WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulse tube cryocooler

  1. Ultimate Temperature of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, P.

    2010-04-01

    An ideal pulse tube cryocooler using an ideal gas can operate at any temperature. This is not true for real gasses. The enthalpy flow resulting from the real gas effects of 3He, 4He, and their mixtures in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers puts limits on the operating temperature of pulse tube cryocoolers. The discussion of these effects follows a previous description of the real gas effects in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers and makes use of models of the thermophysical properties of 3He and 4He. Published data is used to extend the analysis to mixtures of 3He and 4He. The analysis was done for pressures below 2 MPa and temperatures below 2.5 K. Both gasses and their mixtures show low temperature limits for pulse tube cryocoolers. These limits are in the 0.5-2.2 K range and depend on pressure and mixture. In some circumstances, even lower temperatures may be possible. Pulse tube cryocoolers using the two-fluid properties of dilute 3He in superfluid 4He appear to have no limit.

  2. Raytheon advanced pulse-tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ted; Yates, Ryan; Kuo, Daniel; Schaefer, Brian; Arnoult, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Recently, Raytheon has developed an advanced regenerator technology capable of operating efficiently at high frequencies and outperforming traditional screen regenerators. The Raytheon Advanced Miniature (RAM-100) cryocooler, a flight packaged, high frequency, single stage pulse tube cooler with an integrated surge volume and inertance tube, has been designed for use with this regenerator. Design details and experimentally measured performance of two iterations of the RAM cryocooler are presented in this paper.

  3. Propellant Conditioning Using Improved Pulse Tube Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Application of the proposed technology (an affordable, large-scale, high-efficiency, low-temperature pulse tube cryocooler system), serves two NASA needs: an...

  4. The third type DC flow in pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    New phenomena discovered in the experimental research of the ultra-high frequency pulse tube cryocooler were presented.The cause of the new phenomena was analyzed and the third type DC flow was discovered in the pulse tube cryocooler.The third type DC flow not only deteriorated cooling capacity but also led to temperature instability of the pulse tube cryocooler.From the fluid network theory and the simple regenerator model,the root of the third type DC flow was concisely investigated in theory. The asymmetric resistance of oscillating flow in pulse tube cryocooler was the key mechanism of the third type DC flow.Some suppression methods were briefly discussed.

  5. The third type DC flow in pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuan; GU Chao; CAI HuiKun

    2009-01-01

    New phenomena discovered in the experimental research of the ultra-high frequency pulse tube cryo cooler were presented.The cause of the new phenomena was analyzed and the third type DC flow was discovered in the pulse tube cryocooler.The third type DC flow not only deteriorated cooling capacity but also led to temperature instability of the pulse tube cryocooler.From the fluid network theory and the simple regenerator model,the root of the third type DC flow was concisely investigated in theory.The asymmetric resistance of oscillating flow in pulse tube cryocooler was the key mechanism of the third type DC flow.Some suppression methods were briefly discussed.

  6. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Yibing; Li, Haibing; Dai, Wei; Chen, Shuai; Lei, Gang; Luo, Ercang

    2015-03-01

    This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  7. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  8. Real gas features on the performance of pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Y. L.

    2002-05-01

    The working helium gas in a pulse tube cryocooler operating at temperatures down to 80 K is mainly assumed to be an ideal gas. Therefore, the time-variations of the temperature profiles and the position of the gas element traveling with pressure oscillations inside the pulse tube can be readily determined by the law of Poisson function. However, this is certainly invalid for the pulse tube cryocooler operating at temperature range of liquid helium, in which the thermal properties of the helium gas change drastically. The temperature profiles in the regenerator and the pulse tube are strongly affected by the real thermal properties of the helium gas. We derive in this paper, the respective expressions to follow the tracks of the gas elements as they move in the pulse tube, and to reveal the time dependence of the temperature profiles and the position of gas elements traveling with the pressure oscillations inside the pulse tube. The approach is based on the thermodynamic equations for the real gas. We will show that contrary to the ideal gas case there is another term which determines the dynamic behaviors of the temperature distributions and the position of the gas elements. A typical calculation is presented for visualizing the time dependence of the cooling-down processes of the temperature profiles in the pulse tube of a 4K two-stage pulse tube cryocooler from room temperature down to low temperature.

  9. Helium liquefaction with a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    2001-07-01

    Helium liquefaction with a two-stage 4 K pulse tube cryocooler is introduced in this paper. The helium liquefier has a feature of precooling helium gas to be liquefied by using inefficiency of the second stage regenerator in the pulse tube cryocooler. This process reduces enthalpy of the incoming helium gas when entering the condenser and significantly increases the condensation rate. Numerical analysis predicts the precooling heat load on the second stage regenerator, decreases the PTC second stage cooling capacity by only 11% of the heat actually absorbed into the regenerator. A prototype pulse tube helium liquefier was built, which has two precooling heat exchangers on the first stage cold head and the second stage regenerator. It continuously liquefies helium with a rate of 4.8 l/day under normal pressure while consumes 4.6 kW power input.

  10. A vibration free cryostat using pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Hartnett, John G.

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a new vibration free cryostat cooled by liquid helium and a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. The cryogenic device mounts on the sample cooling station which is cooled by liquid helium. The boil off helium is recondensed by the pulse tube cryocooler, thus the cryostat maintains zero boil off. There is no mechanical contact between the cryogenic part of the cryocooler and the sample cooling station. A bellows is used to isolate the vibration which could transfer from the cryocooler flange to the cryostat flange at the room temperature. Any vibrations generated by the operation of the cryocooler are almost entirely isolated from the cryogenic device. The cryostat provides a cooling capacity of 0.65 W at 4.21 K on the sample cooling station while maintaining a vapor pressure of 102 kPa. The sample cooling station has a very stable temperature with oscillations of less than ±3 mK during all the operations. A cryogenic microwave oscillator has been successfully cooled and operated with the cryostat.

  11. Numerical analysis of stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujerdi, A. A.; Ashrafizadeh, A.; Mousavi Naeenian, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    A one-dimensional finite volume discretization method is proposed and is implemented as a computer program for the modeling of a family of stirling type Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC). The set of unsteady, one-dimensional, viscous compressible flow equations are written in a general form such that all, porous and non-porous, sections of the PTC can be modeled with these governing equations. In present work, temperature dependency of thermo-physical properties are taken into account as well as the heat transfer between the working fluid and the solid parts, and heat conductions of the gas and solid. The simulation tool can be used to model both the inertance tube type and the orifice type cryocoolers equipped with regenerators made up of different matrix constructions. The PTC might have an arbitrary orientation with respect to the gravitational field. By using the computer program, an orifice type and an inertance tube type pulse tube cryocooler are simulated. Diameter of the orifice and length of the inertance tube are optimized in order to maximize the coefficient of performance. Furthermore, the cooling power of the two types is obtained as a function of the cooling temperature. The behavior of thermodynamic parameters of the inertance tube PTC is investigated. Mean cyclic values of the parameters are presented.

  12. 10 K high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixue; Chen, Liubiao; Wu, Xianlin; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    A high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with precooling (HPTCP) has been developed and tested to meet the requirement of weak magnetic signals measurement, and the performance characteristics are presented in this article. The HPTCP is a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler with the precooling-stage replaced by liquid nitrogen. Two regenerators completely filled with stainless steel (SS) meshes are used in the cooler. Together with cold inertance tubes and cold gas reservoir, a cold double-inlet configuration is used to control the phase relationship of the HPTCP. The experimental result shows that the cold double-inlet configuration has improved the performance of the cooler obviously. The effects of operation parameters on the performance of the cooler are also studied. With a precooling temperature of 78.5 K, the maximum refrigeration capacity is 0.26 W at 15 K and 0.92 W at 20 K when the input electric power are 174 W and 248 W respectively, and the minimum no-load temperature obtained is 10.3 K, which is a new record on refrigeration temperature for high frequency pulse tube cryocooler reported with SS completely used as regenerative matrix.

  13. Performance Limits of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers Using 3HE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, P.

    2008-03-01

    The enthalpy, entropy, and exergy flows resulting from the real gas effects of 3He in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers are described. The discussion follows a previous description of the real gas effects of 4He in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers and makes use of a recently developed model of the thermophysical properties of 3He. This model is used to describe how the thermodynamic flows are affected by real gas phenomena of 3He and compares these effects to similar effects for 4He. The analysis was done over the pressure range 0.3-2 MPa and temperatures down to 1 K. At 2 MPa there is almost no difference in the cooling power between 3He and 4He. At lower pressures, using 3He is advantageous. There is a 1-2 K reduction in the 3He cooling power vs. temperature curves compared to those for 4He in the 0.3-1 MPa range.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental verfication on a novel looped pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Luo, Ercang; Dai, Wei; Hu, Jianying; Zhou, Yuan

    2012-06-01

    Compared with the Stirling cryocooler, the pulse tube cryocooler has obvious advantage in reliability. The reservoir is usually needed to help the inertance tube to obtain larger phase shifting ability, which makes the pulse tube cryocooler not to be as compact as the Stirling cryocoolers. To improve compactness, a looped pulse tube cryocooler without the reservoir was proposed in the paper. The inertance-tube is directly connected to the backside of a linear compressor and the reservoir is removed. To compare its cooling performance with that of the inertance-tube pulse tube cryocooler with a reservoir, the theoretical model including a linear compressor, main hot-end exchanger, regenerator, cold-end exchanger, pulse tube, and secondary hot-end exchanger are described for the both cryocoolers. The simulation results show that the looped cryocooler can achieve a similar or even better cooling performance, comparing with the traditional inertance-tube cryocooler. In the experiment, the performances of both cryocoolers driven by a same linear compressor were extensively tested. A lowest cold-head temperature of 40 K is acquired and the maximum cooling power reached 9.4 W at 77 K for the novel looped pulse tube cooler, corresponding to about 15% relative Carnot efficiency

  15. Development of high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, J. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: junnosuke_imura@yahoo.co.jp; Shinoki, S.; Sato, T.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Yasohama, K. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., 2-1, Asahi-machi, Kariya, Aichi 448-8650 (Japan); Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 1, Toshin-cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 261-8680 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    We have been developing a Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, aiming for a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. In this work, we adopted stainless steel meshes for the regenerator of the cryocooler, and studied the influences of the mesh number on the cooling capacity. The prepared mesh numbers were 150, 200, 250, 350 and 400. Using 250 mesh, and at a frequency of 45 Hz and power consumption of 3.1 kW, the achievable lowest temperature and cooling capacity at 80 K was 46.2 K and 123 W, respectively. Furthermore, in order to optimize the performance, some regenerators were made by stacking several kinds of meshes with different stacking orders. Using these regenerators, we have obtained a high cooling capacity of 169 W at 80 K with power consumption of 4 kW.

  16. Development of high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, J.; Shinoki, S.; Sato, T.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Yasohama, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2007-10-01

    We have been developing a Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, aiming for a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. In this work, we adopted stainless steel meshes for the regenerator of the cryocooler, and studied the influences of the mesh number on the cooling capacity. The prepared mesh numbers were #150, 200, 250, 350 and 400. Using #250 mesh, and at a frequency of 45 Hz and power consumption of 3.1 kW, the achievable lowest temperature and cooling capacity at 80 K was 46.2 K and 123 W, respectively. Furthermore, in order to optimize the performance, some regenerators were made by stacking several kinds of meshes with different stacking orders. Using these regenerators, we have obtained a high cooling capacity of 169 W at 80 K with power consumption of 4 kW.

  17. Design, development and testing twin pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Abhay Singh; Sagar, Pankaj; Karunanithi, R.

    2017-09-01

    The design and development of Twin Pulse Tube Cryocooler (TPTC) is presented. Both the coolers are driven by a single Linear Moving Magnet Synchronous Motor (LMMSM) with piston heads at both ends of the mover shaft. Magnetostatic analysis for flux line distribution was carried-out during design and development of LMMSM based pressure wave generator. Based on the performance of PWG, design of TPTC was carried out using Sage and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of LMMSM, TPTC and their integration tests are presented in this paper.

