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Sample records for pulse tube refrigerator

  1. Optimizing the Thermoacoustic Pulse Tube Refrigerator Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Blagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research and optimization of the thermoacoustic pulse tube refrigerator to reach a cryogenic temperature level. The refrigerator is considered as a thermoacoustic converter based on the modified Stirling cycle with helium working fluid. A sound pressure generator runs as a compressor. Plant model comprises an inner heat exchanger, a regenerative heat exchanger, a pulse tube, hot and cold heat exchangers at its ends, an inertial tube with the throttle, and a reservoir. A model to calculate the pulse tube thermoacoustic refrigerator using the DeltaEC software package has been developed to be a basis for calculation techniques of the pulse tube refrigerator. Momentum, continuity, and energy equations for helium refrigerant are solved according to calculation algorithm taking into account the porosity of regenerator and heat exchangers. Optimization of the main geometric parameters resulted in decreasing temperature of cold heat exchanger by 41,7 K. After optimization this value became equal to 115,01 K. The following parameters have been optimized: diameters of the feeding and pulse tube and heat exchangers, regenerator, lengths of the regenerator and pulse and inertial tubes, as well as initial pressure. Besides, global minimum of temperatures has been searched at a point of local minima corresponding to the optimal values of abovementioned parameters. A global-local minima difference is 0,1%. Optimized geometric and working parameters of the thermoacoustic pulse tube refrigerator are presented.

  2. Numerical simulation of pulse-tube refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulina, I.A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new numerical model has been introduced to study steady oscillatory heat and mass transfer in the tube section of a pulse-tube refrigerator. Conservation equations describing compressible gas flow in the tube are solved numerically, using high resolution schemes. The equation of conservation of

  3. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  4. Experimental study and modelisation of a pulse tube refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravex, A.; Rolland, P.; Liang, J.

    1992-01-01

    A test bench for pulse tube refrigerator characterization has been built. In various configurations (basic pulse tube, orifice pulse tube and double inlet pulse tube), the ultimate temperature and the cooling power have been measured as a function of pressure wave amplitude and frequency for various geometries. A lowest temperature of 28 K has been achieved in a single staged double inlet configuration. A modelisation taking into account wall heat pumping, enthalpy flow and regenerator inefficiency is under development. Preliminary calculation results are compared with experimental data

  5. Ideal pulse-tube refrigerators with real gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, M.E.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The factor of 100 difference between experiments and theory in the coefficient of performance (COP) of pulse-tube refrigerators is always attributed to the nonideal behavior of these devices. We show that the thermodynamic properties of the nonideal working fluid have a profound influence on the

  6. A blind test on the pulse tube refrigerator model (PTRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.W.K.; Radebaugh, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Stirling Refrigerator Performance Model (SRPM) has been validated extensively against the Lockheed built Stirling Coolers and various units in the literature. This model has been modified to predict the performance of the Pulse Tube Coolers (PTCs). It was successfully validated against a Lockheed in-house-built PTC. The results are to be published elsewhere. In this paper, the validation of PTRM against a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) orifice pulse tube cooler is reported. Dimensions and operating condition of the PTC were obtained from NIST without prior knowledge of the performance. In other words, this is a open-quote blind test close-quote on the PTRM with the help of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Good correlation was found between the test data and the prediction. PTRM is a generic model that gives accurate performance prediction of the pulse tube coolers

  7. Analysis of DC control in double-inlet GM type pulse tube refrigerators for detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Pulse tube refrigerators have demonstrated many advantages with respect to temperature stability, vibration, reliability and lifetime among cryo-coolers for detectors. Double-inlet type pulse tube refrigerators are popular in GM type pulse tube refrigerators. The single double-inlet valve may introduce DC flow in refrigerator, which deteriorates the performance of pulse tube refrigerator. One new type of DC control mode is introduced in this paper. Two parallel-placed needle valves with opposite direction named double-valve configuration, instead of single double-inlet valve, are used in our experiment to reduce the DC flow. With two double-inlet operating, the lowest cold end temperature of 18.1K and a coolant of 1.2W@20K have been obtained. It has proved that this method is useful for controlling DC flow of the pulse tube refrigerators, which is very important to understand the characters of pulse tube refrigerators for detectors.

  8. Pressure heat pumping in the orifice pulse-tube refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, P.C.T. de

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which heat is pumped as a result of pressure changes in an orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (OPTR) is analyzed thermodynamically. The thermodynamic cycle considered consists of four steps: (1) the pressure is increased by a factor π 1 due to motion of a piston in the heat exchanger at the warm end of the regenerator; (2) the pressure is decreased by a factor π 2 due to leakage out of the orifice; (3) the pressure is further decreased due to motion of the piston back to its original position; (4) the pressure is increased to its value at the start of the cycle due to leakage through the orifice back into the pulse tube. The regenerator and the heat exchangers are taken to be perfect. The pressure is assumed to be uniform during the entire cycle. The temperature profiles of the gas in the pulse tube after each step are derived analytically. Knowledge of the temperature at which gas enters the cold heat exchanger during steps 3 and 4 provides the heat removed per cycle from this exchanger. Knowledge of the pressure as a function of piston position provides the work done per cycle by the piston. The pressure heat pumping mechanism considered is effective only in the presence of a regenerator. Detailed results are presented for the heat removed per cycle, for the coefficient of performance, and for the refrigeration efficiency as a function of the compression ratio π 1 and the expansion ratio π 2 . Results are also given for the influence on performance of the ratio of specific heats. The results obtained are compared with corresponding results for the basic pulse-tube refrigerator (BPTR) operating by surface heat pumping

  9. One-dimensional numerical simulation of the Stirling-type pulse-tube refrigerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etaati, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Change of title: One-dimensional numerical simulation of the Stirling-type pulse-tube cooler. Pulse-tube refrigeration (PTR) is a new technology for cooling down to extremely low temperatures. In this paper a particular type, the so-called Stirling single-stage refrigerator, is considered. A

  10. A pulse-tube refrigerator using variable-resistance orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. J.; Sun, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a new design of orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (VROPT) using a variable-resistance valve to replace the conventional orifice. The variable-resistance orifice (VRO) is basically a high-speed solenoidal valve similar to the fuel jet device widely used in automobile engines. By changing the frequency and periods of ON and OFF of the valve through an electronic device, we can change the flow resistance of the VRO. This thus provides a possibility for an OPT to be controlled on-line during operation. From the results obtained in the present study, we have shown that VROPT is able to achieve on-line control by regulating the duty cycle d or frequency fv of the VRO. We also show that VROPT will not loss its thermal performance as compared to conventional OPT.

  11. Numerical simulation of a three-stage Stirling-type pulse-tube refrigerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etaati, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The pulse-tube refrigerator (PTR) is a rather new device for cooling down to extremely low temperatures, i.e. below 4 K. The PTR works by the cyclic compression and expansion of helium that flows through a regenerator made of porous material, a cold heat exchanger, a tube, a hot heat exchanger and

  12. Computational Investigation on the performance of thermo-acoustically driven pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaria, Mathew; Rasheed, K. K. Abdul; Shafi, K. A.; Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra

    2017-02-01

    A Thermoacoustic Pulse Tube Refrigeration (TAPTR) system employs a thermo acoustic engine as the pressure wave generator instead of mechanical compressor. Such refrigeration systems are highly reliable due to the absence of moving components, structural simplicity and the use of environmental friendly working fluids. In the present work, a traveling wave thermoacoustic primmover (TWTAPM) has been developed and it is coupled to a pulse tube cryocooler. The performance of TAPTR depends on the operating and working fluid parameters. Simulation studies of the system has been performed using ANSYS Fluent and compared with experimental results.

  13. Optimization of a Two Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator for the Integrated Current Lead System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, R.; Matsubara, Y.; Okada, A.; Takami, S.; Konno, M.; Tomioka, A.; Imayoshi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Mito, T.

    2008-03-01

    Implementation of a conventional current lead with a pulse tube refrigerator has been validated to be working as an Integrated Current Lead (ICL) system for the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). Realization of the system is primarily accounted for the flexibility of a pulse tube refrigerator, which does not posses any mechanical piston and/or displacer. As for an ultimate version of the ICL system, a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) lead links a superconducting coil with a conventional copper lead. To ensure the minimization of heat loads to the superconducting coil, a pulse tube refrigerator has been upgraded to have a second cooling stage. This arrangement reduces not only the heat loads to the superconducting coil but also the operating cost for a SMES system. A prototype two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, series connected arrangement, was designed and fabricated to satisfy the requirements for the ICL system. Operation of the first stage refrigerator is a four-valve mode, while the second stage utilizes a double inlet configuration to ensure its confined geometry. The paper discusses the optimization of second stage cooling to validate the conceptual design

  14. One-dimensional simulation of a stirling three-stage pulse-tube refrigerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etaati, M.A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model is derived for a three-stage pulse-tube refrigerator (PTR) that is based on the conservation laws and the ideal gas law. The three-stage PTR is regarded as three separate single-stage PTRs that are coupled via proper junction conditions. At the junctions there

  15. One-dimensional simulation of a Stirling three-stage pulse-tube refrigerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etaati, M.A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model is derived for a three-stage pulse-tube refrigerator (PTR) that is based on the conservation laws and the ideal gas law. The three-stage PTR is regarded as three separate single-stage PTRs that are coupled via proper junction conditions. At the junctions there

  16. Vibrations on pulse tube based Dry Dilution Refrigerators for low noise measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Billard, J.; De Jesus, M.; Juillard, A. [Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Leder, A. [Massachussets Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Dry Dilution Refrigerators (DDR) based on pulse tube cryo-coolers have started to replace Wet Dilution Refrigerators (WDR) due to the ease and low cost of operation. However these advantages come at the cost of increased vibrations, induced by the pulse tube. In this work, we present the vibration measurements performed on three different commercial DDRs. We describe in detail the vibration measurement system we assembled, based on commercial accelerometers, conditioner and DAQ, and examined the effects of the various damping solutions utilized on three different DDRs, both in the low and high frequency regions. Finally, we ran low temperature, pseudo-massive (30 and 250 g) germanium bolometers in the best vibration-performing system under study and report on the results.

  17. CFD simulation and experimental validation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjare, Y. P.; Sahoo, R. K.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    Pulse tube refrigerator has the advantages of long life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as GM and stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) vertically aligned, operating under a variety of thermal boundary conditions. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, Fluent 6.1 is used to model the oscillating flow inside a pulse tube refrigerator. The simulation represents fully coupled systems operating in steady-periodic mode. The externally imposed boundary conditions are sinusoidal pressure inlet by user defined function at one end of the tube and constant temperature or heat flux boundaries at the external walls of the cold-end heat exchangers. The experimental method to evaluate the optimum parameters of DIPTR is difficult. On the other hand, developing a computer code for CFD analysis is equally complex. The objectives of the present investigations are to ascertain the suitability of CFD based commercial package, Fluent for study of energy and fluid flow in DIPTR and to validate the CFD simulation results with available experimental data. The general results, such as the cool down behaviours of the system, phase relation between mass flow rate and pressure at cold end, the temperature profile along the wall of the cooler and refrigeration load are presented for different boundary conditions of the system. The results confirm that CFD based Fluent simulations are capable of elucidating complex periodic processes in DIPTR. The results also show that there is an excellent agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental results.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamic Investigation of Loss Mechanisms in a Pulse-Tube Refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K; Esguerra, J; Dodson, C; Razani, A

    2015-01-01

    In predicting Pulse-Tube Cryocooler (PTC) performance, One-Dimensional (1-D) PTR design and analysis tools such as Gedeon Associates SAGE® typically include models for performance degradation due to thermodynamically irreversible processes. SAGE®, in particular, accounts for convective loss, turbulent conductive loss and numerical diffusion “loss” via correlation functions based on analysis and empirical testing.In this study, we compare CFD and SAGE® estimates of PTR refrigeration performance for four distinct pulse-tube lengths. Performance predictions from PTR CFD models are compared to SAGE® predictions for all four cases. Then, to further demonstrate the benefits of higher-fidelity and multidimensional CFD simulation, the PTR loss mechanisms are characterized in terms of their spatial and temporal locations. (paper)

  19. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube refrigerator with base temperature below 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liubiao; Wu, Xianlin; Liu, Sixue; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Pan, Changzhao; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces our recent experimental results of pulse tube refrigerator driven by linear compressor. The working frequency is 23-30 Hz, which is much higher than the G-M type cooler (the developed cryocooler will be called high frequency pulse tube refrigerator in this paper). To achieve a temperature below 10 K, two types of two-stage configuration, gas coupled and thermal coupled, have been designed, built and tested. At present, both types can achieve a no-load temperature below 10 K by using only one compressor. As to gas-coupled HPTR, the second stage can achieve a cooling power of 16 mW/10K when the first stage applied a 400 mW heat load at 60 K with a total input power of 400 W. As to thermal-coupled HPTR, the designed cooling power of the first stage is 10W/80K, and then the temperature of the second stage can get a temperature below 10 K with a total input power of 300 W. In the current preliminary experiment, liquid nitrogen is used to replace the first coaxial configuration as the precooling stage, and a no-load temperature 9.6 K can be achieved with a stainless steel mesh regenerator. Using Er3Ni sphere with a diameter about 50-60 micron, the simulation results show it is possible to achieve a temperature below 8 K. The configuration, the phase shifters and the regenerative materials of the developed two types of two-stage high frequency pulse tube refrigerator will be discussed, and some typical experimental results and considerations for achieving a better performance will also be presented in this paper.

  20. Numerical simulation of a three-stage stirling-type pulse-tube refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaati, M.A.

    2011-06-22

    The pulse-tube refrigerator (PTR) is a rather new device for cooling down to extremely low temperatures, i.e. below 4 K. The PTR works by the cyclic compression and expansion of helium that flows through a regenerator made of porous material, a cold heat exchanger, a tube, a hot heat exchanger and an orifice, in series. In a Stirling-type PTR compression and expansion are generated by a piston. The compression increases the temperature of the helium in the tube and makes it flow towards the orifice; the expansion decreases the temperature and makes the helium flow backwards to the regenerator. The net effect of warmer helium flowing in one direction and colder helium in the opposite direction is that of cooling power at the cold heat exchanger. Three PTRs are inter-connected aiming to obtain the desired 4 K lowest temperature. The conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy, and an equation of state, are simplified using asymptotic analysis based on low Mach-numbers. The regenerator is modelled one-dimensionally with Darcy's law for flow resistance. The tube is modelled either one-dimensionally without resistance or two-dimensionally with axisymmetric laminar viscous flow. The heat transfer in the porous medium of the regenerator and in the solid tube wall is taken into account. The gas can be either ideal or real. All the material properties, including viscosity and conductivity, are taken temperature and pressure dependent. Three single-stage PTRs are connected with the regenerators in series and the tubes in parallel and six flow possibilities at the junctions are considered. Three by-passes (double-inlets) are used to enhance and tune the performance. The governing equations are numerically solved with a finite-difference method of nominally second-order accuracy in space and time. Pressure correction, flux limiter, 1D-2D connections and domain decomposition are the keywords here. Special attention is paid to suitable initial conditions, high resolution

  1. Lifetime prediction and reliability estimation methodology for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators by gaseous contamination accelerated degradation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fubin; Tan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Yinong; Zhao, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Lifetime and reliability are the two performance parameters of premium importance for modern space Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators (SPTRs), which are required to operate in excess of 10 years. Demonstration of these parameters provides a significant challenge. This paper proposes a lifetime prediction and reliability estimation method that utilizes accelerated degradation testing (ADT) for SPTRs related to gaseous contamination failure. The method was experimentally validated via three groups of gaseous contamination ADT. First, the performance degradation model based on mechanism of contamination failure and material outgassing characteristics of SPTRs was established. Next, a preliminary test was performed to determine whether the mechanism of contamination failure of the SPTRs during ADT is consistent with normal life testing. Subsequently, the experimental program of ADT was designed for SPTRs. Then, three groups of gaseous contamination ADT were performed at elevated ambient temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C, respectively and the estimated lifetimes of the SPTRs under normal condition were obtained through acceleration model (Arrhenius model). The results show good fitting of the degradation model with the experimental data. Finally, we obtained the reliability estimation of SPTRs through using the Weibull distribution. The proposed novel methodology enables us to take less than one year time to estimate the reliability of the SPTRs designed for more than 10 years.

  2. Multi-objective parametric optimization of Inertance type pulse tube refrigerator using response surface methodology and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Sachindra K.; Choudhury, Balaji K.; Sahoo, Ranjit K.; Sarangi, Sunil K.

    2014-07-01

    The modeling and optimization of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator is a complicated task, due to its complexity of geometry and nature. The aim of the present work is to optimize the dimensions of pulse tube and regenerator for an Inertance-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator (ITPTR) by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Non-Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II). The Box-Behnken design of the response surface methodology is used in an experimental matrix, with four factors and two levels. The diameter and length of the pulse tube and regenerator are chosen as the design variables where the rest of the dimensions and operating conditions of the ITPTR are constant. The required output responses are the cold head temperature (Tcold) and compressor input power (Wcomp). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to model and solve the ITPTR. The CFD results agreed well with those of the previously published paper. Also using the results from the 1-D simulation, RSM is conducted to analyse the effect of the independent variables on the responses. To check the accuracy of the model, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method has been used. Based on the proposed mathematical RSM models a multi-objective optimization study, using the Non-sorted genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) has been performed to optimize the responses.

  3. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism

  4. The pulsed-gas tube, statement and perspectives; Le tube a gaz pulse, bilan et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domblides, J P; Neveau, P; Castaing-Lasvignottes, J [Laboratoire du froid du CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The pulsed-gas tube has several advantages with respect to the other types of cryo-refrigerating machineries classically used to reach very low temperatures: no mobile parts moving at very low temperatures and no vibrations. However, this system discovered in 1963 is handicapped by its lack of power and by its low energy efficiency. Todays researches about pulsed-gas tubes concern: the technical adaptation of existing systems to applications where its simplicity makes it competitive, the improvement of its energetic performances (refrigerating power and range of temperatures of use), and the development of numerical models in order to better understand the functioning of the system and to optimize it. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  5. The pulsed-gas tube, statement and perspectives; Le tube a gaz pulse, bilan et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domblides, J.P.; Neveau, P.; Castaing-Lasvignottes, J. [Laboratoire du froid du CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The pulsed-gas tube has several advantages with respect to the other types of cryo-refrigerating machineries classically used to reach very low temperatures: no mobile parts moving at very low temperatures and no vibrations. However, this system discovered in 1963 is handicapped by its lack of power and by its low energy efficiency. Todays researches about pulsed-gas tubes concern: the technical adaptation of existing systems to applications where its simplicity makes it competitive, the improvement of its energetic performances (refrigerating power and range of temperatures of use), and the development of numerical models in order to better understand the functioning of the system and to optimize it. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  6. Flow patterns during refrigerant condensation in smooth and enhanced tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Ing. The Montreal Protocol led to the phasing-out of ozone layer depleting refrigerants and replacing them with more environmentally friendly refrigerants, which in many cases caused heat transfer degradation in heat exchanger equipment. To make up for the heat transfer degradation, there was a need for the application of heat transfer enhancement techniques. One such technique is the use of micro-fin tubes as opposed to traditional smooth tubes. The purpose of this study is to develop a...

  7. Useful scaling parameters for the pulse tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    A set of dimensionless scaling parameters for use in correlating performance data for Pulse Tube Refrigerators is presented. The dimensionless groups result after scaling the mass and energy conservation equations, and the equation of motion for an axisymmetric, two-dimensional ideal gas system. Allowed are viscous effects and conduction heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall. The scaling procedure results in reducing the original 23 dimensional variables to a set of 11 dimensionless scaling groups. Dimensional analysis is used to verify that the 11 dimensionless groups obtained is the minimum number needed to describe the system. The authors also examine 6 limiting cases which progressively reduce the number of dimensionless groups from 11 to 3. The physical interpretation of the parameters are described, and their usefulness is outlined for understanding how heat transfer and mass streaming affect ideal enthalpy flow

  8. Condensation of nano-refrigerant inside a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Milad; Sadoughi, M. K.; Sheikholeslami, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, condensing pressure drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid inside a tube is studied. Isobutene was selected as the base fluid while CuO nanoparticles were utilized to prepare nano-refrigerant. However, for the feasibility of nanoparticle dispersion into the refrigerant, Polyester oil (POE) was utilized as lubricant oil and added to the pure refrigerant by 1% mass fraction. Various values of mass flux, vapor quality, concentration of nanoparticle are investigated. Results indicate that adding nanoparticles leads to enhance frictional pressure drop. Nanoparticles caused larger pressure drop penalty at relatively lower vapor qualities which may be attributed to the existing condensation flow pattern such that annular flow is less influenced by nanoparticles compared to intermittent flow regime.

  9. Evaporation of new refrigerants on tubes with improved surfaces; Evaporation de nouveaux refrigerants sur des tubes a surface amelioree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, N.; Favrat, D.; Thome, J. R.; Nidegger, E.; Zuercher, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d` Energetique Industrielle (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-07-15

    The substitution of old refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, request a good knowledge of heat transfer properties of substitute fluids. The test measurements in LENI test facility (concentric tubes with water flowing in a counter-current flow) with new refrigerants like HFC134a, HCFC123, R-404A, R-402A, have established a new data bank with new refrigerants, a comparison with old refrigerants like CFC11, CFC12 CFC/HCFC502 and with existent correlations. Correlations were programmed to calculate and compare heat transfer coefficient during the tests. To develop a new correlation based on flow regimes, a high speed Sony video tape camera is used to observe and identify flow patterns. Important images are captured, digitalized, stored for later analysis and sent to a color plotter. Several flow pattern maps were programmed and compared to flow regimes observed on the test rig. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for HFC134a and HCFC123 evaporating inside a microfin tube. In addition, microfin heat transfer augmentation relative to plain tube test data was investigated. The presence of oil in the evaporator has an effect on heat transfer coefficient. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for refrigerant HFC134a-oil ester (Mobil EAL Arctic 68). A new thermodynamic approach for modeling mixtures of refrigerants and lubricating oils is developed. A very high accuracy, straight vibrating tube type of density flowmeter is used to measure oil concentrations of flowing HFC134a-oil mixtures. (author) 28 figs., 25 refs.

  10. Assessment of corrosion failure in copper tube of refrigerator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Harun; Hafizal Yazid; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamamd Jalil

    2007-01-01

    The copper tubes of the refrigerator unit have been coated with red and white color paints. According to the date of purchase and complaint recorded, the tube leaked after operation about one year. It was observed that the tubes became black and green in color at U-bend of the tube. No corrosion occurred on the internal surface of the tube. The leaking started at outer surface of the tube. The leaking started at outer surface and propagated to the internal surface of the tubes. The leaking damage was caused by corrosive species either from atmospheric corrosion or the paint contained chloride and sulfur elements. The corrosive species of sulfur and chlorine were a main factor in pitting corrosion. (author)

  11. Thermodynamical aspects of pulse tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Steijaert, P.P.; Gijzen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The cooling power of cryocoolers is determined by the work done by the compressor and the entropy produced by the irreversible processes in the various components of the system. In this paper we discuss the thermodynamics of pulse tubes, but many of the relationships are equally valid for other

  12. Review of numerical simulation of capillary tube using refrigerant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la UNAM, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-05-01

    A detailed one-dimensional steady and transient state numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of capillary tube expansion devices considering metastable region and working with pure and mixed refrigerants has been developed and presented in previous works [Appl. Therm. Eng. 22 (2002) 173; Appl. Therm. Eng. 22 (2002) 379]. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step-by-step method. Due to the changes observed in the thermo-physical properties of mixtures using REFPROP v7.0 [Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties, NIST Standard Reference Database 23, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA, 2002] compared to REFPROP v5.0 [NIST Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants and Refrigerant Mixtures Database, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA (February 1996)]; an extensive comparison of the numerical simulation developed with experimental data presented in the technical literature will be shown in order to demonstrate the accuracy of this detailed model. Finally, refrigerant-specific rating charts to predict in an easy way R-407C flow rates through adiabatic capillary tube are shown and used. (author)

  13. Review of numerical simulation of capillary tube using refrigerant mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed one-dimensional steady and transient state numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of capillary tube expansion devices considering metastable region and working with pure and mixed refrigerants has been developed and presented in previous works [Appl. Therm. Eng. 22 (2002) 173; Appl. Therm. Eng. 22 (2002) 379]. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step-by-step method. Due to the changes observed in the thermo-physical properties of mixtures using REFPROP v7.0 [Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties, NIST Standard Reference Database 23, Gaithersbug, MD 20899, USA, 2002] compared to REFPROP v5.0 [NIST Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants and Refrigerant Mixtures Database, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersbug, MD 20899, USA (February 1996)]; an extensive comparison of the numerical simulation developed with experimental data presented in the technical literature will be shown in order to demonstrate the accuracy of this detailed model. Finally, refrigerant-specific rating charts to predict in an easy way R-407C flow rates through adiabatic capillary tube are shown and used

  14. Taguchi Method for Development of Mass Flow Rate Correlation Using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Mixture in Capillary Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaimon, Shodiya; Nasution, Henry; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Abdul-Rahman, Abdul-Halim; Darus, Amer N

    2014-01-01

    The capillary tube is an important control device used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems such as window air-conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers. This paper develops a non-dimensional correlation based on the test results of the adiabatic capillary tube for the mass flow rate through the tube using a hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture of 89.3% propane and 10.7% butane (HCM). The Taguchi method, a statistical experimental design approach, was employed. This approach e...

  15. Simulation of shell-and-tube condensers of the refrigerating machines with superheated and subcooled refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    1994-01-01

    Opposite to many authors who found the simulation of the shell-and-tube condensers on the condensing process only, in this work all thermodynamic processes which appear such as: the process of cooling the superheated refrigerant to the saturated vapor, the process of condensation and option with subcooling are considered. A selection of heat transfer equations is made corresponding to the processes, a mathematical model and adequate computer programme are composed. The functioning of this programme is presented on a concrete example. A computer programing knowledge for the using programme is not necessary. Neither is a programme support. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of a pulse tube engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldenhauer, Stefan; Thess, André; Holtmann, Christoph; Fernández-Aballí, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical model of the pulse tube engine process. ► Proof that the heat transfer in the pulse tube is out of phase with the gas velocity. ► Proof that a free piston operation is possible. ► Clarifying the thermodynamic working principle of the pulse tube engine. ► Studying the influence of design parameters on the engine performance. - Abstract: The pulse tube engine is an innovative simple heat engine based on the pulse tube process used in cryogenic cooling applications. The working principle involves the conversion of applied heat energy into mechanical power, thereby enabling it to be used for electrical power generation. Furthermore, this device offers an opportunity for its wide use in energy harvesting and waste heat recovery. A numerical model has been developed to study the thermodynamic cycle and thereby help to design an experimental engine. Using the object-oriented modeling language Modelica, the engine was divided into components on which the conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy were applied. These components were linked via exchanged mass and enthalpy. The resulting differential equations for the thermodynamic properties were integrated numerically. The model was validated using the measured performance of a pulse tube engine. The transient behavior of the pulse tube engine’s underlying thermodynamic properties could be evaluated and studied under different operating conditions. The model was used to explore the pulse tube engine process and investigate the influence of design parameters.

  17. Correlation of refrigerant mass flow rate through adiabatic capillary tubes using mixture refrigerant carbondioxide and ethane for low temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasruddin, Syaka, Darwin R. B.; Alhamid, M. Idrus

    2012-06-01

    Various binary mixtures of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons, especially propane or ethane, as alternative natural refrigerants to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or Hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) are presented in this paper. Their environmental performance is friendly, with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero and Global-warming potential (GWP) smaller than 20. The capillary tube performance for the alternative refrigerant HFC HCand mixed refrigerants have been widely studied. However, studies that discuss the performance of the capillary tube to a mixture of natural refrigerants, in particular a mixture of azeotrope carbon dioxide and ethane is still undeveloped. A method of empirical correlation to determine the mass flow rate and pipe length has an important role in the design of the capillary tube for industrial refrigeration. Based on the variables that effect the rate of mass flow of refrigerant in the capillary tube, the Buckingham Pi theorem formulated eight non-dimensional parameters to be developed into an empirical equations correlation. Furthermore, non-linear regression analysis used to determine the co-efficiency and exponent of this empirical correlation based on experimental verification of the results database.

  18. Condensation of pure and near-azeotropic refrigerants in microfin tubes: A new computational procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, A; Del Col, D; Mancin, S; Rossetto, L [Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, Padova 35131 (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Microfin tubes are widely used in air cooled and water cooled heat exchangers for heat pump and refrigeration applications during condensation or evaporation of refrigerants. In order to design heat exchangers and to optimize heat transfer surfaces, accurate procedures for computing pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients are necessary. This paper presents a new simple model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient to be applied to condensation in horizontal microfin tubes of halogenated and natural refrigerants, pure fluids or nearly azeotropic mixtures. The updated model accounts for refrigerant physical properties, two-phase flow patterns in microfin tubes and geometrical characteristics of the tubes. It is validated against a data bank of 3115 experimental heat transfer coefficients measured in different independent laboratories all over the world including diverse inside tube geometries and different condensing refrigerants among which R22, R134a, R123, R410A and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  19. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models

  20. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal microfin tubes: comparison of prediction methods for heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H S; Honda, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    2003-06-01

    A comparison was made between the predictions of previously proposed empirical correlations and theoretical model and available experimental data for the heat transfer coefficient during condensation of refrigerants in horizontal microfin tubes. The refrigerants tested were R11, R123, R134a, R22 and R410A. Experimental data for six tubes with the tube inside diameter at fin root of 6.49-8.8 8 mm, the fin height of 0.16-0.24 mm, fin pitch of 0.34-0.53 mm and helix angle of groove of 12-20{sup o} were adopted. The r.m.s. error of the predictions for all tubes and all refrigerants decreased in the order of the correlations proposed by Luu and Bergies [ASHRAE Trans. 86 (1980) 293], Cavallini et al. Condensation of new refrigerants inside smooth and enhanced tubes. In: Proc. 19th Int. Cong. Refrigeration, vol. IV, Hague, The Netherlands, 1995. p. 105-114, Shikazono et al. [Trans. Jap. Sco. Mech. Engrs. 64 (1995) 196], Kedzierski and Goncalves [J. Enhanced Heat Transfer 6 (1999) 16], Yu and Koyama [Yu J, Koyama S. Condensation heat transfer of pure refrigerants in microfin tubes. In: Proc. Int. Refrigeration Conference at Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, USA, 1998. p. 325-330], and the theoretical model proposed by Wang et al. [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 1513]. (author)

  1. Evaporation of refrigerant HFC 407C on plain tubes or at an improved surface; Evaporation du refrigerant HFC 407C sur des tubes lisses ou a surface amelioree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuercher, O.; Favrat, D.; Thome, J. R.; Kattan, N.; Nidegger, E. [Ecole polytechnique federale, Lab. d` energetique industrielle, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-11-15

    The substitution of CFC refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, requires good methods for predicting heat transfer of substitute fluids. The measurements in the LENI test facility (concentric tubes with water flowing in a counter-current flow) with HFC 407C, HFC 134a, HCFC 123, HFC 404a and HFC/HCFC 402A provide a new data bank for new refrigerants, and allow a coherent comparison with old refrigerants CFC 11, CFC 12, CFC/HCFC 502 and with existing correlations. The existing correlations were found to be inadequate. Because of this work, an improved flow pattern map and flow boiling model were developed, which resulted in a substantial progress in the accurate predict of heat transfer in plain, horizontal tubes for refrigerants without oil. The Kattan et al. correlation was programmed to calculate and compare predicted heat transfer coefficients to the new HFC 407C test data. The flow pattern map proposed by Kattan et al. was also programmed and compared to flow regimes observed for HFC 407C. It predicted the HFC 407C flow pattern data quite accurately. The original objective of the HFC 407C measurements was the validation of the Kattan et al. correlation applied to a zeotropic refrigerant blend. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for HFC 407C evaporating inside a microfin and a plain tube. In addition, microfin heat transfer augmentation relative to a plain tube was investigated. The presence of oil in the evaporator had a complex effect on heat transfer coefficients. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for refrigerant HFC 407C ester oil mixtures (Mobil EAL Arctic 68). A new thermodynamic approach for modeling mixtures of zeotropic refrigerant blends and lubricating oils was also developed. (author) figs., tabs., 14 refs.

  2. Air liquide's space pulse tube cryocooler systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed with ESA funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA), is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc… The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  3. Pulse tube coolers for Meteosat third generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald; Chassaing, Clement; Debray, Benoît; Huguet, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Air Liquide's Large Pulse Tube Coolers (LPTC) will be used to cool the focal planes of the Infrared Sounder (IRS) and Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) instruments aboard the ESA/Eumetsat satellites Meteosat Third Generation (MTG). This cooler consists of an opposed piston linear compressor driving a pulse tube cold head and the associated drive electronics including temperature regulation and vibration cancellation algorithms. Preparations for flight qualification of the cooler are now underway. In this paper we present results of the optimization and qualification activities as well as an update on endurance testing

  4. Contribution to the heat transfer analysis of substitute refrigerants in evaporator tubes with smooth or enhanced tube surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, N

    1997-12-31

    The substitution of CFC refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, requests a good knowledge of heat transfer properties of substitute fluids. A new test facility has been built at the Laboratory for Industrial Energy Systems (LENI) to contribute to this international effort. It consists of two sets of concentric tubes allowing either annular or inside tube convective boiling with a counter current water flow heating to be studied. A new data base including heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop measurements for four new refrigerants (R123, R134A, R402A and R404A) and three older refrigerants (R11, R12 and R502) has been collected. Flow boiling measurements covered a broad range of mass velocities, vapor qualities and heat fluxes. Some of the tests included plain tubes and others enhanced surface tubes (microfilms from Wieland) in horizontal and vertical orientations. An improved Wilson plot technique, that covers both the transition and turbulent flow regimes of the water flowing in the annular channel for the inside tube boiling tests, is proposed to overcome the severe limitations of conventional Wilson plots, to improve accuracy and to facilitate data processing. Mean flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for R12 and R134A evaporating inside a horizontal plain tube and for R11 and R123 evaporating inside a horizontal plain tube. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for : R134A, R123, R404A and R502 evaporating inside a horizontal plain tube, for R134A and R123 evaporating inside a horizontal microfin tube and for R134 evaporating inside a vertical microfin tube. In addition microfin heat transfer augmentation relative to plain tube test data was investigated. The measured heat transfer coefficients were compared to different existing inside tube flow boiling correlations. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. Tube welding by the pulsed tig method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, N.T.

    1973-01-01

    During the construction of the helical wound boiler pods for the AGR stations at Hartlepool and Heysham, automatic TIG-welding techniques were used. In some cases limited access excluded the use of wire feed techniques and autogenous techniques had to be used. To resolve the problem of excessive concavity which occurred when using constant current autogenous techniques on 14.5 mm OD mild steel tubes of 1.8 mm thickness, pulsed-TIG welding was applied. By modifying the trailing edge of the pulse to produce a crater fill with each pulse, susceptibility to porosity and solidification cracking was reduced. The incorporation of digital counter permitted pulse duration, background duration, and electrode indexing distance to be monitored. (U.K.)

  6. Refrigerant charge, pressure drop, and condensation heat transfer in flattened tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M J; Newell, T A; Chato, J C [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Infante Ferreira, C A [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Laboratory for Refrigeration and Indoor Climate Control

    2003-06-01

    Horizontal smooth and microfinned copper tubes with an approximate diameter of 9 mm were successively flattened in order to determine changes in flow field characteristics as a round tube is altered into a flattened tube profile. Refrigerants R134a and R410A were investigated over a mass flux range from 75 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -}2{sup 1} and a quality range from approximately 10-80%. For a given refrigerant mass flow rate, the results show that a significant reduction in refrigerant charge is possible. Pressure drop results show increases of pressure drop at a given mass flux and quality as a tube profile is flattened. Heat transfer results indicate enhancement of the condensation heat transfer coefficient as a tube is flattened. Flattened tubes with an 18{sup o} helix angle displayed the highest heat transfer coefficients. Smooth tubes and axial microfin tubes displayed similar levels of heat transfer enhancement. Heat transfer enhancement is dependent on the mass flux, quality and tube profile. (author)

  7. Raytheon Stirling/pulse Tube Cryocooler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Hon, R. C.; Kesler, C. H.; Roberts, T.

