline is overtaken by a less rapidly-varying `afterglow'. The fast decline-phase has been attributed, in the standard fireball model of GRBs, to `high-latitude' synchrotron emission from a collision of two conical shells. This interpretation does not agree with the observed spectral softening. The temporal behaviour and the spectral evolution during the fast-decline phase agree with the predictions of the cannonball model of GRBs.

  18. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  19. Pulsed Corona for Sustainable Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Pemen, A.J.M.; Yan, K.; Blom, P.P.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Der Laan, P.C.T. van

    2000-01-01

    Highly active coronas with a peak power of up to 25 MW p/m corona wire and kJ/liter energy densities in the streamer channels can be produced by pulsed power. Since the voltage pulses are short, full breakdown does not occur even though the discharge currents are hundreds of Amperes. A matched pulsed power source can deposit up to 80% of its electrical energy into such a controlled discharge. Reliable and efficient sources characterized by 100 kV,150 ns wide pulses at 1000 Hz have passed 400 hours of operation. The area of applications is growing: VOC control, hot gas cleanup, water and air purification and sterilization. (author)

  20. Next generation Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J; Biswal, S; Mourou, G [Univ. Michigan, Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nishimura, Akihiko; Takuma, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    The limiting factors of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) are discussed and experimental results of CPA in Yb:glass regenerative amplifier are given. Scaling of Yb:glass to the petawatt level is briefly discussed. (author)