  18. High efficiency linear compressor driven pulse tube cryocooler operating in liquid nitrogen temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU JianYing; WANG XiaoTao; DAI Wei; LUO ErCang; HUANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    The inertance tube is one of the key components of a pulse tube cryocooler. It has great influence not only on the efficiency of the pulse tube cryocooler, but also on the efficiency of the linear compressor. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to predict the impedance of an inertance tube because of the turbulent flow. In this paper, using a quasi-turbulent model, the inertance tube is optimized to match a linear compressor driven pulse tube cryocooler. Experimental results show that this model can predict the impedance quite well. With 127 W input electric power, the pulse tube cryocooler obtains 9.4 W cooling power at a temperature of 77 K. The relative Carnot efficiency of the whole system reaches 19.8%.

  19. Transient analysis of single stage GM type double inlet pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, P. B.; Desai, K. P.; Naik, H. B.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Transient analysis of single stage GM type double inlet pulse tube cryocooler is carried out using a one dimensional numerical model based on real gas properties of helium. The model solves continuity, momentum and energy equation for gas and solid to analyse the physical process occurring inside of the pulse tube cryocooler. Finite volume method is applied to discretize the governing equations with realistic initial and boundary conditions. Input data required for solving the model are the design data and operating parameters viz. pressure waveform from the compressor, regenerator matrix data, and system geometry including pulse tube, regenerator size and operating frequency for pulse tube cryocooler. The model investigates the effect of orifice opening, double inlet opening, pressure ratio, system geometry on no load temperature and refrigeration power at various temperatures for different charging pressure. The results are compared with experimental data and reasonable agreement is observed. The model can further be extended for designing two stage pulse tube cryocooler.

  20. A helium liquefier using three 4 k pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Oviedo, Abner

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a helium liquefier which can be used for recondensing/reliquefying helium vapor in a helium cryostat or liquefying helium gas in a storage dewar. The helium liquefier employs three 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers, Cryomech model PT415. Each PT415 has remote motor/rotary valve assembly to minimize vibration, providing ≥ 1.5W at 4.2K. The liquefier can liquefy room temperature helium gas with a liquefaction rate of 62 Liter/day. When installing it in the cryostat, it can recondense and reliquefy helium vapor with a rate of 78 L/day. The liquefier will be installed in a gravitational wave detector in Brazil to recondense/reliquefy the helium boil off from the cryostat.

  1. A critical review of liquid helium temperature high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Gan, Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The importance of liquid helium temperature cooling technology in the aerospace field is discussed, and the results indicate that improving the efficiency of liquid helium cooling technologies, especially the liquid helium high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers, is the principal difficulty to be solved. The state of the art and recent developments of liquid helium high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers are summarized. The main scientific challenges for high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers to efficiently reach liquid helium temperatures are outlined, and the research progress addressing those challenges are reviewed. Additionally some possible solutions to the challenges are pointed out and discussed.

  2. Numerical Study of a 10 K Two Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Precooling Inside the Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomin, Pang; Xiaotao, Wang; Wei, Dai; Jianyin, Hu; Ercang, Luo

    2017-02-01

    High efficiency cryocoolers working below 10 K have many applications such as cryo-pump, superconductor cooling and cryogenic electronics. This paper presents a thermally coupled two-stage pulse tube cryocooler system and its numeric analysis. The simulation results indicate that temperature distribution in the pulse tube has a significant impact on the system performance. So a precooling heat exchanger is put inside the second stage pulse tube for a deep investigation on its influence on the system performance. The influences of operating parameters such as precooling temperature, location of the precooling heat exchanger are discussed. Comparison of energy losses apparently show the advantages of the configuration which leads to an improvement on the efficiency. Finally, the cryocooler is predicted to be able to reach a relative Carnot efficiency of 10.7% at 10 K temperature.

  3. A three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler operating below the critical point of helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. M.; Cao, Q.; Zhi, X. Q.; Gan, Z. H.; Yu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Precooled phase shifters can significantly enhance the phase shift effect and further improve the performance of pulse tube cryocoolers. A separate three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) with a cold inertance tube was designed and fabricated. Helium-4 instead of the rare helium-3 was used as the working fluid. The cryocooler reached a bottom temperature of 4.97 K with a net cooling power of 25 mW at 6.0 K. The operating frequency was 29.9 Hz and the charging pressure was 0.91 MPa. It is the first time a refrigeration temperature below the critical point of helium-4 was obtained in a three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler.

  4. Cold Inertance Tube for 4 K Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ZhuoPei; Gan, ZhiHua; Qiu, LiMin

    The losses in the regenerator are minimized when the amplitude of the mass flow is minimized for a given acoustic power which requires that the mass flow lags the pressure by about 30° at the cold end of regenerator. The phase shift provided by an inertance tube is strongly influenced by the temperature of the inertance tube and the acoustic power at the cold end of the regenerator. For a 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, the acoustic power at the cold end of the regenerator decreases significantly with the temperature thereby it's difficult to achieve ideal phase relationship with ambient inertance tube. While cold inertance tube provide a larger phase shift in that the viscosity of the working fluid decreases and the density increases as the temperature decreases. However, use of cold inertance tube increases additional heat load to the regenerator. Therefore it's of great significance to determine when a cold inertance tube should be used. In this paper effect of temperature of inertance tube is calculated for a 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler with different acoustic powers at the cold end. A comparison of ambient temperature inertance tube and cold inertance tube is made.

  5. Development of a linear compressor for two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-da YAN; Wei-li GAO; Guo-bang CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A valveless linear compressor was built up to drive a self-made two-stage pulse tube cryocooler. With a designed maximum swept volume of 60 cm~3, the compressor can provide the cryocooler with a pressure volume (PV) power of 400 W.Preliminary measurements of the compressor indicated that both an efficiency of 35%~55% and a pressure ratio of 1.3~1.4 could be obtained. The two-stage pulse tube cryocooler driven by this compressor achieved the lowest temperature of 14.2 K.

  6. Study on a pulse tube cryocooler using gas mixture as its working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C. M.; He, Y. L.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a one-stage pulse tube cryocooler, gas mixtures are used for comparison, which have been used in other cryocoolers. A mixture of hydrogen and helium was investigated in this study. When the structure of the pulse tube is the same as mentioned in [C. Wang, P.Y. Wu, Zh.Q. Chen, Numerical modeling of an orifice pulse tube cryocooler, Cryogenics 32 (1992) 785] and the working conditions are: frequency 15 Hz, average pressure 1.1 MPa, hot end temperature 300 K and cold end temperature 80 K, it has been found that there are optimal molar percentage for the maximal cooling power and the maximal-coefficient of performance (COP) of this cryocooler.

  7. Study on a Single-Stage 120 HZ Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. Z.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Chen, J.; Li, Z. P.

    2010-04-01

    Miniaturization of pulse tube cryocoolers is required for some particular applications where size and mass for devices are limited. In order to pack more cooling power in a small volume, higher operating frequencies are commonly used for Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers. To maintain high efficiency of the regenerator with a higher frequency, a higher charging pressure, smaller hydraulic diameters of regenerator material and a shorter regenerator length should be applied. A rapid growth of research and development on pulse tube cryocoolers operating at a high frequency over 100 Hz in the last 3 years has occurred. In this study, a single stage pulse tube cryocooler with 120 Hz to provide 10 W of lift at 80 K has been developed by using the numerical model, known as REGEN 3.2. Experiments performed on this cryocooler driven by a CFIC linear compressor show that a no-load temperature of 49.6 K was achieved and the net refrigeration power at 78.5 K was 8.0 W. The effect of pulse tube orientation was tested, and the copper velvet as a regenerator matrix was proposed for high frequency operation.

  8. A high-efficiency coaxial pulse tube cryocooler with 500 W cooling capacity at 80 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhu, J.; Chen, S.; Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.; Li, H. B.

    2014-07-01

    High-temperature superconductivity power-grid technologies require a highly reliable and efficient cryocooler with cooling power of 100 W to kilowatt level at liquid-nitrogen temperatures to produce cryogenic environments. This paper describes the design of a coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler to meet this need. In the designed cryocooler, the regenerator and pulse tube are lengthened to avoid possible temperature inhomogeneity. In an experiment, the azimuthal temperature difference at the middle of the regenerator was less than 30 K. With 7.6 kW electric power input, the cryocooler offers more than 520 W cooling power at 80 K corresponding to a relative Carnot efficiency of 18.2%. When the cooling power was less than 370 W, the efficiency is higher than 20%.

  9. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    CERN Document Server

    Höhne, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  10. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  11. Investigation on a Single-stage Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Small Particle Detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Essler, J; Koettig, T; Wu, J H

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocooler has been developed for cooling small particle tracking detectors needed for future luminosity upgrades of the LHC. It is designed for remote operation in high radiation areas of the tunnel with restricted space. It features novel phase-adjusting mechanisms integrated into the warm flange. This flange is cooled with ambient air to reach a simple and compact design. The dimensions of the cold-finger are 24 mm diameter and 170 mm length. The measured no-load temperature is 52 K and the pulse tube cryocooler provides a cooling capacity of 5 W at 80 K.

  12. An Optical Cryostat for Use in Microscopy Cooled by Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubiao, Chen; Qiang, Zhou; Xiaoshuang, Zhu; Yuan, Zhou; Junjie, Wang

    The few products of an optical cryostat for use in microscopy in commercialapplications are generally cooled by liquid nitrogen, liquid helium or cryocoolers such as G-M cryocooler or G-M type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC). Sometimes it is not convenient to use G-M cryocooler or G-M type PTC because of its noise and big size; and in some places, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome this limitation, an optical cryostat for use in microscopy cooled by a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has been designed, built and tested. The refrigerator system SPTC is an important component of the optical cryostat; it has the advantages of compactness, high efficiency, and low vibration. For simplification and compactness, single-stage configuration with coaxial arrangement was employed in the developed SPTC. In order to lower the vibration, the separated configuration was adopted; its compressor and pulse tube are connected with a flexible connecting tube. At present, a lowest temperature of 20 K could be achieved. The temperature fluctuation can be controlled at ±10 mK by adjusting the input electric power to the compressor; and some considerations for further improvement will also be described in this paper.

  13. Advances on a cryogen-free Vuilleumier type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Zhao, Yuejing; Zhang, Yibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Dai, Wei; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents experimental results and numerical evaluation of a Vuilleumier (VM) type pulse tube cryocooler. The cryocooler consists of three main subsystems: a thermal compressor, a low temperature pulse tube cryocooler, and a Stirling type precooler. The thermal compressor, similar to that in a Vuilleumier cryocooler, is used to drive the low temperature stage pulse tube cryocooler. The Stirling type precooler is used to establish a temperature difference for the thermal compressor to generate pressure wave. A lowest no-load temperature of 15.1 K is obtained with a pressure ratio of 1.18, a working frequency of 3 Hz and an average pressure of 2.45 MPa. Numerical simulations have been performed to help the understanding of the system performance. With given experimental conditions, the simulation predicts a lowest temperature in reasonable agreement with the experimental result. Analyses show that there is a large discrepancy in the pre-cooling power between experiments and calculation, which requires further investigation.

  14. Development of a Space-Type 4-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Very Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J. R.; Moore, M.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Evtimov, B.; Jensen, J.; Collaço, A.; Nast, T.