    2008-03-01

    The first generation flight-design Stirling/pulse tube "hybrid" two-stage cryocooler has entered initial performance and environmental testing. The status and early results of the testing are presented. Numerous improvements have been implemented as compared to the preceding brassboard versions to improve performance, extend life, and enhance launch survivability. This has largely been accomplished by incorporating successful flight-design features from the Raytheon Stirling one-stage cryocooler product line. These design improvements are described. In parallel with these mechanical cryocooler development efforts, a third generation electronics module is being developed that will support hybrid Stirling/pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. Improvements relative to the second generation design relate to improved radiation hardness, reduced parts count, and improved vibration cancellation capability. Progress on the electronics is also presented.

  8. Numerical analysis on the frosting performance of a fin-tube evaporator for a refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moo Yeon; Jang, Yong Hee; Kim, Yong Chan; Lee, Ho Sung

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide numerical and experimental data that can be used to investigate the performance characteristics of a flat plate fin-tube evaporator in household and commercial refrigerators under frosting conditions. Computer simulations with variations of operating conditions such as air inlet temperature, relative humidity, and geometries were performed to find out optimal design parameters of a fin-tube evaporator for household and commercial refrigerators. The tube-by-tube method was used in the simulation and the frost growth model was considered under frosting conditions. The developed analytical model predicted the decreasing rates of heat transfer capacity and air flow rate ratio within ± 10% compared to the experimental results for a refrigerator under real operating conditions. As a result, the frost thickness at 3 .deg. C and 80% is increased 40% than that of -3 .deg. C and 80%, and the frost thickness at 3 .deg. C and 90% is increased 30% than that of 3 .deg. C and 60%. Accordingly, the operating time of the evaporator in the refrigerator was reduced with the increase of the decreasing rate of air flow rate ratio at each condition

  9. Taguchi Method for Development of Mass Flow Rate Correlation using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Mixture in Capillary Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shodiya Sulaimon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The capillary tube is an important control device used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems such as window air-conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers. This paper develops a non-dimensional correlation based on the test results of the adiabatic capillary tube for the mass flow rate through the tube using a hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture of 89.3% propane and 10.7% butane (HCM. The Taguchi method, a statistical experimental design approach, was employed. This approach explores the economic benefit that lies in studies of this nature, where only a small number of experiments are required and yet valid results are obtained. Considering the effects of the capillary tube geometry and the inlet condition of the tube, dimensionless parameters were chosen. The new correlation was also based on the Buckingham Pi theorem. This correlation predicts 86.67% of the present experimental data within a relative deviation of -10% to +10%. The predictions by this correlation were also compared with results in published literature.

  10. Condensation heat transfer coefficients of flammable refrigerants on various enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jung; Jung, Dong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In this study, external condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTCs) of six flammable refrigerants of propylene (R1270), propane (R290), isobutane (R600a), butane (R600), dimethylether (RE170), and HFC32 were measured at the vapor temperature of 39 .deg. C on a 1023 fpm low fin and turbo-C tubes. All data were taken under the heat flux of 32∼116 and 42∼142 kW/m 2 for the low fin and turbo-C tubes respectively. Flammable refrigerants' data obtained on enhanced tubes showed a typical trend that external condensation HTCs decrease with increasing wall subcooling. HFC32 and DME showed up to 30% higher HTCs than those of HCFC22 due to their excellent thermophysical properties. Propylene, propane, isobutane, and butane showed similar or lower HTCs than those of HCFC22. Beatty and Katz' correlation predicted the HTCs of the flammable refrigerants obtained on a low fin tube within a mean deviation of 7.3%. Turbo-C tube showed the best performance due to its 3 dimensional surface geometry for fast removal of condensate

  11. Heat transfer correlations for evaporation of refrigerant mixtures flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan [School of Energy Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, 58 Yanta Street, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yuan, Xiuling [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Based on the experimental results of R417A flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes, the present work deals with the development of prediction methods for evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant mixtures in microfin tube. The microfin model by Thome et al. is modified by adjusting the convective heat transfer term, and the other microfin model is developed by introducing the enhancement factor into the modified-Kattan model. The comparison of the calculations by several microfin models and the experimental results reveals that the new microfin models developed at the present study are in much better agreement with the experimental results with the reducing average deviation by 30-50% than the models by Thome et al. and Cavallini et al., and are recommended for the prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficients for non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures inside microfin tubes. (author)

  12. Heat transfer correlations for evaporation of refrigerant mixtures flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoyan, Zhang [School of Energy Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, 58 Yanta Street, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)], E-mail: gqzxy@sohu.com; Xiuling, Yuan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Based on the experimental results of R417A flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes, the present work deals with the development of prediction methods for evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant mixtures in microfin tube. The microfin model by Thome et al. is modified by adjusting the convective heat transfer term, and the other microfin model is developed by introducing the enhancement factor into the modified-Kattan model. The comparison of the calculations by several microfin models and the experimental results reveals that the new microfin models developed at the present study are in much better agreement with the experimental results with the reducing average deviation by 30-50% than the models by Thome et al. and Cavallini et al., and are recommended for the prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficients for non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures inside microfin tubes.

  13. Heat transfer correlations for evaporation of refrigerant mixtures flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Yuan Xiuling

    2008-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of R417A flowing inside horizontal microfin tubes, the present work deals with the development of prediction methods for evaporation heat transfer of refrigerant mixtures in microfin tube. The microfin model by Thome et al. is modified by adjusting the convective heat transfer term, and the other microfin model is developed by introducing the enhancement factor into the modified-Kattan model. The comparison of the calculations by several microfin models and the experimental results reveals that the new microfin models developed at the present study are in much better agreement with the experimental results with the reducing average deviation by 30-50% than the models by Thome et al. and Cavallini et al., and are recommended for the prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficients for non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures inside microfin tubes

  14. Studies on capillary tube expansion device used in J-T refrigerators operating with nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish Kruthiventi, S. S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-10-01

    Capillary tube expansion devices are used extensively in small closed cycle J-T refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures due to its low cost and the absence of any moving parts. It is possible for J-T refrigerators operating with mixtures that the velocity of refrigerant mixture at capillary tube outlet reaches a value where it equals the speed of sound at certain conditions. The variation of the speed of sound of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures used in J-T refrigerators has been studied in two phase (vapour-liquid) and three-phase (Vapour-liquid-liquid) region as a function of temperature and pressure in this work. Also the conditions under which choking occurs in practical J-T refrigerators is investigated.

  15. Numerical simulation of tubes-in-tube heat exchanger in a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, R. M.; Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MRJT) cryocoolers can produce cryogenic temperatures with high efficiency and low operating pressures. As compared to the high system pressures of around 150-200 bar with nitrogen, the operational pressures with non-azeotropic mixtures (e.g., nitrogen-hydrocarbons) come down to 10-25 bar. With mixtures, the heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger takes place in the two-phase region. The simultaneous boiling and condensation of the cold and hot gas streams lead to higher heat transfer coefficients as compared to single phase heat exchange. The two-phase heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger drastically affects the performance of a MRJT cryocooler. In this work, a previously reported numerical model for a simple tube-in-tube heat exchanger is extended to a multi tubes-in-tube heat exchanger with a transient formulation. Additionally, the J-T expansion process is also considered to simulate the cooling process of the heat exchanger from ambient temperature conditions. A tubes-in-tube heat exchanger offers more heat transfer area per unit volume resulting in a compact design. Also, the division of flow in multiple tubes reduces the pressure drop in the heat exchanger. Simulations with different mixtures of nitrogen-hydrocarbons are carried out and the numerical results are compared with the experimental data.

  16. Status of pulse tube development at CEA/SBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravex, A.; Rolland, P.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in the pulse tube comes from its potential for high reliability and low level of induced vibration. A numerical model has been developed to provide a tool for practical design. It has been successfully validated against the experimental results obtained with a single stage double inlet pulse tube which has achieved a temperature of 28 K at a frequency of a few Hz. Further developments have demonstrated the capability of operating a pulse tube at higher frequencies in association with a Stirling pressure oscillator. Current projects include coaxial geometry for miniature pulse tubes with linear resonant pressure oscillators. A 4 K multistaged pulse tube is also in development. (authors). 5 figs., 12 refs

  17. Heat and mass transfer prediction of binary refrigerant mixtures condensing in a horizontal microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shigeru; Yu, Jian; Ishibashi, Akira

    1999-07-01

    In the face of the phase-out of HCFC22 for its effect on globe environment, the alternative refrigerant has been paid attention in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. In the present stage, it is found that any pure refrigerant is not a good substitute of HCFC22 for the system in use. The authors have to use binary or ternary refrigerant mixtures as the substitute to meet industrial requirement. But until now, although the heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerant mixtures can be measured in experiments and predicted in some degree, the mass transfer characteristics in condensation process, which is a main part in most systems, can not be clarified by both experimental and theoretical methods. In the present study a non-equilibrium model for condensation of binary refrigerant mixtures inside a horizontal microfin tube is proposed. In this model it is assumed that the phase equilibrium is only established at the vapor-liquid interface, while the bulk vapor and the bulk liquid are in non-equilibrium in the same cross section. The mass transfer characteristic in vapor core is obtained from the analogy between mass and momentum transfer. In the liquid layer, the mass fraction distribution is neglected, but the mass transfer coefficient is treated as infinite that can keep a finite value for the mass transfer rate in liquid phase. From the calculation results compared with the experimental ones for the condensation of HFC134a/HCFC123 and HCFC22/CFC114 mixtures, it is found that the calculated heat flux distribution along the tube axis is in good agreement with that of experiment, and the calculated values of condensing length agree well with the experimental ones. Using the present model, the local mass faction distribution, the diffusion mass transfer rate and the mass transfer characteristics in both vapor and liquid phase are demonstrated. From these results, the effect of mass transfer resistance on condensation heat transfer characteristics for binary

  18. Suppression of acoustic streaming in tapered pulse tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    In a pulse tube cryocooler, the gas in the pulse tube can be thought of as an insulating piston, transmitting pressure and velocity from the cold heat exchanger to the hot end of the pulse tube. Unfortunately, convective heat transfer can carry heat from the hot end to the cold end and reduce the net cooling power. Here, the authors discuss one driver of such convection: steady acoustic streaming as generated by interactions between the boundary and the oscillating pressure, velocity, and temperature. Using a perturbation method, they have derived an analytical expression for the streaming in a tapered pulse tube with axially varying mean temperature in the acoustic boundary layer limit. The calculations showed that the streaming depends strongly on the taper angle, the ratio of velocity and pressure amplitudes, and the phase between the velocity and pressure, but it depends only weakly on the mean temperature profile and is independent of the overall oscillatory amplitude. With the appropriate tapering of the tube, streaming can be eliminated for a particular operating condition. Experimentally, the authors have demonstrated that an orifice pulse tube cryocooler with the calculated zero-streaming taper has more cooling power than one with either a cylindrical tube or a tapered pulse tube with twice the optimum taper angle

  19. Convective boiling performance of refrigerant R-134a in herringbone and microfin copper tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandarra Filho, Enio P [Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2160 Bloco 1M, Santa Monica, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Saiz Jabardo, Jose M [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Calle Mendizabal s/n, 15403 Ferrol, Espana (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of convective boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of refrigerant R-134a in smooth, standard microfin and herringbone copper tubes of 9.52mm external diameter. Tests have been conducted under the following conditions: inlet saturation temperature of 5{sup o}C, qualities from 5 to 90%, mass velocity from 100 to 500kgs{sup -1}m{sup -2}, and a heat flux of 5kWm{sup -2}. Experimental results indicate that the herringbone tube has a distinct heat transfer performance over the mass velocity range considered in the present study. Thermal performance of the herringbone tube has been found better than that of the standard microfin in the high range of mass velocities, and worst for the smallest mass velocity (G=100kgs{sup -1}m{sup -2}) at qualities higher than 50%. The herringbone tube pressure drop is higher than that of the standard microfin tube over the whole range of mass velocities and qualities. The enhancement parameter is higher than one for both tubes for mass velocities lower than 200kgs{sup -1}m{sup -2}. Values lower than one have been obtained for both tubes in the mass velocity upper range as a result of a significant pressure drop increment not followed by a correspondent increment in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  20. Structure optimization and performance experiments of a solar-powered finned-tube adsorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Fan, Jieqing; Zhang, Peng; Luo, Bin; Wang, Liuling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New-structure finned-tube adsorption bed for enhancing heat and mass transfer. • Temperatures on different parts of the adsorption tubes differ little. • Maximum COP of 0.122 and maximum daily ice-making of 6.5 kg are achieved by experiments. • Cooling efficiency of system with valve control higher than that without valve control. - Abstract: A large-diameter aluminum-alloy finned-tube absorbent bed collector was designed and optimized by enhancing the heat and mass transfer in the collector. The collection efficiency of the adsorbent bed collector was between 31.64% and 42.7%, and the temperature distribution in the absorbent bed was relatively uniform, beneficial to adsorption/desorption of the adsorbate in the absorbent bed. A solar-powered solid adsorption refrigeration system with the finned-tube absorbent bed collector was built. Some experiments corresponding to the adsorption/desorption process with and without a valve control were conducted in four typical weather conditions: sunny with clear sky, sunny with partly cloudy sky, cloudy sky and overcast sky. Activated carbon–methanol was utilized as the working pair for adsorption refrigeration in the experiments. The experiments achieved the maximum COP of 0.122 and the maximum daily ice-making of 6.5 kg. Under the weather conditions of sunny with clear sky, sunny with partly cloudy sky, and cloudy sky, ice-making phenomenon were observed. Even in the overcast-sky weather condition, the cooling efficiency of the system still reached 0.039 when the total solar radiation was 11.51 MJ. The cooling efficiency of the solar-powered adsorption refrigeration system with a valve control in the adsorption/desorption process was significantly higher than that without a valve control

  1. Condensation heat transfer for refrigerant-oil mixtures in microfin tube condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K N [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Tae, S J [Sungkyunkwan University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Condensation heat transfer experiments for R-22 and R-407 C refrigerants mixed with mineral oil and POE oil respectively were performed in straight and U-bend sections of a microfin tube. Experimental parameters were an oil concentration from 0 to 5 %, a mass flux from 100 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}s and an inlet quality from 0.5 to 0.9. The enhancement factors for R-22 and R-407 C refrigerants at the first straight section decreased continuously as the oil concentration increased. They decreased rapidly as the mass maximum at the 90 deg. position. The heat transfer coefficients at the second straight section within the dimensionless length of 48 were larger by a maximum of 33 % than the average heat transfer coefficients at the first straight section. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. SOLAR REFRIGERATING UNIT WITH AN ADSORPTION REACTOR AND EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Vieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactor, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected for the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system

  3. Study of low vibration 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingyao; Nakano, Kyosuke; Saito, Motokazu; Takayama, Hirokazu; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Maruyama, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been continuously improving the efficiency and reducing the vibration of a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. One advantage of a pulse tube cryocooler over a GM cryocooler is low vibration. In order to reduce vibration, both the displacement and the acceleration have to be reduced. The vibration acceleration can be reduced by splitting the valve unit from the cold head. One simple way to reduce vibration displacement is to increase the wall thickness of the tubes on the cylinder. However, heat conduction loss increases while the wall thickness increases. To overcome this dilemma, a novel concept, a tube with non-uniform wall thickness, is proposed. Theoretical analysis of this concept, and the measured vibration results of an SHI lowvibration pulse tube cryocooler, will be introduced in this paper.

  4. Experimental analysis of refrigerants flow boiling inside small sized microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diani, Andrea; Rossetto, Luisa

    2017-07-01

    The refrigerant charge reduction is one of the most challenging issues that the scientific community has to cope to reduce the anthropic global warming. Recently, mini microfin tubes have been matter of research, since they can reach better thermal performance in small domains, leading to a further refrigerant charge reduction. This paper presents experimental results about R134a flow boiling inside a microfin tube having an internal diameter at the fin tip of 2.4 mm. The mass flux was varied between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat flux from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapor quality from 0.10 to 0.99. The saturation temperature at the inlet of the test section was kept constant and equal to 30 °C. R134a thermal and fluid dynamic performances are presented and compared against those obtained with R1234ze(E) and R1234yf and against values obtained during R134a flow boiling inside a 3.4 mm ID microfin tube.

  5. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc [SBT, UMR-E CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Daniel, Christophe [CNES, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse, F-31401 (France)

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  6. A Correlation for Forced Convective Boiling Heat Transfer of Refrigerants in a Microfin Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoki, Satoru; Yu, Jian; Koyama, Shigeru; Fujii, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    The experimental study is reported on the forced convective boiling of pure refrigerants HCFC22, HFC134a and HCFC123 flowing in a horizontal microfin tube. The local heat transfer coefficient defined based on the actual inside surface area is measured in the ranges of mass velocity of 200 to 400 kg/m2s, heat flux of 5 to 64 kW/m2 and reduced pressure of 0.07 to 0.24. Using the Chen-type model, a new correlation for microfin tubes is proposed considering the enhancement effect of microfins on both the convective heat transfer and the nucleate boiling components. In the convective heat transfer component, the correlation to predict the heat transfer coefficient of liquid-only flow is determined from preliminary experiments on single-phase flow in microfin tubes, and the two-phase flow enhancement factor is determined from the present experimental data. For the nucleate boiling component, the correlation of Takamatsu et al. for smooth tube is modified. The prediction of the present correlation agrees well with present experimental data, and is available for several microfin tubes which were tested by other researchers.

  7. Evaporation of new refrigerants on tube with improved surfaces. Final report. Appendices: A, B, C, D, E and F; Evaporation de nouveaux refrigerants sur des tubes a surface amelioree. Rapport final. Annexes: A, B, C, D, E et F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, N.; Favrat, D.; Thome, J. R.; Nidegger, E.; Zuercher, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d` Energetique Industrielle (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-07-15

    The substitution of old refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, request a good knowledge of heat transfer properties of substitute fluids. The test measurements in LENI test facility (concentric tubes with water flowing in a counter-current flow) with new refrigerants like HFC134a, HCFC123, R-402A, have established a new data bank with new refrigerants, a comparison with old refrigerants like CFC11, CFC12 CFC/HCFC502 and with existent correlations. Correlations were programmed to calculate and compare heat transfer coefficient during the tests. To develop a new correlation based on flow regimes, a high speed Sony video tape camera is used to observe and identify flow patterns. Important images are captured, digitalized, stored for later analysis and sent to a color plotter. Several flow pattern maps were programmed and compared to flow regimes observed on the test rig. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for HFC134a and HCFC123 evaporating inside a microfin tube. In addition, microheat transfer augmentation relative to plain tube test data was investigated. The presence of oil in the evaporator has an effect on heat transfer coefficient. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for refrigerant HFC134a-oil ester (Mobil EAL Arctic 68). A new thermodynamic approach for modeling mixtures of refrigerants and lubricating oils is developed. A very high accuracy, straight vibrating tube type of density flowmeter is used to measure oil concentrations of flowing HFC134a-oil mixtures. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  9. Performance characterization of the TRW 35K pulse tube cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Smedley, G.T.; Ross, R.G. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The TRW 35K pulse tube cooler is configured as an integral cooler, with the pulse tube attached perpendicular to a pair of compressors operating into a common compression chamber. The cooler was optimized for 35K operation and has a nominal cooling capacity of 850 mW at 35 K with a cooler input power of 200 W. It also provides 2 W of cooling at 60 K for 90 W of input power. The cooler was extensively characterized by JPL, measuring the thermal performance and the cooler-generated vibration and EMI as a function of piston stroke and offset position. The thermal performance was found to be quite sensitive to the piston offset position. The pulse tube parasitic conduction levels were also measured and shown to have a strong angular dependence relative to gravity. Magnetic shielding studies were performed to examine radiated magnetic emission levels from compressors with and without shielding

  10. A compact nanosecond pulse generator for DBD tube characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S. K.; Dhakar, A. K.; Pal, U. N.

    2018-03-01

    High voltage pulses of very short duration and fast rise time are required for generating uniform and diffuse plasma under various operating conditions. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) has been generated by high voltage pulses of short duration and fast rise time to produce diffuse plasma in the discharge gap. The high voltage pulse power generators have been chosen according to the requirement for the DBD applications. In this paper, a compact solid-state unipolar pulse generator has been constructed for characterization of DBD plasma. This pulsar is designed to provide repetitive pulses of 315 ns pulse width, pulse amplitude up to 5 kV, and frequency variation up to 10 kHz. The amplitude of the output pulse depends on the dc input voltage. The output frequency has been varied by changing the trigger pulse frequency. The pulsar is capable of generating pulses of positive or negative polarity by changing the polarity of pulse transformer's secondary. Uniform and stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been produced successfully in a xenon DBD tube at 400-mbar pressure using the developed high voltage pulse generator.

  11. Method for estimating off-axis pulse tube losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Taylor, R. P.; Spoor, P. S.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Some Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) exhibit sensitivity to gravitational orientation and often exhibit significant cooling performance losses unless situated with the cold end pointing downward. Prior investigations have indicated that some coolers exhibit sensitivity while others do not; however, a reliable method of predicting the level of sensitivity during the design process has not been developed. In this study, we present a relationship that estimates an upper limit to gravitationally induced losses as a function of the dimensionless pulse tube convection number (NPTC) that can be used to ensure that a PTC would remain functional at adverse static tilt conditions. The empirical relationship is based on experimental data as well as experimentally validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations that examine the effects of frequency, mass flow rate, pressure ratio, mass-pressure phase difference, hot and cold end temperatures, and static tilt angle. The validation of the computational model is based on experimental data collected from six commercial pulse tube cryocoolers. The simulation results are obtained from component-level models of the pulse tube and heat exchangers. Parameter ranges covered in component level simulations are 0-180° for tilt angle, 4-8 for length to diameter ratios, 4-80 K cold tip temperatures, -30° to +30° for mass flow to pressure phase angles, and 25-60 Hz operating frequencies. Simulation results and experimental data are aggregated to yield the relationship between inclined PTC performance and pulse tube convection numbers. The results indicate that the pulse tube convection number can be used as an order of magnitude indicator of the orientation sensitivity, but CFD simulations should be used to calculate the change in energy flow more accurately.

  12. Condensing heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon refrigerants in 9.52 and 12.7 mm smooth tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-In; Lee, Ho-Saeng; Lee, Kwang-Bae; Kim, Jae-Dol; Bansal, Pradeep

    2005-12-01

    Experimental results for heat transfer characteristic and pressure gradients of hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and R-22 during condensing inside horizontal double pipe heat exchangers are presented. The test sections which have one tube diameter of 12.70 mm with 0.86 mm wall thickness, another tube diameter of 9.52 mm with 0.76 mm wall thickness are used for this investigation. The local condensing heat transfer coefficients of HC refrigerants were higher than that of R-22. The average condensing heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase of the mass flux. It showed the higher values in HC refrigerants than R-22. Comparing the heat transfer coefficient of experimental results with that of other correlations, the presented results had a good agreement with most of the Cavallini’s correlations.

  13. Effect of refrigeration lubricants on the heat transfer performance in the microfin tube evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K N; Tae, S J [Sung Kyun Kwan University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigated the defect of refrigeration lubricant on the heat transfer performance in the straight sections and U-bend of a microfin tube evaporator by using R-22/mineral oil and R-407C/POE oil. The apparatus consisted of test section with U-bend, preheater, condenser, oil injection and sampling devices, magnetic pump, mass flow meter etc. The experimental parameters were oil concentration of 0 to 5 wt%, inlet quality of 0.1 to 0.5, mass flux of 219 and 400 kg/m{sup 2}s and heat flux of 10 and 20 kw/m{sup 2}. The effects of parameters on the heat transfer coefficients were large in the order of inlet quality, mass flux and heat flux as oil concentration got increased. As oil concentration was increased, heat transfer coefficients were continuously decreased for R-22 and increased by 3% up to the concentration of 1% and then decreased for R-407C under the condition of large inlet quality, and small mass flux and heat flux. But, the heat transfer coefficients were increased up to the opposite conditions. The variation of enhancement factors for R-407C refrigerants under the opposite conditions. The variation of enhancement factors for R-407C was under 50% of that for R-22 and the variation with respect to the positions in the test section was small. The pressure drops were increased for both R-22 and R-407C refrigerants as oil concentration was increased. The pressure drops for R-407C were smaller by the maximum of 18% than those for R-22. 12 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  14. Depicting mass flow rate of R134a /LPG refrigerant through straight and helical coiled adiabatic capillary tubes of vapor compression refrigeration system using artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2018-07-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation is carried out with R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture for depicting mass flow rate through straight and helical coil adiabatic capillary tubes in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Various experiments were conducted under steady-state conditions, by changing capillary tube length, inner diameter, coil diameter and degree of subcooling. The results showed that mass flow rate through helical coil capillary tube was found lower than straight capillary tube by about 5-16%. Dimensionless correlation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed to predict mass flow rate. It was found that dimensionless correlation and ANN model predictions agreed well with experimental results and brought out an absolute fraction of variance of 0.961 and 0.988, root mean square error of 0.489 and 0.275 and mean absolute percentage error of 4.75% and 2.31% respectively. The results suggested that ANN model shows better statistical prediction than dimensionless correlation model.

  15. Estimation of performance of a J-T refrigerators operating with nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures and a coiled tubes-in-tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Meher, R.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2018-06-01

    The exergy efficiency of Joule-Thomson (J-T) refrigerators operating with mixtures (MRC systems) strongly depends on the choice of refrigerant mixture and the performance of the heat exchanger used. Helically coiled, multiple tubes-in-tube heat exchangers with an effectiveness of over 96% are widely used in these types of systems. All the current studies focus only on the different heat transfer correlations and the uncertainty in predicting performance of the heat exchanger alone. The main focus of this work is to estimate the uncertainty in cooling capacity when the homogenous model is used by comparing the theoretical and experimental studies. The comparisons have been extended to some two-phase models present in the literature as well. Experiments have been carried out on a J-T refrigerator at a fixed heat load of 10 W with different nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures in the evaporator temperature range of 100-120 K. Different heat transfer models have been used to predict the temperature profiles as well as the cooling capacity of the refrigerator. The results show that the homogenous two-phase flow model is probably the most suitable model for rating the cooling capacity of a J-T refrigerator operating with nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures.

  16. Measurement and correlation of frictional pressure drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid flow boiling inside a horizontal smooth tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hao; Ding, Guoliang; Jiang, Weiting; Hu, Haitao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, 381 Huaihaizhong Road, Shanghai 200020 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of nanoparticle on the frictional pressure drop characteristics of refrigerant-based nanofluid flow boiling inside a horizontal smooth tube, and to present a correlation for predicting the frictional pressure drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid. R113 refrigerant and CuO nanoparticle were used for preparing refrigerant-based nanofluid. Experimental conditions include mass fluxes from 100 to 200 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat fluxes from 3.08 to 6.16 kW m{sup -2}, inlet vapor qualities from 0.2 to 0.7, and mass fractions of nanoparticles from 0 to 0.5 wt%. The experimental results show that the frictional pressured drop of refrigerant-based nanofluid increases with the increase of the mass fraction of nanoparticles, and the maximum enhancement of frictional pressure drop is 20.8% under above conditions. A frictional pressure drop correlation for refrigerant-based nanofluid is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within the deviation of {+-}15%. (author)

  17. Analytical Approximation of Spectrum for Pulse X-ray Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S; Fofanof, O; Koshkin, G; Udod, V

    2016-01-01

    Among the main characteristics of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses the spectral energy characteristics are the most important ones: the spectral distribution of the photon energy, effective and maximum energy of quanta. Knowing the spectral characteristics of the radiation of pulse sources is very important for the practical use of them in non-destructive testing. We have attempted on the analytical approximation of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses spectra obtained in the different experimental papers. The results of the analytical approximation of energy spectrum for pulse X-ray tube are presented. Obtained formulas are adequate to experimental data and can be used by designing pulsed X-ray apparatuses. (paper)

  18. On random pressure pulses in the turbine draft tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.; Skripkin, S. G.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The flow in the conical part of the hydroturbine draft tube undergoes various instabilities due to deceleration and flow swirling at off-design operation points. In particular, the precessing vortex rope develops at part-load regimes in the draft tube. This rope induces periodical low-frequency pressure oscillations in the draft tube. Interaction of rotational (asynchronous) mode of disturbances with the elbow can bring to strong oscillations in the whole hydrodynamical system. Recent researches on flow structure in the discharge cone in a regime of free runner had revealed that helical-like vortex rope can be unstable itself. Some coils of helix close to each other and reconnection appears with generation of a vortex ring. The vortex ring moves toward the draft tube wall and downstream. The present research is focused on interaction of vortex ring with wall and generation of pressure pulses.

  19. Performance of large-scale helium refrigerators subjected to pulsed heat load from fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P.; Chowdhury, K. [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2012-07-01

    The immediate effect of pulsed heat load from fusion devices in helium refrigerators is wide variation in mass flow rate of low pressure stream returning to the cold-box. In this paper, a four expander based modified Claude cycle has been analyzed in quasi steady and dynamic simulations using Aspen HYSYS to identify critical equipment that may be affected due to such flow rate fluctuations at the return stream and their transient performance. Additional constraints on process parameters over steady state design have been identified. Suitable techniques for mitigation of fluctuation of return stream have also been explored. (author)

  20. Performance of large-scale helium refrigerators subjected to pulsed heat load from fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P.; Chowdhury, K.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate effect of pulsed heat load from fusion devices in helium refrigerators is wide variation in mass flow rate of low pressure stream returning to the cold-box. In this paper, a four expander based modified Claude cycle has been analyzed in quasi steady and dynamic simulations using Aspen HYSYS to identify critical equipment that may be affected due to such flow rate fluctuations at the return stream and their transient performance. Additional constraints on process parameters over steady state design have been identified. Suitable techniques for mitigation of fluctuation of return stream have also been explored. (author)

  1. Experimental study on a co-axial pulse tube cryocooler driven by a small thermoacoustic stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ju, L. Y.; Hao, H. X.

    2014-01-01

    Small scale thermoacoustic heat engines have advantages in fields like space exploration and domestic applications considering small space occupation and ease of transport. In the present paper, the influence of resonator diameter on the general performance of a small thermoacoustic Stirling engine was experimentally investigated using helium as the working gas. Reducing the diameter of the resonator appropriately is beneficial for lower onset heating temperature, lower frequency and higher pressure amplitude. Based on the pressure distribution in the small thermoacoustic engine, an outlet for the acoustic work transmission was made to combine the engine and a miniature co-axial pulse tube cooler. The cooling performance of the whole refrigeration system without any moving part was tested. Experimental results showed that further efforts are required to optimize the engine performance and its match with the co-axial pulse tube cooler in order to obtain better cooling performance, compared with its original operating condition, driven by a traditional electrical linear compressor.

  2. A miniature pulse tube cryocooler used in a superspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua; Wu, Yinong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a hihg0 frequency pulse tube cryocooler used in a superspectral imager to be launched in 2020. The superspectral imager is a field-dividing optical imaging system and uses 14 sets of integrated IR detector cryocooler dewar assembly. For the requirements of less heat loss an smaller size, each set is highly integrated by directly mounting the IR dectector's sapphire substrate on the pulse tube's cold tip, and welding the dewar's housing to the flange of the cold finger. Driven by a pair of moving magnet linear motors, the dual-opposed piston compressor of the croycooler is running at 120Hz. Filled with customized stainless screens in the regenerator, the cryolooler reaches 8.1% carnot efficiency at the cooling power of 1W@80K with 34Wac input power.

  3. CFD study of a simple orifice pulse tube cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Qiu, L. M.; Gan, Z. H.; He, Y. L.

    2007-05-01

    Pulse tube cooler (PTC) has the advantages of long-life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as G-M and Stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a two-dimensional axis-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM-type simple orifice PTC (OPTC). The detailed modeling process and the general results such as the phase difference between velocity and pressure at cold end, the temperature profiles along the wall as well as the temperature oscillations at cold end with different heat loads are presented. Emphases are put on analyzing the complicated phenomena of multi-dimensional flow and heat transfer in the pulse tube under conditions of oscillating pressure. Swirling flow pattern in the pulse tube is observed and the mechanism of formation is analyzed in details, which is further validated by modeling a basic PTC. The swirl causes undesirable mixing in the thermally stratified fluid and is partially responsible for the poor overall performance of the cooler, such as unsteady cold-end temperature.

  4. The development of a low vibration, long life pulse tube employing flexural bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.B.; Riggle, P.; Gedeon, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a 1/3 watt, 80 K Technology Demonstration Model (TDM) pulse tube cryocooler which has been developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC). The pulse tube expander has no moving parts, making it simpler, more reliable, lower in cost, and lower in vibration than a Stirling expander. The pulse tube expander was designed, built, and tested with SBIR Phase I funding from NASA Ames Research Center. The pulse tube expander was driven using an existing dual opposed compressor module from a TDM Stirling cryocooler. Two numerical models were developed for pulse tube cryocoler design, evaluation, and analysis

  5. Evaporation heat transfer characteristics inside the U-bend of the smooth and the microfin tube using alternative refrigerant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K N [Sung Kyun Kwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B G [Sung Kyun Kwan University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The present work experimentally investigated the effects of mass flux, heat flux, inlet quality on the heat transfer performance inside the U-bend of smooth and microfin tube using R-22 and R-407C refrigerants. The parameters were 200 and 400 kg/m{sup 2} s for mass flux, 6 and 12 kw/m{sup 2} for heat flux, 0.1 and 0.2 for inlet quality under the pressure of 0.65 MPa. The apparatus consisted of the test section of four straight sections and three U-bends, preheater, condenser, refrigerant pump, mass flow meter etc. The average heat transfer coefficient at the downstream straight section after U-bend was affected by U-bend due to the centrifugal force and mixing of two-phase flow in the U-bend. The average heat transfer coefficient at the U-bend was 4{approx}33 % higher than that at the straight section. The average heat transfer coefficients were affected in the order of mass flux, heat flux and inlet quality. The average heat transfer coefficients in the microfin tube were lager by 19{approx}49 % and 33{approx}69 % than that in the smooth tube at the straight section and at the U-bend separately. The average heat transfer coefficients for R-407C were larger by 33{approx}41 % and 17{approx}29% than that for R-22 in the smooth tube and the microfin tube separately. (author). 24 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Identification of critical equipment and determination of operational limits in helium refrigerators under pulsed heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale helium refrigerators are subjected to pulsed heat load from tokamaks. As these plants are designed for constant heat loads, operation under such varying load may lead to instability in plants thereby tripping the operation of different equipment. To understand the behavior of the plant subjected to pulsed heat load, an existing plant of 120 W at 4.2 K and another large-scale plant of 18 kW at 4.2 K have been analyzed using a commercial process simulator Aspen Hysys®. A similar heat load characteristic has been applied in both quasi steady state and dynamic analysis to determine critical stages and equipment of these plants from operational point of view. It has been found that the coldest part of both the cycles consisting JT-stage and its preceding reverse Brayton stage are the most affected stages of the cycles. Further analysis of the above stages and constituting equipment revealed limits of operation with respect to variation of return stream flow rate resulted from such heat load variations. The observations on the outcome of the analysis can be used for devising techniques for steady operation of the plants subjected to pulsed heat load.

  7. Non azeotrope mixing refrigerating fluids condensation outside of an horizontal tubes stack; Condensation de melanges non azeotropes de fluides frigorigenes a l'exterieur d'un faisceau de tubes horizontaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signe, J.Ch.

    1999-04-16

    The development of non-azeotrope mixing, as regular refrigerating fluids substitute, calls in question the experience for the design of refrigerating and cooling machinery. Studies to better understand these fluids behaviour are necessary. The aim of this thesis is the knowledge enlargement on the pure fluids and non azeotrope mixing condensation, outside of a tubes stack, and to simulate the heat transfers. The tubes stack is a condenser, type TEMA X often used in refrigerating machinery. The binary mixing HFC 134a-HFC23, allows a large sliding scale. (A.L.B.)

  8. A pulse tube cryocooler with a cold reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, K. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Gan, Z. H.; Shen, X.; Xiang, S. J.

    2013-02-01

    Phase difference between pressure wave and mass flow is decisive to the cooling capacity of regenerative cryocoolers. Unlike the direct phase shifting using a piston or displacer in conventional Stirling or GM cryocoolers, the pulse tube cyocooler (PTC) indirectly adjusts the cold phase due to the absence of moving parts at the cold end. The present paper proposed and validated theoretically and experimentally a novel configuration of PTC, termed cold reservoir PTC, in which a reservoir together with an adjustable orifice is connected to the cold end of the pulse tube. The impedance from the additional orifice to the cold end helps to increase the mass flow in phase with the pressure wave at the cold end. Theoretical analyses with the linear model for the orifice and double-inlet PTCs indicate that the cooling performance can be improved by introducing the cold reservoir. The preliminary experiments with a home-made single-stage GM PTC further validated the results on the premise of minor opening of the cold-end orifice.

  9. Characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of five refrigerants in horizontal circular small tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamitran, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Choi, Kwang-Il [Graduate School, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Jong-Taek [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Hrnjak, Pega [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, ACRC, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    An experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow pattern transitions and pressure drop of R-22, R-134a, R-410A, R-290 and R-744 in horizontal small stainless steel tubes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mm inner diameters is presented. Experimental data were obtained over a heat flux range of 5-40 kW/m{sup 2}, mass flux range of 50-600 kg/(m{sup 2} s), saturation temperature range of 0-15 C, and quality up to 1.0. Experimental data were evaluated with Wang et al. and Wojtan et al. [Wang, C.C., Chiang, C.S., Lu, D.C., 1997. Visual observation of two-phase flow pattern of R-22, R-134a, and R-407C in a 6.5-mm smooth tube. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 15, 395-405; Wojtan, L., Ursenbacher, T., Thome, J.R., 2005. Investigation of flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part I - a new diabatic two-phase flow pattern map. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 48, 2955-2969.] flow pattern maps. The effects of mass flux, heat flux, saturation temperature and inner tube diameter on the pressure drop of the working refrigerants are reported. The experimental pressure drop was compared with the predictions from some existing correlations. A new two-phase pressure drop model that is based on a superposition model for two-phase flow boiling of refrigerants in small tubes is presented. (author)

  10. Development of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers at SITP for Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Wu, Yinong; Liu, Shaoshuai; Yu, Huiqin; Yang, Baoyu

    2018-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed very high-efficiency pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) for aerospace applications. These PTCs can provide cooling power from milliwatt scale to tens of watts over a range of temperatures from 30 to 170 K and can be used to cool a variety of detectors in space applications (such as quantum interference devices, radiometers and ocean color sensors) that must operate at a specific cryogenic temperature to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity and optical resolution. This paper reviews the development of single-stage PTCs over a range of weights from 1.6 to 12 kg that offer cooling powers at the cold temperature range from 40 to 170 K. In addition, a two-stage 30 K-PTC is under development.

  11. Advances in a high efficiency commercial pulse tube cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Li, Haibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Yang, Zhaohui; Luo, Ercang

    2017-12-01

    The pulse tube cryocooler has the advantage of no moving part at the cold end and offers a high reliability. To further extend its use in commercial applications, efforts are still needed to improve efficiency, reliability and cost effectiveness. This paper generalizes several key innovations in our newest cooler. The cooler consists of a moving magnet compressor with dual-opposed pistons, and a co-axial cold finger. Ambient displacers are employed to recover the expansion work to increase cooling efficiency. Inside the cold finger, the conventional flow straightener screens are replaced by a tapered throat between the cold heat exchanger and the pulse tube to strengthen its immunity to the working gas contamination as well as to simplify the manufacturing processes. The cold heat exchanger is made by copper forging process which further reduces the cost. Inside the compressor, a new gas bearing design has brought in assembling simplicity and running reliability. Besides the cooler itself, electronic controller is also important for actual application. A dual channel and dual driving mode control mechanism has been selected, which reduces the vibration to a minimum, meanwhile the cool-down speed becomes faster and run-time efficiency is higher. With these innovations, the cooler TC4189 reached a no-load temperature of 44 K and provided 15 W cooling power at 80K, with an input electric power of 244 W and a cooling water temperature of 23 ℃. The efficiency reached 16.9% of Carnot at 80 K. The whole system has a total mass of 4.3 kg.

  12. Cycle performance of alternative refrigerants for domestic air-conditioning system based on a small finned tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Song; Wang, Shuangfeng; Liu, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    In order to find alternative refrigerants which exhibit both favorable cycle performance and environmental friendliness, R32 and R290 were utilized to contrast to R22 and R410A as substitutes in the present study. The experiments were conducted with a 5 mm finned tube heat exchanger based on the enthalpy method in a small split household air conditioner. The results showed that in nominal cooling conditions, the COP R of R32 and R290 were 26.8% and 20.4% higher than R22, 7.3% and 2.1% higher than R410A. And in nominal heating conditions, the COP HR of R32 and R290 were both 11.0% higher than R22, 5.3% higher than R410A. The systems with R290 and R32 have similar capacities to that with R22 and R410A in heating mode, but a relatively huge difference of capacities in cooling mode. In consideration of charge amount, R290 could be considered as the most superior alternative refrigerant in air conditioners with the small finned tube heat exchanger. - Highlights: •Comparisons are made in the air conditioner system based on 5 mm tube fin heat exchanger. •The R22 system has a similar performance to others in heating mode while a huge difference in cooling mode. •The optimal charge of R290 is reduced with nearly no decline in the capacity and COP. •SLHX is attached to the system of R290 and successfully promote safety and capacity. •Heat loads are taken into account to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of R290 and R32

  13. Eddy-current inspection of ferromagnetic tubing using pulsed magnetic saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, C V; Deeds, W E

    1986-07-01

    A pulsed eddy-current system has been designed and developed for nondestructive evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo steam generator tubing from the bore side. Since the tubing is ferromagnetic, a large current pulse is sent through a driver coil to produce magnetic saturation all the way through the tube wall. A pickup coil produces an output pulse that is dependent upon the tube properties as well as the driving pulse. The output pulse heights at selected times are used as data that are computer-correlated with calibration data taken from machined standards. Performance data, circuit diagrams, and computer programs are given for the system, which has been demonstrated to detect small flaws located near the outside of a thick ferromagnetic tube.

  14. Research and simulation of intense pulsed beam transfer in electrostatic accelerate tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaolong; Shi Haiquan; Lu Jianqin

    2012-01-01

    To study intense pulsed beam transfer in electrostatic accelerate tube, the matrix method was applied to analyze the transport matrixes in electrostatic accelerate tube of non-intense pulsed beam and intense pulsed beam, and a computer code was written for the intense pulsed beam transporting in electrostatic accelerate tube. Optimization techniques were used to attain the given optical conditions and iteration procedures were adopted to compute intense pulsed beam for obtaining self-consistent solutions in this computer code. The calculations were carried out by using ACCT, TRACE-3D and TRANSPORT for different beam currents, respectively. The simulation results show that improvement of the accelerating voltage ratio can enhance focusing power of electrostatic accelerate tube, reduce beam loss and increase the transferring efficiency. (authors)

  15. Post-Dryout Heat Transfer to a Refrigerant Flowing in Horizontal Evaporator Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Kakimoto, Yasushi; Ohishi, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kenichi

    Studies of the post-dryout heat transfer were made based on the experimental data for HFC-134a flowing in horizontal smooth and spiral1y grooved (micro-fin) tubes and the characteristics of the post-dryout heat transfer were c1arified. The heat transfer coefficient at medium and high mass flow rates in the smooth tube was lower than the single-phase heat transfer coefficient of the superheated vapor flow, of which mass flow rate was given on the assumption that the flow was in a thermodynamic equilibrium. A prediction method of post-dryout heat transfer coefficient was developed to reproduce the measurement satisfactorily for the smooth tube. The post dryout heat transfer in the micro-fin tube can be regarded approximately as a superheated vapor single-phase heat transfer.

  16. Design and test of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyo-Bong; Yeom, Han-Kil; In, Sehwan; Park, Seong-Je

    2017-12-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are very attractive for cooling of diverse application because it has it has several inherent advantages such as no moving part in the cold end, low manufacturing cost and long operation life. To develop the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler, we need to design a linear compressor to drive the pulse tube cryocooler. A moving magnet type linear motor of dual piston configuration is designed and fabricated, and this compressor could be operated with the electric power of 100 W and the frequency up to 60 Hz. A single stage coaxial type pulse tube cold finger aiming at over 1.5 W at 80K is built and tested with the linear compressor. Experimental investigations have been conducted to evaluate their performance characteristics with respect to several parameters such as the phase shifter, the charging pressure and the operating frequency of the linear compressor.

  17. Effect of refrigerant mal-distribution in fin-and-tube evaporators on system performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2009-01-01

    the condenser is a dynamic moving boundary model. The evaporator model is a dynamic distributed one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium model, in order to capture the distribution phenomena. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers usually have a complex circuitry, however the evaporator will be simplified to be two...

  18. Numerical simulation and experimental results of horizontal tube falling film generator working in a NH3-LiNO3 absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.V.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Gomez, V.H.; Best, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the work made at the Centro de Investigacion en Energia in the development of an absorption refrigeration system for cooling and refrigeration applications with a capacity of 10 kW. The single effect unit utilizes ammonia-lithium nitrate as working pair and it is air cooled. The generator is a falling film type with horizontal tubes where the heating oil flows inside the tube bank and the ammonia-lithium nitrate solution flows as a falling film on the tube outside, where it is heated and ammonia vapor is generated. The generator consists of tree columns and four rows per column of horizontal tubes. The system was tested at controlled conditions with heating oil obtained from an electric resistance heating loop. A numerical model of the horizontal falling film generator was developed that divided the system into three different thermal elements: the flow inside the tube, the heat conduction in the tube wall and the falling film solution flow. The mathematical model was tested and validated with experimental data and a study of the influence of the heat transfer coefficient for ammonia-lithium nitrate solution in the numerical model was carried out. A comparison between experimental and numerical data for the heat flux in the system and the temperature profiles in the oil and solution flows shown a good degree of correlation.

  19. Some characteristics of the digitization pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.S.K.; Leung, S.K.; Ng, L.K.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of the digitization output pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes were studied under various operation conditions using square ultra-high voltage pulses. Properties reported by previous workers were compared. Two discharge mechanisms, the Townsend avalanche discharge and the streamer discharge, were observed to occur in sequence in some events. The output waveforms for both discharge mechanisms were studied in detail. The charge induced on a detecting probe was also estimated from the measured data. (Auth.)

  20. Production and guide tube transmission of very cold neutrons from pulsed cold source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuro, Masahiko; Okumura, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The intensity and the energy spectra of Very Cold Neutrons (VCN) transmitted through a curved guide tube were measured by using the time-of-flight method of VCN. In the measurements, the curved guide tube having a characteristic neutron velocity of about 70 m/s is combined to a pulsed cold source of an electron linac in an internal target geometry. A space dependence of the VCN spectra was observed on the radial positions of a detector at the guide tube exit. A simple theoretical analysis on the transmission of VCN in the curved guide tube is also presented with taking into consideration about the effects of a finite size and a finite distance of the VCN-emitting source, and simple analytical formulas for the exit spectra of the guide tube are given. Comparisons between the experimental results and the theoretical calculations show good agreements, and the satisfactory performance of the present VCN guide tube assembly was ascertained. These results present also instructive features for understanding the structures and the space dependence of the exit spectra of a neutron guide tube. The VCN spectra at the guide tube exit can be divided into a few energy regions according to the transmission processes of VCN. Thus, the present study provides useful informations for the preparations of a VCN source with a curved guide tube. (author)

  1. Atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy in a cryogen free dilution refrigerator at 15 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, A. M. J. den; Wijts, G. H. C. J.; Galli, F.; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Usenko, O.; Baarle, G. J. C. van; Zalm, D. J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Pulse tube refrigerators are becoming more common, because they are cost efficient and demand less handling than conventional (wet) refrigerators. However, a downside of a pulse tube system is the vibration level at the cold-head, which is in most designs several micrometers. We implemented vibration isolation techniques which significantly reduced vibration levels at the experiment. These optimizations were necessary for the vibration sensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments at milli-kelvin temperatures for which the cryostat is intended. With these modifications we show atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy on graphite. This is promising for scanning probe microscopy applications at very low temperatures

  2. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four...

  3. Study on the flow nonuniformity in a high capacity Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X.; Zhi, X.; Duan, C.; Jiang, X.; Qiu, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    High capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) have promising applications in high temperature superconductive motor and gas liquefaction. However, with the increase of cooling capacity, its performance deviates from well-accepted one-dimensional model simulation, such as Sage and Regen, mainly due to the strong field nonuniformity. In this study, several flow straighteners placed at both ends of the pulse tube are investigated to improve the flow distribution. A two-dimensional model of the pulse tube based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been built to study the flow distribution of the pulse tube with different flow straighteners including copper screens, copper slots, taper transition and taper stainless slot. A SPTC set-up which has more than one hundred Watts cooling power at 80 K has been built and tested. The flow straighteners mentioned above have been applied and tested. The results show that with the best flow straightener the cooling performance of the SPTC can be significantly improved. Both CFD simulation and experiment show that the straighteners have impacts on the flow distribution and the performance of the high capacity SPTC.

  4. Comparison of pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube with pulsed fluoroscopy by primary control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Daisuke; Sato, Kunihiko; Shimura, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) procedures may involve high radiation doses that are potentially harmful to the patient. In IVR procedures, pulsed fluoroscopy can greatly decrease the radiation that the physician and patient receive. There are two types of pulsed fluoroscopy: direct control and primary (indirect) control. The purpose of this study was to compare pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control, using a grid-controlled x-ray tube, with pulsed fluoroscopy using primary control. For both types of pulsed fluoroscopy, we measured the waveforms (x-ray tube voltage, x-ray tube current, and x-ray output) and the relative radiation dose. In addition, we compared the decrease in radiation during pulsed fluoroscopy using a care filter. The studies were performed using a Siemens Bicor Plus x-ray System (direct control) and a Siemens Multistar Plus x-ray System (primary control). Using primary pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.5-1.0 msec, or longer with a lower x-ray tube current. Using direct pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.1 msec, and was independent of x-ray tube current. The rate of radiation reduction with primary pulse control using the care filter with a lower x-ray tube current had a slope exceeding 10%. Pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube permits an optimal radiation dose. To decrease the radiation in primary pulse control, a care filter must be used, particularly with a lower x-ray tube current. (author)

  5. Development of a 100 KV 10 a pulse generator on the basis of electron tubes for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Barve, D.N.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a high-voltage pulsing system on the basis of hard tube of hard tube for a plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) facility is presented. A list of requirements, which have to be fulfilled by a high-voltage pulse generator to get best results and an optimum operation of the PIII system, is given. The requirement for the pulse generator can be fulfilled well using a pulse generator design, which employs a hard tube switch. The pulse generator design presented is optimized for PIII systems. The hard tube control can produce nearly rectangular pulses of any duration and repetition frequencies and is especially optimized for obtaining voltage rise times as short as possible. (author)

  6. Progress with the slotted-tube pulsed microwiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    A pulsed microwiggler can produce a wiggler field of unusually short period and high strength. A period of a few millimeters and a field of 5 appear possible. A satisfactory design is hard to realize, however, for many reasons: the high current, the current nonuniformities caused by the skin effect, thermal stresses in the parts, the high precision, etc. In addition, measuring the field with adequate resolution in the time domain, as well as in all three spatial coordinates, is challenging, particularly inside the small bore of a microwiggler. This paper presents recent design modifications that illustrate new solutions to these problems, and details of the construction, testing, and performance of wigglers already built. 6 refs., 5 figs

  7. Regression analysis of pulsed eddy current signals for inspection of steam generator tube support structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Underhill, P.R.; Mokros, S.G.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T.W.; Babbar, V.K.; Lepine, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear steam generator (SG) support structure degradation and fouling can result in damage to SG tubes and loss of SG efficiency. Conventional eddy current technology is extensively used to detect cracks, frets at supports and other flaws, but has limited capabilities in the presence of multiple degradation modes or fouling. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression models was examined for the inspection of support structure degradation and SG tube off-centering with the goal of extending results to include additional degradation modes. (author)

  8. Influence of minor geometric features on Stirling pulse tube cryocooler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Perrella, M.

    2017-12-01

    Minor geometric features and imperfections are commonly introduced into the basic design of multi-component systems to simplify or reduce the manufacturing expense. In this work, the cooling performance of a Stirling type cryocooler was tested in different driving powers, cold-end temperatures and inclination angles. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations based on a prototypical cold tip was carried out. Detailed CFD model predictions were compared with the experiment and were used to investigate the impact of such apparently minor geometric imperfections on the performance of Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers. Predictions of cooling performance and gravity orientation sensitivity were compared with experimental results obtained with the cryocooler prototypes. The results indicate that minor geometry features in the cold tip assembly can have considerable negative effects on the gravity orientation sensitivity of a pulse tube cryocooler.

  9. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  10. Recent development status of stirling type pulse tube cryocooler for HTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Y; Nakano, K; Kato, T

    2014-01-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been developing a high power stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motor, SMES and current fault limiter, requested specifications from the devices to a cryocooler are compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. Especially, the cryocooler must be demanded COP > 0.1 in the efficiency. The experimental results of prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in June 2012 [1]. For an In-line type expander, the cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW and the operating frequency was 49 Hz. Accordingly, COP was about 0.055. Moreover, for miniaturization a U type expander was tested and the performance is about 10 % less than that of an In-line type expander. After that, we have estimated that the cooling performance is influenced by the environment such as the effect of the pulse-tube inclination, the temperature and the flowing quantity of cooling water. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  11. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  12. Study on pulsed-operation of the drift tube quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutou, M.

    1982-01-01

    The heavy ion linac for NUMATRON project is designed not only as a injector for a synchrotron but also as a supplier of heavy ion beams for experiments with linac beam. In one repetition cycle of the synchrotron (1sec), the linac injects nearly 25 beam pulses with pulse width of 300 μsec and pulse interval of 30 msec. And the ion species can be varied every repetition. On the other hand, when it is off duty of injection to the synchrotron, the linac accelerates the beams that are directly used for the experiments. Also in this case, the ion species should be varied according to the requests of the experiments, for instance every 1 sec. Therefore, the quadrupole magnets installed in the drift tubes of the linac must be excited with pulse mode. The power supply of the quadrupole magnets will consists of two parts, namely pulse-excitation and dc-excitation power sources. The report describes the posibilities on the pulse-operation of the quadrupole magnets with the field gradient of asymptotically equals 10 KG/cm, and the analysis of the power supply of the quadrupole magnets. (author)

  13. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, K

    2012-01-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4 He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4 He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  14. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  15. Investigation of a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler driven by a standing wave thermoacoustic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroujerdi, A.A.; Ziabasharhagh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A nonlinear numerical model of a high frequency TADPTC has been developed. • The finite volume method has been used for discretization of governing equations. • The self-excitation process has been simulated very well. • The effects of APAT on the performance of the device have been investigated. • Lagrangian approach has been used to trace the thermodynamic cycle of gas parcels. - Abstract: In this work, a typical thermoacoustically driven pulse tube cooler as a no-moving part device has been investigated by a numerical method. A standing wave thermoacoustic engine as a prime mover in coupled with an inertance tube pulse tube cryocooler has been modeled. Nonlinear equations of unsteady one-dimensional compressible flow have been solved by the finite volume method. The model presents an important step towards the development of nonlinear simulation tools for the high amplitude thermoacoustic systems that are needed for practical use. The results of the computations show that the self-excited oscillations are well accompanied by the increasing of the pressure amplitude. The necessity of implementation of a nonlinear model to investigate such devices has been proven. The effect of APAT length as an amplifier coupler on the performance of the cooler has been investigated. Furthermore, by using Lagrangian approach, thermodynamic cycle of gas parcels has been attained

  16. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  17. Condensation of refrigerant CFC 11 in horizontal microfin tubes. Proposal of a correlation equation for frictional pressure gradient; Reibai CFC11 no microfin tsuki suihei kannai gyoshuku. Atsuryoku koka no jikkenshiki no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S [Univ. of Okayama Prefecture, Okayama (Japan); Katayama, H [Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, H [Daikin Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Honda, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-09-25

    Local heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were made during condensation of CFC 11 in microfin tubes. A smooth tube and two microfin tubes with different fin dimensions were used. Flow observation study with use of an industrial bore-scope revealed that the condensate swirled along the grooves, and a thick condensate film covered fins in the lower part of the tube in the low quality region. Static pressure gradients in the microfin tubes were up to 70 percent larger than that in a smooth tube. A correlation equation for the local frictional pressure gradient was derived, in which the effect of refrigerant mass velocity was introduced on the basis of the flow regime consideration. The measured frictional pressure gradient data were found by the present method to have a mean absolute deviation of 8.3 percent. 24 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. High efficiency, low frequency linear compressor proposed for Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhne, Jens [Pressure Wave Systems GmbH, Häberlstr. 8, 80337 Munich (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    In order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which are most likely the cause of substantial global warming, a reduction of overall energy consumption is crucial. Low frequency Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers are usually powered by a scroll compressor together with a rotary valve. It has been theoretically shown that the efficiency losses within the rotary valve can be close to 50%{sup 1}. In order to eliminate these losses we propose to use a low frequency linear compressor, which directly generates the pressure wave without using a rotary valve. First results of this development will be presented.

  19. Radial-pulse propagation and impedance characteristics of optically shuttered channel intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detch, J.L. Jr.; Noel, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrically gated proximity-focused channel intensifier tubes are often used as optical shutters. Optimum nanosecond shuttering requires both understanding the electrical pulse propagation across the device structure and proper impedance matching. A distributed-transmission-line model is developed that describes analytically the voltage- and current-wave propagation characteristics as functions of time for any point on the surface. The optical gain's spatial uniformity and shutter-open times are shown to depend on the electrical pulse width and amplitude, and on the applied bias. The driving-point impedance is derived from the model and is expressed as a function of an infinite sum of terms in the complex frequency. The synthesis in terms of lumped-constant network elements is realized in first- and second-Foster equivalent circuits. Experimental impedance data are compared with the model's predictions and deviations from the ideal model are discussed

  20. Evaporation heat transfer for R-22 and R-407C refrigerant-oil mixture in a microfin tube with a U-bend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Keumnam; Tae, Sang-Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (D.P.R. of Korea). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-05-01

    Evaporation heat transfer experiments for two refrigerants, R-407C and R-22, mixed with polyol ester and mineral oils were performed in straight and U-bend sections of a microfin tube. Experimental parameters include an oil concentration varied from 0 to 5%, an inlet quality varied from 0.1 to 0.5, two mass fluxes of 219 and 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and two heat fluxes of 10 and 20 kW m{sup -2}. Pressure drop in the test section increased by approximately 20% as the oil concentration increased from 0 to 5%. Enhancement factors decreased as oil concentration increased under inlet quality of 0.5, mass flux of 219 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and heat flux of 10 kW m{sup -2}, whereas they increased under inlet quality of 0.1, mass flux of 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and heat flux of 20 kW m{sup -2}. The local heat transfer coefficient at the outside curvature of a U-bend was larger than that at the inside curvature of a U-bend, and the maximum value occurred at the 90{sup o} position of the U-bend. The heat transfer coefficient was larger in a region of 30 tube diameter length at the second straight section than that at the first straight section. (author)

  1. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam

  2. Modelling of fluid flow through short tube orifices under metastable conditions: A new numerical validation approach for evaluating the mass flow rate with refrigerant mixtures (HFC-407C and HFC-410A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valladares, O.; Santoyo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, one-dimensional numerical modelling of fluid-flow inside short tube orifices was performed, and successfully validated against a wide range of mass flow rate measurements reported for the refrigerant HFC-134a. Governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and entropy were solved for describing the fluid flow under a wide variety of thermodynamic transitions (e.g., subcooled liquid region, metastable liquid region, metastable two-phase region and equilibrium two-phase region), including sudden contraction and enlargement. In this new study, a comprehensive comparison analysis between numerical simulation data and experimental measurements obtained for HFC-407C and HFC-410A refrigerants (N o  = 241) to extend the applicability of the same mathematical model was carried out. Using a widespread statistical analysis, based on weighted linear regressions with an outlier detection/rejection module at 95% of confidence level, the prediction performance of the mathematical model was again assessed. Linear regressions between predicted mass flow rate data and experimental measurements were computed, and used them as a statistical comparison criterion. A statistical comparison between predicted simulation results and mass flow rate experimental data are reported. Average deviation errors of ±11.1% (for the refrigerant HFC-407C) and ±7.3% (for refrigerant HFC-410A) were found between numerical model and experimental data. These results demonstrate a new and robust application of the model to predict reliably the mass flow rate through short tube orifices under metastable conditions, which enable this tool to be reliably used for the design of short tube orifices. - Highlights: •A modelling for evaluating short tube orifice was developed for refrigerant mixtures. •The numerical model applied considered metastable regions and choke flow. •The model was validated against experimental data for HFC-407C and HFC-410A. •Statistical analysis based

  3. An ice rink refrigeration system based on CO{sub 2} as secondary fluid in copper tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Khuram [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholrn (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2006-06-15

    This report is a study of the use of copper tubes with CO{sub 2} as heat transfer fluid in ice rink applications. Copper tubes can be rolled rather easily up to the required length which decreases installation cost and simplifies the procedure. A test ice rink was built at IUC Ref Centre, Katrineholm with copper tubes. FEMLAB and EES are two softwares that were used for analysis. The comparison between 12.7 mm diameter copper tubes with and without plastic foil cover, 9.5 mm diameter copper tubes with and without plastic foil cover, 21.3 mm diameter steel pipes and 25 mm diameter plastic pipes is presented in the report. The reason to have plastic foil over copper tubes is to avoid the minor risk of chemical corrosion. Furthermore the foil serves as mechanical wear protection as well, which in this case could appear if rubbing would occur due to thermal expansion and contraction. It is found that 12.7 mm copper tube with plastic foil is good choice in terms of heat transfer. At rated heat flux of 100 W/m{sup 2} and with a pitch of 100 mm, it is 0.18 deg C better than 9.5 mm copper tube with plastic foil. This report includes the investigation which shows that there is no danger of movement of copper tubes inside the rink bed due to thermal expansion and contraction during operation. It also includes the comparison of average Friedel pressure drop model and average homogeneous pressure drop model with experimental results. Average Friedel pressure drop method gave good results. It predicted 20 to 25 % higher pressure drop at lower CR and about 60 % at higher CR than the experimental results for 120 meter long and 12.7 mm diameter copper tubes. 120 meter long copper tubes are good choice; as header can be placed on short side of the ice rink. It will reduce the header length and connections to half. FEMLAB modelling for conduction heat transfer gave good results and can be used as a tool for design and optimization. The optimization of the pitch of the copper tubes

  4. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L B; Liu, S X; Gu, K X; Zhou, Y; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper. (paper)

  5. Bruce and Darlington power pulse and pressure tube integrity programs -status 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, G J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Wylie, J [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada). Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A

    1996-12-31

    The optimum solution to pressure tube fretting at the inlet of the Bruce and Darlington channels, a concern which became very serious following inspections in early 1992, is to remove the inlet bundle and operate with a 12 fuel bundle channel. During analysis of this operating mode a `power pulse` was identified which could occur during an inlet header break where all the fuel in the channel moved rapidly to the inlet of the channel. The pulse was unacceptable and the units were derated until solutions could be implemented. A number of solutions were identified and each station has begun implementation of their specific solution. Implementation has not been without problems and this paper provides a status report on the progress to date of the long bundle implementation solution for Bruce B and Darlington and the fuelling with the flow solution being implemented at Bruce A. Both types of solution have a significant impact on the original concern, fretting of the pressure tube. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs.

  6. Multi-pulsed intense electron beam emission from velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes and dispenser cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liansheng; Yang Anmin; Chen Yi; Zhang Huang; Liu Xingguang; Li Jin; Jiang Xiaoguo; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun; Zhang Linwen

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results of studies of four kinds of cathode emitting intense electron beams are demonstrated under multi-pulsed mode based on an experimental setup including two multi-pulse high voltage sources. The tested cathodes include velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and dispenser cathodes. The results indicate that all four are able to emit multi-pulsed beams. For velvet, carbon fiber and CNTs, the electron induced cathode plasma emission may be the main process and this means that there are differences in beam parameters from pulse to pulse. For dispenser cathodes tested in the experiment, although there is a little difference from pulse to pulse for some reason, thermal-electric field emission may be the main process. (authors)

  7. Design of a high-pressure single pulse shock tube for chemical kinetic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R. S.; Brezinsky, K.; Fulle, D.

    2001-01-01

    A single pulse shock tube has been designed and constructed in order to achieve extremely high pressures and temperatures to facilitate gas-phase chemical kinetic experiments. Postshock pressures of greater than 1000 atmospheres have been obtained. Temperatures greater than 1400 K have been achieved and, in principle, temperatures greater than 2000 K are easily attainable. These high temperatures and pressures permit the investigation of hydrocarbon species pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. Since these reactions occur on the time scale of 0.5--2 ms the shock tube has been constructed with an adjustable length driven section that permits variation of reaction viewing times. For any given reaction viewing time, samples can be withdrawn through a specially constructed automated sampling apparatus for subsequent species analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The details of the design and construction that have permitted the successful generation of very high-pressure shocks in this unique apparatus are described. Additional information is provided concerning the diaphragms used in the high-pressure shock tube

  8. Corrosion/erosion detection of boiler tubes utilizing pulsed infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Maurice J.; Bishop, Chip C.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses a new technique for locating and detecting wall thickness reduction in boiler tubes caused by erosion/corrosion. Traditional means for this type of defect detection utilizes ultrasonics (UT) to perform a point by point measurement at given intervals of the tube length, which requires extensive and costly shutdown or `outage' time to complete the inspection, and has led to thin areas going undetected simply because they were located in between the sampling points. Pulsed infrared imaging (PII) can provide nearly 100% inspection of the tubes in a fraction of the time needed for UT. The IR system and heat source used in this study do not require any special access or fixed scaffolding, and can be remotely operated from a distance of up to 100 feet. This technique has been tried experimentally in a laboratory environment and verified in an actual field application. Since PII is a non-contact technique, considerable time and cost savings should be realized as well as the ability to predict failures rather than repairing them once they have occurred.

  9. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tubes: Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the annular flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S; Honda, H

    2000-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the condensation heat transfer coefficient in a horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the authors, a laminar film condensation model in the annular flow regime is proposed. The model assumes that all the condensate flow occurs through the grooves. The condensate film is segmented into thin and thick film regions. In the thin film region formed on the fin surface, the condensate is assumed to be drained by the combined surface tension and vapor shear forces. In the thick film region formed in the groove, on the other hand, the condensate is assumed to be driven by the vapor shear force. The present and previous local heat transfer data including four fluids (CFC11, HCFC22, HCFC123, and HFCl34a) and three microfin tubes are found to agree with the present predictions to a mean absolute deviation of 15.1%.

  10. Ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler system - cooling capacity and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Yuki; Li, Rui; Tomaru, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2008-09-01

    This report describes the development of low-vibration cooling systems with pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers. Generally, PT cryocoolers have the advantage of lower vibrations in comparison to those of GM cryocoolers. However, cooling systems for the cryogenic laser interferometer observatory (CLIO), which is a gravitational wave detector, require an operational vibration that is sufficiently lower than that of a commercial PT cryocooler. The required specification for the vibration amplitude in cold stages is less than ±1 μm. Therefore, during the development of low-vibration cooling systems for the CLIO, we introduced advanced countermeasures for commercial PT cryocoolers. The cooling performance and the vibration amplitude were evaluated. The results revealed that 4 K and 80 K PT cooling systems with a vibration amplitude of less than ±1 μm and cooling performance of 4.5 K and 70 K at heat loads of 0.5 W and 50 W, respectively, were developed successfully.

  11. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, V.; Zhao, Z.; Devlin, M. J.; Klein, J.; Lungu, M.; Schmitt, B.; Thornton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link.

  12. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvarts, V; Zhao, Z; Devlin, M J; Klein, J; Lungu, M; Schmitt, B; Thornton, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link

  13. Indirect refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, Kim Gardø; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer for boiling and condensing carbon dioxide has been investigated.Heat transfer for carbon dioxide evaporating inside pipe has been measured and compared with Shah's correlation. The measured heat transfer coefficient is much higher than the value determined with the correlation.A shell......-and-tube heat exchanger with carbon dioxide on the shell side and flow ice inside the tubes has been used to investigate the heat transfer for condensing carbon dioxide.At leats is mentioned results obtained with a frozen food display case using carbone dioxide as refrigerant....

  14. Effect of Low Temperature on a 4 W/60 K Pulse-Tube Cryocooler for Cooling HgCdTe Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Liu, Shaoshuai; Wu, Yinong

    2018-04-01

    Temperature is an extremely important parameter for the material of the space-borne infrared detector. To cool an HgCdTe-infrared detector, a Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocooler (PTC) has been developed based on a great deal of numerical simulations, which are performed to investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the PTC. The effects of different low temperatures are presented to analyze different energy flows, losses, phase shifts, and impedance matching of the PTC at a temperature range of 40-120 K, where woven wire screens are used. Finally, a high-efficiency coaxial PTC has been designed, built, and tested, operating around 60 K after a number of theoretical and experimental studies. The PTC can offer a no-load refrigeration temperature of 40 K with an input electric power of 150 W, and a cooling power of 4 W at 60 K is obtained with Carnot efficiency of 12%. In addition, a comparative study of simulation and experiment has been carried out, and some studies on reject temperatures have been presented for a thorough understanding of the PTC system.

  15. Design of a large heat lift 40 K to 80 K pulse tube cryocooler for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.; Charles, I.; Coynel, A.; Duband, L.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Mullié, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Benschop, T.; Linder, M.; Miller, S.D.; Ross, Jr. R.G.

    2007-01-01

    A Large heat lift Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is under development in partnership with AL/ DTA, CEA/SBT and THALES Cryogenics. The engineering model is expected to provide 2.3 W at 50 K at a 10 °C rejection temperature and 160 watts of electrical input power to the compressor. The split coaxial design

  16. Numerical study on transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of a regenerator in a pulse tube cooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Dietrich, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of the regenerator in a Stirling-type pulse tube cooler as observed in experiments was analysed in a numerical study. The asymmetry was reproduced using a one-dimensional model of the cooler where the regenerator was modelled using two identical...

  17. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators

  18. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  19. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Steven L.; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1991-12-01

    A new refrigerator which uses resonant high amplitude sound in inert gases to pump heat is described and demonstrated. The phasing of the thermoacoustic cycle is provided by thermal conduction. This 'natural' phasing allows the entire refrigerator to operate with only one moving part (the loudspeaker diaphragm). The thermoacoustic refrigerator has no sliding seals, requires no lubrication, uses only low-tolerance machine parts, and contains no expensive components. Because the compressor moving mass is typically small and the oscillation frequency is high, the small amount of vibration is very easily isolated. This low vibration and lack of sliding seals makes thermoacoustic refrigeration an excellent candidate for food refrigeration and commercial/residential air conditioning applications. The design, fabrication, and performance of the first practical, autonomous thermoacoustic refrigerator, which will be flown on the Space Shuttle (STS-42), are described, and designs for terrestrial applications are presented.

  20. Characterization of a low frequency magnetic noise from a two stage pulse tube cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshraghi, Mohamad Javad; Sasada, Ichiro; Kim, Jin Mok; Lee, Yong Ho

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic noise of a two stage pulse tube cryocooler(PT) has been measured by a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer and by a LTS SQUID gradiometer. The magnetometer was installed in a Dewar made of aluminum at 12 cm apart from a section containing magnetic regenerative materials of the PT. The magnetic noise shows a clear peak at 1.8 Hz which is the fundamental frequency of the He gas pumping rate. The 1.8 Hz magnetic noise took a peak, during the cooling process, when the cold stage temperature was at (or close to) 12 K, which resembles the variation of the temperature of the second cold stage of 1.8 Hz. Hence we attributed the main source of this magnetic noise to the temperature dependency of magnetic susceptibility of magnetic regenerative materials such as Er3Ni and HoCu2 used at the second stage. We pointed out that the superconducting magnetic shield by lead sheets reduced the interfering magnetic noise generated from this part. With this scheme, the magnetic noise amplitude measured with the first order gradiometer DROS, mounted in the vicinity of the magnetic regenerator, when the noise amplitude is minimum, which could be found from the fluxgate measurement results, was less than 500 pT peak to peak. Whereas without lead shielding the noise level was higher than the dynamic range of SQUID instrumentations which is around ±10nT. (author)

  1. Operating characteristics of a three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler operating around 5 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. M.; Cao, Q.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Gan, Z. H.; Yu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    A Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at the liquid-helium temperatures represents an excellent prospect for satisfying the requirements of space applications because of its compactness, high efficiency and reliability. However, the working mechanism of a 4 K SPTC is more complicated than that of the Gifford McMahon (GM) PTC that operates at the relatively low frequency of 1-2 Hz, and has not yet been well understood. In this study, the primary operating parameters, including frequency, charge pressure, input power and precooling temperature, are systematically investigated in a home-developed separate three-stage SPTC. The investigation demonstrates that the frequency and precooling temperature are closely coupled via phase shift. In order to improve the cooling capacity it is important to lower the frequency and the precooling temperature simultaneously. In contrast to the behavior predicted by previous studies, the pressure dependence of the gas properties results in an optimized pressure that decreases significantly as the temperature is lowered. The third stage reaches a lowest temperature of 4.97 K at 29.9 Hz and 0.91 MPa. A cooling power of 25 mW is measured at 6.0 K. The precooling temperature is 23.7 K and the input power is 100 W.