    2006-04-01

    The Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC) has built and tested a 4-stage pulse tube cryocooler, which provides simultaneous cooling at 6 K and 18 K. The cryocooler is designed to meet NASA's cryocooler needs for low temperature, with immediate application to the Terrestrial Planet Finder, Constellation-X, and other future space-science missions. The simplicity with LMATC's approach of the single compressor, coldhead, and electronic controller makes it very appealing for applications requiring high reliability. It further allows the system to be readily modified for different program requirements. The LM pulse tube is a simple 4-stage coldhead with no moving parts, driven by a long-life linear flexure-bearing clearance-seal compressor. The cryocooler is designed to provide 20 mW of cooling at 6 K and 150 mW cooling at 18 K while rejecting heat at 290 K. Performance data is presented, showing excellent cryocooler performance, meeting JPL's cooling requirements, and achieving a no-load temperature below 4 K. This work was funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP), Ron G. Ross, Contract Manager.

  15. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four d...

  16. Harmonic frequency mixing using high Tc superconductor Josephson junction mounted on pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency mixing system including microwave coupling and intermediate frequency (IF) measurement arrangements is esigned. In lieu of liquid nitrogen, a pulse tube cryocooler is used to cool the whole system. With YBa2Cu3O7/Yttrium stabilized irconia (YBCO/YSZ) bicrystal Josephson junction as the mixing element, 36th harmonic frequency mixing at the 8 mm waveband is obtained.

  17. Loss Analysis of High Power Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Hiratsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and current fault limiters, cryocoolers should be compact in size, light-weight, and have high efficiency and reliability. In order to meet the demand of HTS devices world-wide, the cryocooler needs to have COP efficiency >0.1. We have developed a high power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) with an in-line expander. The experimental results were reported in June 2012[1]. The cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW. Accordingly, the COP was about 0.055. To further improve the efficiency, the energy losses in the cryocooler were analyzed. The experimental results and the numerical calculation results are reported in this paper.

  18. Air Liquide's pulse tube cryocooler systems for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Rey, J. C.; Ravex, A.; Buquet, J.

    2009-05-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed internally and with the European Space Agency (ESA) funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA) is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc... The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W maximal compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ESA ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  19. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  1. A two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with a cold inertance tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Z. H.; Fan, B. Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, X. J.; Chen, G. B.

    2010-06-01

    A thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) with inertance tubes as phase shifters has been designed, manufactured and tested. In order to obtain a larger phase shift at the low acoustic power of about 2.0 W, a cold inertance tube as well as a cold reservoir for the second stage, precooled by the cold end of the first stage, was introduced into the system. The transmission line model was used to calculate the phase shift produced by the cold inertance tube. Effect of regenerator material, geometry and charging pressure on the performance of the second stage of the two-stage PTC was investigated based on the well known regenerator model REGEN. Experimental results of the two-stage PTC were carried out with an emphasis on the performance of the second stage. A lowest cooling temperature of 23.7 K and 0.50 W at 33.9 K were obtained with an input electric power of 150.0 W and an operating frequency of 40 Hz.

  2. A 63 K phase change unit integrating with pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Kong; Liubiao, Chen; Sixue, Liu; Yuan, Zhou; Junjie, Wang

    2017-02-01

    This article presents the design and computer model results of an integrated cooler system which consists of a single stage pulse tube cryocooler integrated with a small amount of a phase change material. A cryogenic thermal switch was used to thermally connect the phase change unit to the cold end of the cryocooler. During heat load operation, the cryogenic thermal switch is turned off to avoid vibrations. The phase change unit absorbs heat loads by melting a substance in a constant pressure-temperature-volume process. Once the substance has been melted, the cryogenic thermal turned on, the cryocooler can then refreeze the material. Advantages of this type of cooler are no vibrations during sensor operations; the ability to absorb increased heat loads; potentially longer system lifetime; and a lower mass, volume and cost. A numerical model was constructed from derived thermodynamic relationships for the cooling/heating and freezing/melting processes.

  3. 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler for fast cooldown to 50 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Lewis, Michal; Gan, Zhihua; Radebaugh, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler operating at 120 Hz with 3.5 MPa average pressure achieved a no-load temperature of about 49.9 K and a cooldown time to 80 K of 5.5 min. The net refrigeration power at 80 K was 3.35 W with an efficiency of 19.7% of Carnot when referred to input pressure-volume (PV or a

  4. A vibration free closed-cycle 1 K cryostat with a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lichtenwalter, Ben

    2014-01-01

    A 1 K closed-cycle cryostat, pre-cooled by a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler, has been developed. The Cryomech PT410 pulse tube cryocooler liquefies helium in a vacuum insulated sleeve at a pressure of ˜1 atm. Liquid helium flows through a JT valve and into a 1 K pot that is evacuated by a vacuum pump. The discharged gas from the vacuum is routed to the top of the sleeve to be liquefied. This design accomplishes closed-cycle 1 K refrigeration and provides continuous cooling below 2 K. Using two XDS10 vacuum pumps and with the JT valve optimized for maximum cooling capacity, the 1 K cooling station can reach a no-load temperature of 1.51 K and provide a capacity of 225 mW at 1.76 K. The temperature oscillations on the 4 K and 1 K cooling stations are ± 3 mK. The cryostat is designed so that there is no direct mechanical contact between the pulse tube cryocooler heat exchangers and the 1 K cooling station. This design feature enables exceptionally low vibration operation at the 1 K cooling station.

  5. CFD simulation of the gas flow in a pulse tube cryocooler with two pulse tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, in order to instruct the next optimization work, a two-dimension Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate temperature distribution and velocity distribution of oscillating fluid in the DPTC by individual phase-shifting. It is found that the axial temperature distribution of regenerator is generally uniform and the temperatures near the center at the same cross setion of two pulse tubes are obviously higher than their near wall temperatures. The wall temperature difference about 0-7 K exists between the two pulse tubes. The velocity distribution near the center of the regenerator is uniform and there is obvious injection stream coming at the center of the pulse tubes from the hot end. The formation reason of temperature distribution and velocity distribution is explained.

  6. Development of a 4 K Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler for a Mobile Terahertz Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. E.; Gerecht, E.; Radebaugh, R.; Garaway, I.

    2010-04-01

    We discuss in this paper the design and development of a 4 K Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for a mobile terahertz detection system. This system integrates new heterodyne detector technology at terahertz frequencies with advancements of Stirling-type pulse tube technology that brings the advent of cooled detector sensitivities in a mobile, compact, and long duration operation system without degradation of sensitivity. To achieve this goal we reduced overall system size, input power, and temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations in order to maintain the detector sensitivity. The Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler developed for this system is a hybrid design employing a He-4 pulse-tube cryocooler operating at 60 Hz and 2.5 MPa average pressure that precools a He-3 pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30 Hz and 1.0 MPa average pressure to achieve 4 K cooling for the terahertz receiver. The He-4 cryocooler employs stainless steel mesh regenerators for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage, while the He-3 cryocooler employs stainless mesh for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage with a layered rare-earth third stage regenerator. Design details and cooler performance goals are discussed.

  7. Experimental Studies on a Single Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven by Oil-Lubricated Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ren; Jianying, Hu; Ercang, Luo; Xiaotao, Wang

    2010-04-01

    Because lubricating oil for moving parts is not allowed to go into the pulse tube cryocooler, Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are generally driven by oil-free compressors although oil-lubricated compressors are much cheaper and facile. Recently, it was proposed that an acoustic transparent and oil blocking diaphragm could be employed to separate the compressor and the cryocooler. Thus, the cryocooler can be driven by oil-lubricated compressors. In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler is designed to match a crankcase compressor. Although the efficiency of the crankcase compressor is lower compared with the oil-free linear compressor, the crankcase compressor can easily work at lower frequency which results in higher efficiency for the cryocooler. So the relative high performance of the whole system can be maintained. In this system, the cryocooler delivers 28.5 W of cooling at 80 K with 680 W of electrical input power and operates at 15 Hz. The corresponding Carnot efficiency is 11.52%.

  8. Study on a 10 W/90 K in-line pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yi Nong; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Kaixiang

    2012-12-01

    A Stirling-type in-line pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been designed, built and tested at Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics (SITP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. This PTC prototype can obtain a low-noise cooling capacity of more than 10 W at around 90 K cold head temperature and is used for cooling a space-borne infrared photo detector. In order to achieve a highly efficient PTC, a simplified numerical simulation model has been established for design and optimization. The simulation results of the regenerator, pulse tube and inertance tube are analyzed in detail. Besides, some key parameters of the PTC are listed in the paper. The PTC's performances are tested at different operating frequencies from 42 Hz to 55 Hz and its reject temperature dependence is observed in the range of 290 K to 320 K. Furthermore, the map of the PTC's performance characteristics is presented.

  9. A Cryogen Recycler with Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Recondensing Helium and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Lichtenwalter, B.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a cryogen recycler using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler for recondensing helium and nitrogen in a NMR magnet. The liquid helium cooled NMR magnet has a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield. The magnet boils off 0.84 L/day of liquid helium and 6 L/day of liquid nitrogen. The recycler is designed with both a liquid helium return tube and a liquid nitrogen return tube, which are inserted into the fill ports of liquid helium and nitrogen. Therefore the recycler forms closed loops for helium and nitrogen. A two-stage 4 K pulse tube cryocooler, Cryomech model PT407 (0.7W at 4.2 K), is selected for the recycler. The recycler was first tested with a Cryomech's test cryostat and resulted in the capacities of recondensing 8.2 L/day of nitrogen and liquefying 4 L/day of helium from room temperature gas. The recycler has been installed in the NMR magnet at University of Sydney since August, 2014 and continuously maintains a zero boil off for helium and nitrogen.

  10. Study on a 5.0 W/80 K single stage Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua GAN; Guo-jun LIU; Ying-zhe WU; Qiang CAO; Li-min QIU; Guo-bang CHEN; J.M.PFOTENHAUER

    2008-01-01

    A single stage Stifling pulse tube cryocooler was designed based on REGEN 3.2 and fabricated for testing.The experimental results show that the cooler can provide a cooling capacity of 5.0 W at 79.1 K,and produce a no-load temperature of 57.0 K,operating with an average pressure of 2.50 Mpa and a frequency of 60 Hz,performance results that are very close to the calculated values.The cryoeooler can be cooled from room temperature to 80 K in 8.5 min.The fast cooldown time is a result of the small regenerator.

  11. Performance Prediction and Experimental Investigations on Integral Pulse Tube Cryocooler for 15 W at 70 K Using Indigenously Developed Linear Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, B. S.; Narayankhedkar, K. G.

    2006-04-01

    Theoretical model based on cyclic analysis has been extended to design the integral pulse tube cryocooler. Cryocooler is developed to match with the indigenously developed opposed piston linear compressor of 30 cc swept volume. The design is carried for the Stirling type Pulse Tube cryocooler to develop 15 W at 70 K. The Pulse Tube cryocooler has been developed with due attention to the heat exchangers and regenerator. Experimental investigations have been carried out for study of the effect of pulse tube aspect ratio and to confirm the consistency of the model and suitability of the linear compressor. Experimental investigation confirmed consistent performance of the linear compressor as well as the Pulse Tube cryocooler.

  12. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. B.; Liu, S. X.; Gu, K. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper.

  13. Commercialisation of Pulse Tube cryocoolers to produce 330 W and 1000 W at 77 K for liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, A.; Emery, N.; Nation, M.; Allpress, N.; Kimber, A.; Branje, P.; Reynolds, H.; Boyle, C.; Meier, J.; Tanchon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Fabrum Solutions in collaboration with Callaghan Innovation has been developing large pulse tube cryocoolers based on Callaghan Innovation's diaphragm pressure wave generators (DPWG). The pulse tube's lack of moving parts in combination with the DPWG's metal diaphragms produces a cost-effective, long life and robust cryocooler. The DPWG has had 10 years of development, resulting in a series of DPWGs ranging in input powers from 0.5 kW to 30 kW that have been coupled to a variety of in-line and coaxial pulse tubes. Two DPWGs have had in excess of 7000 hours running to date. The PTC330 cryocooler is based on a new 330 cc DPWG and has produced 480 W of cooling at 77 K during testing. The PTC1000 combines three such pulse tubes on a single 1000 cc DPWG to produce 1270 W at 77 K. This paper details the development of the PTC330 and PTC1000 cryocoolers from initial lab prototypes through to commercial products, integrated into liquefiers and ready for use in applications such as: Nitrogen liquefaction, re-liquefaction of boil-off from storage tanks, or cooling of cryostats for High Temperature Superconductor applications.