  2. The study on a gas-coupled two-stage stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Zhu, X. S.; Pan, C. Z.; Guo, J.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A two-stage gas-coupled Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) driven by a linear dual-opposed compressor has been designed, manufactured and tested. Both of the stages adopted coaxial structure for compactness. The effect of a cold double-inlet at the second stage on the cooling performance was investigated. The test results show that the cold double-inlet will help to achieve a lower cooling temperature, but it is not conducive to achieving a higher cooling capacity. At present, without the cold double-inlet, the second stage has achieved a no-load temperature of 11.28 K and a cooling capacity of 620 mW/20 K with an input electric power of 450 W. With the cold double-inlet, the no-load temperature is lowered to 9.4 K, but the cooling capacity is reduced to 400 mW/20 K. The structure of the developed cryocooler and the influences of charge pressure, operating frequency and hot end temperature will also be introduced in this paper.

  3. Review of investigations in eco-friendly thermoacoustic refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raut Ashish S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, internationally research and development is intended to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration system also growth of new-fangled refrigeration technology of potentially much lesser ecological impact. This paper gives brief review of research and development in thermoacoustic refrigeration also the existing situation of thermoacoustic refrigeration system. Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a novel sort of energy conversion equipment which converts acoustic power into heat energy by thermoacoustic effect. Thermoacoustic refrigeration is an emergent refrigeration technology in which there are no moving elements or any environmentally injurious refrigerants during its working. The concept of thermoacoustic refrigeration system is explained, the growth of thermoacoustic refrigeration, various investigations into thermoacoustic refrigeration system, various optimization techniques to improve coefficient of performance, different stacks and resonator tube designs to improve heat transfer rate, various gases, and other parameters like sound generation have been reviewed.

  4. Flammable refrigerants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Verwoerd, M.; Oostendorp, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are promising alternatives for CFC, HCFC and HFC refrigerants. Due to their flammable nature, safety aspects have to be considered carefully. The world-wide situation concerning acceptability and practical application of flammable refrigerants is becoming more and more complex and

  5. Reaction-time-resolved measurements of laser-induced fluorescence in a shock tube with a single laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeti, S.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2017-11-01

    Shock tubes allow for the study of ultra-fast gas-phase reactions on the microsecond time scale. Because the repetition rate of the experiments is low, it is crucial to gain as much information as possible from each individual measurement. While reaction-time-resolved species concentration and temperature measurements with fast absorption methods are established, conventional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements with pulsed lasers provide data only at a single reaction time. Therefore, fluorescence methods have rarely been used in shock-tube diagnostics. In this paper, a novel experimental concept is presented that allows reaction-time-resolved LIF measurements with one single laser pulse using a test section that is equipped with several optical ports. After the passage of the shock wave, the reactive mixture is excited along the center of the tube with a 266-nm laser beam directed through a window in the end wall of the shock tube. The emitted LIF signal is collected through elongated sidewall windows and focused onto the entrance slit of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an intensified CCD camera. The one-dimensional spatial resolution of the measurement translates into a reaction-time-resolved measurement while the species information can be gained from the spectral axis of the detected two-dimensional image. Anisole pyrolysis was selected as the benchmark reaction to demonstrate the new apparatus.

  6. Analysis of refrigerant mal-distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    to be two straight tubes. The refrigerant maldistribution is then induced to the evaporator by varying the vapor quality at the inlet to each tube and the air-flow across each tube. Finally it is shown that mal-distribution can be compensated by an intelligent distributor, that ensures equal superheat...

  7. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the 3 He solute in a superfluid 3 He-- 4 He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid 4 He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the 3 He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the 3 He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the 3 He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs

  8. Steady Secondary Flows Generated by Periodic Compression and Expansion of an Ideal Gas in a Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.

  9. Small-sized accelerating tube for electron acceleration to 500 keV at pulse duration of 2 ns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Ehl'yash, S.L.; Dron', N.A.; Sloeva, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The design and characteristics (current, voltage, current density, electron beam structure, energy spectrum, and dose rate) of a soldered small-size two-electrode 600 kV accelerating tube are considered. A six-stage Arkadiev-Marx generator is the pulse high-voltage supply of nanosecond duration. When using a cathode (diameter of 8 mm) made of tantalum foil 0.02 mm thick and with interelectrode gap of 10 mm, the amplitude of the electron beam current beyond the beryllium anode equals to 1040 A under maximum voltage of 490 kV, current pulse duration of 2 ns, number of electrons is 10 13 . The increased electron density on the anode in a spot of 4 mm in diameter is observed; the current density in the spot reaches 1 kA/cm 2 . The electron energy in the beam beyond the anode is as much as 0.6-0.8 J per pulse, and the dose rate near the outer surface of the outlet window is 10 14 -10 15 rad/s. The use of an intensifying oil spark gap is shown to increase radiation hardness. The accelerating tube provides more than 10 5 shots in a single-switching mode

  10. A prototype detector using the neutron image intensifier and multi-anode type photomultiplier tube for pulsed neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hirotaku; Sato, Hirotaka; Hara, Kaoru Y.; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a neutron two-dimensional (2-D) detector for pulsed neutron imaging as a prototype detector, which was composed of a neutron image intensifier and a multi-anode type photomultiplier tube. A neutron transmission spectrum of α-Fe plate was measured by the prototype detector, and compared with the one measured by a typical neutron 2-D detector. The spectrum was in reasonable agreement with the one measured by the typical detector in the neutron wavelength region above 0.15 nm. In addition, a neutron transmission image of a cadmium indicator was obtained by the prototype detector. The usefulness of the prototype detector for pulsed neutron imaging was demonstrated. (author)

  11. Recent investigations on refrigerants for magnetic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.

    1986-01-01

    In development of the magnetic refrigerator, an important problem is selection of magnetic materials as refrigerants. The main purpose of the present paper is to discuss the magnetic and thermal properties necessary for these refrigerants and to report recent investigations. Magnetic refrigerants can be expediently divided into two groups, one for the Carnottype magnetic refrigerator below 20 K and the other for the Ericsson-type refrigerator. The required physical properties of refrigerants in each type of the magnetic refrigerator are first discussed. And then, the results of recent investigations on the magnetic, thermal and magnetocaloric characters of several promising magnetic refrigerants are shown. Finally, a brief prospect of the magnetic refrigerants and refrigerators is given

  12. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Page R

    2008-07-29

    The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield

  13. Tube Inner Coating of Non-Conductive Films by Pulsed Reactive Coaxial Magnetron Plasma with Outer Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Timan Idriss Gasab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The double-ended coaxial magnetron pulsed plasma (DCMPP method with auxiliary outer anode was introduced in order to achieve the uniform coating of non-conductive thin films on the inner walls of insulator tubes. In this study, titanium (Ti was employed as a cathode (sputtering target, and a glass tube was used as a substrate. In an argon (Ar and oxygen (O2 gas mixture, magnetron plasma was generated. Oxygen gas was introduced to deposit a titanium oxide (TiO2 film. A comparison between films coated with and without an auxiliary outer anode was made. As a result, it was clearly shown that the DCMPP method using an auxiliary outer anode enhanced the uniformity of the deposited non-conductive film compared to the conventional DCMPP method. Moreover, the optimum conditions under which the thin TiO2 film was deposited on the inner wall of the glass tube were revealed. From the results, it was supposed that the auxiliary outer anode contributed to the uniformity of the distributions of deposited negative charge on the non-conductive film and consequently the electric field and the plasma density uniform.

  14. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  15. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal microfin tubes. Numerical analysis of heat transfer for annular flow regime; Reibai no microfin tsuki suihei kannai gyoshuku. Kanjoryu ryoiki ni okeru netsudentatsu no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S [Okayama Prefectural University, Okayama (Japan); Honda, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1998-07-25

    A method for predicting the local heat transfer coefficient is presented for film condensation of vapor in a spirally grooved horizontal microfin-tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the present authors, film flow model between fins in the annular flow regime is proposed. For the fin surface, laminar condensate film controlled by the combined effects of vapor shear and surface tension forces is analyzed. While, in the groove, thick condensate film driven by the vapor shear force is taken into consideration. A parameter which accounts for the transition from annular- to stratified flow regimes is also derived. The present and previous local heat transfer data for fluorocarbon refrigerants in the annular flow regime are found by the present numerical analysis to have a mean absolute deviation of 15.1 percent. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to predict optimal tube pulsing window for coronary artery CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gang, E-mail: cjr.sungang@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Min, E-mail: limin22000@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jiang, Xiang-sen, E-mail: jiangxiangsen123@126.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Li, E-mail: leely1976@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Peng, Zhao-hui, E-mail: zhaohuipeng_R@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Mu, Nan-nan, E-mail: munannan22000@sohu.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Rationale and objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to determine the optimal pulsing windows for CT coronary angiography to narrow the pulsing windows further, especially in higher heart rate. Materials and methods: Doppler was performed on 135 patients before CT scanning. For Doppler, the intervals with minimal motion were evaluated during both systole and diastole integrating electrocardiogram (ECG) intervals. For CT scanning, the retrospective ECG-gating was applied and the optimal reconstruction intervals were determined. The accuracy of Doppler analysis to predict the optimal reconstruction intervals was tested. The predicted length of pulsing windows was compared between Doppler analysis and traditional prospective ECG-gating protocol (heart rate ≦ 65 bpm, 60–76%; 66–79 bpm, 30–77%; ≧80 bpm, 31–47%). Results: According to Doppler analysis, the mean length of intervals with minimal motion in systole was 106.4 ± 39.2 ms and 125.2 ± 92.0 ms in diastole. When the intervals with minimal motion during diastole > 90 ms, the optimal reconstruction intervals were located at diastole; otherwise, at systole (P < 0.001). The optimal reconstruction intervals in 93.8% (132/135) patients could be predicted accurately by Doppler analysis. If the optimal reconstruction intervals predicted by Doppler were applied as the exposure windows, the mean length of pulsing windows should has been 105.2 ± 69.4 ms (range: 26.9–510.3 ms), which was significantly shorter than that of traditional prospective ECG-gating protocol (232.0 ± 120.2 ms, range: 93.2–427.3 ms, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Doppler can help detecting the optimal pulsing windows accurately. Prospective ECG-gating incorporating Doppler analysis may narrow pulsing windows significantly while maintaining image quality.

  17. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to predict optimal tube pulsing window for coronary artery CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gang; Li, Min; Jiang, Xiang-sen; Li, Li; Peng, Zhao-hui; Mu, Nan-nan

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to determine the optimal pulsing windows for CT coronary angiography to narrow the pulsing windows further, especially in higher heart rate. Materials and methods: Doppler was performed on 135 patients before CT scanning. For Doppler, the intervals with minimal motion were evaluated during both systole and diastole integrating electrocardiogram (ECG) intervals. For CT scanning, the retrospective ECG-gating was applied and the optimal reconstruction intervals were determined. The accuracy of Doppler analysis to predict the optimal reconstruction intervals was tested. The predicted length of pulsing windows was compared between Doppler analysis and traditional prospective ECG-gating protocol (heart rate ≦ 65 bpm, 60–76%; 66–79 bpm, 30–77%; ≧80 bpm, 31–47%). Results: According to Doppler analysis, the mean length of intervals with minimal motion in systole was 106.4 ± 39.2 ms and 125.2 ± 92.0 ms in diastole. When the intervals with minimal motion during diastole > 90 ms, the optimal reconstruction intervals were located at diastole; otherwise, at systole (P < 0.001). The optimal reconstruction intervals in 93.8% (132/135) patients could be predicted accurately by Doppler analysis. If the optimal reconstruction intervals predicted by Doppler were applied as the exposure windows, the mean length of pulsing windows should has been 105.2 ± 69.4 ms (range: 26.9–510.3 ms), which was significantly shorter than that of traditional prospective ECG-gating protocol (232.0 ± 120.2 ms, range: 93.2–427.3 ms, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Doppler can help detecting the optimal pulsing windows accurately. Prospective ECG-gating incorporating Doppler analysis may narrow pulsing windows significantly while maintaining image quality

  18. Thermal characterization of rods, tubes and spheres using pulsed infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apinaniz, E; Mendioroz, A; Madariaga, N; Oleaga, A; Celorrio, R; Salazar, A

    2008-01-01

    In this work we analyse the accuracy of an extension of the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of rods, tubes and spheres, which was recently proposed by the authors. We have performed measurements in a wide set of calibrated samples of different sizes and we have found that a lower limiting size of the radius can be established for the validity of the method. On the other hand, a procedure to retrieve the thermal conductivity of tubes, based on filling them with a contrast liquid (water), is proposed. Moreover, the thermal contact resistance between the two layers of coated cylinders is also obtained. Measurements on calibrated samples confirm the validity of the two latest methods

  19. Transition edge sensor-energy-dispersive spectrometer (TES-EDS) using a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Odawara, Akikazu; Nagata, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masanori; Baba, Yukari; Nakayama, Satoshi; Chinone, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    A cryogen-free energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) using a transition edge sensor (TES) was developed for material analysis. This system can maintain a temperature at 130 mK within 30 μK, and has good energy resolution (19 eV for Mn-Kα) for long-time measurement with a drift in the DC level of less than 0.02 eV/min. This system utilizes a dilution refrigerator (φ 272 mmxheight 572 mm) and has a snout (370 mm long and φ25 mm) similar to that in a conventional EDS system. The dilution refrigerator is pre-cooled by a GM refrigerator. A flexible tube between the dilution refrigerator and GM refrigerator damps the mechanical vibration of the GM refrigerator. Two shields (4 and 80 K) thermally protect the Cu rod (φ8 mm) cooled to be 100 mK. Windows composed of polyimide+Al film allow X-ray detection above the C-Kα line. A TES (6 mmx6 mm) and array SQUID amplifier (1.5 mmx3 mm) are mounted on top of the Cu rod. For Mn-Kα, the pulse height is 5.5 μA and decay time (τ eff ) is 90 μs. The maximum count rate (1/20 τ eff ) is estimated at about 500 cps

  20. The Experimental Study about the Effect of Operating Conditions on Multi-tube Pulse Detonation Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Hyung-Seok; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2018-04-01

    This study examines a multi-tube pulse detonation engine (PDE) which has a type of constant volume combustion. We designed and made the multi-tube PDE and then conducted an experiment in various operating frequencies and equivalence ratios. First, experiments with operating frequencies of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 Hz resulted in an average thrust and specific impulse 23.14 N and 42.34 s. The next experiment resulted in the equivalence ratio varying from 0.81 to 1.38, which resulted in an average thrust and specific impulse 22.36 N and 40.11 s. The average detonation velocity was 8% lower than that calculated according to C-J theory. The incidence ratios of the detonation wave were stable with the exception of the operating frequency of 200 Hz. However, at 200 Hz, the incidence ratio was less than 50%. We assumed that a low fill fraction occurred for this problem. The thrust of the PDE increased with the operating frequency. However, the thrust increase was at a lower rate than in previous studies, because of a lost thrust output result from the slow response time of the load cell amplifier.

  1. 15-25K Static-Helium Regenerator/Double Pulse Tube Cooler for Receiving Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs a cryogenic refrigerator for the 15-25K range for receiving arrays of ground-based antennas that will serve the telecommunications needs of future space...

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of Defect in Stainless Steel 304 Tube Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Nordin Jamaludin; Zaredah Hashim; Norhayati Ramli

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that operates based on electromagnetic principle. The excitation consists of broad frequency spectrum leading to be a potential in detecting defects that are deeply buried inside the specimen. In this paper, the experiment and simulation were conducted on stainless steel plate 304 fabricated with open surface defects having a different defect depth as an investigation towards the correlation between extracted signal feature and defect depth. Two common features; time to peak and peak value that corresponds to the location depth of defect and size of defect were used for signals analysis and evaluation. The results that acquired through finite element method (FEM) simulation were compared with experimental results for the signals evaluation and defect quantification. (author)

  3. The local response of elastic tubes and shells to spherical pressure pulse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.J.; Holy, Z.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper develops a formulation and numerical solution technique for calculating the peak transient stresses developed in tubes or shells with external and internal acoustic media, as a result of shock loadings which may be represented as originating from external or internal point symmetric or dipole sources. The field of application is intended to be the local peak response of the cylindrical fuel cans, core barrels, pressure vessels, pipes and containment shells of Nuclear Reactor Technology, subjected to transient pressure shock loadings for a variety of operational or accident conditions, which cannot adequately be described as one dimensional plane shocks, for which elastic shell responses have been presented by other workers. The work reported here concerns the basic problem of an infinite static fluid filled hollow cylinder of arbitrary thickness, in an infinite static fluid medium, with a source at an arbitrary internal or external radial location. An acoustic model is used, with acoustic damping due to radiation as the only possible damping mechanism. The formulation and solution technique is based on the availability of the multi-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The basic result is the representation, in cylindrical co-ordinates, of the two dimensional (time and axial co-ordinate) Fourier Transform of the infinite medium frequency response function for outgoing waves from a point symmetrical source, as a series of azimuthal Fourier harmonics, from which the result for a dipole source of arbitrary orientation follows. Where possible numerical results will be presented

  4. Stirling Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    A Stirling cooler (refrigerator) was proposed in 1862 and the first Stirling cooler was put on market in 1955. Since then, many Stirling coolers have been developed and marketed as cryocoolers. Recently, Stirling cycle machines for heating and cooling at near-ambient temperatures between 173 and 400K, are recognized as promising candidates for alternative system which are more compatible with people and the Earth. The ideal cycles of Stirling cycle machine offer the highest thermal efficiencies and the working fluids do not cause serious environmental problems of ozone depletion and global warming. In this review, the basic thermodynamics of Stirling cycle are briefly described to quantify the attractive cycle performance. The fundamentals to realize actual Stirling coolers and heat pumps are introduced in detail. The current status of the Stirling cycle machine technologies is reviewed. Some machines have almost achieved the target performance. Also, duplex-Stirling-cycle and Vuilleumier-cycle machines and their performance are introduced.

  5. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  6. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  7. CFD modeling and experimental verification of oscillating flow and heat transfer processes in the micro coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 90-170 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yibo; Yu, Guorui; Tan, Jun; Mao, Xiaochen; Li, Jiaqi; Zha, Rui; Li, Ning; Dang, Haizheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the CFD modeling and experimental verifications of oscillating flow and heat transfer processes in the micro coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (MCSPTC) operating at 90-170 Hz. It uses neither double-inlet nor multi-bypass while the inertance tube with a gas reservoir becomes the only phase-shifter. The effects of the frequency on flow and heat transfer processes in the pulse tube are investigated, which indicates that a low enough frequency would lead to a strong mixing between warm and cold fluids, thereby significantly deteriorating the cooling performance, whereas a high enough frequency would produce the downward sloping streams flowing from the warm end to the axis and almost puncturing the gas displacer from the warm end, thereby creating larger temperature gradients in radial directions and thus undermining the cooling performance. The influence of the pulse tube length on the temperature and velocity when the frequencies are much higher than the optimal one are also discussed. A MCSPTC with an overall mass of 1.1 kg is worked out and tested. With an input electric power of 59 W and operating at 144 Hz, it achieves a no-load temperature of 61.4 K and a cooling capacity of 1.0 W at 77 K. The changing tendencies of tested results are in good agreement with the simulations. The above studies will help to thoroughly understand the underlying mechanism of the inertance MCSPTC operating at very high frequencies.

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-03-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to thermophysical properties, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with other materials.

  9. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  10. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  12. Novel refrigerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Cunningham, M.F.; Drury, O.B.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, S.; Labov, S.E.; Fisher, P.A.; Gifford, P.

    2000-01-01

    In Section 1, we describe how the creation of quasiparticles by current flow through a normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junction degrades the cooling performance of the junction. Degradation occurs due to the absorption of recombination phonons in the normal electrode and due to a reduction in the cooling power. In Section 2, we describe how vibrations from a pulse tube mechanical cooler affect X-ray measurements performed with a superconducting tunnel junction

  13. Novel refrigerator development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, J.N.; Cunningham, M.F.; Drury, O.B.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, S.; Labov, S.E.; Fisher, P.A.; Gifford, P

    2000-04-07

    In Section 1, we describe how the creation of quasiparticles by current flow through a normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junction degrades the cooling performance of the junction. Degradation occurs due to the absorption of recombination phonons in the normal electrode and due to a reduction in the cooling power. In Section 2, we describe how vibrations from a pulse tube mechanical cooler affect X-ray measurements performed with a superconducting tunnel junction.

  14. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  15. Estimation of Pulse Transit Time as a Function of Blood Pressure Using a Nonlinear Arterial Tube-Load Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingwu; Cheng, Hao-Min; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Chen-Huan; Olivier, Nicholas Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2017-07-01

    pulse transit time (PTT) varies with blood pressure (BP) throughout the cardiac cycle, yet, because of wave reflection, only one PTT value at the diastolic BP level is conventionally estimated from proximal and distal BP waveforms. The objective was to establish a technique to estimate multiple PTT values at different BP levels in the cardiac cycle. a technique was developed for estimating PTT as a function of BP (to indicate the PTT value for every BP level) from proximal and distal BP waveforms. First, a mathematical transformation from one waveform to the other is defined in terms of the parameters of a nonlinear arterial tube-load model accounting for BP-dependent arterial compliance and wave reflection. Then, the parameters are estimated by optimally fitting the waveforms to each other via the model-based transformation. Finally, PTT as a function of BP is specified by the parameters. The technique was assessed in animals and patients in several ways including the ability of its estimated PTT-BP function to serve as a subject-specific curve for calibrating PTT to BP. the calibration curve derived by the technique during a baseline period yielded bias and precision errors in mean BP of 5.1 ± 0.9 and 6.6 ± 1.0 mmHg, respectively, during hemodynamic interventions that varied mean BP widely. the new technique may permit, for the first time, estimation of PTT values throughout the cardiac cycle from proximal and distal waveforms. the technique could potentially be applied to improve arterial stiffness monitoring and help realize cuff-less BP monitoring.

  16. Transition to New Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides information on the refrigerants that motor vehicle air conditioners have used over time, with information on environmental impacts, refrigerant fitting sizes, label colors, and alternatives to ozone-depleting substances.

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  18. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  19. Influence of the nozzle angle on refrigeration performance of a gas wave refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhu, C.; Zou, J.; Wu, J.; Hu, D.

    2017-05-01

    A gas wave refrigerator (GWR) is a novel refrigerating device that refrigerates a medium by shock waves and expansion waves generated by gas pressure energy. In a typical GWR, the injection energy losses between the nozzle and the expansion tube are essential factors which influence the refrigeration efficiency. In this study, numerical simulations are used to analyze the underlying mechanism of the injection energy losses. The results of simulations show that the vortex loss, mixing energy loss, and oblique shock wave reflection loss are the main factors contributing to the injection energy losses in the expansion tube. Furthermore, the jet angle of the gas is found to dominate the injection energy losses. Therefore, the optimum jet angle is theoretically calculated based on the velocity triangle method. The value of the optimum jet angle is found to be 4^{circ }, 8^{circ }, and 12^{circ } when the refrigeration efficiency is the first-order, second-order, and third-order maximum value over all working ranges of jet frequency, respectively. Finally, a series of experiments are conducted with the jet angle ranging from -4^{circ } to 12^{circ } at a constant expansion ratio. The results indicate the optimal jet angle obtained by the experiments is in good agreement with the calculated value. The isentropic refrigeration efficiency increased by about 4 % after the jet angle was optimized.

  20. Concepts for a low-vibration and cryogen-free tabletop dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe several concepts of how to cool a modern tabletop dilution refrigerator (DR) with a cryogen-free pulse tube cryocooler (PTC). Tabletop DRs have come more and more into the focus of scientists, recently, because they offer easy access to the mixing chamber mounting plate from all directions and because of their very short cooldown times. However, these milli-Kelvin coolers are precooled with LHe which makes their handling inconvenient and often expensive. In the paper it is explained how a cryocooler can be directly coupled to a DR unit making the use of LHe superfluous. Furthermore, concepts are discussed where a tabletop DR is cooled by a remote PTC; PTC and DR are mounted in separate vacuum containers which are connected by a stainless steel bellows tube. This kind of apparatus would offer an extremely low level of vibration at the mixing chamber mounting plate.

  1. Boiling and condensation in microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Lynn M.

    A general overview of microfin tubes and their applications is presented. Manufacturing processes, commercial availability, experimental heat transfer, and pressure drop data for various refrigerants (including alternative refrigerants and refrigerant-oil mixtures), physical mechanisms of enhancement, and the incorporation of microfin tubes in common heat exchanger configurations are discussed. Microfin tubes, also known by various trade names, are characterized by numerous small fins which typically spiral down the inside wall of tubes at angles ranging from 10 to 30 degrees. The number of fins ranges from 48 to 70 with typical fin heights of 0.12 to 0.30 mm (fin height generally less than 3 percent of the inside diameter of the tube). Fin shapes may vary and the inside surface area of microfin tubes is 10 to 70 percent greater than the area of equivalent smooth tubes. Heat transfer can be enhanced by up to a factor of three with microfin tubes.

  2. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1996-04-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

  3. Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cycle Single-Tube Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine with a Coaxial Rotary Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Esumi, Motoki; Ikeguchi, Ken Bryan; Kasahara, Jiro; Matsuo, Akiko; Funaki, Ikkoh

    We developed a novel coaxial rotary valve for a multi-tube PDE. Since this single valve can supply three different gases (fuel, oxidizer and purge gas) into a combustor, the unification of the valve systems for three different gases is possible by using our newly designed valve. A PDRE system can be simple and lightweight by using this valve, and thus its thrust-weight ratio can be increased. We proposed the design of a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE system by this rotary valve. Moreover, in preparation for a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE, we carried out the multi-cycle operation experiment by the single-tube rotary-valved PDRE system. The combustion wave velocity was measured to confirm the operation of the PDRE system. Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) was confirmed and DDT distance decreased under the condition of high operation frequency. In addition, a maximum operation frequency was 159 Hz.

  4. Dose reduction in multi-slice CT of the heart by use of ECG-controlled tube current modulation (''ECG pulsing''): phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poll, L.W.; Cohnen, M.; Brachten, S.; Moedder, U.; Ewen, K.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of ECG-controlled tube current modulation on radiation exposure in retrospectively-ECG-gated multislice CT (MSCT) of the heart. Material and methods: Three different cardiac MSCT protocols with different slice collimation (4 x 1, and 4 x 2.5 mm), and a pitch-factor of 1.5 and 1.8 were investigated at a multi-slice CT scanner Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens. An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with LiF-Thermoluminescence dosimeters at several organ sites, and effective doses were calculated using ICRP-weighting factors. Scan protocols were performed with ECG-controlled tube current modulation ('ECG pulsing') at two different heart rates (60 and 80 bpm). These data were compared to previous data from MSCT of the heart without use of 'ECG pulsing'. Results: Radiation exposure with (60 bpm) and without tube current modulation using a 2.5 mm collimation was 1.8 mSv and 2.9 mSv for females, and 1.5 mSv and 2.4 mSv for males, respectively. For protocols using a 1 mm collimation with a pitch-factor of 1.5 (1.8), radiation exposure with and without tube current modulation was 5.6 (6.3) mSv and 9.5 (11.2) mSv for females, and 4.6 (5.2) mSv and 7.7 (9.2) mSv for males, respectively. At higher heart rates (80 bpm) radiation exposure is increased from 1.5-1.8 mSv to 1.8-2.1 mSv, using the 2.5 mm collimation, and from 4.6-5.6 mSv to 5.9-7.2 mSv, for protocols using 1 mm collimation. Conclusions: The ECG-controlled tube current modulation allows a dose reduction of 37% to 44% when retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT of the heart is performed. The tube current - as a function over time - and therefore the radiation exposure is dependent on the heart rate. (orig.) [de

  5. Developments in magnetocaloric refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, Ekkes

    2005-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared with compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved; second, it may be built more compactly as the working material is a solid; and third, magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently a new class of magnetic refrigerant-materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: they exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase-transition of first order. This MCE is larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability. Because fundamental aspects of MCE are not so widely discussed, we also give some theoretical considerations. (topical review)

  6. Modelling refrigerant distribution in microchannel evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    of the refrigerant distribution is carried out for two channels in parallel and for two different cases. In the first case maldistribution of the inlet quality into the channels is considered, and in the second case a non-uniform airflow on the secondary side is considered. In both cases the total mixed superheat...... out of the evaporator is kept constant. It is shown that the cooling capacity of the evaporator is reduced significantly, both in the case of unevenly distributed inlet quality and for the case of non-uniform airflow on the outside of the channels.......The effects of refrigerant maldistribution in parallel evaporator channels on the heat exchanger performance are investigated numerically. For this purpose a 1D steady state model of refrigerant R134a evaporating in a microchannel tube is built and validated against other evaporator models. A study...

  7. Refrigeration and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions. (UK)

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  9. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  10. Exploring the polymerization of bioactive nano-cones on the inner surface of an organic tube by an atmospheric pressure pulsed micro-plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. M.; Yu, J. S.; Chen, G. L.; Qiu, X. P.; Hu, W.; Chen, W. X.; Bai, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the successful deposition of acrylic acid polymer (PAA) nano-cones on the inner surface of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube using an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma jet (APPJ) with acrylic acid (AA) monomer is presented. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements indicated that various reactive radicals, such as rad OH and rad O, existed in the plasma jet. Moreover, the pulsed current proportionally increased with the increase in the applied voltage. The strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (Cdbnd O) at 1700 cm-1, shown in the ATR-FTIR spectra, clearly indicated that the PAA was deposited on the PVC surface. The maximum height of the PAA nano-cones deposited by this method ranged from 150 to 200 nm. FTIR and XPS results confirmed the enhanced exposure of the carboxyl groups on the modified PVC surface, which was considered highly beneficial for successfully immobilizing a high density of biomolecules. The XPS data showed that the carbon ratios of the Csbnd OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 7.03% and 2.6% to 18.69% and 6.81%, respectively (more than doubled) when an Ar/O2 plasma with AA monomer was applied to treat the inner surface of the PVC tube. Moreover, the enhanced attachment density of MC3T3-E1 bone cells was observed on the PVC inner surface coated with PAA nano-cones.

  11. Temperature and pressure control in the discharge of refrigeration systems cooled by shell and tube condensers; Control de presion y temperatura de descarga en sistemas de refrigeracion enfriados por condensadores de casco y tubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Martinez, R. [Asociacion de Ingenieros Egresados de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the selection of a refrigeration equipment, the evaporator and condenser load conditions must be perfectly known, that is, the amount of heat energy that we have to reject from our space to cool in base to the temperature and mass to refrigerate. This situation carries on to the selection of the adequate compressor. But nevertheless the temperature conditions of the environment play an important roll in the behavior of the entire refrigeration system, altering in many cases the working conditions of each one of the components and therefore the functioning of the refrigeration system. This paper presents a method for controlling the behavior of each one of the components of the refrigeration system that perform in accordance with their design characteristics. [Espanol] En la seleccion de un equipo de refrigeracion, se deben conocer perfectamente las condiciones de carga del evaporador y del condensador, es decir la cantidad de calor que debemos de eliminar de nuestro medio a refrigerar, en base a la temperatura y masa a refrigerar. Esta situacion conlleva a la eleccion del compresor adecuado. Mas sin embargo, las condiciones de temperatura ambiente, juegan un papel importante en el comportamiento de todo el sistema de refrigeracion, alterando en muchos casos las condiciones de trabajo de cada uno de los componentes y por ende el funcionamiento del sistema de refrigeracion. El presente trabajo presenta un metodo para controlar el comportamiento de cada uno de los componentes dentro del sistema de refrigeracion para que trabajen de acuerdo a su diseno.

  12. Temperature and pressure control in the discharge of refrigeration systems cooled by shell and tube condensers; Control de presion y temperatura de descarga en sistemas de refrigeracion enfriados por condensadores de casco y tubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Martinez, R [Asociacion de Ingenieros Egresados de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the selection of a refrigeration equipment, the evaporator and condenser load conditions must be perfectly known, that is, the amount of heat energy that we have to reject from our space to cool in base to the temperature and mass to refrigerate. This situation carries on to the selection of the adequate compressor. But nevertheless the temperature conditions of the environment play an important roll in the behavior of the entire refrigeration system, altering in many cases the working conditions of each one of the components and therefore the functioning of the refrigeration system. This paper presents a method for controlling the behavior of each one of the components of the refrigeration system that perform in accordance with their design characteristics. [Espanol] En la seleccion de un equipo de refrigeracion, se deben conocer perfectamente las condiciones de carga del evaporador y del condensador, es decir la cantidad de calor que debemos de eliminar de nuestro medio a refrigerar, en base a la temperatura y masa a refrigerar. Esta situacion conlleva a la eleccion del compresor adecuado. Mas sin embargo, las condiciones de temperatura ambiente, juegan un papel importante en el comportamiento de todo el sistema de refrigeracion, alterando en muchos casos las condiciones de trabajo de cada uno de los componentes y por ende el funcionamiento del sistema de refrigeracion. El presente trabajo presenta un metodo para controlar el comportamiento de cada uno de los componentes dentro del sistema de refrigeracion para que trabajen de acuerdo a su diseno.

  13. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  14. Cryogenic mixed refrigerant processes

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatarathnam, Gadhiraju

    2010-01-01

    Teaches the need for refrigerant mixtures, the type of mixtures that can be used for different refrigeration and liquefaction applications, the different processes that can be used and the methods to be adopted for choosing the components of a mixture and their concentration for different applications.

  15. Refrigerants and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, O. B.; Laptev, Yu A.

    2017-11-01

    The refrigeration and air-conditioning industries are important sectors of the economy and represents about 15 % of global electricity consumptions. The chlorofluorocarbons also called CFCs are a class of refrigerants containing the halogens chlorine and/or fluorine on a carbon skeleton. Because of their environmental impact the Montreal Protocol was negotiated in 1987 to limit the production of certain CFCs and hydrochlirofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in developed and developing countries. The halogenated refrigerants are depleting the ozone layer also major contribution to the greenhouse effect. To be acceptable as a refrigerant a fluid must satisfy a variety of thermodynamic criteria and should be environment friendly with zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. The perspective of a future phase down of HFCs is considered in this report taking into account a strategy for the phase out of HCFCs and perspective of choosing of various refrigerant followed by safety issues.

  16. High-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse propagation in a 1-cm capillary tube and fast ignitor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malka, G.; Courtois, C.; Cros, B.; Matthieussent, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas; Blanchot, N.; Bonnaud, G.; Busquet, M.; Canaud, B.; Desenne, D.; Diskier, L.; Garconnet, J.P.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lours, L.; Mens, A.; Miquel, J.L.; Peyrusse, O.; Rousseaux, C. [CEA/Limeil Valenton, 94 - Villeneuve Saint Georges (France); Borghesi, M.; Gaillard, R.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Willi, O. [Imperial Coll., Plasma Physics Groups, London (United Kingdom); Danson, C.; Neely, D. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom); Altenberd, D.; Feurer, T.; Forster, E.; Gibbon, P.; Sauerbray, R.; Teubner, U.; Theobald, W.; Uschmann, I. [Institut fur Optik und Quantenelektronik, Jena (Germany); Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S.; Gremillet, L.; Fuchs, J.; Marques, J.R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. d' Utilisation de Lasers Intenses, CNRS-CEA, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Gallant, P.; Kieffer, J.C.; Pepin, H. [INRS Energie et Materiaux, Quebec (Canada); Adam, J.C.; Heron, A.; Laval, G.; Mora, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique

    2000-07-01

    We present an abstract of ultra short and intense laser plasma interaction experiments which were performed with the 100 TW P102 laser facility at CEA/Limeil-Valenton. Laser interaction at relativistic regime (I>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) has been investigated with different 'targets': overdense plasma, underdense plasma, free electrons and capillary tube. These experiments are of great interests for the Fast Ignitor concept and the Laser Particle Accelerator. (authors)

  17. High-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse propagation in a 1-cm capillary tube and fast ignitor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, G.; Courtois, C.; Cros, B.; Matthieussent, G.; Borghesi, M.; Gaillard, R.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Willi, O.; Danson, C.; Neely, D.; Altenberd, D.; Feurer, T.; Forster, E.; Gibbon, P.; Sauerbray, R.; Teubner, U.; Theobald, W.; Uschmann, I.; Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S.; Gremillet, L.; Fuchs, J.; Marques, J.R.; Gallant, P.; Kieffer, J.C.; Pepin, H.; Adam, J.C.; Heron, A.; Laval, G.; Mora, P.

    2000-01-01

    We present an abstract of ultra short and intense laser plasma interaction experiments which were performed with the 100 TW P102 laser facility at CEA/Limeil-Valenton. Laser interaction at relativistic regime (I>10 18 W/cm 2 ) has been investigated with different 'targets': overdense plasma, underdense plasma, free electrons and capillary tube. These experiments are of great interests for the Fast Ignitor concept and the Laser Particle Accelerator. (authors)

  18. Vibration-induced electrical noise in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator: Characterization, mitigation, and impact on qubit coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Bar, Daniel; Freer, Solomon; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T.; Morello, Andrea, E-mail: a.morello@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW Australia, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-07-15

    Cryogen-free low-temperature setups are becoming more prominent in experimental science due to their convenience and reliability, and concern about the increasing scarcity of helium as a natural resource. Despite not having any moving parts at the cold end, pulse tube cryocoolers introduce vibrations that can be detrimental to the experiments. We characterize the coupling of these vibrations to the electrical signal observed on cables installed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator. The dominant electrical noise is in the 5–10 kHz range and its magnitude is found to be strongly temperature dependent. We test the performance of different cables designed to diagnose and tackle the noise, and find triboelectrics to be the dominant mechanism coupling the vibrations to the electrical signal. Flattening a semi-rigid cable or jacketing a flexible cable in order to restrict movement within the cable, successfully reduces the noise level by over an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we characterize the effect of the pulse tube vibrations on an electron spin qubit device in this setup. Coherence measurements are used to map out the spectrum of the noise experienced by the qubit, revealing spectral components matching the spectral signature of the pulse tube.

  19. Public Refrigerated Warehouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses (IARW) came into existence in 1891 when a number of conventional warehousemen took on the demands of storing...

  20. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  1. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  2. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  3. Refrigeration systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included - many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes so

  4. The dynamic single-tube concept; Le mono-tube dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivet, P. [Ste MC International (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of greenhouse gas emission reduction and the utilization of cooling intermediate fluids with indirect refrigerating systems, a new concept of dynamical single-tube has been developed, which allows for the simultaneous cold distribution from a centralized plant towards various required temperature systems (as for example in a supermarket refrigerating system) with optimized efficiency, fluid flow and defrosting conditions; moreover, the dynamic single-tube concept is very well adapted to two-phase flows

  5. An experimental investigation on a novel ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle applied in the domestic refrigerator-freezer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a NERC (novel ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle) applied in the domestic refrigerator-freezer (BCD-249). Experimental studies were conducted to validate the NERC system feasibility in a practical NERC based refrigerator-freezer prototype. The system performances of energy consumption, ejector pressure lift ratio and compressor power were compared under different combinations of system configuration parameters. The results showed that the NERC system could effectively reduce the thermodynamic losses in the throttle processing. The minimum energy consumption of 0.520 kWh 24 h"−"1 was obtained for the NERC prototype, indicating 5.45% energy consumption reduction compared with the conventional domestic refrigerator-freezer. Furthermore, the effects of system configuration parameters including the refrigerant charge amount, the compressor displacement and the length of capillary tube were investigated. This study aims at providing deep insight into ejector-expansion technology applied in domestic refrigerator-freezers. - Highlights: • A NERC (novel ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle) was experimentally studied. • 73 experimental data points with different system configuration were acquired. • Energy consumption could be reduced with optimum system configuration. • 5.45% energy consumption reduction is obtained compared with the conventional system.

  6. Performance comparison of a refrigerator system using R134a and hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR134a) with different expansion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Izzudin; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the performance of refrigerator system using working fluid between R134a refrigerant and HCR134a as hydrocarbon refrigerant for substitution of R134a. The use of capillary tube (CT) 1.5 m with HCR134a showed that slightly better COP than among the others, due to the lower pressure of condenser, conversely thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) showed that better COP than among the others with R134a. COP of CT 1.25 m and CT 1.5 m using HCR134a increase about 42.89% and 18.09% compared to R134a, where the electric current of refrigerator system decrease about 11.63% and 10.98%. However, the COP of HCR134a with CT 2.7 m and TEV were obtained lower than R134a about 16.2% and 17.06% and the use of electric current is higher than R134a about 12.98% and 16.5%. The use of HCR134a provides a higher refrigeration effect than R134a about 66.71%-88.27% for various types of expansion devices. The results confirmed that HCR134a could be an alternative refrigerant for replacement of R134a refrigerant.

  7. Performance analysis of a refrigeration system with parallel control of evaporation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Suk

    2008-01-01

    The conventional refrigeration system is composed of a compressor, condenser, receiver, expansion valve or capillary tube, and an evaporator. The refrigeration system used in this study has additional expansion valve and evaporator along with an Evaporation Pressure Regulator(EPR) at the exit side of the evaporator. The two evaporators can be operated at different temperatures according to the opening of the EPR. The experimental results obtained using the refrigeration system with parallel control of evaporation pressure are presented and the performance analysis of the refrigeration system with two evaporators is conducted

  8. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  9. Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants for Commercial Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Vishaldeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Environmental concerns are driving regulations for the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry towards lower GWP alternatives to HFC refrigerants. Existing lower GWP refrigerant alternatives include hydrocarbons, such as propane (R-290) and isobutane (R-600a), as well as carbon dioxide (R-744), ammonia (R-717), and R-32. In addition, new lower GWP refrigerant alternatives are currently being developed by refrigerant manufacturers, including hydrofluoro-olefin (HFO) and unsaturated hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFO) refrigerants. The selection of an appropriate refrigerant for a given refrigeration application should be based on several factors, including the GWP of the refrigerant, the energy consumption of the refrigeration system over its operating lifetime, and leakage of refrigerant over the system lifetime. For example, focusing on energy efficiency alone may overlook the significant environmental impact of refrigerant leakage; while focusing on GWP alone might result in lower efficiency systems that result in higher indirect impact over the equipment lifetime. Thus, the objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between

  10. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  11. Cryogenic forced convection refrigerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the method of refrigerating products by contact with a refrigerating gas which comprises introducing product into a refrigeration zone, contacting the product with the refrigerating gas for a sufficient time to refrigerate it to the appropriate extent and removing the refrigerated product. The improvement for producing the refrigeration gas from a liquid cryogen such that essentially all of the liquid cryogen is fully vaporized before contacting the product comprises: (a) introducing the liquid cryogen, selected from the group consisting of liquid air and liquid nitrogen, at elevated pressure into an ejector as the motive fluid to accelerate a portion of a warm refrigerating gas through the ejector while mixing the cryogen and gas to effect complete vaporization of the liquid cryogen and substantial cooling of the portion of the refrigerating gas resulting in a cold discharge gas which is above the liquefaction temperature of the cryogen; (b) introducing the cold discharge gas into a forced circulation pathway of refrigerating gas and producing a cold refrigerating gas which contacts and refrigerates product and is then at least partially recirculated; (c) sensing the temperature of the refrigerating gas in the forced circulation pathway and controlling the introduction of liquid cryogen with regard to the sensed temperature to maintain the temperature of the discharge gas above the liquefacton temperature of the cryogen utilized

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  13. Component-wise exergy and energy analysis of vapor compression refrigeration system using mixture of R134a and LPG as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the experimental examination was carried out using a mixture of R134a and LPG refrigerant (consisting of R134a and LPG in a proportion of 28:72 by weight) as a replacement for R134a in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Exergy and energy tests were carried out at different evaporator and condenser temperatures with controlled environmental conditions. The results showed that the exergy destruction in the compressor, condenser, evaporator, and a capillary tube of the R134a / LPG refrigeration system was found lower by approximately 11.13-3.41%, 2.24-3.43%, 12.02-13.47% and 1.54-5.61% respectively. The compressor exhibits the highest level of destruction, accompanied by a condenser, an evaporator and a capillary tube in refrigeration systems. The refrigeration capacity, COP and power consumption of the compressor of the R134a /LPG refrigeration system were detected higher and lower compared to the R134a refrigeration system by about 7.04-11.41%, 15.1-17.82%, and 3.83-8.08% respectively. Also, the miscibility of R134a and LPG blend with mineral oil discovered good. The R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture proposed in this study perform superior to R134a from component-wise exergy and energy analyses under similar experimental conditions.

  14. Component-wise exergy and energy analysis of vapor compression refrigeration system using mixture of R134a and LPG as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the experimental examination was carried out using a mixture of R134a and LPG refrigerant (consisting of R134a and LPG in a proportion of 28:72 by weight) as a replacement for R134a in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Exergy and energy tests were carried out at different evaporator and condenser temperatures with controlled environmental conditions. The results showed that the exergy destruction in the compressor, condenser, evaporator, and a capillary tube of the R134a / LPG refrigeration system was found lower by approximately 11.13-3.41%, 2.24-3.43%, 12.02-13.47% and 1.54-5.61% respectively. The compressor exhibits the highest level of destruction, accompanied by a condenser, an evaporator and a capillary tube in refrigeration systems. The refrigeration capacity, COP and power consumption of the compressor of the R134a /LPG refrigeration system were detected higher and lower compared to the R134a refrigeration system by about 7.04-11.41%, 15.1-17.82%, and 3.83-8.08% respectively. Also, the miscibility of R134a and LPG blend with mineral oil discovered good. The R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture proposed in this study perform superior to R134a from component-wise exergy and energy analyses under similar experimental conditions.

  15. Refrigeration a history

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Carroll

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, humans coped with heat by harvesting and storing natural ice and devising natural cooling systems that utilized ventilation and evaporation. By the mid 1800s, people began developing huge refrigeration machines to manufacture ice. By the early 1900s, engineers developed electric domestic refrigerators, which by 1927 were affordable convenient household appliances. By then, an increasingly sophisticated public demanded more modern-looking appliances than engineers could produce, and a new breed of designers entered the manufacturing world to provide them. During the Depr

  16. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  17. Kinetics of the Thermal Decomposition of Tetramethylsilane behind the Reflected Shock Waves in a Single Pulse Shock Tube (SPST) and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandaman, A.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Thermal reactions of Tetramethylsilane (TMS) diluted in argon were studied behind the reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube (SPST) over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K and pressures varied between 10.6 and 22.8 atm. The stable products resulting from the decomposition of TMS were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and also verified with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The major reaction products are methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). The minor reaction products are ethane (C2H6) and propylene (C3H6). The initiation of mechanism in the decomposition of TMS takes plays via the Si-C bond scission by ejecting the methyl radicals (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals ((CH3)3Si). The measured temperature dependent rate coefficient for the total decomposition of TMS was to be ktotal = 1.66 ×1015 exp (-64.46/RT) s-1 and for the formation of CH4 reaction channel was to be k = 2.20 × 1014 exp (-60.15/RT) s-1, where the activation energies are given in kcal mol-1. A kinetic scheme containing 17 species and 28 elementary reactions was used for the simulation using chemical kinetic simulator over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K. The agreement between the experimental and simulated results was satisfactory.

  18. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  19. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  20. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  1. Helium refrigerator for 'SULTAN'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpagaus, M.; Erlach, H.; Quack, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe the helium refrigerator designed for the SULTAN test facility. SULTAN (Supraleiter-Testanlage) is intended to serve for the developments and testing of high field superconducting magnets. These magnets are needed mainly for future applications in nuclear fusion. (Auth.)

  2. Heat transfer property of refrigerant-oil mixture in a flooded evaporator: The role of bubble formation and oil retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Sung-Gyu; Jeong, Young-Man; Lee, Jae-Keun; Kim, Soo Hyung; Lee, Soowon; Park, Nae-Hyun; Na, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Byung-Soon; Hwang, Joon-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of oil retention on the heat transfer performance of a shell-and-tube-type evaporator which had 26 inner tubes and was filled with the refrigerant R-134a. The refrigerant was boiled on the surface of the inner tubes in the evaporator, while chilled water circulated through these tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed to measure both the pressure and temperature profiles at the inlet and outlet of the flooded evaporator. Four windows were installed for observing the operation of the flooded evaporator. A series of experiments were carried out under the following conditions: the refrigerant saturation temperature, 5 .deg. C; refrigerant inlet quality, 0.1; heat fluxes from water to the refrigerant, 5-7 kW/m"2.. The concentration of the oil retained in the refrigerant was then varied up to approximately 10% to observe the effect on the heat transfer performance of the flooded evaporator. Increasing the oil content (i.e., increasing the concentration up to a maximum of approximately 10%) in the refrigerant R134a did not lead to any appreciable reduction in the overall heat transfer coefficient of a flooded evaporator with multiple-inner-tubes. When the oil concentration in the refrigerant was approximately 10%, the heat transfer degradation in the case of the flooded evaporator with multiple-inner-tubes was approximately 11%, which was found to be much smaller than the heat transfer degradation in the case of a flooded evaporator with a single-tube (26-49%). This observation suggested that the oil retained in the refrigerant did not significantly deteriorate the heat transfer performance of the flooded evaporator, presumably because the presence of tube bundles promoted forced convection by agitating bubbles

  3. Effect of evaporator temperature on vapor compression refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A.A.A. Al-Rashed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparable evaluation of R600a (isobutane, R290 (propane, R134a, R22, for R410A, and R32 an optimized finned-tube evaporator, and analyzes the evaporator effect on the system coefficient of performance (COP. Results concerning the response of a refrigeration system simulation software to an increase in the amount of oil flowing with the refrigerant are presented. It is shown that there is optima of the apparent overheat value, for which either the exchanged heat or the refrigeration coefficient of performance (COP is maximized: consequently, it is not possible to optimize both the refrigeration COP and the evaporator effect. The obtained evaporator optimization results were incorporated in a conventional analysis of the vapor compression system. For a theoretical cycle analysis without accounting for evaporator effects, the COP spread for the studied refrigerants was as high as 11.7%. For cycle simulations including evaporator effects, the COP of R290 was better than that of R22 by up to 3.5%, while the remaining refrigerants performed approximately within a 2% COP band of the R22 baseline for the two condensing temperatures considered.

  4. Design of a Dry Dilution Refrigerator for MMC Gamma Detector Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boyd, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cantor, Robin

    2017-04-03

    The goal of this LCP is to develop an ultra-high resolution gamma detector based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material to replace current Au:Er sensors. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers. MMC detectors require operating temperatures of ~15 mK and thus the use of a dilution refrigerator, and the desire for user-friendly operation without cryogenic liquids requires that this refrigerator use pulse-tube pre-cooling to ~4 K. For long-term reliability, we intend to re-design the heat switch that is needed to apply the magnetizing current to the Ag:Er sensor and that used to fail in earlier designs after months of operation. A cryogenic Compton veto will be installed to reduce the spectral background of the MMC, especially at low energies where ultra-high energy resolution is most important. The goals for FY16 were 1) to purchase a liquid-cryogen-free dilution refrigerator and adapt it for MMC operation, and 2) to fabricate Ag:Er-based MMC γ-detectors with improved performance and optimize their response. This report discusses the design of the instruments, and progress in MMC detector fabrication. Details of the MMC fabrication have been discussed in an April 2016 report to DOE.

  5. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  6. Flammability Indices for Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Osami

    This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.

  7. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  8. Design of a scanning gate microscope for mesoscopic electron systems in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccione, M; Sciambi, A; Bartel, J; Keller, A J; Goldhaber-Gordon, D

    2013-03-01

    We report on our design of a scanning gate microscope housed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 15 mK. The recent increase in efficiency of pulse tube cryocoolers has made cryogen-free systems popular in recent years. However, this new style of cryostat presents challenges for performing scanning probe measurements, mainly as a result of the vibrations introduced by the cryocooler. We demonstrate scanning with root-mean-square vibrations of 0.8 nm at 3 K and 2.1 nm at 15 mK in a 1 kHz bandwidth with our design. Using Coulomb blockade thermometry on a GaAs/AlGaAs gate-defined quantum dot, we demonstrate an electron temperature of 45 mK.

  9. A Case Study of a Low Powervapour Compression Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinav, R.; Nambiar, G. K.; Sahu, Debjyoti

    2016-09-01

    Reported in this paper is a case study on a normal vapor compression refrigeration system which is expected to be run by photovoltaic panels to utilize minimum grid power. A small 120 W refrigerator is fabricated out of commercially available components and run by an inverter and battery connected to solar photovoltaic panel as well as grid. Temperature at several points was measured and the performance was evaluated. The Coefficient of performance (COP) to run such refrigerator is estimated after numerical simulation of major components namely, evaporator, condenser and a capillary tube. The simulation was done to obtain an effective cooling temperature and the results were compared with measured temperatures. Calculation proves to be in conformity with the actual model.

  10. Neutron generator tube ion source control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A system is claimed for controlling the output of a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and having an ion source to produce sharply defined pulses of neutrons for well logging use. It comprises: means for inputting a relatively low voltage input control pulse having a leading edge and a trailing edge; means, responsive to the input control pulse, for producing a relatively high voltage ion source voltage pulse after receipt of the input pulse; and means, responsive to the input control pulse, for quenching, after receipt of the input pulse, the ion source control pulse, thereby providing a sharply time defined neutron output from the generator tube

  11. Numerical analysis of an air condenser working with the refrigerant fluid R407C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    As CFC (clorofluorocarbon) and HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) refrigerants which have been used as refrigerants in a vapour compression refrigeration system were know to provide a principal cause to ozone depletion and global warming, production and use of these refrigerants have been restricted. Therefore, new alternative refrigerants should be searched for, which fit to the requirements in an air conditioner or a heat pump, and refrigerant mixtures which are composed of HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) refrigerants having zero ODP (ozone depletion potential) are now being suggested as drop-in or mid-term replacement. However also these refrigerants, as the CFC and HCFC refrigerants, present a greenhouse effect. The zeotropic mixture designated as R407C (R32/R125/R134a 23/25/52% in mass) represents a substitute of the HCFC22 for high evaporation temperature applications as the air-conditioning. Aim of the paper is a numerical-experimental analysis for an air condenser working with the non azeotropic mixture R407C in steady-state conditions. A homogeneous model for the condensing refrigerant is considered to forecast the performances of the condenser; this model is capable of predicting the distributions of the refrigerant temperature, the velocity, the void fraction, the tube wall temperature and the air temperature along the test condenser. Obviously in the refrigerant de-superheating phase the numerical analysis becomes very simple. A comparison with the measurements on an air condenser mounted in an air channel linked to a vapour compression plant is discussed. The results show that the simplified model provides a reasonable estimation of the steady-state response and that this model is useful to design purposes

  12. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HFC REFRIGERANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants are possible alternatives to replace ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. The flammability of a proposed new refrigerant is a major consideration in assessing its utility for a particular applicat...

  13. Fermilab tevatron five refrigerator system tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, C.; Ferry, R.; Leiniger, M.; Makara, J.; Misek, J.; Mizicko, D.; Richied, D.; Theilacker, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron refrigeration system is described with the layout illustrated. The compressor control loops, the refrigerator control loops, and magnet control loops (two per refrigerator) are described and each illustrated. The mobile purifier is described. A five refrigerator test is presented, using two compressor buildings, satellite refrigerator concept test and the test current to the writing. The configuration of the five refrigerator test is diagramed

  14. Modelling and Multi-Variable Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Holm, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic model of a 1:1 refrigeration system is presented. The main modelling effort has been concentrated on a lumped parameter model of a shell and tube condenser. The model has shown good resemblance with experimental data from a test rig, regarding as well the static as the dyn......In this paper a dynamic model of a 1:1 refrigeration system is presented. The main modelling effort has been concentrated on a lumped parameter model of a shell and tube condenser. The model has shown good resemblance with experimental data from a test rig, regarding as well the static...... as the dynamic behavior. Based on this model the effects of the cross couplings has been examined. The influence of the cross couplings on the achievable control performance has been investigated. A MIMO controller is designed and the performance is compared with the control performance achieved by using...

  15. Energy optimisation of domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the main results of a research project with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators by increasing the efficiency of the refrigeration system. The improvement of the system efficiency was to be obtained by:1) Introducing continuous operation ...

  16. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited......This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  17. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  18. High-power stirling-type pulse tube cooler for power engineering applications of high temperature superconductivity; Hochleistungspulsrohrkuehler vom Stirling-Typ fuer energietechnische Anwendungen der Hochtemperatursupraleitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Marc

    2015-12-15

    For the cooling of high temperature superconducting 4 MVA machines (motors or generators), a single-stage Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocooler was built. The cooling power, which the cryocooler was aimed for, is 80 - 100 W at 30 K with an electrical input power of 10 kW (8 kW pV-power). The advantages of this cooler type compared to traditional cooling concepts are an increased reliability and long maintenance intervals. While single-stage Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocoolers for the temperature range of liquid nitrogen (77 K) are already commercially available, there exist currently no commercial systems for the temperature range near 30 K, which is the important range for applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The experimental setup consisted of a 10 kW linear compressor, type 2S297W, from CFIC Inc. which was used as the pressure wave generator. The compressor was operated by a Micromaster 440 frequency inverter from Siemens, which was controlled by a custom-made computer program. The cold head was made in inline configuration, in order to avoid deflection losses. During the first cool-downs tests a temperature inhomogeneity occurred in the regenerator at low temperature and high pV-power, which was attributed to a constant mass flow (circular dc-flow) within the regenerator. This firstly observed dc-flow, generates a net energy flow from the hot end to the cold end of the regenerator, which reduces the cooling capacity considerably and hence the minimum attainable temperature is severely increased. For the design and optimization of the cold-head, a cryocooler model was initially created using the commercial simulation software Sage, which did not include the regenerator inhomogeneity seen in the experiment. For the modeling of the observed streaming inhomogeneity caused by the dc-flow, the regenerator was replaced by two identical parallel regenerators with variable transverse thermal coupling. In the inhomogeneous case (without dc-flow) the

  19. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bacellar, Daniel [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Aute, Vikrant [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Huang, Zhiwei [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hwang, Yunho [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Muehlbauer, Jan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tancabel, James [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Mingkan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Air-to-refrigerant Heat eXchangers (HX) are an essential component of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems, serving as the main heat transfer component. The major limiting factor to HX performance is the large airside thermal resistance. Recent literature aims at improving heat transfer performance by utilizing enhancement methods such as fins and small tube diameters; this has lead to almost exhaustive research on the microchannel HX (MCHX). The objective of this project is to develop a miniaturized air-to-refrigerant HX with at least 20% reduction in volume, material volume, and approach temperature compared to current state-of-the-art multiport flat tube designs and also be capable of production within five years. Moreover, the proposed HX’s are expected to have good water drainage and should succeed in both evaporator and condenser applications. The project leveraged Parallel-Parametrized Computational Fluid Dynamics (PPCFD) and Approximation-Assisted Optimization (AAO) techniques to perform multi-scale analysis and shape optimization with the intent of developing novel HX designs whose thermal-hydraulic performance exceeds that of state-of-the-art MCHX. Nine heat exchanger geometries were initially chosen for detailed analysis, selected from 35+ geometries which were identified in previous work at the University of Maryland, College Park. The newly developed optimization framework was exercised for three design optimization problems: (DP I) 1.0kW radiator, (DP II) 10kW radiator and (DP III) 10kW two-phase HX. DP I consisted of the design and optimization of 1.0kW air-to-water HX’s which exceeded the project requirements of 20% volume/material reduction and 20% better performance. Two prototypes for the 1.0kW HX were prototyped, tested and validated using newly-designed airside and refrigerant side test facilities. DP II, a scaled version DP I for 10kW air-to-water HX applications, also yielded optimized HX designs

  20. Enhanced Evaporation and Condensation in Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi

    A state-of-the-art review of enhanced evaporation and condensation in horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels that are used for air-conditioning and refrigeration applications is presented. The review covers the effects of flow pattern and geometrical parameters of the tubes on the heat transfer performance. Attention is paid to the effect of surface tension which leads to enhanced evaporation and condensation in the microfin tubes and micro-channels. A review of prior efforts to develop empirical correlations of the heat transfer coefficient and theoretical models for evaporation and condensation in the horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels is also presented.

  1. Performance of an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator operating in gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode with nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudath Nayak, H.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2009-07-01

    There is a worldwide interest in the development of auto refrigerant cascade (ARC) refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures. Both flammable and non-flammable refrigerant mixtures can be used in these systems. The performance of an ARC system with optimum nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon mixtures between 90 and 160 K is presented in this paper.

  2. Review of SC/RF refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrns, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    A short review is given of historical events in accelerator and cryogenic developments at both Stanford and Berkeley. Methods of refrigeration between 1.85 K and 4.5 K together with modern techniques and improvements are discussed. Where the decade of the 70's was the era of the screw compressor, the 80's can be considered that of the cold vacuum pump for superfluid cooling. Distribution methods are of major importance, and arguments can be made for bath or tube cooling, two-phase, thermo-syphon, supercritical or superfluid. System design affects reliability, safety and operating stability. Distribution costs and heat loads can be a large part of system totals. Some specific system descriptions are included. (author)

  3. A flexible numerical model to study an active magnetic refrigerator for near room temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno) (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants. This technology offers a smaller global environmental impact than the refrigeration obtained by means of the classical vapor compression machines operating with fluids such as HFCs. The Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) is currently the most studied ant tested magnetic cycle. It combines the regenerative properties of a high specific heat solid porous matrix with the ability of performing thermo-magnetic cycles thanks to the magnetocaloric property of the refrigerant; while a fluid pulsing through the regenerator works as a heat transfer medium. An active magnetic regenerator can provide larger temperature spans making up for the local small temperature variation of the refrigerant. In the present paper, a practical model for predicting the performance and efficiency of an AMRR cycle has been developed. The model evaluates both the refrigerant properties and the entire cycle of an AMR operating in conformity with a Brayton regenerative cycle. The magnetocaloric material of choice is gadolinium, while the heat transfer medium is liquid water. With this model can be predicted the refrigeration capacity, the power consumption and consequently the Coefficient of Performance. The results show a greater COP when compared to a classical vapor compression plant working between the same temperature levels. (author)

  4. A flexible numerical model to study an active magnetic refrigerator for near room temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, Ciro; Maiorino, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology based on the magnetocaloric effect in solid-state refrigerants. This technology offers a smaller global environmental impact than the refrigeration obtained by means of the classical vapor compression machines operating with fluids such as HFCs. The Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration (AMRR) is currently the most studied ant tested magnetic cycle. It combines the regenerative properties of a high specific heat solid porous matrix with the ability of performing thermo-magnetic cycles thanks to the magnetocaloric property of the refrigerant; while a fluid pulsing through the regenerator works as a heat transfer medium. An active magnetic regenerator can provide larger temperature spans making up for the local small temperature variation of the refrigerant. In the present paper, a practical model for predicting the performance and efficiency of an AMRR cycle has been developed. The model evaluates both the refrigerant properties and the entire cycle of an AMR operating in conformity with a Brayton regenerative cycle. The magnetocaloric material of choice is gadolinium, while the heat transfer medium is liquid water. With this model can be predicted the refrigeration capacity, the power consumption and consequently the Coefficient of Performance. The results show a greater COP when compared to a classical vapor compression plant working between the same temperature levels.

  5. Thermoacoustic refrigerator for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Steven L.; Adeff, Jay A.; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1993-10-01

    A new spacecraft cryocooler which uses resonant high-amplitude sound waves in inert gases to pump heat is described. The phasing of the thermoacoustic cycle is provided by thermal conduction. This 'natural' phasing allows the entire refrigerator to operate with only one moving part (the loudspeaker diaphragm). A space-qualified thermoacoustic refrigerator was flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-42) in January, 1992. It was entirely autonomous, had no sliding seals, required no lubrication, used mostly low-tolerance machined parts, and contained no expensive components. Thermoacoustics is shown to be a competitive candidate for food refrigerator/freezers and commercial/residential air conditioners. The design and performance of the Space Thermo/Acoustic Refrigerator (STAR) is described.

  6. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  8. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A; Jurkowski, R [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  9. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  10. Modelling and control of large cryogenic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript is concern with both the modeling and the derivation of control schemes for large cryogenic refrigerators. The particular case of those which are submitted to highly variable pulsed heat load is studied. A model of each object that normally compose a large cryo-refrigerator is proposed. The methodology to gather objects model into the model of a subsystem is presented. The manuscript also shows how to obtain a linear equivalent model of the subsystem. Based on the derived models, advances control scheme are proposed. Precisely, a linear quadratic controller for warm compression station working with both two and three pressures state is derived, and a predictive constrained one for the cold-box is obtained. The particularity of those control schemes is that they fit the computing and data storage capabilities of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) with are well used in industry. The open loop model prediction capability is assessed using experimental data. Developed control schemes are validated in simulation and experimentally on the 400W1.8K SBT's cryogenic test facility and on the CERN's LHC warm compression station. (author) [fr

  11. Refrigeration plants for the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAshan, M.; Ganni, V.; Than, R.; Niehaus, T.

    1991-03-01

    The basic requirements and operating features of the collider cryogenic system have already been described in other publications. The general arrangement of the refrigeration plant and its subsystems is presented, and the issue of how to provide redundancy in the cryogenic system is addressed, and some of the basic features of the refrigeration plants are described. The collider cryogenic system design is not final yet, and this report only reflects the direction and current status of the cryogenic system design

  12. Heat transfer performance during in-tube condensation in horizontal smooth, micro-fin and herringbone tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.Ing. An experimental investigation was conducted into the heat transfer characteristics of horizontal smooth, micro-fin and herringbone tubes during in-tube condensation. The study focused on the heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants R-22, R-134a and R-407C inside the three tubes. The herringbone tube results were compared to the smooth and micro-fin tube results. The average increase in the heat transfer coefficient when compared to the smooth tube was found to be as high as 322% w...

  13. Refrigerant falling film evaporation review: Description, fluid dynamics and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Seara, José; Pardiñas, Ángel Á.

    2014-01-01

    Falling film horizontal tube evaporators for refrigeration equipment are an interesting alternative to pool boiling evaporators concerning operation costs, safety, thermodynamic efficiency, charge of refrigerant or size. Plenty of literature works studied falling film evaporation, but for its application in fields such as desalination and petrochemical industry or OTEC. This review focuses mainly on those works from the literature that analysed the main issues of falling film evaporation of refrigerants, to better understand heat transfer and fluid dynamics in such evaporators. First, falling film evaporation is described and compared to pool boiling, to define its main advantages and inconveniences. Then, the literature concerning film around the tubes and between them is analysed, as well as the phenomenon of film breakdown, which sharply deteriorates the heat transfer performance of falling film evaporators. After it, the results from those works that studied analytically and experimentally the heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) with different types of tubes and refrigerants are discussed. The review finishes with a brief summary of important parameters of falling film evaporation, which might be useful for the design of such equipment. - Highlights: •We defined falling film evaporation and compared it with pool boiling. •We reviewed works from the literature concerning refrigerant falling film evaporation. •We classified the ideas from the works attending to crucial aspects of the process. •We developed a summary of the main ideas which could be useful for design purpose

  14. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  15. Refrigeration waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    UK Super A Stores was built in 1972 and is part of a small indoor shopping complex linked together by a heated mall. The store has a public floor area of approximately 1,232 m{sup 2} (13,261 ft.{sup 2}) and sells the usual variety of food produce including a large selection of frozen foods. There are five lengths of refrigerated display cabinets with a total area of approximately 78 m{sup 2}. There are also some frozen food storage rooms at the back of the store. This report provides a description of a waste heat recovery system within a medium sized food store. It details how the waste heat that is produced by the conventional frozen food display cabinets, can be reused by the store's space heating system. Recommended uses for this waste heat include: diverting to the loading bays which would make the reheat coil unnecessary, diverting to the front of the shop, and heating the adjacent shopping mall. The CREDA (Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Assistance) program contributed $17,444 towards the total project cost of $30,444. The project was initiated by the store owner, who is now realizing a lower annual fuel consumption, with the resulting financial savings. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Laser plasma generation of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon thin films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube materials and silicon wafers with a pulsed high-power CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Mouris, J.F.; Hoffmann, C.R.J.; Davis, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first experiments on the laser plasma deposition of hydrogen-free, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure-tube materials and silicon substrates, using the short-pulse, high-power, CO 2 laser in the High-Power Laser Laboratory at Chalk River Laboratories. The films were (AFM). The thin films show the characteristic signature of DLC films in the Raman spectra obtained using a krypton-ion (Kr + ) laser. The Vickers ultra-low-load microhardness tests show hardness of the coated surface of approximately 7000 Kg force mm -2 , which is consistent with the hardness associated with DLC films. AFM examination of the film morphology shows diamond-like crystals distributed throughout the film, with film thicknesses of up to 0.5 μm generated with 50 laser pulses. With significantly more laser pulses, it is expected that very uniform diamond-like films would be produced. These experiments suggest that it should be possible to deposit hydrogen-free, diamond-like films of relevance to nuclear reactor components with a high-power and high-repetition-rate laser facility. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  17. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  18. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  19. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Krypton and a monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an adsorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  20. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  1. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized

  2. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  3. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  4. Refrigeration Cycle Design for Refrigerant Mixtures by Molecular Simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, W.R.; Francová, Magda; Kowalski, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 4 (2010), s. 383-391 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Grant - others:NSERC(CA) OGP1041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : refrigerants * molecular simulation s * vapor–liquid equilibrium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  5. 46 CFR 154.702 - Refrigerated carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.702 Refrigerated carriage. (a) Each refrigeration system must: (1) Have enough capacity to maintain the cargo vapor pressure in each cargo tank served by the system below... the purpose of this section, a “refrigeration unit” includes a compressor and its motors and controls...

  6. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or less...

  7. Solar Refrigerators Store Life-Saving Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Former Johnson Space Center engineer David Bergeron used his experience on the Advanced Refrigeration Technology Team to found SunDanzer Refrigeration Inc., a company specializing in solar-powered refrigerators. The company has created a battery-free unit that provides safe storage for vaccines in rural and remote areas around the world.

  8. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  9. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  10. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  11. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  12. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the

  13. Control of the Tevatron Satellite Refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.; Chapman, L.; Gannon, J.; Hentges, M.; Martin, M.; Rode, C.H.; Zagel, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a computerized control system for 24 satellite refrigerators which cool a six kilometer ring of superconducting magnets. The control system consists of 31 independent microprocessors operating over 400 servo loops, and a central computer system which provides monitoring, alarms, logging and changing of parameters. Topics considered include pressure measurement, flow measurement, temperature measurement, gas analysis, control valves, expansion engine controllers, and control loops. Each refrigerator has 12 active microprocessor based control loops which tune the refrigerator to one of its four operating modes: satellite, liquefier, refrigerator, and stand-by. It is suggested that optimizing the refrigerator control loops and quench recovery scheme will minimize the accelerator down time

  14. Efficiency improvement of commercial refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Julius [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents a historical review of carbon dioxide refrigeration systems. Further a literature survey is carried out to get a status of existing refrigeration technology related to supermarkets. In the next step various energy saving options are stated. A heat recovery model, basing on a R744 booster refrigeration system is established and described. Simplified demand curves for refrigeration, air conditioning and heating will base this model to calculate different heat recovery layouts. Supermarket future trends will be considered and integrated in the calculation. Finally the calculated energy consumptions will be compared with real energy consumptions of selected supermarket refrigeration systems.

  15. Effect of Dynamic Pressure on the Performance of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator with Aluminium (Al) Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bheemsha; Nayak, B. Ramesh; Shivakumara, N. V.

    2018-04-01

    In practice the refrigerants are being used in the conventional refrigeration system to get the required cooling effect. These refrigerants produce Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) which are highly harmful to the environment, particularly depleting of ozone layers resulting in green house emissions. In order to overcome these effects, the research needs to be focused on the development of an ecofriendly refrigeration system. The thermoacoustic refrigeration system is one among such system where the sound waves are used to compress and expand the gas particles. This study focuses on the effect of dynamic pressure on the thermoacoustic refrigerator made of aluminium with overall length of 748.82 mm, and the entire inner surface of the resonator tube was coated with 2mm thickness of polyurethane to minimize the heat losses to the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted with different stack geometries i.e. parallel plates having 0.119 mm thick with spacing between the plates maintained at 0.358 mm, 1mm diameter pipes, 2mm diameter pipes and 4 mm diameter pipes. Experiments were also conducted with different drive ratios of 0.6%, 1% and 1.6% for a constant dynamic pressure of 2 bar and 10 bar for helium and air as working medium. The results were plotted with the help of graphs, the variation of coefficient of performance (COP) and the relative coefficient of performance (COPR) for the above said conditions were calculated.