  14. Wave-shaping of pulse tube cryocooler components for improved performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2014-11-01

    The method of wave-shaping acoustic resonators is applied to an inertance type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator (IPTR) to improve its performance. A detailed time-dependent axisymmetric experimentally validated computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the PTR is used to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and the three heat-exchangers) in the PTR. An improved representation of heat transfer in the porous media is achieved by employing a thermal non-equilibrium model to couple the gas and solid (porous media) energy equations. The wave-shaped regenerator and pulse tube studied have cone geometries and the effects of different cone angles and the orientation (nozzle v/s diffuser mode) on the system performance are investigated. The resultant spatio-temporal pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube components are evaluated. The performance of these wave-shaped PTRs is compared to the performance of a non wave-shaped system with cylindrical components. Better cooling is predicted for the cryocooler using wave-shaped components oriented in the diffuser mode.

  15. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator using a low-vibration design pulse-tube cryocooler: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett, John G; Wang, Chao; Floch, Jean-Michel Le

    2010-01-01

    A Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator has been implemented at 11.2 GHz using a low-vibration design pulse-tube cryocooler. Compared with a state-of-the-art liquid helium cooled CSO in the same laboratory, the square root Allan variance of their combined fractional frequency instability is $\\sigma_y = 1.4 \\times 10^{-15}\\tau^{-1/2}$ for integration times $1 < \\tau < 10$ s, dominated by white frequency noise. The minimum $\\sigma_y = 5.3 \\times 10^{-16}$ for the two oscillators was reached at $\\tau = 20$ s. Assuming equal contributions from both CSOs, the single oscillator phase noise $S_{\\phi} \\approx -96 \\; dB \\; rad^2/Hz$ at 1 Hz offset from the carrier.

  16. Investigation of gravitational effects in pulse tube cryocoolers using 3-D CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, T. I.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Pathak, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (PTC) are often selected for cryogenic cooling applications for their robustness and mechanical simplicity, having no moving parts at the cold end of the cooler. Originally designed for space applications, increased terrestrial use in tactical applications as well as ground testing of space systems has revealed that some PTCs exhibit sensitivity to gravitational orientation, often losing significant cooling performance unless situated with the cold end pointing downward. Previous investigations have indicated that some coolers exhibit sensitivity while others do not; however, a reliable method of predicting the level of sensitivity during the design process has not been developed. We have utilized 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the percent of cooling capacity lost as a result of off-axis operation. The computational model has been validated experimentally on a number of coolers to enhance confidence in the method used.

  17. Atomic fountain clock with very high frequency stability employing a pulse-tube-cryocooled sapphire oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hagimoto, Ken; Hirano, Iku; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Hartnett, John G

    2014-09-01

    The frequency stability of an atomic fountain clock was significantly improved by employing an ultra-stable local oscillator and increasing the number of atoms detected after the Ramsey interrogation, resulting in a measured Allan deviation of 8.3 × 10(-14)τ(-1/2)). A cryogenic sapphire oscillator using an ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler and cryostat, without the need for refilling with liquid helium, was applied as a local oscillator and a frequency reference. High atom number was achieved by the high power of the cooling laser beams and optical pumping to the Zeeman sublevel m(F) = 0 employed for a frequency measurement, although vapor-loaded optical molasses with the simple (001) configuration was used for the atomic fountain clock. The resulting stability is not limited by the Dick effect as it is when a BVA quartz oscillator is used as the local oscillator. The stability reached the quantum projection noise limit to within 11%. Using a combination of a cryocooled sapphire oscillator and techniques to enhance the atom number, the frequency stability of any atomic fountain clock, already established as primary frequency standard, may be improved without opening its vacuum chamber.

  18. Design of High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Onboard Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Thota; Padmanabhan; Gurudath, C. S.; Amrit, A.; Basavaraj, S.; Dinesh, K.

    2017-02-01

    To meet the growing demands of on-board applications such as cooling meteorological payloads and the satellite operational constraints like power, lower mass, reduced size and redundancy; a Pulse Tube Cryocooler (PTC) is designed by arriving at an operating frequency of 100 Hz and Helium gas pressure of 35 bar based on insights obtained from combination of phasor diagram, pulse tube and regenerator geometries with overall system mass of ≤ 2.0 kg. High frequency operation would allow reducing the size and mass of pressure wave modulator for a given input power. High Frequency also helps in reducing the volume of regenerator for a given cooling power, which increases the power density and leads to faster cool down. A component level modelling of the regenerator for optimising length and diameter for maximum Coefficient of Performance (COP) is carried out using REGEN3.3. The overall system level modelling of PTC is carried out using 1-D software SAGE. The cold end mass flow rate of the optimised regenerator is taken as reference for the system modelling. The performance achieved in REGEN3.3 is 2.15 W of net heat lift against the performance of 1.02 W of net heat lift at 80 K in SAGE.

  19. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four different phase shifters, including conventional inertance tube, gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters, as well as a power recovery displacer. Distributed models based on the electro-acoustic analogy are developed to estimate the phase shifting capacity and the acoustic power dissipation of the three phase shifters without power recovery. The results show that both gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters have the distinctive capacity of phase shifting with a significant reduction in the inertial component length. Furthermore, full distributed models of SPTCs connected with different phase shifters are developed. The cooling performance of SPTCs using all four phase shifters are presented and typical phase relations are analyzed. The comparison reveals that the power recovery displacer with a more complicated configuration provides the highest efficiency. The gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters show equivalent efficiency compared with the inertance tube phase shifter. Approximately 10-20% of the acoustic power is dissipated by the phase shifters without power recovery, while 15-20% of the acoustic power can be recovered by the power recovery displacer, leading to a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) above 0.14 at 80 K. A merit analysis is also done by presenting the pros and cons of different phase shifters.

  20. Development of a 4.5 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Ted; Olson, Jeff; Champagne, Patrick; Mix, Jack; Evtimov, Bobby; Roth, Eric; Collaco, Andre

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's (LM) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed a four stage pulse tube cryocooler (stirling-type pulse tube system) to provide cooling at 4.5 K for superconducting digital electronics communications programs. These programs utilize superconducting niobium integrated circuits [1, 2]. A prior ATC 4 stage unit has provided cooling to 3.8 K. [3] The relatively high cooling loads for the present program led us to a new design which improves the 4.5 K power efficiency over prior systems. This design includes a unique pulse tube approach using both He-3 and He-4 working gas in two compression spaces. The compressor utilizes our standard moving magnet linear motor, clearance seal and flexure bearing system. The system is compact, lightweight and reliable and utilizes our aerospace cooler technology to provide unlimited lifetime. The unit is a proof of concept, but the construction is at an engineering model level. Follow on activities for improvements of performance and more compact packaging and future production for ground based communication systems is anticipated. This paper presents the experimental results at various cooling conditions. Primary results are shown for HYPRES cooling requirements and data is also included at lower cooling loads that may be required for future space missions. The system provides a maximum of 42 mW @ 4.5 K and a no load temperature of 3 K. The majority of this work was subcontracted by HYPRES and funded by the Army and Navy. A small part of this effort to obtain data at lower cooling loads (1-10 mW @ 4.5 K) was funded by LM internal funds.

  1. Development of a miniature coaxial pulse tube cryocooler for a space-borne infrared detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H. Z.; Wang, L. B.; Wu, Y. N.; Yang, K. X.; Shen, W. B.

    2010-04-01

    A single-stage miniature coaxial pulse tube cryocooler prototype is developed to provide reliable low-noise cooling for an infrared detector system to be equipped in the future space mission. The challenging work is the exacting requirement on its dimensions due to the given miniature Dewar. The limited dimensions result in the insufficiency of the phaseshifting ability of the system when inertance tubes alone are employed. A larger filling pressure of 3.5 Mpa and higher operating frequency up to 70 Hz are adopted to increase the energy density, which compensates for the decrease in working gas volume due to the miniature structure, and realize a fast cool down process. A 1.5 kg dual opposed linear compressor based on flexure bearing and moving magnet technology is used to realize light weight, high efficiency and low contamination. The design and optimization are based on the theoretical CFD model developed by the analyses of thermodynamic behaviors of gas parcels in the oscillating flow. This paper describes the design approach and trade-offs. The cooler performance and characteristics are presented.

  2. 1 K cryostat with sub-millikelvin stability based on a pulse-tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMann, A.; Mueller, Sara; Field, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic system has been designed and tested that reaches a temperature below 1.1 K, with an rms temperature stability of 25 μ K. In this system a commercial pulse-tube cryocooler is used to liquify helium gas supplied from an external source. This liquid helium enters a 1 K pot through a large-impedance capillary tube, similar to a conventional 1 K system operated from a liquid helium bath. Unlike a conventional system, however, the molar flow rate of the system can be varied by changing the pressure of the incoming helium. This allows for a trade-off between helium usage and cooling power, which has a maximum value of 27 mW. The measured cooling power and fraction of helium exiting the capillary as liquid agree well with predictions based on an isenthalpic model of helium flow through the capillary. The system is simple to use and inexpensive to operate: The system can be cooled to base temperature in about 3 h and, with a flow rate giving a cooling power of 13 mW, the helium cost is around 6 per day.

  3. 386 mW/20 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liubiao; Zhou, Qiang; Jin, Hai; Zhu, Wenxiu; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we reported a single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) that achieved a no-load temperature of 18.6 K and 0.2 W/20.6 K with 268 W input power at the frequency of 38 Hz. By further optimizing the regenerator, using the stainless steel screens only, a new SPTC driven by a dual-opposed linear compressor has been built and tested. At present, a lowest temperature of 15.5 K, which is a new record for single-stage SPTC, and 386 mW/20 K cooling power can be achieved with 246 W input power, which is comparable to the two-stage SPTC with a similar input power. The optimization process of regenerator will be presented in this paper. Experimental results indicate that it is important for SPTC to reduce the flow resistance of regenerator at the warm end and enhance the regenerative capacity of the cold end to improve the cooling performance. Lead spheres were also employed as part of the regenerator to achieve the possible lower temperature, but the test results show that there is no evident improvement in achieving lower temperature.

  4. CFD simulation of a miniature coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 128 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yibo; Dang, Haizheng

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional axis-symmetric CFD model of a miniature coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with an overall weight of 920 g operating at 128 Hz is established, and systematic simulations of the performance characteristics at different temperatures are conducted. Both thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium mechanisms for the porous matrix are considered, and the regenerator losses including the gas and solid conduction, the pressure drop and the imperfect interfacial heat transfer are calculated, respectively. The results indicate that the pressure drop loss is dominant during the first 85% and 78% of regenerator length for the thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium models, respectively, and it decreases monotonously from warm to cold end due to the steadily decreasing Darcy and Forchheimer terms, whereas other entropy generations share similar changing tendencies, going up gradually near the warm end, increasing dramatically from about 60% of length and then decreasing sharply near the cold end. The reasons for these entropy variations are discussed.

  5. Operating characteristics of a three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler operating around 5 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. M.; Cao, Q.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Gan, Z. H.; Yu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    A Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at the liquid-helium temperatures represents an excellent prospect for satisfying the requirements of space applications because of its compactness, high efficiency and reliability. However, the working mechanism of a 4 K SPTC is more complicated than that of the Gifford McMahon (GM) PTC that operates at the relatively low frequency of 1-2 Hz, and has not yet been well understood. In this study, the primary operating parameters, including frequency, charge pressure, input power and precooling temperature, are systematically investigated in a home-developed separate three-stage SPTC. The investigation demonstrates that the frequency and precooling temperature are closely coupled via phase shift. In order to improve the cooling capacity it is important to lower the frequency and the precooling temperature simultaneously. In contrast to the behavior predicted by previous studies, the pressure dependence of the gas properties results in an optimized pressure that decreases significantly as the temperature is lowered. The third stage reaches a lowest temperature of 4.97 K at 29.9 Hz and 0.91 MPa. A cooling power of 25 mW is measured at 6.0 K. The precooling temperature is 23.7 K and the input power is 100 W.

  6. A high-temperature superconducting millimeter wave detecting system based on pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng; Nakajima, Kensuke; Yamashita, Tsutomu

    2004-10-01

    A millimeter (mm) wave broadband video detecting system using high temperature superconducting (HTS) junction and compact pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been studied. The lowest attainable temperature of the PTC is 42K and the operating temperature (T) can be adjusted by changing the pressure difference in the compressor. By measuring the linewidth of the Josephson oscillation as well as the dynamic range of the Josephson detector, it is found that the PTC has no excess noise compared with other kinds of cryostats such as liquid helium cryostats, and is very suitable for the applications in the mm wave detecting system. Furthermore, to improve the sensitivity of the system, the coupling efficiency of the system has been studied in detail. It is found that the coupling efficiency increases with the increase of RN linearly, and is better than 1% for RN of 1.7 Ohm. A sensitivity of about 318V/W has been obtained for the system based on the PTC and a junction with RN=1.7 Ohm and ICRN =1mV.

  7. In-situ formation of solidified hydrogen thin-membrane targets using a pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, S.; Bedacht, S.; Brummitt, P.; Carroll, D.; Clarke, R.; Crisp, S.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Holligan, P.; Hook, S.; Merchan, J. S.; Neely, D.; Ortner, A.; Rathbone, D.; Rice, P.; Schaumann, G.; Scott, G.; Spindloe, C.; Spurdle, S.; Tebartz, A.; Tomlinson, S.; Wagner, F.; Borghesi, M.; Roth, M.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    An account is given of the Central Laser Facility's work to produce a cryogenic hydrogen targetry system using a pulse tube cryocooler. Due to the increasing demand for low Z thin laser targets, CLF (in collaboration with TUD) have been developing a system which allows the production of solid hydrogen membranes by engineering a design which can achieve this remotely; enabling the gas injection, condensation and solidification of hydrogen without compromising the vacuum of the target chamber. A dynamic sealing mechanism was integrated which allows targets to be grown and then remotely exposed to open vacuum for laser interaction. Further research was conducted on the survivability of the cryogenic targets which concluded that a warm gas effect causes temperature spiking when exposing the solidified hydrogen to the outer vacuum. This effect was shown to be mitigated by improving the pumping capacity of the environment and reducing the minimum temperature obtainable on the target mount. This was achieved by developing a two-stage radiation shield encased with superinsulating blanketing; reducing the base temperature from 14 ± 0.5 K to 7.2 ± 0.2 K about the coldhead as well as improving temperature control stability following the installation of a high-performance temperature controller and sensor apparatus. The system was delivered experimentally and in July 2014 the first laser shots were taken upon hydrogen targets in the Vulcan TAP facility.

  8. Design, analyses, fabrication and characterization of Nb3Sn coil in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Kumar, Nitish; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory scale Nb3Sn coil is designed, analysed, fabricated and characterized in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler in solid nitrogen cooling mode and in conduction cooling mode. The magnetic field profile in axial and radial direction, Lorentz force component across the winding volume in operational condition are estimated in COMSOL. The coil is designed for 1.5 T at 100 A. It is fabricated in wind and react method. Before winding, the insulated Nb3Sn strand is wound on a copper mandrel which is thermally anchored with the 2nd stage of the cold head unit via a 10 mm thick copper ‘Z’ shaped plate The temperature distribution in 2nd cold stage, copper z plate and coil is monitored in both solid nitrogen cooling and conduction cooling mode. In solid nitrogen cooling mode, the quench of the coil occurs at 150 A for 0.01 A/s current ramp rate. The magnetic field at the centre of the coil bore is measured using transverse Hall sensor. The measured magnetic field value is compared with the analytical field value and they are found to be deviating ∼5% in magnitude. Again the coil is tested in conduction cooling mode maintaining the same current ramp rate and it is observed that the coil gets quenched at 70 A at temperature ∼ 10K.

  9. Multi-stage pulse tube cryocooler with acoustic impedance constructed to reduce transient cool down time and thermal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor); Wilson, Kyle B. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The cool down time for a multi-stage, pulse tube cryocooler is reduced by configuring at least a portion of the acoustic impedance of a selected stage, higher than the first stage, so that it surrounds the cold head of the selected stage. The surrounding acoustic impedance of the selected stage is mounted in thermally conductive connection to the warm region of the selected stage for cooling the acoustic impedance and is fabricated of a high thermal diffusivity, low thermal radiation emissivity material, preferably aluminum.

  10. Ultra-low vibration pulse-tube cryocooler stabilized cryogenic sapphire oscillator with 10^-16 fractional frequency stability

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett, John G

    2010-01-01

    A low maintenance long-term operational cryogenic sapphire oscillator has been implemented at 11.2 GHz using an ultra-low-vibration cryostat and pulse-tube cryocooler. It is currently the world's most stable microwave oscillator employing a cryocooler. Its performance is explained in terms of temperature and frequency stability. The phase noise and the Allan deviation of frequency fluctuations have been evaluated by comparing it to an ultra-stable liquid-helium cooled cryogenic sapphire oscillator in the same laboratory. Assuming both contribute equally, the Allan deviation evaluated for the cryocooled oscillator is sigma_y = 1 x 10^-15 tau^-1/2 for integration times 1 < tau < 10 s with a minimum sigma_y = 3.9 x 10^-16 at tau = 20 s. The long term frequency drift is less than 5 x 10^-14/day. From the measured power spectral density of phase fluctuations the single side band phase noise can be represented by L_phi(f) = 10^-14.0/f^4+10^-11.6/f^3+10^-10.0/f^2+10^-10.2/f+ 10^-11.0 for Fourier frequencies 10...

  11. Development of a 4K pulse tube cryocooler for space use (2); Uchuyo 4K parusu chubu reitoki no kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T. [Natinal Space development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Naraita, M.; Murakami, H. [The Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Otani, Y.; Kuriyama, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kasamatsu, S.; Okamura, T.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    In this study, it measured refrigeration performance of the precooling style pulse tube refrigerator reported in 'Development of a 4K pulse tube cryocooler for space use (1)'. This paper must consider input electric power which is necessary for the precooling of second stage and first in addition to the isothermal compression work of pulse tube refrigerator, when a fixed refrigerating capacity is obtained at 4.2K, in order to do the optimization of the whole system including refrigerating machine for the precooling. Especially, it was proven that the latter reduction greatly influenced the efficiency of the whole system. (NEDO)

  12. Anisotropic steady-flow hydrodynamic parameters of microporous media applied to pulse tube and Stirling cryocooler regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearman, W. M.; Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, C. S.

    2008-03-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters associated with steady longitudinal and lateral (radial) flow of helium in several widely-used pulse tube and Stirling cryocooler regenerator fillers were measured and correlated in this investigation. Pressure drops in test sections packed with regenerator fillers were experimentally measured. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the regenerator test sections and their vicinities were developed and simulations were performed in which the regenerator test sections were modeled as porous media. By iterative repetition of the simulations, the longitudinal and radial permeability and Forchheimer inertial coefficients were determined such that they would lead to agreement between experimental measurements and the simulations. The regenerator fillers included 325 and 400 mesh stainless steel screens, stainless steel metal foam, sintered 400 mesh stainless steel screens, and a stack of micromachined perforated plates. The hydrodynamic response of the regenerator fillers were also correlated as friction factors. The results confirm that the aforementioned regenerator fillers are anisotropic.

  13. A three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler reached 4.26 K with He-4 working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Dietrich, M.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Thummes, G.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) working at liquid helium temperatures are attractive because of their promising potential in tactical and space applications. However, it is still a challenge for a SPTC to operate below 5 K with He-4 as working fluid instead of the rare He-3. In this study, the operating characteristics of an in-house made three-stage SPTC were experimentally investigated. The mutual influence of precooling temperature, operating frequency, input power, and charge pressure on the cooling performance of the third stage was studied. A no-load temperature of 4.26 K was achieved by the three-stage SPTC, which is the lowest temperature ever obtained by a multi-stage SPTC operating with He-4 as working fluid.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLERS WITH GAS MIXTURE%混合工质在脉管制冷中应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雅玲; 高成名; 陈钟颀; 陶文铨

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of using the gas mixture in the pulse tube cryocooler,the mixture of hydrogen and helium was chosen as the working fluid in cryocooler and an orifice pulse tube cryocooler was analyzed by the numerical simulation.It is found that the performance of the cryocooler has relation with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid.The optimal percentage of the mixtures can be found.With this percentage the performance of the cryocooler has been improved.It is useful for increasing the cooling power and COP.%为了探讨混合工质在脉管制冷机中应用的可行性,选取氦气和氢气混合物作为工质,对一台小孔型脉管制冷机进行了数值模拟分析。结果发现,脉管制冷机的性能与其工质的热物性有很大关系。通过调整混合工质的配比,改变工质的物性,使其在混合工质最佳配比下工作,对于改进制冷机的性能,提高制冷量和制冷系数等都是有益处的。

  15. 一种新结构U型脉冲管制冷机%A New Structural U-Shape Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹传林; 陈厚磊; 蔡京辉

    2012-01-01

    在U型脉冲管制冷机结构基础上,研制了一台带有一个蓄冷器和两个相同脉管的新结构U型脉冲管制冷机,并进行了实验研究和分析。制冷机采用惯性管调相,在压缩机输入电功率80w,运行频率52Hz下,获得了120K@6W的制冷量。重点对两种惯性管调相方法进行研究和分析,得出了对新结构U型脉冲管制冷机调相有益的结论,并对惯性管调相过程中产生的直流现象进行了验证分析。%A new structural U-shape pulse tube cryocooler based on the U-shape pulse tube cryocooler, with one regenerator and the same two pulse tubes, has been designed and manufactured. The pulse cryocooler is able to gain 120 K@6 W cooling power with 80 W electric power at the operating frequency of 52 Hz. The method of the inertance tube phase-shifting is investigated and the useful conclusion is obtained for the pahse-shifting of new structural U-shape pulse tube cryocooler. The DC flow that occures in the inertance tube phase-shifting is also tested and analysed.

  16. Development of high-capacity U-type pulse tube cryocoolers for a cold optics system in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H. Z.; Li, S. S.; Wang, L. B.; Yang, K. X.; Shen, W. B.; Wu, Y. N.

    2010-04-01

    A robust U-type pulse tube cryocooler has been developed to replace the heavy and cumbersome passive radiator system for cooling the cold optics component of a sophisticated infrared sensors system used in a weather satellite. The U-type other than coaxial arrangement is chosen to obtain a robust and simple system, and also to avoid the potential loss introduced by the possible mismatch of the temperature profiles of pulse tube and regenerator as well. Besides the conventional integral "U"-shaped cold tip, a novel detachable two-half cold head is designed to enhance cooling performance. Some fine grooves are engraved in the cold head using electro discharge machining technology, which can not only increase the heat transfer area, but also serve as a straightener for the turbulence introduced by the flow reversal. The cooler is powered by a 7.5 cc dual opposed piston compressor and the overall weight is less than 11 kg. It can lift over 8.0W of heat at 150K with 87 W of electric input power and at 310 K of reject temperature. The design considers, experimental results, and performance analyses are presented.