  16. Overall performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbay, L. Berrin; Ozturk, M. Mete; Doğan, Bahadır

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall performance coefficient of duplex Stirling refrigerator was investigated. • A definite region for the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator in duplex Stirling is identified. • A definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine in duplex Stirling is identified. • Benchmark values and design bounds of the duplex Stirling refrigerator were obtained. - Abstract: The duplex Stirling refrigerator is an integrated refrigerator consists of Stirling cycle engine and Stirling cycle refrigerator used for cooling. The equality of the work generation of the heat engine to the work consumption of the refrigerator is the primary constraint of the duplex Stirling. The duplex Stirling refrigerator is investigated thermodynamically by considering the effects of constructional and operational parameters which are namely the temperature ratios for heat engine and refrigerator, and the compression ratios for both sides. The primary concern is given to the parametric effects on the overall coefficient of performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator. The given diagrams provide a design bounds and benchmark results that allows seeing the big picture about the cooling load and heat input relation. Moreover they ease to determine the corresponding work rate to the target cooling load. As regard to the obtained results, a definite region for coefficient of performance of the refrigerator and a definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine of the duplex Stirling are identified.

  17. Environment-friendly refrigeration - Switzerland moves forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Silvan Schaller, president of the Swiss Refrigeration Society SVK and head of a leading Swiss industrial refrigeration company, on the subject of the implementation of new Swiss materials legislation that regulates the use of various refrigerants. In particular, the co-operation between the Society and the regulatory authorities is stressed. The reasons behind the regulations - the protection of the environment and, in particular, the ozone layer - are discussed as are the efforts required by industry to meet them. Future refrigeration technologies and the choice of refrigerants are examined. Measures that will have to be taken by the companies in the refrigeration sector, such as the additional training of personnel and the monitoring of the disposal of wastes, are examined. For the future, the goal of reducing the energy consumption of refrigeration installations is noted

  18. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan, E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-12-18

    Highlights: • A three-terminal quantum dot refrigerator is proposed. • The effects of magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization are considered. • The region that the system can work as a refrigerator is determined. • Two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared. - Abstract: A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  19. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  20. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  1. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar refrigerator prices. Copyright © 2017. Published

  2. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  3. Visualization and void fraction measurement of decompressed boiling flow in a capillary tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Murakawa, H.; Takenaka, N.; Takiguchi, K.; Okamoto, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Kitaide, Y.; Maruyama, N.

    2011-01-01

    A capillary tube is often used as a throttle for a refrigerating cycle. Subcooled refrigerant usually flows from a condenser into the capillary tube. Then, the refrigerant is decompressed along the capillary tube. When the static pressure falls below the saturation pressure for the liquid temperature, spontaneous boiling occurs. A vapor-liquid two-phase mixture is discharged from the tube. In designing a capillary tube, it is necessary to calculate the flow rate for given boundary conditions on pressure and temperature at the inlet and exit. Since total pressure loss is dominated by frictional and acceleration losses during two-phase flow, it is first necessary to specify the boiling inception point. However, there will be a delay in boiling inception during decompressed flow. This study aimed to clarify the boiling inception point and two-phase flow characteristics of refrigerant in a capillary tube. Refrigerant flows in a coiled copper capillary tube were visualized by neutron radiography. The one-dimensional distribution of volumetric average void fraction was measured from radiographs through image processing. From the void fraction distribution, the boiling inception point was determined. Moreover, a simplified CT method was successfully applied to a radiograph for cross-sectional measurements. The experimental results show the flow pattern transition from intermittent flow to annular flow that occurred at a void fraction of about 0.45.

  4. Sensitive determination of bismuth by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using atom trapping in a slotted quartz tube and revolatilization with organic solvent pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Aydın, Fırat; Ataman, O. Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Bi determination was improved by slotted quartz tube (SQT) that was used also for atom trapping (AT). The trapped analyte was released by aspirating a small volume of organic solvent after a reasonable analyte collection time. Sensitivity was improved by 2.9 times by SQT-FAAS and 256 times by SQT-AT-FAAS with respect to FAAS. Optimum trapping period was found to be 6.0 min (36.0 mL of solution). Limit of detection (LOD) for SQT-AT-FAAS was found to be 1.6 ng mL −1 . %RSD was calculated as 4.0% for five replicate measurements of 7.5 ng mL −1 Bi by SQT-AT-FAAS. Accuracy of the method developed was checked by analyzing a standard reference material of simulated fresh water (NIST 1643e) and result found was in good agreement with the certified one. The method can be applied in any laboratory equipped with a flame AA spectrometer. The consumption of time and sample volume is fairly low and application is simple and easy.

  5. Sensitive determination of bismuth by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using atom trapping in a slotted quartz tube and revolatilization with organic solvent pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I l Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nc, Ersin, E-mail: ekilinc@dicle.edu.tr [Dicle University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, TR 21280 Diyarbak Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r (Turkey); Bak Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I rdere, Sezgin [Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z Technical University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, TR 34210 Esenler-Istanbul (Turkey); Ayd Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I rat [Dicle University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, TR 21280 Diyarbak Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz [Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    Sensitivity of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Bi determination was improved by slotted quartz tube (SQT) that was used also for atom trapping (AT). The trapped analyte was released by aspirating a small volume of organic solvent after a reasonable analyte collection time. Sensitivity was improved by 2.9 times by SQT-FAAS and 256 times by SQT-AT-FAAS with respect to FAAS. Optimum trapping period was found to be 6.0 min (36.0 mL of solution). Limit of detection (LOD) for SQT-AT-FAAS was found to be 1.6 ng mL{sup -1}. %RSD was calculated as 4.0% for five replicate measurements of 7.5 ng mL{sup -1} Bi by SQT-AT-FAAS. Accuracy of the method developed was checked by analyzing a standard reference material of simulated fresh water (NIST 1643e) and result found was in good agreement with the certified one. The method can be applied in any laboratory equipped with a flame AA spectrometer. The consumption of time and sample volume is fairly low and application is simple and easy.

  6. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  7. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  8. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L.; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Methods Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as “electric refrigerators”) at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. Results At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Conclusion Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar

  9. Thermal flow regulator of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskij, S.I.; Savchenko, A.G.; Suplin, V.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal flow regulator of refrigerant for helium flow-type temperature-controlled cryostats based on controlling the channel hydraulic resistance due to variation of the flow density and viscosity during liquid helium transformation into the gaseous state. Behind the regulator both two-phase flow and a heated gas can be produced. The regulator resolution is (7-15)x10 -4 l/mW of liquid helium

  10. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  12. Functional Dependence of Thermodynamic and Thermokinetic Parameters of Refrigerants Used in Mine Air Refrigerators. Part 1 - Refrigerant R407C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Bernard; Życzkowski, Piotr; Łuczak, Rafał

    2017-03-01

    The authors of this article dealt with the issue of modeling the thermodynamic and thermokinetic properties (parameters) of refrigerants. The knowledge of these parameters is essential to design refrigeration equipment, to perform their energy efficiency analysis, or to compare the efficiency of air refrigerators using different refrigerants. One of the refrigerants used in mine air compression refrigerators is R407C. For this refrigerant, 23 dependencies were developed, determining its thermodynamic and thermokinetic parameters in the states of saturated liquid, dry saturated vapour, superheated vapor, subcooled liquid, and in the two-phase region. The created formulas have been presented in Tables 2, 5, 8, 10 and 12, respectively. It should be noted that the scope of application of these formulas is wider than the range of changes of that refrigerant during the normal operation of mine refrigeration equipment. The article ends with the statistical verification of the developed dependencies. For this purpose, for each model correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination were calculated, as well as absolute and relative deviations between the given values from the program REFPROP 7 (Lemmon et al., 2002) and the calculated ones. The results of these calculations have been contained in Tables 14 and 15.

  13. An Optimal Control Approach for an Overall Cryogenic Plant Under Pulsed Heat Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Palacin, Luis; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique; Maekawa, Ryuji; Chalifour, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the optimal management of a cryogenic plant composed by parallel refrigeration plants, which provide supercritical helium to pulsed heat loads. First, a data reconciliation approach is proposed to estimate precisely the refrigerator variables necessary to deduce the efficiency of each refrigerator. Second, taking into account these efficiencies, an optimal operation of the system is proposed and studied. Finally, while minimizing the power consumption of the refrigerators, the control system maintains stable operation of the cryoplant under pulsed heat loads. The management of the refrigerators is carried out by an upper control layer, which balances the relative production of cooling power in each refrigerator. In addition, this upper control layer deals with the mitigation of malfunctions and faults in the system. The proposed approach has been validated using a dynamic model of the cryoplant developed with EcosimPro software, based on first principles (mass and energy balances) and the...

  14. 10 CFR 431.62 - Definitions concerning commercial refrigerators, freezers and refrigerator-freezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... functional characteristics that affect energy consumption. Commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator... formed by the plane of the door, when the equipment is viewed in cross-section; and (2) For equipment...

  15. HeREF-2003: Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 Cost per participant: 500.- CHF Language: Bilingual English...

  16. HeREF-2003 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. • Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 • Cost per participant: 500.- CHF ...

  17. Not all counterclockwise thermodynamic cycles are refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. H.; Mottmann, J.

    2016-06-01

    Clockwise cycles on PV diagrams always represent heat engines. It is therefore tempting to assume that counterclockwise cycles always represent refrigerators. This common assumption is incorrect: most counterclockwise cycles cannot be refrigerators. This surprising result is explored here for quasi-static ideal gas cycles, and the necessary conditions for refrigeration cycles are clarified. Three logically self-consistent criteria can be used to determine if a counterclockwise cycle is a refrigerator. The most fundamental test compares the counterclockwise cycle with a correctly determined corresponding Carnot cycle. Other criteria we employ include a widely accepted description of the functional behavior of refrigerators, and a corollary to the second law that limits a refrigerator's coefficient of performance.

  18. Magnetocaloric refrigeration near room temperature (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Thanh, D.T.C.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. The ideal cooling machine would be a compact, solid state, silent and energy-efficient heat pump that does not require maintenance. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared to compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved, second it may be built more compact as the working material is a solid and third magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently, a new class of magnetic refrigerant materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: They exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase transition of first order. This MCE is, larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review, we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability

  19. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  20. Capacitance sensor for void fraction measurement in a natural circulation refrigeration circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marcelo S.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Simoes-Moreira, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    Natural circulation is widely used in nuclear reactors for residual heat refrigeration. In this work, a conductance probe is designed and constructed to measure the instantaneous bulk void fraction in a vertical tube section. This probe is installed in a natural circulation refrigeration loop designed to simulate a nuclear reactor primary refrigeration circuit. During the operation of the natural circulation loop several gas-liquid flow patterns are observed, including oscillatory flow. The instantaneous signal generated by the capacitance probe allows the calculation of the two-phase flow void fraction. The void fraction obtained by the probe will be compared with the theoretical void fraction calculated by the computational program RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 gamma. The probe design and electronics, as well as the previous results obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Ecological optimization for generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Zhu Xiaoqin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    The optimal ecological performance of a Newton's law generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerator with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the exergy output rate and exergy loss rate (entropy production rate) of the refrigerator. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the optimal performance of generalized irreversible refrigerators

  2. Evaluation of Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Refrigerant mass flow rate is an important measurement for monitoring equipment performance and enabling fault detection and diagnostics. However, a traditional mass flow meter is expensive to purchase and install. A virtual refrigerant mass flow sensor (VRMF) uses a mathematical model to estimate flow rate using low-cost measurements and can potentially be implemented at low cost. This study evaluates three VRMFs for estimating refrigerant mass flow rate. The first model uses a compressor ma...

  3. Adsorption refrigeration technology theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi

    2014-01-01

    Gives readers a detailed understanding of adsorption refrigeration technology, with a focus on practical applications and environmental concerns Systematically covering the technology of adsorption refrigeration, this book provides readers with a technical understanding of the topic as well as detailed information on the state-of-the-art from leading researchers in the field. Introducing readers to background on the development of adsorption refrigeration, the authors also cover the development of adsorbents, various thermodynamic theories, the design of adsorption systems and adsorption refri

  4. Small size neutron tube UNG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Mints, A.Z.; Shkol'nikov, A.S.

    A tube UNG-1 (universal neutron gas-filled) is designed for the use in the well neutron generators IGN-1 and IGN-1-M (a pulse neutron generator). Their serial production in the USSR has been started in 1963. At the same year, the serial production of the tubes UNG-1 has been started. Thus, this tube is the first serial logging accelerating tube in the USSR. A Penning source, equipped with a hot cathode, was selected as an ion source of the tube

  5. United States: refrigeration industry blows hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the Kyoto convention on global warming, the american refrigeration industries have undertaken several organizations and contacts with governments and agencies in order to explain the real issues concerning the effects of refrigerant utilization in refrigerating machines on the greenhouse effect, taking into consideration the commercial impact that a ban on certain refrigerants could have on the industry's business. They argue that HFC utilization in this industry is fundamentally non-emissive and that important improvements have been realized concerning tightness and energy consumption

  6. Rotary magnetic refrigerator for superfluid helium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakuraku, Y.; Ogata, H.

    1986-01-01

    A new rotary-magnetic refrigerator designed to obtain superfluid helium temperatures by executing a magnetic Carnot cycle is developed. A rotor containing 12 magnetic refrigerants (gadolinium-gallium-garnet) is immersed in liquid helium at 4.2 K and rotated at constant speed in a steady magnetic field distribution. Performance tests demonstrate that the new rotary refrigerator is capable of obtaining a temperature of 1.48 K. The maximum useful cooling power obtained at 1.8 K is 1.81 W which corresponds to a refrigeration efficiency of 34%

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  8. Performance Optimization of Alternative Lower Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Mini-Split Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) recently conducted extensive laboratory, drop-in investigations for lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A. ORNL studied propane, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B as lower GWP refrigerant replacement for R-22 in a mini-split room air conditioner (RAC) originally designed for R-22; and, R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and L41-2, in a mini-split RAC designed for R-410A. We obtained laboratory testing results with very good energy balance and nominal measurement uncertainty. Drop-in studies are not enough to judge the overall performance of the alternative refrigerants since their thermodynamic and transport properties might favor different heat exchanger configurations, e.g. cross-flow, counter flow, etc. This study compares optimized performances of individual refrigerants using a physics-based system model tools. The DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) was used to model the mini-split RACs by inputting detailed heat exchangers geometries, compressor displacement and efficiencies as well as other relevant system components. The RAC models were calibrated against the lab data for each individual refrigerant. The calibrated models were then used to conduct a design optimization for the cooling performance by varying the compressor displacement to match the required capacity, and changing the number of circuits, refrigerant flow direction, tube diameters, air flow rates in the condenser and evaporator at 100% and 50% cooling capacities. This paper compares the optimized performance results for all alternative refrigerants and highlights best candidates for R-22 and R-410A replacement.

  9. Simulation of Evacuated Tube Collector and Storage of Hybrid Air-conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ahmed Abdulhussain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The CFD transient simulation of superheating the refrigerant R410 through the heat exchange with the evacuated tube water heating system of the hybrid split air conditioner that is subjected to solar radiation of constant intensity with the contribution of fan accelerated air is performed by the ANSYS-CFX code. The comparison with experimental work showed a minimum percentage error 8% of the predicted refrigerant evaporative heat transfer with storage tank horizontal tubing. In addition, the results denoted high absorption rate for the evacuated tubes, reducing highly reversed heat transmission for the circulated water. 

  10. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  11. Prediction of Dangerous Time in Case Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Leaks into Household Refrigerator Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Takatoshi; Kaji, Nobufuji; Miyake, Kunihiro

    Hydrocarbon refrigerators are now on sale in European countries. However, hydrocarbons are flammable. A common claim is that concentration of hydrocarbon in the refrigerator could exceed the lower explosive limit by a sudden leak and then a spark ignites a flame causing overpressure. There is the need of the studies on potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants. Thus, the flow rate of the fresh air into the refrigerator cabinet has been defined experimentally, and the spatial average concentration in the refrigerator cabinet has been analyzed theoretically to predict the dangerous time in excess of the lower explosive limit.

  12. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.

  13. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  14. Refrigeration and air-conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Hundy, G H; Welch, T C

    2008-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this respected text delivers a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of refrigeration. Clear and straightforward, it is designed for students (NVQ/vocational level) and professional HVAC engineers, including those on short or CPD courses. Inexperienced readers are provided with a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the technology. With its concise style yet broad sweep the book covers most of the applications professionals will encounter, enabling them to understand, specify, commission, use and maintain these systems. Many readers w

  15. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  16. 46 CFR 147.90 - Refrigerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .../ASHRAE 34-78 may be carried as ships' stores. (b) Refrigerants contained in a vessel's operating system... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerants. 147.90 Section 147.90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene...

  18. Refrigeration: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In some industries, most notably food and drink and chemicals, refrigeration accounts for a significant proportion of overall site energy costs. For instance, in the industrial handling of meat, poultry and fish, it often accounts for 50% of total energy costs. In ice-cream production the proportion is 70%. In a number of commercial sectors, refrigeration also represents a significant proportion of overall energy costs. For example: Cold storage 90%; Food supermarkets 50%; Small shops with refrigerated cabinets 70% or over; Pubs and clubs 30%. Against these high costs, even a small reduction in refrigeration energy use can offer significant cost savings, resulting in increased profits. Energy saving need not be expensive. Energy savings of up to 20% can be realised in many refrigeration plant through actions that require little or no investment. In addition, improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. Most organisations can save energy and money on refrigeration by: More efficient equipment; Good maintenance; Housekeeping and control. This publication provides an understanding of the operation of refrigeration systems, identifies where savings can be realised and will enable readers to present an informed case on energy savings to key decision makers within their organisation. (GB)

  19. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  20. Environmentally benign working pairs for adsorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Qun; Tao Gang; Chen Haijun; Guo Xinyue; Yao Huqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins from adsorption working pairs: water and ethanol were selected as refrigerants; 13x molecular sieve, silica gel, activated carbon, adsorbent NA and NB, proposed by authors, were selected as adsorbents, and the performance of adsorption working pairs in adsorption refrigeration cycle was studied. The adsorption isotherms of adsorbents (NA and NB) were obtained by high-vacuum gravimetric method. Desorption properties of adsorbents were analyzed and compared by thermal analysis method. The performance of adsorption refrigeration was studied on simulation device of adsorption refrigeration cycle. After presentation of adsorption isotherms, the thermodynamic performance for their use in adsorption refrigeration system was calculated. The results show: (1) the maximum adsorption capacity of water on adsorbent NA reaches 0.7 kg/kg, and the maximum adsorption capacity of ethanol on adsorbent NB is 0.68 kg/kg, which is three times that of ethanol on activated carbon, (2) the refrigeration capacity of NA-water working pair is 922 kJ/kg, the refrigeration capacity of NB-ethanol is 2.4 times that of activated carbon-methanol, (3) as environmental friendly and no public hazard adsorption working pair, NA-H 2 O and NB-ethanol can substitute activated carbon-methanol in adsorption refrigeration system using low-grade heat source

  1. Modifications to JLab 12 GeV Refrigerator and Wide Range Mix Mode Performance Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Hasan, N.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of data obtained during the spring 2013 commissioning of the new 4.5 K refrigeration system at Jefferson Lab (JLab) for the 12 GeV upgrade indicated a wide capacity range with good efficiency and minimal operator interaction. Testing also showed that the refrigerator required higher liquid nitrogen (LN) consumption for its pre-cooler than anticipated by the design. This does not affect the capacity of the refrigerator, but it does result in an increased LN utility cost. During the summer of 2015 the modifications were implemented by the cold box manufacturer, according to a design similar to the JLab 12 GeV cold box specification. Subsequently, JLab recommissioned the cold box and performed extensive performance testing, ranging from 20% to 100% of the design maximum capacity, and in various modes of operation, ranging from pure refrigeration, pure liquefaction, half-and-half mix mode and at selected design modes using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle. The testing demonstrated that the refrigerator system has a good and fairly constant performance over a wide capacity range and different modes of operation. It also demonstrated the modifications resulted in a LN consumption that met the design for the pure refrigeration mode (which is the most demanding) and was lower than the design for the nominal and maximum capacity modes. In addition, a pulsed-load test, similar to what is expected for cryogenic systems supporting fusion experiments, was conducted to observe the response using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle, which was stable and robust. This paper will discuss the results and analysis of this testing pertaining to the LN consumption, the system efficiency over a wide range of capacity and different modes and the behaviour of the system to a pulsed load.

  2. Sorption compressor/mechanical expander hybrid refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with Deep Space Network (DSN) ground-based cryogenic refrigerators has proved the reliability of the basic two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium refrigerator. A very long life cryogenic refrigeration system appears possible by combining this expansion system or a turbo expansion system with a hydride sorption compressor in place of the usual motor driven piston compressor. To test the feasibility of this system, a commercial Gifford-McMahon refrigerator was tested using hydrogen gas as the working fluid. Although no attempt was made to optimize the system for hydrogen operation, the refrigerator developed 1.3 W at 30 K and 6.6 W at 60 K. The results of the test and of theoretical performances of the hybrid compressor coupled to these expansion systems are presented.

  3. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

  4. Operating Manual of Helium Refrigerator (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K.M.; Son, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, M.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    A helium refrigerator was installed as a supplier of 20K cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system of WTRF pilot plant. The operating procedures of the helium refrigerator, helium compressor and auxiliary apparatus are described for the safety and efficient operation in this manual. The function of the helium refrigerator is to remove the impurities from the compressed helium of about 250psig, to cool down the helium from ambient temperature to 20K through the heat exchanger and expansion engine and to transfer the cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system. For the smoothly operation of helium refrigerator, the preparation, the start-up, the cool-down and the shut-down of the helium refrigerator are described in this operating manual. (author). 3 refs., 14 tabs.

  5. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  6. Levenberg-Marquardt application to two-phase nonlinear parameter estimation for finned-tube coil evaporators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for calculation of refrigerant mass flow rate is implemented in the distributed numerical model to simulate the flow in finned-tube coil dry-expansion evaporators, usually found in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Two-phase refrigerant flow inside the tubes is assumed to be one-dimensional, unsteady, and homogeneous. In the model the effects of refrigerant pressure drop and the moisture condensation from the air flowing over the external surface of the tubes are considered. The results obtained are the distributions of refrigerant velocity, temperature and void fraction, tube-wall temperature, air temperature, and absolute humidity. The finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equations. Additionally, given the operation conditions and the geometric parameters, the model allows the calculation of the refrigerant mass flow rate. The value of mass flow rate is computed using the process of parameter estimation with the minimization method of Levenberg-Marquardt minimization. In order to validate the developed model, the obtained results using HFC-134a as a refrigerant are compared with available data from the literature.

  7. Ceramic accelerating tube of the improved construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasserman, S.B.; Kazarezov, I.V.; Pokhlebenin, E.I.; Shirokov, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    An improved ceramic accelerating tube is designed. The electrodes are made of copper and covar which provides for maintaining the geometry of the electrodes at thermal-compression welding and obviates the need for machanical treatment of the envelope after welding. Employment of the insulators with a finned surface from the vacuum side by two times increases the electric strength of the accelerating tube, as compared to the insulators with a smooth surface. The accelerating tube envelope can withstand the pulsed voltages of 1.5 MV at a pulse duration of 6 μs and a repetition rate of 100 Hz within two hours

  8. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  9. Manufacturing A Refrigerator with Heat Recovery Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammed Kadhim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to exploite the rejected heating energy from condenser and benefit from it to reheat the foods and other materials. It can also be employed to improve the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator at the same time by using approximately the same consumption electrical energy used to operate the compressor and refrigerator in general. This idea has been implemented by manufacturing of a refrigerator with using additional part has the same metal and condenser pipe diameters but its surface area does not exceed 40% from total surface area of the condenser and its design as an insulated cabinet from all sides to prevent heat leakage through it and located between the compressor and the condenser. Small electrical fan has been added inside this cabinet to provide a suitable air circulation and a homogenous temperature distribution inside the cabinet space. It is expected that the super heating energy of refrigerant (R134a which comes out of the compressor would be removed  inside this cabinet and this insist to condensate the refrigerant (cooling fluid with a rate higher than that used in the normal refrigerator only. Three magnetic valves have been used in order to control the refrigerant flow in state of operation the refrigerator only or to gather with heating cabinet. To measure the temperatures at each process of the simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle, nine temperature sensors at input and output of each compressor, condenser and an evaporator in additional to input of cabinet and inside it and on evaporator surface have been provided. Five pressure gages have been used to measure the value of pressure and compare it for the two states of operation. The consumption of electrical energy  can be calculated by adding an ammeter and a voltmeter and compare between the consumption energy of both states. The obtained results show that there is an improvement in the coeffecient of performance in state of operation the

  10. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems working with natural refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Minetto, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The current trends in commercial refrigeration aim at reducing the synthetic refrigerant charge, either by minimising the internal volume of the circuit or by utilising natural refrigerants, and at energy saving. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study aims at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions where only natural refrigerants are used and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis, chillers and heat pumps working with ammonia or propane, medium temperature systems working with ammonia or propane and carbon dioxide as heat transfer fluid or with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and low temperature systems working with carbon dioxide are considered and benchmarked with a state-of-the-art HFCs based plant. The most efficient investigated solution enables an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for all the considered climates. - Highlights: ► Different natural refrigerants supermarket HVAC and R integrated systems are analysed. ► Some of the proposed solutions offer a significant benefit over the baseline one. ► Up to 18.7% energy saving is achieved in the considered climates. ► The refrigeration unit condensation by the AC chiller offers the poorest results.

  11. Heat transfer performance during condensation of R-134a inside helicoidal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hajeri, M.H.; Koluib, A.M.; Mosaad, M.; Al-Kulaib, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of an ozone friendly refrigerant, R-134a, inside a helical tube for climatic conditioning of hot regions. This study concerns the condensation of R-134a flowing through annular helical tubes with different operating refrigerant saturated temperatures. The average pressure drop is measured and compared with data from relevant literature. The measurements of R-134a were performed on mass flow flux ranges from 50 to 680 kg/m 2 s. The study provides experimental data that could be used for the design and development of more efficient condensers for refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) systems working with the same refrigerant

  12. The new exchangers in refrigeration and air, conditioning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, Ch [CEA, 38 - Grenoble (France). GRETh

    1998-12-31

    The investigation carried out by the `heat exchangers` network has revealed a number of points which should be noted here at the beginning of this presentation. It has been observed that most of today`s products (fin and tube heat exchangers) are designed along traditional lines. However despite this `conservatism`, a lot of attention is found on the technical and innovative techniques used in other areas of the world (particularly in Japan). Moreover, some of these innovative techniques (micro fin tubes, louvered fins) tend to be more frequently applied than others, and their gradual introduction into products which are `made in the EEC` is to be expected. The purpose of this paper is to respond, at least partially, to the interest shown by the industries contacted. during this investigation in these new techniques. In the first chapter, an overview of the information available today on high performance thermal heat exchange surfaces will be given. Micro-fin tubes and louvered fins will be the two surfaces considered in the first part of this document. According to this investigation, the fin and tube heat exchanger remains the only product available today for evaporating and condensing refrigerant applications using air as the fluid to be treated. Other technological solutions exist, however; brazed fin and plate heat exchangers commonly used in applications where compactness is an essential quality will be examined in the second part of this document. Moreover, the use of fluids which will replace CFCS in the years to come, and the possible comeback of ammonia will certainly have consequences on the design of evaporators and condensers. In the third part of this document the effects of these changes on fin and tube heat exchangers will be evaluated, and the first published results of the use of substitution fluids will be discussed. (author) 16 refs.

  13. The new exchangers in refrigeration and air, conditioning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, Ch. [CEA, 38 - Grenoble (France). GRETh

    1997-12-31

    The investigation carried out by the `heat exchangers` network has revealed a number of points which should be noted here at the beginning of this presentation. It has been observed that most of today`s products (fin and tube heat exchangers) are designed along traditional lines. However despite this `conservatism`, a lot of attention is found on the technical and innovative techniques used in other areas of the world (particularly in Japan). Moreover, some of these innovative techniques (micro fin tubes, louvered fins) tend to be more frequently applied than others, and their gradual introduction into products which are `made in the EEC` is to be expected. The purpose of this paper is to respond, at least partially, to the interest shown by the industries contacted. during this investigation in these new techniques. In the first chapter, an overview of the information available today on high performance thermal heat exchange surfaces will be given. Micro-fin tubes and louvered fins will be the two surfaces considered in the first part of this document. According to this investigation, the fin and tube heat exchanger remains the only product available today for evaporating and condensing refrigerant applications using air as the fluid to be treated. Other technological solutions exist, however; brazed fin and plate heat exchangers commonly used in applications where compactness is an essential quality will be examined in the second part of this document. Moreover, the use of fluids which will replace CFCS in the years to come, and the possible comeback of ammonia will certainly have consequences on the design of evaporators and condensers. In the third part of this document the effects of these changes on fin and tube heat exchangers will be evaluated, and the first published results of the use of substitution fluids will be discussed. (author) 16 refs.

  14. Refrigerating liquid prototype for LED's thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faranda, Roberto; Guzzetti, Stefania; Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Leva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The heat management is the critical factor for high performance operation of LED. A new heat management application of refrigerating liquid integrated within a fabricated prototype is proposed and investigated. A series of experiments considering different heights of liquid level were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance and optical characteristics of the refrigerating liquid based prototype. The results reveal that the junction temperature decreases as the level of refrigerating liquid increases. The experimental results report that the refrigerating liquid reduces the junction temperature, and can positively influence the luminous radiation performances. An optimization investigation of the proposed solution was carried out to find an optimum thermal performance. The experiments indicated that refrigerating liquid cooling is a powerful way for heat dissipation of high power LEDs, and the fabrication of prototype was feasible and useful. - Highlights: ► New heat management application of refrigerating liquid on a fabricated LED prototype. ► Thermal models setup and comparison between the classical and the new solutions. ► The impact of refrigerating liquid level on LED thermal and luminous performances. ► The relationship between different levels of liquid with LED prototype performances.

  15. Data-Driven Control of Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper

    Refrigeration is used in a wide range of applications, e.g., for storage of food at low temperatures to prolong shelf life and in air conditioning for occupancy comfort. The main focus of this thesis is control of supermarket refrigeration systems. This market is very competitive and it is import......Refrigeration is used in a wide range of applications, e.g., for storage of food at low temperatures to prolong shelf life and in air conditioning for occupancy comfort. The main focus of this thesis is control of supermarket refrigeration systems. This market is very competitive...... traditionally are a pressure and a temperature sensor. In this thesis, a novel maximum slope-seeking (MSS) control method is developed. This has resulted in a control implementation, which successfully has been able to control the evaporator superheat in four widely different refrigeration system test...... problems. The method utilizes the qualitative nonlinearity in the system and harmonic analysis of a perturbation signal to reach an unknown, but suitable, operating point. Another important control task in refrigeration systems is to maintain the temperature of the refrigerated space or foodstuff within...

  16. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  17. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  18. Reassessment of forced convection heat transfer correlations for refrigerant-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Cuomo, M.; D'Annibale, F.; Farello, G.E.; Setaro, T.

    1986-01-01

    In the frame of a Refrigerant-12 experiment on postulated accidental transients in Pressurized Water Reactors under way at Heat Transfer Laboratory (ENEA Casaccia Research Center), an assessment of the main correlation available in scientific literature, for the different heat transfer regions encountered when a liquid is boiled in a confined heated channel, has been performed. Considering a vertical tube uniformly heated over its length with CHF at the exit, the following heat transfer regimes may be individuated: convective heat transfer to liquid, subcooled boiling, saturated nucleate boiling, forced convective heat transfer through liquid film (annular flow regime) and thermal crisis. From the comparison of computed values with an original ENEA dataset, the best correlations in predicting Refrigerant-12 data have been individuated. In a few cases, though preserving the original structure of the correlations, mainly developed for water, it was necessary to adjust some coefficients by means of best-fit procedures through our experimental data. The work has been performed in the frame of the ENEA Thermal Reactor Department Safety Research Project

  19. 46 CFR 111.79-15 - Receptacles for refrigerated containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receptacles for refrigerated containers. 111.79-15... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-15 Receptacles for refrigerated containers. Receptacles for refrigerated containers must meet one of the following: (a) Each receptacle for refrigerated...

  20. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...... for handling the non-linear relations and that after applying an auto-regressive noise model the one-step ahead residuals do not contain further significant information....... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  1. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  2. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  3. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  4. Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue

    2013-01-01

    Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b

  5. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...... in the supermarket. The first approach to solve this problem is to design an overall control system which coordinates the compressor capacity and the current refrigeration load. The drawback of this approach is the complexity of the single controller. The solution is investigated in the first part of the report...

  6. Behavior of FFC refrigerants in the presence of refrigerant oils. Oelverhalten chlorfreier Kaeltemittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M.; Kruse, H. (Hannover Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kaeltetechnik und Angewandte Waermetechnik)

    1990-01-01

    Looking for substitutes for the ozone-depleting refrigerants R12 and R22, investigations were made of the miscibility of FFC refrigerants (R23 - trifluoromethane CHF{sub 3}, R134a - tetrafluoroethane CH{sub 3}-CHF{sub 2}, and R152a - difluoroethane CH{sub 3}-CHF{sub 2}) with refrigerator oils. First experimental results reveal the refrigerants' behavior when mixed with mineral oils, alkylbenzene, PAG and ester-based oils. Mixtures of above refrigerants, especially R134a/R152a and R23/R152a as binary nonazeotropic mixtures, are considered conceivable substitutes. While addition of R23 reduces the mixture's flammability, addition of R152a improves the solubility of R134a in refrigerant oils. (orig./HW).

  7. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  8. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  9. New magnetic refrigeration materials for the liquefaction of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Takeya, H.; Moorman, J.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Malik, S.K.; Zimm, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Five heavy lanthanide ferromagnetic intermetallic compounds were studied as potential magnetic refrigerants for the liquefaction of hydrogen gas. (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 and TbNi 2 appear to be better refrigerants than GdPd for a Joule-Brayton cycle refrigerator, while (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi seems to be a suitable refrigerant for an Ericsson cycle refrigerator

  10. 2014 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the 2014 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting contain contributions on the following topics: cryotechnology, fundamentals and materials for the refrigeration and heat pump technology, devices and components for the refrigeration and heat pump technology, applications of refrigeration technologies, air conditioning technology and heat pump applications, cryotechnology in biology and medicine, heat transfer and ventilation, guidelines and legal topics, refrigerant fluid - oil mixtures, control and surveillance, simulation and control, ambient air.

  11. Application of Cascade Refrigeration System with Mixing Refrigerant in Cold Air Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Tong, M. W.; Yang, G.; Wang, X. P.

    In the mechanical cutting process, the replacement of traditional cutting solution with cold air can avoid the pollution of environment. In order to high efficient the refrigerating device and flexible adjust the temperature of cold air, it is necessary to use cascade refrigeration system to supply cool quantity for the compressed air. The introduction of a two-component non-azeotropic mixing refrigerant into the cryogenic part of the cascade system, can effectively solve the problems of the system working at too high pressure and the volume expanding of refrigerant in case of the cascade refrigeration sets closed down. However, the filling ratio of mixing refrigerants impact on the relationships among the closing down pressure, refrigerating output and refrigerating efficiency. On the basis of computing and experiment, the optimal mixing ratio of refrigerant R22/R13 and a low temperature of -60° were obtained in this study. A cold air injecting device possessing high efficiency in energy saving has also been designed and manufactured. The cold air, generated from this cascade system and employed in a cutting process, takes good comprehensive effects on machining and cutting.

  12. Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-dong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using pl...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  14. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  15. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  16. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  17. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  18. Auto-refrigerating cascade for superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, S.M.; Hall, P.H.; Missimer, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Extremely low temperatures, in the range of 230 to 90 K, are achieved in a single circuit compression refrigeration system operated by a conventional compressor. The system relies upon a series of intermediate cooling stages. The refrigerant is a mixture and the system employs fractional condensation, distillation, phase separation and intermediate heat transfer. Each stage includes the steps of withdrawing a portion of the liquid condensate from the compressed vapor-liquid refrigerant mixture which enters the stage. The withdrawn condensate is then throttled to a lower pressure and is mixed with the refrigerant being recycled to the compressor from the final evaporator. Evaporating the throttled condensate absorbs heat from and at least partially condenses the compressed uncondensed vapor in the compressed mixture

  19. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... to solar adsorption refrigeration machines are estimated. ... heat, activated carbon/ammonia requires the use of advanced flat-plate collectors such as those with multiple ... the thermodynamic performance of zeolite-water.

  20. Freezing and refrigerated storage in fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, W. A

    1994-01-01

    ...; the factors affecting cold storage conditions, etc. In addition, the publication describes the methods used to calculate cold storage refrigeration loads as well as the costs of freezing and cold storage...