  17. Low Temperature Regenerators for Zero Boil-Off Liquid Hydrogen Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kashani, Ali; Helvensteijn, Ben; Kittel, Peter; Arnoldm James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on zero boil-off (ZBO) propellant storage as a means of minimizing the launch mass required for long-term exploration missions. A key component of ZBO systems is the cooler. Pulse tube coolers offer the advantage of zero moving mass at the cold head, and recent advances in lightweight, high efficiency cooler technology have paved the way for reliable liquid oxygen (LOx) temperature coolers to be developed which are suitable for flight ZBO systems. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) systems, however, are another matter. For ZBO liquid hydrogen systems, cooling powers of 1-5 watts are required at 20 K. The final development from tier for these coolers is to achieve high efficiency and reliability at lower operating temperatures. Most of the life-limiting issues of flight Stirling and pulse tube coolers are associated with contamination, drive mechanisms, and drive electronics. These problems are well in hand in the present generation coolers. The remaining efficiency and reliability issues reside with the low temperature regenerators. This paper will discuss advances to be made in regenerators for pulse tube LH2 ZBO coolers, present some historical background, and discuss recent progress in regenerator technology development using alloys of erbium.

  18. Influence of regenerator void volume on performance of a precooled 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuopei; Jiang, Yanlong; Gan, Zhihua; Qiu, Limin; Chen, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC), typically operating at 30-60 Hz, have the advantage of compact structure, light weight, and long life compared with Gifford-McMahon type (1-2 Hz) PTC (GMPTC). The behavior of flow and heat transfer in the regenerator of a 4 K SPTC deviates from that at warmer temperatures and low frequencies. In this paper the behavior of 4 K regenerator at high frequencies is investigated based on a single-stage 4 K SPTC precooled by a two-stage GMPTC. The 4 K SPTC and the GMPTC is thermally coupled with two thermal bridges. The 4 K SPTC uses a 10 K cold inertance tube as phase shifter to improve phase relationship between mass flow and pressure. The regenerator void volume is an important factor that significantly influences the heat transfer between regenerator matrix and working fluid helium, pressure drop along the regenerator, and phase shift between mass flow and pressure. In this paper, influence of regenerator void volume on the performance of the 4 K SPTC with different operating parameters including operating frequencies and average pressure is studied theoretically and experimentally. The first and second precooling powers provided by the GMPTC are obtained which are important parameters to evaluate the efficiency of the whole 4 K system with precooling. The results of the regenerator void volume are given and discussed in normalized form for general use.

  19. Numerical studies on the effects of hot end temperature on a single-stage multi-bypass type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. X.; Chen, L. B.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of pulse tube cryocooler is affected by the temperature of hot end, which is mainly influenced by the temperature of environment. Effects on a single-stage multibypass type pulse tube cryocooler are investigated by means of numerical simulation. For different opening of multi-bypass orifices, the refrigeration performances are studied when hot end temperature changed in a certain range, and some numerical results are provided and analysed. Together with the temperature at cold head and multi-bypass position, the mass flow rate through the multi-bypass orifice is affected significantly by the temperature of hot end, and the optimum opening of multi-bypass orifice decreases with hot end temperature increasing from 240 K to 320 K. Therefore, to select an optimal opening of bypass orifice according to the temperature of operating environment is necessary.

  20. Pulse tube cryocooler with self-cancellation of cold stage vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, T; Ikushima, Y; Li, R; Sato, N; Shintomi, T; Tomaru, T; Yamamoto, A

    2006-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a new method for reducing the vibration of the cold stage of a cryocooler. Comparing the RMS amplitude with the case of no phase shift of the driving gas pressure between the two pairs, the longitudinal vibration of the cold stage was reduced by 96.1% at 126 K by supplying gas pressure with 180 degrees of phase shift.

  1. High-frequency operation and miniaturization aspects of pulse-tube cryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas

    2008-01-01

    Cryocoolers are small refrigerators capable of achieving useful refrigeration below 120 K. Recent developments in the field of high Tc superconductors spawned a wide range of applications such as terahertz sensors, SQUIDS, low noise amplifiers, filters for microwave applications and many more. These

  2. Investigation on phase shifting for a 4 K Stirling pulse tube cryocooler with He-3 as working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. M.; Han, L.; Zhi, X. Q.; Dietrich, M.; Gan, Z. H.; Thummes, G.

    2015-07-01

    He-3 is generally recognized for its ability to provide more excellent thermophysical performance than He-4, especially in the 4 K temperature range. However, this was not always the case in our preliminary experiments on a three-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC). Our ongoing studies, as reported in this paper, demonstrate that the different working fluids also affect the performance through their phase shifting capability. This feature has been passed over in large part by researchers considering refrigerant substitution. Unlike previous theoretical analyses that focus primarily on regenerator losses, this report investigates the effects of the working fluid on the phase angle at the cold end in order to quantitatively reveal the relationship between the lowest attainable temperature and the cooling capacity. The analysis agrees well with our experimental results on a three-stage SPTC. While running with the operating parameters optimized for He-3, the lowest temperature of the SPTC decreased from 5.4 K down to 4.03 K. This is the lowest refrigeration temperature ever achieved with a three-stage SPTC.

  3. Impedance magnitude optimization of the regenerator in Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers working at liquid-helium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Q.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Gan, Z. H.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, X. J.; Sun, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The impedance magnitude is important for the design and operation of a Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC). However, the influence of the impedance magnitude on the SPTC working at liquid-helium temperatures is still not clear due to the complexity of refrigeration mechanism at this temperature range. In this study, the influence of the impedance magnitude on the viscous and thermal losses has been investigated, which contributes to the overall refrigeration efficiency. Different from the previous study at liquid nitrogen temperatures, it has been found and verified experimentally that a higher impedance magnitude may result in a larger mass flow rate accompanied with larger losses in the warmer region, hence the refrigeration efficiency is lowered. Numerical simulation is carried out in SPTCs of different geometry dimensions and working parameters, and the experimental study is carried out in a three-stage SPTC. A minimum no-load refrigeration temperature is achieved with an appropriate impedance magnitude that is determined by the combination of frequency and precooling temperature. A lowest temperature of 4.76 K is achieved at 28 Hz and a precooling temperature of 22.6 K, which is the lowest temperature ever achieved with He-4 for SPTCs. Impedance magnitude optimization is clearly an important consideration for the design of a 4 K SPTC.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of a 4 K Single-Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. P.; Chen, J.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) is rather low compared with that of 80 K SPTCs. Real gas effects and low specific heat capacity ratio of regenerator matrix to helium near 4 K are the main reasons that lead to the low efficiency of 4 K SPTC. A single-stage Stirling type PTC precooled by a two-stage G-M type PTC is developed to study the performance of 4 K Stirling type PTC with a focus on the performance of the regenerator working at 4 K-10 K. In order to reduce loss associated with real gas effects, relatively low average pressure was used. Gd2O2S (GOS) was used as regenerator matrix to replace HoCu2 around 4 K to decrease the regenerator loss caused by ineffective heat transfer between regenerator matrix and helium. A systematic comparison between the two types of regenerator matrix was made theoretically and experimentally including effect of frequency, average pressure and precooling temperature. Performance of the linear compressor is also presented in this paper.

  5. A modified two-stage pulse tube cryocooler utilizing double-inlet and multi-mesh regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablu, M.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a thermally coupled Stirling-type two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers (TSPTC) is studied using a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD code. After validating the results of the simulations, effects of synchronous utilization of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on the performance of the TSPTC are investigated. Results of simulations show that non-oscillating friction factors do not possess sufficient accuracy for calculation of oscillating friction losses in non-porous media. Whereas, using oscillating friction factor of non-porous media leads to sufficient accurate results. According to the results, using multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet increases the COP and decreases the minimum attainable temperature of the system. It is observed that a minimum temperature of 18.2 K is attainable using optimum multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet; whereas, for a simple TSPTC with a uniform mesh regenerator, a minimum temperature of 26.4 K is concluded.

  6. High-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler: Observation and reduction of regenerator temperature-inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M.; Yang, L. W.; Thummes, G.

    2007-05-01

    A single stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler driven by a 10 kW-class linear compressor was built and tested. During operation an azimuthal temperature inhomogeneity around the circumference of the regenerator was observed indicating a significant parasitic streaming in the regenerator. The nature of this streaming was examined and a numerical model based on the Sage software was created to understand its origin. It turns out that there is a critical operating condition where a self-preserving streaming starts to circulate in the regenerator. This critical condition is found to depend on the temperature gradient in the regenerator, the amount of mass flow and on the transverse thermal conductivity of the regenerator material. To overcome the negative effect of circulating streaming, the transverse heat conductance in the regenerator was increased by use of sandwich type fillings, where a part of the original stainless screens was replaced by materials with higher thermal conductance. Using these type regenerator fillings, the losses from streaming were significantly reduced and the refrigeration temperature was lowered to 34.5 K. Cooling powers of 50 W at 45 K and 200 W at 70 K are available with electric input powers of 6.3 kW and 8.6 kW, respectively.

  7. Measurement of Anisotropic Hydrodynamic Parameters of Pulse Tube or Stirling Cryocooler Regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Desai, P. V.

    2006-04-01

    Pulse tube refrigeration (PTR) systems are often modeled as one-dimensional flow fields. However, recent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) — based investigations have shown that multi-dimensional flow effects can be significant in the regenerator of a PTR, especially when the aspect ratio of the regenerator is small. Anisotropic hydrodynamic parameters of regenerators are therefore needed for the realistic simulation of their multi-dimensional flow phenomena. In this paper we report on measurements of the lateral or radial permeability and Forchheimer's inertial coefficient of a widely used PTR regenerator filler. Using helium as the working fluid, steady-state pressure drops were measured over a wide range of flow rates in annular test sections that contained regenerator fillers. The aforementioned hydrodynamic parameters were then obtained by comparing the data with the results of CFD calculations that simulated the test sections and their vicinity. CFD simulations of the experiments were performed iteratively, whereby permeability and Forchheimer coefficient that brought about agreement between data and simulation results were calculated.

  8. Cryogenic sapphire oscillator using a low-vibration design pulse-tube cryocooler: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, John; Nand, Nitin; Wang, Chao; Floch, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    A cryogenic sapphire oscillator (CSO) has been implemented at 11.2 GHz using a low-vibration design pulsetube cryocooler. Compared with a state-of-the-art liquid helium cooled CSO in the same laboratory, the square root Allan variance of their combined fractional frequency instability is sigma(y) = 1.4 x 10(-15)tau(-1/2) for integration times 1 < tau < 10 s, dominated by white frequency noise. The minimum sigmay = 5.3 x 10(-16) for the two oscillators was reached at tau = 20 s. Assuming equal contributions from both CSOs, the single oscillator phase noise S(phi) approximately -96 dB x rad(2)/Hz at 1 Hz set from the carrier.

  9. 高效同轴脉冲管制冷机性能的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A HIGH EFFICIENT COAXIAL PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇; 胡剑英; 戴巍; 罗二仓

    2011-01-01

    同轴式脉冲管制冷机具有结构紧凑、与器件耦合简单的优点,在实际应用中得到了越来越广泛的采用.本文对一台经理论优化设计的高频同轴脉冲管制冷机进行了实验研究,采用自制的直线压缩机驱动,惯性管/气库作为调相机构,在输入电功150 W、冷端温度为77 K时得到了9.86 W的制冷量,相对卡诺效率达到18.4%,这是目前同轴脉冲管制冷机报道的最好结果.%A coaxial pulse tube cryocooler has the advantage of compact structure and easy coupling with the loads, which make it widely used in application. In this paper, experimental study has been carried out for a coaxial pulse tube cryocooler which is driven by a self-designed linear compressor and uses an inertance tube with a reservoir as the phase shifter. With 150 W input electric power, the pulse tube cryocooler can obtained a cooling power of 9.86 W at 77 K. The corresponding relative Carnot efficiency is 18.4% which is the best result that have been reported.

  10. Experimental investigation on two pulse tube cryocoolers driven by single linear opposed compressor%单直线压缩机驱动双脉管冷指的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹永刚; 陈曦; 吴亦农; 杨开响; 张安阔; 熊超

    2013-01-01

    为了在不同位置获得不同的制冷性能,设计了一台线性对置压缩机驱动两台同轴型脉管冷指的实验方案并搭建了试验台.通过实验研究两台脉管制冷机耦合的制冷性能.实验结果显示:两台设计相同的脉管冷指性能不同,经过耦合后制冷性能差异更大,可同时达到1.79 W@60 K和1.384 W@60 K制冷量.%In order to achieve refrigeration at different positions, two coaxial pulse tube cryocoolers operated by single linear opposed compressor were designed to investigate. The test bench was conducted. The performances of two matching pulse tube cryocoolers were investigated by the test bench. Experimental results show that the characters of two pulse tube cryocoolers designed identically were different. After coupling, the differences on the performances between the two pulse tube cryocoolers were more obvious. The two pulse tube cryocoolers could achieve cooling capacities of 1.79 W at 60 K and 1.384 W at 60 K simultaneously.

  11. 120Hz单级脉管制冷机理论与实验%Therotical and experimental study on a 120 Hz single stage pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘智华; 吴英哲; 袁园; 邱利民; 张学军; 张小斌; 徐旭

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of the high frequency regenerator and its influence to the performance of the pulse tube cryocooler, this paper optimized the geometry and operating parameters for the high frequency regenerator by using the numerical model, known as REGEN 3. 2. A Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 120 Hz was designed, fabricated and tested. This cryocooler achieves a no-load temperature of 47. 8 K, and can provide a cooling power of 8. 0 W at 78. 6 K. The result proves preliminarily that with higher frequency together with higher charging pressure, smaller hydraulic diameter and shorter regenerator, it is still possible to let the regenerator keep high efficiency. The experiment also indicated that this cryocooler can cool down fast and the pulse tube orientation effect was well suppressed benefiting from this higher frequency characteristic.%为了研究百赫兹以上的高频回热器的特性及其对脉管制冷机性能的影响,采用回热器数值计算程序RE-GEN3.2对高频回热器的尺寸参数和运行参数进行优化设计,并研制出一台运行频率为120 Hz的斯特林型脉管制冷机,其无负荷制冷温度为47.8 K,在78.6K有8.0W制冷量.初步证明配合使用更高的充气压力、采用小水力直径的回热填料以及缩短回热器长度,能够使得回热器在百赫兹以上的高频下仍然保持较高的效率.另外,实验显示该百赫兹高频脉管制冷机能够实现快速降温,脉管方向性问题也得到较好的抑制.

  12. 脉冲管制冷机混合填充式蓄冷器的实验研究%Experiment study of multi-mesh fill regenerator for pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安阔; 陈曦; 吴亦农; 张华; 杨开响

    2013-01-01

    基于脉冲管制冷机蓄冷器结构,提出了#400不锈钢丝网以及其与#300和#500组合而成的混合式蓄冷器填充方式.通过构建一单级分体式脉冲管制冷机测试平台,将#400及混合目数丝网分别填充至制冷机蓄冷器内进行整机实验,实验结果验证了低温制冷机蓄冷器冷热端分别填充高低目数丝网,可提高制冷机性能,是一种有效的蓄冷器优化方法.%Based on a regenerator structure of a pulse tube cryocooler, it was proposed that #400 stainless steel meshes screen and the combination of #300 or #500 with #400 could be filled into the pulse tube cryocooler regenerator respectively. A test platform was built for testing a single-stage pulse tube cryocooler, the #400 or the combinative meshes screen could be tested in its regenerator. Experiments were done and results showed that it was an effective optimization method to fill different meshes at the warm and cold ends of the cryocooler regenerator, which could improve the efficiency of the whole cryocooler.

  13. 低温脉管制冷机的热力学性能和损失计算%Thermodynamic analysis and loss calculation of four valve pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坤; 鲁雪生; 顾安忠

    2013-01-01

    Some theoretical analysis methods for pulse tube cryocooler were firstly introduced in this essay,then thermodynamic calculation used in this essay was described.The thermodynamic result of the thermodynamic calculation on a four valve pulse tube cryocooler with fixed size was shown.We can conclude from the the analysis of the results:valve loss is the main loss of the four valve pulse tube cryocooler,thin-thickness of pulse tube will be the main way to improve the performance of the cryocooler.%首先简要介绍了目前的一些对于脉管制冷机的理论分析方法以及各种损失分析计算,接着针对某尺寸的四阀型脉管制冷机,考虑到不同厚度的脉管对其的影响,结合两种厚度的脉管进行热力计算和损失分析,分析结果表明,四阀型脉管制冷机的主要损失在于阀门处,进一步降低阀门损失将是提高制冷机性能的主要手段.

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the linear compressor for the pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Dang, H. Z.; Tan, J.; Bao, D.; Zhao, Y. B.; Qian, G. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of a linear compressor incorporating the thermodynamic characteristics of the inertance tube pulse tube cold finger have been made. Both the compressor and cold finger are assumed as a one-dimensional thermodynamic model. The governing equations of the thermodynamic characteristics of the working gas are summarized, and the effects of the cooling performance on the working gas in the compression space are discussed. Based on the analysis of the working gas, the governing equations of the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the compressor are deduced, and then the principles of achieving the optimal performance of the compressor are discussed in detail. Systematic experimental investigations are conducted on a developed moving-coil linear compressor which drives a pulse tube cold finger, which indicate the general agreement with the simulated results, and thus verify the rationality of the theoretical model and analyses.

  15. Investigation of synchronous effects of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on performance of a Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablu, M.; Jafarian, A.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper synchronous effects of multi-mesh regenerator and double-inlet on performance of a Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) have been considered. In this respect, a finite volume code was developed to simulate the SPTC. Set of governing equations were written in a general form such that all porous and non-porous sections of the system could be modeled. Results showed that synchronous application of double inlet and multi-mesh regenerator optimizes the phase shift between velocity and pressure at the warm end of the pulse tube, increases the regenerator's outlet pressure amplitude, decreases inertial and viscous losses in the hot end of the regenerator and consequently increases the COP of the system. Furthermore, it was observed that a minimum temperature of 60.3 K and COP of 0.03996 @ 80 K is attainable using optimum multi-mesh regenerator and double inlet; whereas, for a simple SPTC with a uniform mesh regenerator, a minimum temperature of 71.3 K and maximum COP of 0.0227 @ 80 K are concluded.

  16. Experimental study on a co-axial pulse tube cryocooler driven by a small thermoacoustic stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ju, L. Y.; Hao, H. X.

    2014-01-01

    Small scale thermoacoustic heat engines have advantages in fields like space exploration and domestic applications considering small space occupation and ease of transport. In the present paper, the influence of resonator diameter on the general performance of a small thermoacoustic Stirling engine was experimentally investigated using helium as the working gas. Reducing the diameter of the resonator appropriately is beneficial for lower onset heating temperature, lower frequency and higher pressure amplitude. Based on the pressure distribution in the small thermoacoustic engine, an outlet for the acoustic work transmission was made to combine the engine and a miniature co-axial pulse tube cooler. The cooling performance of the whole refrigeration system without any moving part was tested. Experimental results showed that further efforts are required to optimize the engine performance and its match with the co-axial pulse tube cooler in order to obtain better cooling performance, compared with its original operating condition, driven by a traditional electrical linear compressor.

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the optimal match between compressor and cold finger of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The match between the pulse tube cold finger (PTCF) and the linear compressor of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler plays a vital role in optimizing the compressor efficiency and in improving the PTCF cooling performance as well. In this paper, the interaction of them has been analyzed in a detailed way to reveal the match mechanism, and systematic investigations on the two-way matching have been conducted. The design method of the PTCF to achieve the optimal matching for the given compressor and the counterpart design method of the compressor to achieve the optimal matching for the given PTCF are put forward. Specific experiments are then carried out to verify the conducted theoretical analyses and modeling. For a given linear compressor, a new in-line PTCF which seeks to achieve the optimal match is simulated, designed and tested. And for a given coaxial PTCF, a new dual-opposed moving-coil linear compressor is also developed to match with it. The simulated and experimental results are compared, and fairly good agreements are found between them in both cases. The matched in-line cooler with the newly-designed PTCF has capacities of 4-11.84 W at 80 K with higher than 17% of Carnot efficiency and the mean motor efficiency of 81.5%, and the matched coaxial cooler with the new-designed compressor can provide 2-5.5 W at 60 K with higher than 9.6% of Carnot efficiency and the mean motor efficiency of 83%, which verify the validity of the theoretical investigations on the optimal match and the proposed design methods.

  18. Operating characteristics of a single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with high cooling power at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-ce SUN; Marc DIETRICH; Li-min QIU; Guenter THUMMES

    2015-01-01

    The operating characteristics are important for design and optimization of pulse tube cryocoolers, in particular for those with high cooling power, which up to now have been seldom extensively investigated. In this study, the dependence of cooling performance on the charge pressure and operating frequency has been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model based on Sage software was established. Experiments were performed on a home-made single-stage high power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) working at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The results revealed that each charge pressure corresponds to an optimum frequency with respect to compressor and regenerator efficiency. A lower charge pressure results in a higher cryocooler efficiency, but the delivered maximum pV power is significantly reduced due to the stroke limit of the pistons in the linear compressor. The influence of operating characteristics on the temperature non-uniformity in the regener-ator was also investigated. By optimizing the charge pressure and frequency, the minimum no-load temperature was decreased to 46.9 K at 56.5 Hz and 2.0 MPa. A cooling power of 300 W at 71.8 K was measured with an electrical input power of 8.9 kW.%题目:液氮温区单级大功率斯特林型脉管制冷机工作特性研究  目的:探索充气压和运行频率等工作特性对大功率脉管制冷机最低制冷温度、制冷量以及回热器温度不均匀性的影响,期望进一步提升制冷机工作性能。  方法:1.通过理论计算模拟工作频率在40–70 Hz,充气压力在1.5–2.5 MPa下工作特性对制冷机性能的影响;2.实验研究充气压力为1.7–2.4 MPa,并在谐振频率附近工作时制冷机性能以及回热器温度不均匀性随充气压力、运行频率以及输入功率的变化。  结论:1.制冷机运行在1.9–2.1 MPa充气压力下,因平衡了制冷温度和焓流损失,故能取得优异性能,且

  19. Simulation of a single stage orifice G-M type pulse tube cryocooler based on Sage%单级 G-M 型小孔脉管制冷机 Sage 建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东立; 甘智华

    2015-01-01

    G-M型脉管制冷机作为一项成熟的低温制冷技术,尚缺少公开的整机模拟分析方法。Sage软件包含压缩机、高低压切换阀和脉管制冷机冷头相关部件等模型。使用Sage软件建立了单级G-M型小孔脉管制冷机整机模型。将现有单级G-M型小孔脉管制冷机的实验设计参数作为输入参数,将Sage模型的计算结果与该制冷机实验结果进行对比,初步验证了模型的准确性,并重点计算分析高低压切换阀的孔径、时序对制冷机性能的影响。%The simulation of a whole G-M type pulse tube ( GMPT) cryocooler system is not reported before, although this kind of cryocooler is a mature technology .The Sage software has the models of com-pressors , switching valves and the parts to make up the cold head of the pulse tube cryocoolers .The whole system of a single stage orifice GMPT cryocooler was simulated based on Sage .The design paremeters of an existed cryocooler are substituted into the Sage model and then the calculation results are compared to the existed experimental results .The preliminary validation can be achieved by the comparation .The effects of diameters and the time ratio of the switching valves were analized based on the calculation results .