  1. Simulation of the Energy Saver refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, H.R. Jr.; Nicholls, J.E.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1981-10-01

    The helium refrigeration for the Energy Saver is supplied by a Central Helium Liquefier and 24 Satellite Refrigerators installed over a 1-1/4 square mile area. An interactive, software simulator has been developed to calculate the refrigeration available from the cryogenic system over a wide range of operating conditions. The refrigeration system simulator incorporates models of the components which have been developed to quantitatively describe changes in system performance. The simulator output is presented in a real-time display which has been used to search for the optimal operating conditions of the Satellite-Central system, to examine the effect of an extended range of operating parameters and to identify equipment modifications which would improve the system performance

  2. RECENT PROGRESS IN DYNAMIC PROCESS SIMULATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuendig, A.

    2008-01-01

    At the CEC 2005 a paper with the title ''Helium refrigerator design for pulsed heat load in Tokamaks'' was presented. That paper highlighted the control requirements for cryogenic refrigerators to cope with the expected load variations of future nuclear fusion reactors. First dynamic computer simulations have been presented.In the mean time, the computer program is enhanced and a new series of process simulations are available. The new program considers not only the heat flows and the temperature variations within the heat exchangers, but also the variation of mass flows and pressure drops. The heat transfer numbers now are calculated in dependence of the flow speed and the gas properties. PI-controllers calculate the necessary position of specific valves for maintaining pressures, temperatures and the rotation speed of turbines.Still unsatisfactory is the fact, that changes in the process arrangement usually are attended by adjustments in the program code. It is the main objective of the next step of development a more flexible code which enables that any user defined process arrangements can be assembled by input data

  3. Methods for tube attachment in a heat exchange equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilin, O.V.; Vasil'ev, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    Two main ways of attaching tubes to tube panels in heat exchange equipment are analyzed: expanding and pulse method (by explosion, for instance). Labour-consumption and cost price for the fastening of brass, perlitic and corrosion-resistant tubes for both of the methods are presented. The extent of fitting out with equipment for tube fixing and ways of testing the joints for attachment are evaluated. Measures for improving the joint quality and introduction of the advanced technology are suggested

  4. Commercial refrigeration - An overview of current status

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Babiloni, Adrián; Navarro Esbri, Joaquin; BARRAGÁN CERVERA, ÁNGEL; Moles, Francisco; Peris, Bernardo; Verdú Martín, Gumersindo Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Commercial Refrigeration comprises food freezing and conservation in retail stores and supermarkets, so, it is one of the most relevant energy consumption sectors, and its relevance is increasing. This paper reviews the most recent developments in commercial refrigeration available in literature and presents a good amount of results provided these systems, covering some advantages and disadvantages in systems and working fluids. Latest researches are focused on energy savings to reduce CO2 in...

  5. A review of linear compressors for refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Linear compressor has no crank mechanism compared with conventional reciprocating compressor. This allows higher efficiency, oil-free operation, lower cost and smaller size when linear compressors are used for vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Typically, a linear compressor consists of a linear motor (connected to a piston) and suspension springs, operated at resonant frequency. This paper presents a review of linear compressors for refrigeration system. Different designs and mod...

  6. A miniature adsorption3HE refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duband, L.; Ravex, A.; Lange, A.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained, recyclable laboratory 3 He refrigerator has been developed. The refrigerator is very compact, portable and is designed to be safe and reliable. The unit can easily be installed on the cold plate of a superfluid 4 He cryostat. Once bolted on the cold plate, operation of the refrigerator is controlled by a single heater. In this new design the refrigerator has a cylindrical geometry. The adsorption pump is placed above the condensation point to prevent convection during the condensation phase and to improve the pumping speed. The inhibition of convection reduces the load on the 4 He bath and increases the condensation efficiency. This refrigeration technique has great potential for space applications. The absence of moving parts makes the system reliable and vibration free. Its simplicity and the absence of external components facilitate its integration on a cryostat. In fact, a rocket-borne 3 He refrigerator has already been successfully flown and has demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  7. Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented

  8. Prediction of refrigerant absorption and onset of natural convection in lubricant oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jader R.; Marcelino Neto, Moises A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); Thoma, Stefan M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Refrigerant absorption and mixing in lubricant oil are important in the design of refrigeration compressors and refrigeration systems. Experimental work is reported on absorption of R-134a vapour through the top interface of an initially stagnant layer of pure lubricant oil. Since the liquid refrigerant is heavier than the oil, mixing is enhanced due to natural mass convection. In the present paper, the behaviour of the liquid temperature during absorption is described based on measurements carried out in a test rig consisting of a transparent 70 mm ID, 150 mm long, vertical glass tube through which absorption can be directly observed. Transient liquid temperatures were measured at three different heights in the test section (two in the vapour, one in the liquid). The experimental work is complemented by a theoretical analysis of the critical time for the onset of mass transfer induced Rayleigh instability. The model is based on a critical mass transfer Rayleigh number criterion widely reported in the literature and takes into account the variation of physical properties in the liquid layer. The critical time for the onset of natural mass convection increases with decreasing system pressure as a result of a lower equilibrium concentration at the vapour-liquid interface. (author)

  9. Experimental analysis of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system used alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, A.; Oezbas, E.

    2009-01-01

    The continuous-cycle absorption refrigeration device is widely used in domestic refrigerators, and recreational vehicles. It is also used in year-around air conditioning of both homes and larger buildings. The unit consists of four main parts the boiler, condenser, evaporator and the absorber. When the unit operates on kerosene or gas, the heat is supplied by a burner. This element is fitted underneath the central tube. When operating on electricity, the heat is supplied by an element inserted in the pocket. No moving parts are employed. The operation of the refrigerating mechanism is based on Dalton's law. In this study, experimental analysis was performed of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system (DARS) used alternative energy sources such as solar, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sources. Two basic DAR cycles were set up and investigated: i) In the first cycle (DARS-1), the condensate is sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance by the coupled evaporator/gas heat exchanger similar with manufactured by Electrolux Sweden. ii) In the second cycle (DARS-2), the condensate is not sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance and gas heat exchanger is separated from the evaporator. (author)

  10. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  11. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  12. Improving the energy efficiency of industrial refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin-Sik; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2016-01-01

    Various retrofit design options are available for improving the energy efficiency and economics of industrial refrigeration systems. This study considers a novel retrofit option using a mixed refrigerant (MR) in refrigeration cycles designed for use with a pure refrigerant (PR). In this way energy savings can be realized by switching refrigerants without requiring extensive and expensive reconfiguration of equipment. Hence, the aim here is to test the common thinking that equipment should always be extensively reconfigured when switching from pure to mixed refrigerants. To determine the most energy-efficient operating conditions for each refrigeration design an optimization framework is utilized linking a process simulator with an external optimization method. A case study is presented to demonstrate how the proposed process modeling and optimization framework can be applied and to illustrate the economic benefits of using the retrofit design options considered here. For the case considered in this paper, savings of shaft power required for the refrigeration cycle can be achieved from 16.3% to 27.2% when the pure refrigerant is replaced with mixed refrigerants and operating conditions are re-optimized. - Highlights: • Design methods for the design of refrigeration cycles in retrofit cases. • Consideration of mixed refrigerants to the existing multi-level pure-refrigerant cycles. • Optimization of refrigeration cycles with integrated use of a process simulator with an optimizer.

  13. Effects of air flow maldistribution on refrigeration system dynamics of air source heat pump chiller under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jianying; Gao Tieyu; Yuan Xiuling; Huang Dong

    2008-01-01

    The effects of air flow maldistribution on the performance of an air source heat pump chiller under frosting conditions were investigated experimentally. The results indicated that air flow maldistribution was the dominant factor leading to hunting of the thermostatic expansion valve for medium and/or large size finned tube evaporators. With air flow maldistribution degree (AMD) increasing, frost occurred earlier, and the frost layer grew faster. The operating characteristics became lower when AMD was increased. We found such phenomenon seemed to be related to both the difference of refrigerant outlet superheat and the frosting velocity. In the hunting stage, the frost block effect became the main factor degrading the refrigeration system performance. With AMD increasing, the heat pump system pertinent performance data (suction pressure, evaporation temperature, discharge pressure, refrigerant outlet temperature, etc.) were degraded more dramatically

  14. Relationship between composition of mixture charged and that in circulation in an auto refrigerant cascade and a J-T refrigerator operating in liquid refrigerant supply mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Bura; Nayak, H. Gurudath; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the refrigerant mixture in circulation during steady state operation of J-T and allied refrigerators is not the same as that charged due to liquid hold up in the heat exchangers and phase separators, as well as the differential solubility of different refrigerant components in the compressor lubricating oil. The performance of refrigerators/liquefiers operating on mixed refrigerant cycles is dependent on the mixture composition. It is therefore important to charge the right mixture that results in an optimum composition in circulation during steady state operation. The relationship between the charged and circulating composition has been experimentally studied in a J-T refrigerator operating in the liquid refrigerant supply (LRS) mode and an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator (with a phase separator) operating in the gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode. The results of the study are presented in this work. The results show that the method presented earlier for J-T refrigerators operating in GRS mode is also applicable in the case of refrigerators studied in this work.

  15. HFC perspectives in air-conditioning and refrigeration; Perspectives HFC en A/C et refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvarque, P [ELF Atochem, Centre d` Application de Lavallois, 92 (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the development of substitutes for the replacement of the R-22 refrigerant in air-conditioning systems (R-134a, R-407C, R-410A), and in industrial refrigeration systems of agriculture and food industry (R-134a and R-404A). (J.S.)

  16. HFC perspectives in air-conditioning and refrigeration; Perspectives HFC en A/C et refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvarque, P. [ELF Atochem, Centre d`Application de Lavallois, 92 (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the development of substitutes for the replacement of the R-22 refrigerant in air-conditioning systems (R-134a, R-407C, R-410A), and in industrial refrigeration systems of agriculture and food industry (R-134a and R-404A). (J.S.)

  17. Suitability criterion for a refrigerant for use in solar operated sorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, S.A.; Mir, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a sorption refrigeration cycle has been discussed representing the cycle on a clapeyron digram. The minimum generation temperature required has been determined using the 'd-a' equation which represents the sorption equilibrium of the pair, and Gibbs free energy relation. The mathematical relation developed provides a totally new basis for determination of suitability of a particular refrigerant. (author)

  18. Suitability criterion for a refrigerant for use in solar operated sorption refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, S A; Mir, M S [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-06-01

    The thermodynamics of a sorption refrigeration cycle has been discussed representing the cycle on a clapeyron digram. The minimum generation temperature required has been determined using the `d-a` equation which represents the sorption equilibrium of the pair, and Gibbs free energy relation. The mathematical relation developed provides a totally new basis for determination of suitability of a particular refrigerant. (author).

  19. Review of magnetic refrigeration system as alternative to conventional refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaal, N. A.; Osintsev, K. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in industry. Developers are constantly seeking for how to avoid the damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). In the case of ferromagnetic materials, MCE warms as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field. There are two types of magnetic phase changes that may occur at the Curie point: first order magnetic transition (FOMT) and second order magnetic transition (SOMT). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle), where the magnetic material matrix works both as a refrigerating medium and as a heat regenerating medium, while the fluid flowing in the porous matrix works as a heat transfer medium. Regeneration can be accomplished by blowing a heat transfer fluid in a reciprocating fashion through the regenerator made of magnetocaloric material that is alternately magnetized and demagnetized. Many magnetic refrigeration prototypes with different designs and software models have been built in different parts of the world. In this paper, the authors try to shed light on the magnetic refrigeration and show its effectiveness compared with conventional refrigeration methods.

  20. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  1. Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-30

    The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient

  2. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Doug [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Castillo, Rafael [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Larson, Kyle [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Dobbs, Brian [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  3. Pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, Pankaj; Shyam, Anurag, E-mail: surender80@gmail.com [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam (India); Sharma, Archana [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Longer duration high voltage pulse (∼ 100 kV, 260 ns) is generated and reported using helical pulse forming line in compact geometry. The transmission line characteristics of the helical pulse forming line are also used to develop fast repetition double pulse system with very short inter pulse interval. It overcomes the limitations caused due to circuit parameters, power supplies and load characteristics for fast repetitive high voltage pulse generation. The high voltage double pulse of 100 kV, 100 ns with an inter pulse repetition interval of 30 ns is applied across the vacuum field emission diode for pulsed electron beam generation. The electron beam is generated from cathode material by application of negative high voltage (> 100 kV) across the diode by explosive electron emission process. The vacuum field emission diode is made of 40 mm diameter graphite cathode and SS mesh anode. The anode cathode gap was 6 mm and the drift tube diameter was 10 cm. The initial experimental results of pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system are reported and discussed. (author)

  4. A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shenglong; Chen Guangming; Fang Ming; Wang Qin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

  5. ARTI refrigerant database. Quarterly report, March--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-05-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information an older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date.

  6. A study of alternative refrigerants for the refrigeration and air conditioning sector in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreepaul, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The most frequently used refrigerants in the refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector in Mauritius are currently hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). However, because of their strong influence on global warming and the impact of HCFCs on the ozone layer, refrigerants such as ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrocarbons (HC), having minimal impact on the environment, are being considered. So far, HCs have only been safely used in domestic refrigeration. Ammonia has been used mainly for industrial refrigeration whereas CO2 is still under study. In this paper, a comparative study of the various feasible alternatives is presented in a survey that was undertaken with major stake holders in the field. The retrofitting possibility of existing equipment was assessed and safety issues associated with each refrigerant were analysed. The major setback of hydrocarbons as a widely accepted refrigerant is its flammability which was considered as a major safety hazard by the majority of respondents in the survey and the main advantages are the improved equipment coefficient of performance (COP) and better TEWI factor. This resulted in a 12 % drop in energy consumption. Despite the excellent thermodynamic properties of ammonia, its use has mainly been confined to industrial refrigeration due to its toxicity. In Mauritius, the performance of ammonia in air conditioning is being evaluated on a pilot basis. The major setback of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant is the high operating pressure which is considered a safety hazard. The high initial investment cost and the lack of qualified maintenance technician is also an issue. The use of CO2 is mainly being considered in the commercial refrigeration sector.

  7. Ultimate refrigerating conditions, behavior turning and a thermodynamic analysis for absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Danxing; Meng Xuelin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two novel fundamental concepts of the absorption refrigeration cycle were proposed. ► The interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters was investigated. ► A set of optimal operating condition of hybrid refrigeration cycle was found. ► A simulation and investigation for R134a-DMF hybrid refrigeration cycle was performed. - Abstract: The absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle has been considered as an effective approach to reduce the mechanical work consumption by using low-grade heat, such as solar energy. This work aims at studying the thermodynamic mechanism of the hybrid refrigeration cycle. Two fundamental concepts have been proposed, which are the ultimate refrigerating temperature (or the ultimate temperature lift) and the behavior turning. On the basis of that, the interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters and the impact of compressor pressure increasing on the cycle performance have been investigated. The key-parameters include the concentration difference, the circulation ratio of working fluid, etc. The work points out that the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance varies with the change of compressor outlet pressure and depends on which one achieves dominance in the hybrid refrigeration cycle, the absorption sub-system or the compression sub-system. The behavior turning point during parameters changing corresponds to a maximum value of the heat powered coefficient of performance. In this case, the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance is optimal because the low-grade heat utilization is the most effective. In addition, to validate the theoretical analysis, a solar hybrid refrigeration cycle with R134a–DMF as working pair was simulated. The Peng–Robinson equation of state was adopted to calculate thermophysical properties when the reliability assessment of the prediction models on the available literature data of R134a–DMF system had been

  8. Falling film evaporation on a tube bundle with plain and enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habert, M.

    2009-04-01

    The complexities of two-phase flow and evaporation on a tube bundle present important problems in the design of heat exchangers and the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. The development of structured surfaces to enhance boiling heat transfer and thus reduce the size of evaporators adds another level of complexity to the modeling of such heat exchangers. Horizontal falling film evaporators have the potential to be widely used in large refrigeration systems and heat pumps, in the petrochemical industry and for sea water desalination units, but there is a need to improve the understanding of falling film evaporation mechanisms to provide accurate thermal design methods. The characterization of the effect of enhanced surfaces on the boiling phenomena occurring in falling film evaporators is thus expected to increase and optimize the performance of a tube bundle. In this work, the existing LTCM falling film facility was modified and instrumented to perform falling film evaporation measurements on single tube row and a small tube bundle. Four types of tubes were tested including: a plain tube, an enhanced condensing tube (Gewa-C+LW) and two enhanced boiling tubes (Turbo-EDE2 and Gewa-B4) to extend the existing database. The current investigation includes results for two refrigerants, R134a and R236fa, at a saturation temperature of T sat = 5 °C, liquid film Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 3000, at heat fluxes between 20 and 60 kW/m² in pool boiling and falling film configurations. Measurements of the local heat transfer coefficient were obtained and utilized to improve the current prediction methods. Finally, the understanding of the physical phenomena governing the falling film evaporation of liquid refrigerants has been improved. Furthermore, a method for predicting the onset of dry patch formation has been developed and a local heat transfer prediction method for falling film evaporation based on a large experimental database has been proposed

  9. Neutron generator tube ion source control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed neutron well logging system includes a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and an ion source control apparatus providing extremely sharply time-defined neutron pulses. A low voltage control pulse supplied to an input by timing circuits turns a power FET on via a buffer-driver whereby a 2000 volt pulse is produced in the secondary of a pulse transformer and applied to the ion source of the tube. A rapid fall in this ion source control pulse is ensured by a quenching circuit wherein a one-shot responds to the falling edge of the control pulse and produces a 3 microsecond delay to compensate for the propagation delay. A second one-shot is triggered by the falling edge of the output of the first one-shot and gives an 8 microsecond pulse to turn on the power FET which, via an isolation transformer turns on a series-connected transistor to ground the secondary of the pulse transformer and the ion source. (author)

  10. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  11. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  12. Central magnetic cooling and refrigeration machines (chiller) and their assessment. A feasibility study - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egolf, P. W.; Gonin, C. [University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, HEIG-VD, Yverdon-les Bains (Switzerland); Kitanovski, A. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a feasibility study made concerning magnetic cooling and refrigeration machines. This report presents a comprehensive thermodynamic and economic analysis of applications of rotary magnetic chillers. The study deals with magnetic chillers based on permanent magnets and superconducting magnets, respectively. The numerical design of permanent magnet assemblies with different magnetic flux densities is discussed. The authors note that superconducting magnetic chillers are feasible only in large-scale applications with over 1 MW of cooling power. This report describes new ideas for magnetic refrigeration technologies, which go beyond the state of the art. They show potential for a substantial reduction of costs and further improvements in efficiency. Rotary magnetic liquid chillers with 'wavy' structures and using micro tubes are discussed, as are superconducting magnetic chillers and future magneto-caloric technologies.

  13. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  14. Heat transfer with geometric shape of micro-fin tubes (I) - Condensing heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, K M; Chang, J S; Bai, C H; Chung, M [Yeungnam University, Kyungsan (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    To examine the enhancement mechanism of condensing heat transfer through microfin tube, the condensation experiments with refrigerant HCFC 22 are performed using 4 and 6 kinds of microfin tubes with outer diameter of 9.52 mm and 7.0 mm, respectively. Used microfin tubes have different shape and number of fins with each other. The main heat transfer enhancement mechanism is known to be the enlargement of heat transfer area and turbulence promotion. Together with these main factors, we can find other enhancement factors by the experimental data, which are the overflow of the refrigerant over the microfin and microfin arrangement. The overflow of the refrigerant over the microfin can be analyzed by the geometric shape of the microfin. microfin tubes having a shape which can give much overflow over the microfin show large condensing heat transfer coefficients. The effect of microfin arrangement is related to the heat transfer resistance of liquid film of refrigerant. The condensing heat transfer coefficients are high for the microfin tube with even distribution of liquid film. 17 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: continuous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, Ronnie; Levy, Amikam

    2014-01-01

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to a single few-level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three (a hot, cold, and work reservoir), a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power, with the gain obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs, is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principles. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimization of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters in which the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analyzing refrigerators, one needs to devote special attention to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when Tc→0 are obtained by optimizing the cooling current. All refrigerators as Tc→0 show universal behavior. The dynamical version of the third law imposes restrictions on the scaling as Tc→0 of the relaxation rate γc and heat capacity cV of the cold bath.

  16. Titanium condenser tubes--problems and their solutions for wider application to large surface condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S; Sugiyama, Y; Nagata, K; Namba, K; Shimono, M

    1978-01-01

    To meet the demand for high reliability condensers for thermal and nuclear power plants, especially for PWR plants, the condensers installed entirely with titanium tubes have been investigated and used. Some difficulties from conventional copper alloy tubes exist. Further investigations are necessary on three items: (1) tube vibration; (2) joining tubes to tube plate; (3) fouling (bio-fouling) control. Literature survey on the tube vibration suggests that the probability of tube vibration due to decreased stiffness of titanium tubes in comparison with conventional copper alloy tubes can be decreased by designing the proper span length between supports. Experiments on seal welding of tubes to a tube plate have successfully proved that pulsed TIG arc welding is applicable to get reliable and strong joints, even on site, by suitable countermeasures. Experiments on the fouling (bio-fouling) of titanium tubes in marine application reveal that the increased fouling of titanium tubes could be controlled by proper application of sponge ball cleaning.

  17. The Toulouse pulsed magnet facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The 'Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses' (LNCMP) is an international user facility providing access to pulsed magnetic fields up to and beyond 60 T. The laboratory disposes of 10 magnet stations equipped with long-pulse magnets operating in the 35-60 T range and a short-pulse system reaching magnetic fields in excess of 70 T. The experimental infrastructure includes various high and low-temperature systems ranging from ordinary flow-type cryostats to dilution refrigerators reaching 50 mK, as well as different types of high-pressure cells. Experimental techniques include magnetization, transport, luminescence, IR-spectroscopy and polarimetry. The LNCMP pursues an extensive in-house research program focussing on all technological and scientific aspects of pulsed magnetic fields. Recent technical developments include the implementation of 60 T rapid-cooling coils, an 80 T prototype, a pulsed dipole magnet for optical investigations of dilute matter and a transportable horizontal access magnet for small angle x-ray scattering experiments. Scientific activities cover a variety of domains, including correlated electron systems, magnetism, semiconductors and nanoscience

  18. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  19. Current fluctuations in quantum absorption refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2018-05-01

    Absorption refrigerators transfer thermal energy from a cold bath to a hot bath without input power by utilizing heat from an additional "work" reservoir. Particularly interesting is a three-level design for a quantum absorption refrigerator, which can be optimized to reach the maximal (Carnot) cooling efficiency. Previous studies of three-level chillers focused on the behavior of the averaged cooling current. Here, we go beyond that and study the full counting statistics of heat exchange in a three-level chiller model. We explain how to obtain the complete cumulant generating function of the refrigerator in a steady state, then derive a partial cumulant generating function, which yields closed-form expressions for both the averaged cooling current and its noise. Our analytical results and simulations are beneficial for the design of nanoscale engines and cooling systems far from equilibrium, with their performance optimized according to different criteria, efficiency, power, fluctuations, and dissipation.

  20. Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    for automation of these procedures, that is to incorporate some "intelligence" in the control system, this project was started up. The main emphasis of this work has been on model based methods for system optimizing control in supermarket refrigeration systems. The idea of implementing a system optimizing...... control is to let an optimization procedure take over the task of operating the refrigeration system and thereby replace the role of the operator in the traditional control structure. In the context of refrigeration systems, the idea is to divide the optimizing control structure into two parts: A part...... optimizing the steady state operation "set-point optimizing control" and a part optimizing dynamic behaviour of the system "dynamical optimizing control". A novel approach for set-point optimization will be presented. The general idea is to use a prediction of the steady state, for computation of the cost...

  1. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal...... magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated...... as a function of the magnetic field in order to learn the properties of the optimal magnet assembly. The performance of the AMR as a function of the synchronization and width of the magnetic field with respect to the AMR cycle, the ramp rate and maximum value of the magnetic field are investigated. Other...

  2. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A.

    2014-07-17

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  3. Materials for Room Temperature Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered...... candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material...... to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 – 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant...

  4. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A [Linde AG, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  5. Load leveling on industrial refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Kraus, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model was constructed of a brewery with a 2000 horsepower compressor/refrigeration system. The various conservation and load management options were simulated using the validated model. The savings available for implementing the most promising options were verified by trials in the brewery. Result show that an optimized methodology for implementing load leveling and energy conservation consisted of: (1) adjusting (or tuning) refrigeration systems controller variables to minimize unnecessary compressor starts, (2) The primary refrigeration system operating parameters, compressor suction pressure, and discharge pressure are carefully controlled (modulated) to satisfy product quality constraints (as well as in-process material cooling rates and temperature levels) and energy evaluating the energy cost savings associated with reject heat recovery, and (4) a decision is made to implement the reject heat recovery system based on a cost/benefits analysis.

  6. Thermal analysis of a compound parabolic concentrator for refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Naghelli; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The refrigeration system designed at the Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE), Mexico is able to produce, in optimal conditions, one hundred kilograms per day of ice by means of solar energy. A continuous absorption ammonia-water refrigeration cycle is employed. In its actual state, heat supply to the system is provided through a bank of evacuated tube solar collectors. Their principal difficulties encountered in this system are the indirect heat losses due to the coupling of the falling film generator to the solar heating subsystem that requires a heat transfer gradient and higher collector operating temperatures. Also the high initial cost of the evacuated tube collectors is a barrier for an economical feasible system. Currently, new types of solar collectors are being considered, more efficient and reliable, with a potentially lower cost. This type of collectors known as Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPC) succeed in working at the required temperatures for absorption refrigeration systems. Therefore, a new system is suggested and it is proposed to use a CPC array, where heat losses by the indirect heating system are avoided. In this work a simple method was developed in order to establish the energy balances in a CPC, with a steel tubular receiver without an evacuated glass shell. The receptor's model considers a bidimensional system in stationary state and it supposes a continuous medium. Four nonlinear, simultaneous equations were obtained to predict heat exchange among various components in the system. These equations were utilized in a computer program to analyze the collector performance under various operating conditions. Consequently, the prediction of temperature distribution with respect to position permits to calculate length and arrangement of the CPC for a determined refrigeration application. [Spanish] El sistema de refrigeracion en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) Mexico es capaz de producir en condiciones optimas 100

  7. Performance characteristics of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jizhou; Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2009-01-01

    The Diesel refrigeration cycle using an ideal quantum gas as the working substance is called quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle, which is different from Carnot, Ericsson, Brayton, Otto and Stirling refrigeration cycles. For ideal quantum gases, a corrected equation of state, which considers the quantum behavior of gas particles, is used instead of the classical one. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum gas as the working substance on the performance of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle. It is found that coefficients of performance of the cycle are not affected by the quantum degeneracy of the working substance, which is the same as that of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. However, the refrigeration load is different from those of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. Lastly, the influence of the quantum degeneracy on the performance characteristics of the quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed

  8. Refrigerator Optimal Scheduling to Minimise the Cost of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Roland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost optimal scheduling of a household refrigerator is presented in this work. The fundamental approach is the model predictive control methodology applied to the piecewise affine model of the refrigerator.

  9. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  10. A Cold Cycle Dilution Refrigerator for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cold cycle dilution refrigerator is a continuous refrigerator capable of cooling to temperatures below 100 mK that makes use of a novel thermal magnetic pump....

  11. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  12. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  13. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  14. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  15. Experimental Study of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Microfin Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jian; Koyama, Shigeru; Momoki, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer in a horizontal microfin tube is conducted with pure refrigerants HFC134a, HCFC123 and HCFC22 using a water-heated double-tube type test section. The test microfin tube is a copper tube having the following dimensions: 8.37mm mean inside diameter, 0.168mm fin height, 60fin number and 18 degree of helix angle. The local heat transfer coefficients for both counter and parallel flows are measured in a range of heat flux of 1 to 93W/m^2, mass ve...

  16. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed.

  17. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed

  18. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerk, R

    2010-03-15

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated as functions of the magnetic field. Following this the process utilized by a magnetic refrigerator to provide cooling is investigated using a publicly available one dimensional numerical model. This process is called active magnetic regeneration (AMR). The aim is to determine the performance of the AMR as a function of the magnetic field in order to learn the properties of the optimal magnet assembly. The performance of the AMR as a function of the synchronization and width of the magnetic field with respect to the AMR cycle, the ramp rate and maximum value of the magnetic field are investigated. Other published magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration devices are also evaluated, using a figure of merit based on the properties of the investigated magnetocaloric materials, to learn the properties of the best magnet designs to date. Following this investigation the Halbach cylinder, which is a hollow permanent magnet cylinder with a rotating remanent flux density, is investigated in detail as it forms the basis of many magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration. Here the optimal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder, as well as analytical calculations of the magnetic field for a Halbach cylinder of infinite length, are presented. Once it has been determined which properties are desirable for a magnet used in magnetic refrigeration the design of a new magnet is described. This is

  19. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  20. Dilution refrigeration with multiple mixing chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator is an instrument to reach temperatures in the mK region in a continuous way. The temperature range can be extended and the cooling power can be enlarged by adding an extra mixing chamber. In this way we obtain a double mixing chamber system. In this thesis the theory of the multiple mixing chamber is presented and tested on its validity by comparison with the measurements. Measurements on a dilution refrigerator with a circulation rate up to 2.5 mmol/s are also reported. (Auth.)

  1. Systematic modelling and simulation of refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The task of developing a simulation model of a refrigeration system can be very difficult and time consuming. In order for this process to be effective, a systematic method for developing the system model is required. This method should aim at guiding the developer to clarify the purpose...... of the simulation, to select appropriate component models and to set up the equations in a well-arranged way. In this paper the outline of such a method is proposed and examples showing the use of this method for simulation of refrigeration systems are given....

  2. Experimental analysis on frosting characteristic of SK-type finned refrigerating heat exchanger with large-diameter circular holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhao-song; Wang, Hou-hua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the construction of both a plane fin-and-tube heat exchanger and a SK-type fin-and-tube heat exchanger. Based on plane fin-and-tube heat exchanger, comparative industrial prototype experiments of SK-type fin-and-tube heat exchanger energy efficiency performance were carried out in the artificial climate chamber. Test results confirmed several findings: when the amount of the refrigerant charged is the same and face velocity u = 3.75 m s −1 , SK-type fin-and-tube heat exchanger refrigeration capacity increases by an average of 9.13%; energy consumption reduces by an average of 11.25%, coefficient of performance (COP) of heat exchanger increases by an average of 22.65% with continuous operation during the first 2 h. Also, when the operation time exceeds 2 h, the COP of both types of heat exchangers are both less than 0.6, illustrating that under frost conditions, the defrost interval should not be too long, otherwise energy consumption may sharply spike. - Highlights: •The large holes of SK-type induced the generation of turbulence flow. •The refrigeration capacity and COP of SK-type exceeds that of plane one. •The SK-type fin-and-tube heat exchanger is a new kind of heat transfer equipment. •The defrost interval should not exceed 2 h under frost conditions

  3. The evaluation of a small capacity shell and tube ammonia evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Hernandez, J.I.; Best y Brown, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez, J.C. [Universidad Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa CADETRAA

    2003-12-01

    The use of ammonia as refrigerant is widespread in vapour compression and ammonia/water absorption systems. Ammonia is not actually used in low capacity applications mainly because of the lack of economical available equipment. For this reason, the objective of this study is the numerical and experimental evaluation of a small capacity ammonia shell and tube evaporator with enhanced heat transfer surfaces. An experimental system to evaluate small capacity heat exchangers was developed. A shell and tube evaporator with external low fin tubes was successfully tested. The experimental uncertainty for the evaporator capacity has been estimated within {+-}5.5%. The experimental results were used to validate a heat exchanger numerical tool that predicts reasonably well the cooling capacity and load outlet temperatures. The methodology presented in this work can be applied to evaluate other refrigerants in similar shell and tube evaporators and to optimize the design of an evaporator for a specific application. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of coiled adiabatic capillary tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this study is to extend and validate the model developed and presented in previous works [O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part I: mathematical formulation and numerical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2) (2002) 173-182; O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part II: experimental validation and parametric studies, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (4) (2002) 379-391] to coiled adiabatic capillary tube expansion devices working with pure and mixed refrigerants. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step by step method. A special treatment has been implemented in order to consider transitions (subcooled liquid region, metastable liquid region, metastable two-phase region and equilibrium two-phase region). All the flow variables (enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, vapor qualities, velocities, heat fluxes, etc.) together with the thermophysical properties are evaluated at each point of the grid in which the domain is discretized. The numerical model allows analysis of aspects such as geometry, type of fluid (pure substances and mixtures), critical or non-critical flow conditions, metastable regions, and transient aspects. Comparison of the numerical simulation with a wide range of experimental data presented in the technical literature will be shown in the present article in order to validate the model developed. (author)

  5. Fault diagnosis and refrigerant leak detection in vapour compression refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Grace, I.N. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-08-01

    The environmental impact of refrigeration systems can be reduced by operation at higher efficiency and reduction of refrigerant leakage. Refrigerant loss contributes both directly and indirectly to global warming through inefficient system operation, increased power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and higher maintenance costs. Existing sensor-based leak detection methods are limited by the inability to detect gradual leakage and the need for careful sensor location. There is a requirement for a real-time performance monitoring approach to leak detection and fault diagnosis which overcomes these disadvantages. This paper reports on the development of a fault diagnosis and refrigerant leak detection system based on artificial intelligence and real-time performance monitoring. The system has been used successfully to distinguish between faulty and fault free operation, steady-state and transient operation, leakage and over charge conditions. Work currently underway is aimed at testing additional fault conditions and establishing further rules to distinguish between these patterns. (author)

  6. Numerical analysis of the influence of circuit arrangement on a fin-and-tube condenser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Maria Joppolo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a model for the steady-state simulation of fin-and-tube condenser is developed. The model is based on a finite volume approach that divides each tube into small elemental volumes where mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are solved using the effectiveness-NTU method and with appropriate correlations for void fraction, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient calculation. The model is validated against experimental data on two small condensers finding that the calculated heat transfer rate and refrigerant-side pressure drop agree within ±5% and ±21% respectively to the experimental values. The model is then used to numerically analyse the impact of different circuit arrangements on the condenser heat transfer rate, refrigerant-side pressure drop and refrigerant charge.

  7. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  8. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  9. Modeling of in-vehicle magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  10. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  11. A versatile magnetic refrigeration test device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    of the applied magnetic field. An advanced two-dimensional numerical model has previously been implemented in order to help in the optimization of the design of a refrigeration test device. Qualitative agreement between the results from model and the experimental results is demonstrated for each of the four...... different parameter variations mentioned above. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2008-01-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input

  13. New possibilities for non-CFC refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentzen, G.; Pettersen, J.

    1992-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the only viable refrigerants in most applications are new fluorocarbon chemicals. This trend will eventually result in emissions of several hundred thousand tons of new chemicals to the atmosphere each year, involving potential risk of unforeseen environmental effects. A number of other options exist, or may be developed. By using substances which already have a natural role in our ecosystems, some uncertainty related to the critical issue of our future environment can be avoided. By development and practical testing of a laboratory prototype it has been documented that carbon dioxide is a viable refrigerant in automobile air conditioners, completely solving all environmental problems associated with such systems. General use of CO 2 as a refrigerant may provide a number of advantages in the present situation, both from an environmental and practical point of view. It is our considered opinion that the old carbon dioxide offers a key to the complete solution of the environmental problems in many areas of refrigeration usage. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Nuclear heat sources for cryogenic refrigerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.; Schock, A.; King, W.G.; Kline, T.; Russo, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    Spacecraft cryogenic refrigerators require thermal inputs on the order of 1000 W. First, the characteristics of solar-electric and radioisotope heat source systems for supplying this thermal input are compared. Then the design of a 238 Pu heat source for this application is described, and equipment for shipping and handling the heat source is discussed. (LCL)

  15. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model for t...

  16. Materials for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl Hansen, B.

    2010-07-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 - 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant should fulfill a number of criteria, among these a large magnetic entropy change, a large adiabatic temperature change, preferably little to no thermal or magnetic hysteresis and the material should have the stability required for long term use. As the temperature range required for room temperature cooling is some 40 - 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures. (Author)

  17. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  18. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems - Magnetic and ... Author Affiliations. S S Verma1. Deptartment of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab 148 106, India.

  19. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly discar...

  20. High performance magnetocaloric perovskites for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R. H.; Velazquez, David; Nielsen, Kaspar K.

    2012-01-01

    We have applied mixed valance manganite perovskites as magnetocaloric materials in a magnetic refrigeration device. Relying on exact control of the composition and a technique to process the materials into single adjoined pieces, we have observed temperature spans above 9 K with two materials...

  1. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  2. The Absorption Refrigerator as a Thermal Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, that is, a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on the correspondence between the extensive quantities, entropy and electric charge and the intensive variables, temperature and electric potential. (Contains 1 footnote and 6 figures.)

  3. The absoption refrigerator as a thermal transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, i.e. a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on a correspondence between the extensive quantities entropy and electric charge and that of the intensive variables temperature and electric potential.

  4. The absorption refrigerator as a thermal transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, F

    2009-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, that is, a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on the correspondence between the extensive quantities, entropy and electric charge and the intensive variables, temperature and electric potential

  5. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  6. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    frigerants in mechanical refrigeration system has become a subject of great ..... In 1823, Seebeck discovered that a voltage drop appears across a junction (i.e., a .... delta function in the transport distribution centered about 2-3. KT from the ...

  7. Energy labelling of refrigerated display cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Energy labelling of refrigerated display cabinets is a method to quickly assess the energy efficiency of a certain cabinet compared to the market average consumptions for similar cabinets. Labelling is also a method to obtain comparable data on cabinets from different manufacturers, which has time

  8. Energy consumption of small refrigerators - Information leaflet; Merkblatt Kleinkuehlschrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this leaflet published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the energy consumption of small refrigerators with a capacity of less than 100 litres is reported on. Such small refrigerators are often used in hotel rooms or in campers. It is noted that, in comparison, a typical, 150 litre class A++ domestic refrigerator uses only a fraction of the amount of energy used by such small refrigerators. The results of measurements made according to EN 153 and ISO 15502 norms are discussed. Recommendations are made on the purchase and operation of these small refrigerators.

  9. Applicability of ASST-A helium refrigeration system for JLab End Station Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, N.; Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.

    2017-12-01

    The MØLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a high power (5 kW) liquid hydrogen target scheduled to be operational in the 12 GeV-era. At present, cryogenic loads and targets at three of JLab’s four experimental halls are supported by the End Station Refrigerator (ESR) - a CTI/Helix 1.5 kW 4.5 K refrigerator. It is not capable of supporting the high power target load and a capacity upgrade of the ESR cryogenic system is essential. The ASST-A helium refrigeration system is a 4 kW 4.5 K refrigerator. It was designed and used for the Superconducting Super Collider Lab (SSCL) magnet string test and later obtained by JLab after the cancellation of that project. The modified ASST-A refrigeration system, which will be called ESR-II along with a support flow from JLab’s Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) is considered as an option for the End Station Refrigerator capacity upgrade. The applicability of this system for ESR-II under varying load conditions is investigated. The present paper outlines the findings of this process study.

  10. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  11. Chemical kinetics studies at high temperatures using shock tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakumar, B; Anandraj, D; Reddy, KPJ; Arunan, E

    2002-01-01

    Shock tube is an unique facility to create temperature gradients exceeding million degrees Kelvin per second. We have established two shock tubes for measuring the kinetic reaction rates at high temperatures with two different but complementary detection techniques. The first one is a single pulse shock tube, in which the reflected shock is used to heat the molecules. The equilibrated products are analyzed by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrometer. The second one uses laser-schlieren sys...

  12. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  13. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qyyum Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG. A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2 as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  14. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  15. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  16. Bio-mass stimulated absorption refrigerator for food storage in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppal, A.H.; Komuna, K.K. (University of Technology, Papua (New Guinea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    A medium capacity (140 litre) water-ammonia absorption refrigerator, thermally stimulated by a charcoal-stove is being developed to store food in remote locations and island communities of Papua New Guinea. The paper describes a prototype charcoal or biomass-stove thermal refrigerator in which the absorption cycle and thermo-syphonic cycle of a heating liquid has been coupled in a novel and straight forward approach. The system consisted of a heat-exchanger, in the form of a jacket surrounding the generator tube of a water-ammonia absorption cycle refrigerator, and was connected in a close-pipe work loop to a heat exchanger placed in a charcoal-stove. A heat-transfer oil flowed due to thermo-syphonic forces between the heat exchanger and the jacket. According to initial tests it took 4 hours for the system to warm up, and took another 7 hours for water in the freezer cabinet to approach 0{sup o}C from an initial 25{sup o}C. The cooling capacity of the evaporator was roughly 70% of the cooling capacity of the original system with electric heating. For a twelve hour test the stove consumed 2.5 kg of charcoal with an air port opening between 3 to 5 millimeters. Preliminary estimates indicate that the described prototype absorption unit stimulated by the wood/coconut husk stove (rather than electricity/kerosene), when manufactured commercially will cost less than US 1500 dollars at 1991 prices. (Author).

  17. Max Tech Efficiency Electric HPWH with low-GWP Halogenated Refrigerant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawaz, Kashif [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elatar, Ahmed F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A scoping-level analysis was conducted to determine the maximum performance of an electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) with low GWP refrigerants (hydroflouroolefins (HFO), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), and blends). A baseline heat pump water heater (GE GeoSpring) deploying R-134a was analyzed first using the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) modeling tool. The model was calibrated using experimental data to match the water temperature stratification in tank, first hour rating, energy factor and coefficient of performance. A CFD modeling tool was used to further refine the HPDM tank model. After calibration, the model was used to simulate the performance of alternative refrigerants. The parametric analysis concluded that by appropriate selection of equipment size and condenser tube wrap configuration the overall performance of emerging low GWP refrigerants for HPWH application not only exceed the Energy Star Energy Factor criteria i.e. 2.20, but is also comparable to some of the most efficient products in the market.

  18. Theoretical study on a novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle for household refrigerator-freezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Mengliu; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle is proposed. • The novel cycle is evaluated by using the developed mathematical model. • The results show the performances of the novel cycle could be significantly improved. • The novel cycle shows its promise in household refrigerator-freezers applications. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle is presented for dual evaporator household refrigerator-freezers. The proposed ejector equipped with two nozzles can efficiently recover the expansion work from cycle throttling processes and enhance cycle performances. The performances of the novel cycle are evaluated by using the developed mathematical model, and then compared with that of the conventional ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle and basic vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The simulation results show that for the given operating conditions, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the novel cycle using refrigerant R134a is improved by 22.9–50.8% compared with that of the basic vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, and the COP improvement is 10.5–30.8% larger than that of the conventional ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle. The further simulation results of the novel cycle using refrigerant R600a indicate that the cycle COP and volumetric refrigeration capacity could be significantly improved

  19. Experimental and numerical studies of choked flow through adiabatic and diabatic capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deodhar, Subodh D.; Kothadia, Hardik B.; Iyer, K.N.; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Capillary tubes are extensively used in several cooling applications like refrigeration, electronic cooling etc. Local pressure variation in adiabatic straight capillary tube (mini channel) is studied experimentally and numerically with R134a as the working fluid. Experiments are performed on two straight capillary tubes. It is found that the diameter is the most sensitive design parameter of the capillary tube. Experiments are performed on five helically coiled capillary tubes to quantify the effect of pitch and curvature of helically coiled capillary tube on the pressure drop. Non dimensionalized factor to account coiling of capillary tube is derived to calculate mass flow rate in helically coiled capillary tubes. Flow visualization in adiabatic capillary tube confirms the bubbly nature of two phase flow. Numerical and experimental investigations in diabatic capillary tube suggest that the use of positive displacement pump and choking at the exit of the channel ensures flow stability. - Highlights: • Model is developed to design capillary tube in adiabatic and diabatic condition. • Effect of coil curvature on pressure drop is studied experimentally. • Correlation is developed to predict mass flow rate in helical capillary tubes. • Flow visualization is carried out to check the type of two phase flow. • Effect of choked flow on diabatic capillary tubes is studied experimentally.

  20. Fundamental basis and implementation of shell and tube heat exchanger project design: condenser and evaporator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkilic, A. S.; Acikgoz, O.; Tapan, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2016-12-01

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is used as a condenser and an evaporator in this theoretical study. Parametric performance analyses for various actual refrigerants were performed using well-known correlations in open sources. Condensation and evaporation were occurred in the shell side while the water was flowing in the tube side of heat exchanger. Heat transfer rate from tube side was kept constant for condenser and evaporator design. Condensing temperatures were varied from 35 to 60 °C whereas evaporating temperatures were ranging from -15 to 10 °C for the refrigerants of R12, R22, R134a, R32, R507A, R404A, R502, R407C, R152A, R410A and R1234ZE. Variation of convective heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants, total heat transfer coefficients with Reynolds numbers and saturation temperatures were given as validation process considering not only fouling resistance and omission of it but also staggered (triangular) and line (square) arrangements. The minimum tube lengths and necessary pumping powers were calculated and given as case studies for the investigated refrigerants considering validation criteria. It was understood that refrigerant type, fouling resistance and arrangement type are one of the crucial issues regarding the determination of heat exchanger's size and energy consumption. Consequently, R32 and R152a were found to require the shortest tube length and lowest pumping power in the condenser, whereas R507 and R407C have the same advantages in the evaporator. Their heat transfer coefficients were also determined larger than others as expectedly.

  1. Analysis of Refrigeration Cycle Performance with an Ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conventional refrigeration cycle uses expansion device between the condenser and the evaporator which has losses during the expansion process. A refrigeration cycle with ejector is a promising modification to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration cycle. The ejector is used to recover some of the available work so that the compressor suction pressure increases. To investigate the enhancement a model with R134a refrigerant was developed. To solve the set of equations and simulate the cycle performance a subroutine was written on engineering equation solver (EES environment. At specific conditions, the refrigerant properties are obtained from EES. At the design conditions the ejector refrigeration cycle achieved 5.141 COP compared to 4.609 COP of the conventional refrigeration cycle. This means that ejector refrigeration cycle offers better COP with 10.35% improvement compared to conventional refrigeration cycle. Parametric analysis of ejector refrigeration cycle indicated that COP was influenced significantly by evaporator and condenser temperatures, entrainment ratio and diffuser efficiency.

  2. Performance Analysis of Multipurpose Refrigeration System (MRS on Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ust Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of efficient refrigerator/freezers helps considerably to reduce the amount of the emitted greenhouse gas. A two-circuit refrigerator-freezer cycle (RF reveals a higher energy saving potential than a conventional cycle with a single loop of serial evaporators, owing to pressure drop in each evaporator during refrigeration operation and low compression ratio. Therefore, several industrial applications and fish storage systems have been utilized by using multipurpose refrigeration cycle. That is why a theoretical performance analysis based on the exergetic performance coefficient, coefficient of performance (COP, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio criteria, has been carried out for a multipurpose refrigeration system by using different refrigerants in serial and parallel operation conditions. The exergetic performance coefficient criterion is defined as the ratio of exergy output to the total exergy destruction rate (or loss rate of availability. According to the results of the study, the refrigerant R32 shows the best performance in terms of exergetic performance coefficient, COP, exergy efficiency, and exergy destruction ratio from among the other refrigerants (R1234yf, R1234ze, R404A, R407C, R410A, R143A and R502. The effects of the condenser, freezer-evaporator and refrigerator-evaporator temperatures on the exergetic performance coefficient, COP, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratios have been fully analyzed for the refrigerant R32.

  3. Modeling and calculation of open carbon dioxide refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yufei; Zhu, Chunling; Jiang, Yanlong; Shi, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of open refrigeration system is developed. • The state of CO 2 has great effect on Refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer. • Refrigeration capacity loss by remaining CO 2 has little relation to the state of CO 2 . • Calculation results are in agreement with the test results. - Abstract: Based on the analysis of the properties of carbon dioxide, an open carbon dioxide refrigeration system is proposed, which is responsible for the situation without external electricity unit. A model of open refrigeration system is developed, and the relationship between the storage environment of carbon dioxide and refrigeration capacity is conducted. Meanwhile, a test platform is developed to simulation the performance of the open carbon dioxide refrigeration system. By comparing the theoretical calculations and the experimental results, several conclusions are obtained as follows: refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer in supercritical state is much more than that in two-phase region and the refrigeration capacity loss by remaining carbon dioxide has little relation to the state of carbon dioxide. The results will be helpful to the use of open carbon dioxide refrigeration

  4. Improvement of a thermoelectric and vapour compression hybrid refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement in the performance of a domestic hybrid refrigerator that combines vapour compression technology for the cooler and freezer compartments, and thermoelectric technology for a new compartment. The heat emitted by the Peltier modules is discharged into the freezer compartment, forming a cascade refrigeration system. This configuration leads to a significant improvement in the coefficient of operation. Thus, the electric power consumption of the modules and the refrigerator decreases by 95% and 20% respectively, with respect to those attained with a cascade refrigeration system connected with the cooler compartment. The optimization process is based on a computational model that simulates the behaviour of the whole refrigerator. Two prototypes have been built and tested. Experimental results indicate that the temperature of the new compartment is easily set up at any value between 0 and −4 °C, the oscillation of this temperature is always lower than 0.4 °C, and the electric power consumption is low enough to include this hybrid refrigerator into energy efficiency class A, according European rules and regulations. - Highlights: ► Optimization of a vapour compression and thermoelectric hybrid refrigerator. ► Two prototypes built and tested. Computational model for the whole refrigerator. ► Electric power consumption of the modules and the refrigerator 95% and 20% lower. ► New compartment refrigerated with thermoelectric technology. ► Inner temperature adjustable from 0 to −4 °C. Oscillations lower than ±0.2 °C.

  5. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  6. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction...... of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close...... to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration....

  7. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, R.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Smith, A.; Christensen, D.V.; Pryds, N.

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration.

  8. The lifetime cost of a magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    The total cost of a 25 W average load magnetic refrigerator using commercial grade Gd is calculated using a numerical model. The price of magnetocaloric material, magnet material and cost of operation are considered, and all influence the total cost. The lowest combined total cost with a device...... lifetime of 15 years is found to be in the range $150-$400 depending on the price of the magnetocaloric and magnet material. The cost of the magnet is largest, followed closely by the cost of operation, while the cost of the magnetocaloric material is almost negligible. For the lowest cost device...... characteristics are based on the performance of a conventional A+++ refrigeration unit. In a rough life time cost comparison between the AMR device and such a unit we find similar costs, the AMR being slightly cheaper, assuming the cost of the magnet can be recuperated at end of life....

  9. Design of refrigeration system using refrigerant R134a for macro compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. F. H.; Razlan, Z. M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Yong, C. K.; Harun, A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Ibrahim, I.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Saad, M. A. M.; Zunaidi, I.; Wan, W. K.; Desa, H.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyse and design an optimum cooling system for macro compartment. Current product of the refrigerator is not specified for single function and not compact in size. Hence, a refrigeration system using refrigerant R134a is aimed to provide instant cooling in a macro compartment with sizing about 150 × 150 × 250 mm. The macro compartment is purposely designed to fit a bottle or drink can, which is then cooled to a desired drinking temperature of about 8°C within a period of 1 minute. The study is not only concerned with analysing of heat load of the macro compartment containing drink can, but also focused on determining suitable heat exchanger volume for both evaporator and condenser, calculating compressor displacement value and computing suitable resistance value of the expansion valve. Method of optimization is used to obtain the best solution of the problem. Mollier diagram is necessary in the process of developing the refrigeration system. Selection of blower is made properly to allow air circulation and to increase the flow rate for higher heat transfer rate. Property data are taken precisely from thermodynamic property tables. As the main four components, namely condenser, compressor, evaporator and expansion valve are fully developed, the refrigeration system is complete.

  10. Experimental Study on Solar Cooling Tube Using Thermal/Vacuum Emptying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar cooling tube using thermal/vacuum emptying method was experimentally studied in this paper. The coefficient of performance (COP of the solar cooling tube was mostly affected by the vacuum degree of the system. In past research, the thermal vacuum method, using an electric oven and iodine-tungsten lamp to heat up the adsorbent bed and H2O vapor to expel the air from the solar cooling tube, was used to manufacture solar cooling tubes. This paper presents a novel thermal vacuum combined with vacuum pump method allowing an increased vacuum state for producing solar cooling tubes. The following conclusions are reached: the adsorbent bed temperature of solar cooling tube could reaches up to 233°C, and this temperature is sufficient to meet desorption demand; the refrigerator power of a single solar cooling tube varies from 1 W to 12 W; the total supply refrigerating capacity is about 287 kJ; and the COP of this solar cooling tube is about 0.215.

  11. Development of bipolar pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Y.; Mitsui, C.; Kitamura, I.; Takahashi, T.; Masugata, K.; Tanoue, H.; Arai, K.

    2003-01-01

    To improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' was proposed. In the accelerator purity of the beam is expected. To confirm the principle of the accelerator experimental system was developed. The system utilizes B y type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun placed in the grounded anode was used as an ion source, and source plasma (nitrogen) of current density approx. = 25 A/cm 2 , duration approx. = 1.5 μs was injected into the acceleration gap. The ions are successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 180 kV, duration 60 ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density approx. = 40 A/cm 2 , duration approx. 60 ns was obtained at 42 mm downstream from the anode surface. (author)

  12. Long-pulse applications of pulse-forming lines for high-power linac application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ever present demands for high efficiency in the RF power stations for particle accelerators have caused increased interest in longer RF pulses (ten's of microseconds) for linacs such as the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) and Free Electron Laser (FEL). For either RF power station, a fundamental decision is whether to use a modulating anode/hard-tube driver or pulsed cathode/line-type pulser configuration. The choices in the extremes of low power for very long pulses or for very-high-power, short pulses are, respectively, a modulated anode/hard tube modulator and pulsed cathode/pulse forming line. However, the demarcation between these two extremes is not clearcut. The criteria (cost, flexibility performance, reliability, efficiency) that resulted in the RF station definition of these two specific systems will be described

  13. Silicon spectrometer with a Peltier refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcarz, E.; Chwaszczewska, J.; Hahn, G.; Nowicki, W.; Sawicka, B.; Skoczek, K.; Slapa, M.; Szymczak, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector cooled by a Peltier refrigerator. The spectrometer is able to analyse samples of practically all most frequently encountered emitters of alpha, beta and low energy gamma radiation. The energy resolution were about 1.3-1.5 keV for 14 keV gamma radiation. The system can also operate in field conditions in the fluorescence analysis. (author)

  14. Cryo-refrigerators for CNS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J.; Lesser, J.; Sebastianutto, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cryo-refrigeration plants for cold neutron sources belong to the field of auxiliary plants or utility facilities of the reactor. In general, they are classified as non-nuclear and serve to dissipate the heat generated in the liquid hydrogen or deuterium from moderating the neutrons of the cold neutron source. Cryo-refrigeration plants for the temperature range of 20 K supply either refrigeration at constant temperature by means of evaporating the cryogenic coolant (usually hydrogen) or, as usual with cold sources, in a specific temperature range by means of warming-up the cryogenic coolant (usually helium) in the moderator or heat exchanger (condensation or subcooling of the deuterium). The operator's requirements to a refrigeration plant are, first of all, that the plant adjusts itself - at low-maintenance or maintenance-free - to the various operation modes at best thermodynamic efficiencies and that it offers as much operating convenience and operating safety as possible. Additional requirements are short times for cool-down, capacity adjustment, stand-by operation in order to avoid poisoning of the cold source and further operational requirements. However, these requirements are limited by mechanics, thermodynamics and financial means. For this reason, for each application a technical solution must be found which is optimally adapted to the competing requirements and which is based on a standard product of the manufacturer, if possible. The operator's different requirements have to be taken in account with regard to the design of the plant and choice of the components; economic aspects in addition also have to be considered. Wherever possible, proven standard components should be used. (orig.)

  15. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  16. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  17. Investigation on flow patterns and transition characteristics in a tube-bundle channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Wenyuan; Lu Yonghong; Zhao Guisheng

    2012-01-01

    Tube-bundle channels have been widely used in condenser-evaporator and other industrial heat-exchange equipment. The characteristics of two-phase flow patterns and their transitions for refrigerant R-113 through a vertical tube-bundle channel are experimentally investigated using high-speed camera. Experiments show that there are four main flow patterns in the tube-bundle channel, which are bubbly flow, bubbly-churn flow, churn flow and annular flow. And in the same cross-section of tube- bundle channels, it is shown that there might be different flow patterns in different sub-channels. The flow pattern transitions exhibit unsynchronized in different sub-channels. On the basis of experimental research, the flow pattern map is drawn and analyses are made on the comparison of differences between boiling flow patterns in a circular tube and those in a tube-bundle channel. (authors)

  18. Flow Analysis of Isobutane (R-600A) Inside AN Adiabatic Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, Praveen; Sahu, Debjyoti

    2018-02-01

    Capillary tubes are simple narrow tubes but the phase change which occurs inside the capillary tubes is complex to analyze. In the present investigation, an attempt is made to analyze the flow of Isobutane (R-600a) inside the coiled capillary tubes for different load conditions by Homogeneous Equilibrium Model. The Length and diameter of the capillary tube not only depend on the pressure and temperature of the condenser and evaporator but also on the cooling load. The present paper investigates the change in dimensions of the coil capillary tube with respect to the change in cooling load on the system for the constant condenser and evaporator conditions. ANSYS CFX (Central Florida Expressway) software is used to study the flow characteristics of the refrigerant. Appropriate helical coil is selected for this analysis.

  19. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with multiple laser tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser system that was constituted of two or three laser tubes and a single driving circuit. The multiple laser tubes simultaneously produced almost the same short laser pulses with a spike pulse width of about 164 ns and a pulse tail length of about 74 μs with a single driving circuit. The double-tube system was constituted of two 30 cm-long laser tubes with inner diameters of 13 mm and 16 mm and a single driving circuit with an input energy of 2.18 J. The output energy of the 13 mm-tube was 23.3 mJ, and that of the 16 mm-tube was 21.9 mJ at a gas pressure of 4.2 kPa (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2). The triple-tube system was constituted of three 30 cm-long laser tubes with inner diameters of 9 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm and a single driving circuit with an input energy of 2.18 J. The output energy of the 9 mm tube was 15.9 mJ, that of the 13 mm tube was 24.1 mJ, and that of the 16 mm tube was 19.2 mJ at a gas pressure of 4.2 kPa. With the same driving circuit and the same input energy, the total output energies of the multitube laser systems were higher than the output energy of a single-tube system.

  20. A new modeling procedure for circuit design and performance prediction of evaporator coils using CO2 as refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbi Bendaoud, Adlane; Ouzzane, Mohamed; Aidoun, Zine; Galanis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The replacement of environmentally damaging synthetic refrigerants due to their ODP or GWI potential by natural refrigerants such as CO 2 is now up in the research agenda. Moreover, current energy supply concerns make of efficiency another first priority issue to dictate new stringent design criteria for industrial and commercial equipment. Heat exchangers are the most important components in refrigeration systems where they are used as evaporators or condensers and their design and operation have a considerable impact on overall system performance. Hence, it is important to better understand their thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour in order to improve their design and operation. Numerical simulation represents a very efficient tool for achieving this objective. In this paper, a new modeling approach, accounting for the heat transfer the hydrodynamics of the problem and intended to predict the dynamic behaviour of a refrigeration coil under dry conditions is proposed. A related FORTRAN program was developed, allowing the study of a large range of complex refrigerant circuit configurations. The equations describing these aspects are strongly coupled, and their decoupling is reached by using an original method of resolution. Circuits may have several inlets, outlets, bifurcations and feed one or several other tubes inlets. The coil was subdivided into several elementary control volumes and its analysis provided detailed information in X, Y and Z directions. Validation was performed with data from a CO 2 secondary refrigeration loop test bench built in CanmetENERGY Laboratories. These data were predicted satisfactorily over the operating range corresponding to refrigeration applications. Exemplary simulations were then performed on an evaporator typically employed in supermarkets, showing the effect of circuiting on operation and performance. Even though circuiting is common practice in refrigeration this simulation shows that care must be exercised in making the

  1. Optimal analysis of gas cooler and intercooler for two-stage CO2 trans-critical refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplified model for tube-fin gas cooler for CO 2 refrigeration system was presented and validated. • Several parameters were investigated using 1st law and 2nd law in component and system level. • Practical guidelines of optimum for tube-fin gas cooler and intercooler were proposed. - Abstract: Energy-based 1st law and exergy-based 2nd law are both employed in the paper to assess the optimal design of gas cooler and intercooler for two-stage CO 2 refrigeration system. A simplified mathematical model of the air-cooled coil is presented and validated against experimental data with good accuracy. The optimum circuit length under the influence of frontal air velocity and deep rows is investigated first. Thereafter, designed coil with optimum circuit length is further evaluated within the two-stage refrigeration system. It is found out the optimum point using 1st law does not coincide with the point using 2nd law in isolated component and the simulation results from isolated component by 2nd law are closer to system analysis. Results show optimum circuit length is much bigger for gas cooler than intercooler and the influence on the length from variation of frontal air velocity and deep rows may be neglected. There does exist optimum frontal air velocity which will decrease with more number of deep rows

  2. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of refrigerants using data mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecueksille, Ecir Ugur; Selbas, Resat; Sencan, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of vapor compression refrigeration systems requires the availability of simple and efficient mathematical formulations for the determination of thermodynamic properties of refrigerants. The aim of this study is to determine thermodynamic properties as enthalpy, entropy and specific volume of alternative refrigerants using data mining method. Alternative refrigerants used in the study are R134a, R404a, R407c and R410a. The results obtained from data mining have been compared to actual data from the literature. The study shows that the data mining methodology is successfully applicable to determine enthalpy, entropy and specific volume values for any temperature and pressure of refrigerants. Therefore, computation time reduces and simulation of vapor compression refrigeration systems is fairly facilitated.

  3. Analysis of cooldown performance for Isabelle helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.C.; Brown, D.P.; Moore, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The cooldown performance for the ISABELLE Helium refrigerator is analyzed in terms of the relationship between refrigerator and its load. The flow diagram for ISABELLE with its redundant turbines and heat exchangers is given. Cycle description and procedure for cooldown is described with the relationship between a refrigerator and its load illustrated. Pressure vs. temperature for ISABELLE load and the efficiency for a turbine are illustrated. The procedure for modeling the refrigerator and the concepts of maximizing the cooldown capacity are described. The results and discussion are accompanied with T-S diagrams for initial stage of cooldown and refrigerator characteristic at various return temperatures. The ISABELLE refrigerator with its reduncant expanders properly used achieves cooldown capacity well beyond its steady-state capacity. The cooldown rate at this stage relies on the design safety margin, which for the ISABELLE is 50%

  4. Fault detection and diagnosis for refrigerator from compressor sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keres, Stephen L.; Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.

    2016-12-06

    A refrigerator, a sealed refrigerant system, and method are provided where the refrigerator includes at least a refrigerated compartment and a sealed refrigerant system including an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, a controller, an evaporator fan, and a condenser fan. The method includes monitoring a frequency of the compressor, and identifying a fault condition in the at least one component of the refrigerant sealed system in response to the compressor frequency. The method may further comprise calculating a compressor frequency rate based upon the rate of change of the compressor frequency, wherein a fault in the condenser fan is identified if the compressor frequency rate is positive and exceeds a condenser fan fault threshold rate, and wherein a fault in the evaporator fan is identified if the compressor frequency rate is negative and exceeds an evaporator fan fault threshold rate.

  5. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.; Taikum, Orawan

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. In part I of the program the swell behavior in the test fluids has been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed fro the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants. Part II of the testing program includes the evaluation of tensile strength, hardness, weight, and dimensional changes after immersion aging in refrigerant/lubricant mixtures of selected elastomer formulations at elevated temperature and pressure.

  6. Exergy analysis of refrigerators for large scale cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehlein, K [Sulzer Cryogenics, Winterthur (Switzerland); Fukano, T [Nippon Sanso Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-01-01

    Facilities with superconducting magnets require cooling capacity at different temperature levels and of different types (refrigeration or liquefaction). The bigger the demand for refrigeration, the more investment for improved efficiency of the refrigeration plant is justified and desired. Refrigeration cycles are built with discrete components like expansion turbines, cold compressors, etc. Therefore the exergetic efficiency for producing refrigeration on a distinct temperature level is significantly dependent on the 'thermodynamic arrangement' of these components. Among a variety of possibilities, limited by the range of applicability of the components, one has to choose the best design for higher efficiency on every level. Some influences are being quantified and aspects are given for a optimal integration of the refrigerator into the whole cooling system. (orig.).

  7. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop penalty factors in four microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D [Korea University, Seoul (Korea). Institute of Advanced Machinery Design; Lee, Kyu-Jung [Korea University, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-08-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of four microfin tubes were experimentally investigated for condensation of refrigerants R134a, R22, and R410A in four different test sections. The microfin tubes examined during this study consisted of 8.92, 6.46, 5.1, and 4 mm maximum inside diameter. The effect of mass flux, vapor quality, and refrigerants on condensation was investigated in terms of the heat transfer enhancement factor and the pressure drop penalty factor. The pressure drop penalty factor and the heat transfer enhancement factor showed a similar tendency for each tube at given vapor quality and mass flux. Based on the experimental data and the heat-momentum analogy, correlations for the condensation heat transfer coefficients in an annular flow regime and the frictional pressure drops are proposed. (author)

  8. Capillary Tube and Thermostatic Expansion Valve Comparative Analysis in Water Chiller Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya Sunu, Putu; Made Rasta, I.; Anakottapary, Daud Simon; Made Suarta, I.; Cipta Santosa, I. D. M.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study to compares the performance characteristics of a water chiller air conditioning simulation equipped with thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) with those of a capillary tube. Water chiller system filled with the same charge of refrigerant. Comparative analyses were performed based on coefficient of performance (COP) and performance parameter of the refrigeration system, carried out at medium cooling load level with the ambient temperature of 29-31°C, constant compressor speed and fixed chilled water volume flowrate at 15 lpm. It was shown that the TEV system showed better energy consumption compared to that of capillary tube. From the coefficient of performance perspective, the thermostatic expansion valve system showed higher COP (± 21.4%) compared to that of capillary tube system.

  9. Development of a discharge-heated plasma tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Jin, J. T.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, S. M.; Choi, H. L.; Ko, D. K.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. K.; Lee, H. G.; Lee, H. C.; Jung, S. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Choi, G. S.; Son, N. G.

    1999-12-01

    A discharge-heated type plasma tube was designed and constructed. The structure of the laser plasma tube was designed to be easy in maintenance. The inside plasma tube was made of a high purity alumina and the thermal insulator tube was made of a porous alumina. The electrode made of tungsten was chosen for the endurance of high discharge voltage. AR coated windows were used as laser windows. A proto-type laser plasma tube was tested with a pulse modulator. An average laser output power was 32 W at the discharge voltage of 28 kV, the electric input power of 4.6 kW, and the pulse repetition rates of 10 kHz. (author)

  10. Improvements in or relating to pulsed X-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichenkov, E.I.; Klypin, V.V.; Palchikov, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed X-ray unit comprises a pulsed X-ray tube connected to a discharge capacitor. The discharge capacitor comprises two coaxially arranged cylinders. One cylinder of the discharge capacitor is connected to the X-ray tube and to the high-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a truncated cone, and is arranged internally of this winding coaxially therewith. The other cylinder of the discharge capacitor is also connected to the X-ray tube and to the low-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer, and is arranged intermediate this winding and the primary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a hollow cylinder, and connected to the charging device. The cylinders of the discharge capacitor have ports made therein for the passage therethrough of the magnetic flux produced by the windings of the pulsed transformer. (author)

  11. Experimental study on void fraction of two-phase flow inside a micro-fin tube

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Shigeru; Chen, Yongchang; Kitano, Ryuji; Kuwahara, Ken

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the void fraction and flow pattern of the two-phase flow in a micro-fin tube were investigated experimentally for a pure refrigerant HFC134a. The experiment was carried out at a pressure range of 0.6 and 1.2MPa with mass velocities of 90 and 180kg/m^2 s, in which the vapor quality varied from 0 to 1. The void fraction was measured by means of simultaneously closing valves of both sides of the test tube at adiabatic condition. Experimental results for the micro-fin tube were comp...

  12. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, T; Kawashima, K [National Food Research Inst., Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan); Oka, O

    1981-03-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigerator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days.

  13. Thermoeconomic model of a commercial transcritical booster refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    For cooling applications in supermarkets, booster refrigeration systems operating in both transcritical and subcritical conditions are increasingly used. A thermodynamic model of a transcritical booster refrigeration plant is tailored to match the new generation of commercial refrigeration plants...... of exergy for cooling. Second law analysis is needed to illustrate the characteristics of the plant at different load rates, according to the alternating load profile and corresponding to outdoor conditions. With the detailed model, different uses of the analysis are possible, including thermoeconomic...

  14. Performance measurement of a mini thermoacoustic refrigerator and associated drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Petrina, Denys E.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A miniature Thermoacoustic refrigerator is being developed to cool integrated circuits - which must sometimes operate at high temperatures nearing the upper threshold of their tolerance - to temperature spans more within the circuits' tolerable limits, without the need of the chemicals of a traditional refrigerating system. The development of an electrically powered acoustic driver that powers the thermoacoustic refrigerator is describ...

  15. Research for Actively Reducing Infrared Radiation by Thermoelectric Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Kyomin; Kim, Woochul [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a technology for reducing infrared radiation through the active cooling of hot surfaces by using a thermoelectric refrigerator. Certain surfaces were heated by aerodynamic heating, and the heat generation processes are proposed here. We calculated the temperatures and radiations from surfaces, while using thermoelectric refrigerators to cool the surfaces. The results showed that the contrast between the radiations of certain surfaces and the ambient environments can be removed using thermoelectric refrigerators.

  16. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  17. Two-stage nuclear refrigeration with enhanced nuclear moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunik, R.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described in which an enhanced nuclear system is used as a precoolant for a nuclear demagnetisation stage. The results show the promising advantages of such a system in those circumstances for which a large cooling power is required at extremely low temperatures. A theoretical review of nuclear enhancement at the microscopic level and its macroscopic thermodynamical consequences is given. The experimental equipment for the implementation of the nuclear enhanced refrigeration method is described and the experiments on two-stage nuclear demagnetisation are discussed. With the nuclear enhanced system PrCu 6 the author could precool a nuclear stage of indium in a magnetic field of 6 T down to temperatures below 10 mK; this resulted in temperature below 1 mK after demagnetisation of the indium. It is demonstrated that the interaction energy between the nuclear moments in an enhanced nuclear system can exceed the nuclear dipolar interaction. Several experiments are described on pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, as utilised for thermometry purposes. It is shown that platinum NMR-thermometry gives very satisfactory results around 1 mK. The results of experiments on nuclear orientation of radioactive nuclei, e.g. the brute force polarisation of 95 NbPt and 60 CoCu, are presented, some of which are of major importance for the thermometry in the milli-Kelvin region. (Auth.)

  18. Model based control of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth Larsen, L.F.

    2005-11-15

    The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers a variety of different types of controls, that incorporates mathematical models. In this thesis the main subject therefore has been restricted to deal with system optimizing control. The optimizing control is divided into two layers, where the system oriented top layers deals with set-point optimizing control and the lower layer deals with dynamical optimizing control in the subsystems. The thesis has two main contributions, i.e. a novel approach for set-point optimization and a novel approach for desynchronization based on dynamical optimization. The focus in the development of the proposed set-point optimizing control has been on deriving a simple and general method, that with ease can be applied on various compositions of the same class of systems, such as refrigeration systems. The method is based on a set of parameter depended static equations describing the considered process. By adapting the parameters to the given process, predict the steady state and computing a steady state gradient of the cost function, the process can be driven continuously towards zero gradient, i.e. the optimum (if the cost function is convex). The method furthermore deals with system constrains by introducing barrier functions, hereby the best possible performance taking the given constrains in to account can be obtained, e.g. under extreme operational conditions. The proposed method has been applied on a test refrigeration system, placed at Aalborg University, for minimization of the energy consumption. Here it was proved that by using general static parameter depended system equations it was possible drive the set-points close to the optimum and thus reduce the power consumption with up to 20%. In the dynamical optimizing layer the idea is to optimize the operation of the subsystem or the groupings of subsystems, that limits the obtainable system performance. In systems

  19. Refrigeration processes a practical handbook on the physical properties of refrigerants and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meacock, H M

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive applications-oriented treatment of the subject in two parts. The first part forms a useful introduction to basic principles dealing with the definitions of the physical properties and outlines the method of their calculation. The second part is devoted to calculated data on a range of refrigerants by means of extensive tables and diagrams. The treatment takes the form of a data sheet, one for each of about thirty refrigerants; this data sheet gives the essential information from which close approximations of pressure, temperature, volume and enthalpy can be made for any predict

  20. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.