  20. Analysis of hot end temperature impact on inline pulse tube cryocooler%热端温度对直线型脉冲管制冷机的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安阔; 陈曦; 吴亦农; 张华; 杨开响

    2013-01-01

    基于一台单级直线型脉冲管制冷机,研究分析了热端温度变化对制冷机性能的影响关系.建立了一维数值模型,分析了高频脉冲管制冷机内部相关热力学参数随热端温度变化的关系,从而揭示了热端温度变化影响整机性能的作用机理.最后通过实验数据和模拟值的比较研究,验证了模型的准确性.%Hot end temperature impact of a single-stage inline pulse tube cryocooler was studied.Onedimensional numerical model was set up to analyze the thermodynamic parameters of the pulse tube cryocooler,which can explain the reason for deterioration of cryocooler performance when increasing the hot end temperature.Experimental results show a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical simulation values.

  1. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  2. Development of a 4K pulse tube cryocooler for space use (1); Uchuyo 4K parusu chubu reitoki no kaihatsu (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T. [Natinal Space development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Naraita, M.; Murakami, H. [The Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Otani, Y.; Kuriyama, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kasamatsu, S.; Okamura, T.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Slide and moving part are not in the low-temperature division, and pulse tube refrigerator, which develops the small refrigerating machine with the aim of for space, is excellent concerning the reliability. In the cooling of the 80K level, it carries out the development of pulse tube refrigerator with the efficiency in which the Stirling refrigerating machine level is high. In the 4K level, the development of two-step pulse tube refrigerator with performance of the GM refrigerating machine level of the 1W class also advances. We precool it by the refrigerating machine, which is different to the 20K level, and it develops precooling style 4K pulse tube refrigerator that carries out the cooling under it by pulse tube refrigerator. We carried out parameter radiation survey for making a goal refrigerating capacity to be 25mW, and for measuring the heat flow of compression work and precooling division of the compressor, and for searching the optimum operating condition. (NEDO)

  3. Advantages of high-frequency Pulse-tube technology and its applications in infrared sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, R.; Willems, D.; Mullié, J.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The low-frequency pulse-tube cryocooler has been a workhorse for large heat lift applications. However, the highfrequency pulse tube has to date not seen the widespread use in tactical infrared applications that Stirling cryocoolers have had, despite significant advantages in terms of exported vibrations and lifetime. Thales Cryogenics has produced large series of high-frequency pulse-tube cryocoolers for non-infrared applications since 2005. However, the use of Thales pulse-tube cryocoolers for infrared sensing has to date largely been limited to high-end space applications. In this paper, the performances of existing available off-the-shelf pulse-tube cryocoolers are examined versus typical tactical infrared requirements. A comparison is made on efficiency, power density, reliability, and cost. An outlook is given on future developments that could bring the pulse-tube into the mainstream for tactical infrared applications.

  4. CFD modeling and experimental verification of a single-stage coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without either double-inlet or multi-bypass operating at 30-35 K using mixed stainless steel mesh regenerator matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Zhao, Yibo

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the CFD modeling and experimental verifications of a single-stage inertance tube coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30-35 K using mixed stainless steel mesh regenerator matrices without either double-inlet or multi-bypass. A two-dimensional axis-symmetric CFD model with the thermal non-equilibrium mode is developed to simulate the internal process, and the underlying mechanism of significantly reducing the regenerator losses with mixed matrices is discussed in detail based on the given six cases. The modeling also indicates that the combination of the given different mesh segments can be optimized to achieve the highest cooling efficiency or the largest exergy ratio, and then the verification experiments are conducted in which the satisfactory agreements between simulated and tested results are observed. The experiments achieve a no-load temperature of 27.2 K and the cooling power of 0.78 W at 35 K, or 0.29 W at 30 K, with an input electric power of 220 W and a reject temperature of 300 K.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  6. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  7. 8th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed a substantial maturing of long life Stirling-cycle cryocoolers built upon the heritage of the flexure-bearing cryocoolers from Oxford University, and have seen the emergence of mature pulse tube cryocoolers competing head-to-head with the Stirling cryocoolers. Hydrogen sorption cryocoolers, Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers with rare earth regenerators, and helium Joule-Thomson cryocoolers have also made tremendous progress in opening up applications in the 4 K to 10 K temperature range. Tactical Stirling cryocoolers, now commonplace in the defense industry, are finding application in a number of cost­ constrained commercial applications and space missions, and are achieving ever longer lives as they move to linear-drive, clearance-seal compressors. Building on this expanding availability of commercially viable cryocoolers, numerous new applications are being enabled; many of these involve infrared imaging systems, and high­ temperature superconductors in the medical and ...

  8. Performance Investigation on a Three-Stage Stirling Pulse Tube Cryocooler Operating Below 5K%可达5K以下的三级斯特林型脉管制冷机性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    植晓琴; 邱利民; 甘智华; 曹强; 刘旸

    2012-01-01

    针对当前低温超导电子、军事及空间探测等对液氦温区紧凑、长寿命、高可靠性制冷技术的需求,设计并研制了一台三级斯特林型脉管制冷机。讨论了制冷机第三级的回热器、脉管、调相机构等相关参数的设计,着重分析了液氦温区回热器长度与温度分布的特殊关系。实验中以He-4为工质,第三级在充压0.91 MPa,频率29.9 Hz,输入电功率100 W的工况下获得了4.97 K的最低无负荷温度,有制冷量25 mW@6 K。该结果首次证明了采用He-4为工质、以三级结构的斯特林脉管制冷机实现液氦温区制冷的可行性。%A separate three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler(SPTC) was designed and studied for satisfying the urgent demands of compact,long-life and reliable cryocoolers in the space and military fields.The design of the regenerator,pulse tube and phase shifter of the third stage is discussed in detail.The relationship between the length and the temperature distribution of the regenerator working below liquid helium temperature is emphatically analyzed.Finally,a bottom temperature of 4.97 K was achieved by the SPTC with helium-4 as its working gas,the cooling power was 25 mW at 6.0 K.The third stage was working at 0.91 MPa,29.9 Hz and an input power of 100 W.It is the first time that a temperature below the critical point of helium-4 is achieved by a three-stage SPTC.

  9. Acoustic cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  10. a Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocryocooler Operating around 300HZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G. Y.; Zhu, S. L.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2008-03-01

    High frequency operation of the thermoacoustic cryocooler system, i.e. pulse tube cryocooler driven by thermoacoustic engine, leads to reduced size, which is quite attractive to small-scale cryogenic applications. In this work, a no-load coldhead temperature of 77.8 K is achieved on a 292 Hz pulse tube cryocooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine with 3.92 MPa helium gas and 1750 W heat input. To improve thermal efficiency, a high frequency thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine is also built to drive the same pulse tube cryocooler, and a no-load temperature of 109 K was obtained with 4.38 MPa helium gas, 292 Hz working frequency and 400W heating power. Ideas such as tapered resonators, acoustic amplifier tubes and simple thin tubes without reservoir are used to effectively suppress harmonic modes, amplify the acoustic pressure wave available to the pulse tube cryocooler and provide desired acoustic impedance for the pulse tube cryocooler, respectively. Comparison of systems with different thermoacoustic engines is made. Numerical simulations based on the linear thermoacoustic theory have also been done for comparison with experimental results, which shows reasonable agreement.

  11. Experimental and Simulation Investigation on High Power 4 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler%大功率4K脉管制冷机模拟和实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文庆; 邱利民; 王超; 甘智华

    2011-01-01

    Improvement of cooling power of pulse tube cryocooler(PTC) working at 4.2 K is an important issue for superconductor magnet cooling and helium liquefaction.The National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) numerical model known as REGEN which was successfully used in the calculation of single-stage PTC and 4 K G-M cryocooler was applied to the simulation of the second stage regenerator.The calculation results showed that the higher the second stage mass flux,the higher the cooling power.The experiment with different mass flux of the second stage was implemented.Cooling power of 0.7 W at 4.2 K and 20 W at 40 K were achieved simultaneously with a single compressor.Two compressors together with two rotary valves were used to drive the two stages and the cryocooler can provide 1.1 W at 4.2 K and 20 W at 47.5 K respectively,which is the largest cooling power ever obtained in a separate 4 K PTC.The total actual input power was 11.7 kW.%提高液氦温区脉管制冷机的制冷量对于冷却超导磁体和氦液化具有重要意义。本文将已成功应用于单级脉管制冷机和4 K G-M制冷机模拟的回热器模拟软件REGEN用于液氦温区脉管制冷机二级回热器的模拟。计算结果显示,脉管制冷机在4.2 K的制冷量一定程度上随着二级质量流量的增加而增大。在此基础上,我们在实验中采用不同质量流量的压缩机对第二级进行驱动以对计算结果进行验证。实验结果与计算结果基本吻合。在用单台6.8 kW压缩机同时对第一级和第二级驱动时,制冷机在第一级和第二级分别有20 W@40 K和0 7 W@4.2 K的制冷量。改用双压缩机和双旋转阀分别驱动第一级和第二级(第一级:CP4000,第二级:CP6000),在制冷机第一级和第二级分别获得20 W@47.5 K和1 1 W@4.2 K的制冷量,总输入电功率为11.7 kW。这是目前分离型二级脉管制冷机获得的最大制冷量。

  12. Theorical analysis and experiments investigation on gravity effect in large capacity high frequency pulse tube cryocooler%大冷量高频脉冲管制冷机重力影响的理论分析及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小锋; 杨鲁伟; 梁惊涛

    2012-01-01

    通过对重力场中脉冲管管内部的流体力学方程进行化简和无量纲化,提出了影响脉冲管制冷机重力特性的无量纲数(ρgl/Pa),并对大冷量高频脉冲管的重力特性进行试验研究.试验结果表明:提高输入功率、减小惯性管的尺寸、减小充气压力、减小脉冲管的尺寸以及提高脉冲管制冷机的运行温区能够改变无量纲数(ρgl/Pa)的各个参数从而减小无量纲数(ρgl/Pa)的大小,进而减弱重力方向性的影响.%A dimensionless number of (pgl/pa) was obtained by simplifying and dimensionlessing the fluid equations inside the pulse tube in gravity field. An experimental investigation also was carried out on gravity effect in large capacity high frequency pulse tube cryocooler( PTC). The results show that increasing the input power and temperature of pulse tube, decreasing charge pressure, and decreasing the dimensions of inertant tube and pulse tube,all can decrease the dimensionless number of (pgl/pa) ,and also wakens the gravity effect in PTC.

  13. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  14. Performance of a precooled 4 K Stirling type high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with Gd2O2S%采用Gd2O2S回热填料的带预冷4 K斯特林型高频脉管制冷机性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo-pei LI; Yan-long JIANG; Zhi-hua GAN; Li-min QIU; Jie CHEN

    2014-01-01

    重要结论:采用孔隙率较小的新型磁性回热填料Gd2O2S可显著改善第一级回热器内压力波与质量流的相位关系,从而减小该级回热损失。减小平均压力可以降低制冷机无负荷制冷温度并减小第二级预冷量,但制冷工质氦的体积比热容会急剧增大,从而使低温级回热器的换热对频率非常敏感。此外,频率对高温级回热器的回热特性影响不明显。该方法可以为三级斯特林型4K多级脉管制冷机提供设计依据。%The efficiency of 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) is rather low due to significant regenerator losses associated with the unique properties of helium around 4 K and the high operating frequencies. In this paper, regenerator per-formance at liquid helium temperature regions under high frequencies is investigated based on a single-stage SPTC precooled by a two-stage Gifford-McMahon type pulse tube cryocooler (GMPTC). The 4 K SPTC used a 10 K cold inertance tube as phase shifters for better phase relationship between pressure and mass flow. The effect of the operating parameters, including frequency and average pressure on the performance of the 4 K SPTC, was investigated and the first and second precooling powers provided by the GMPTC were obtained. To reduce the regenerator heat transfer losses, a multi-layer regenerator matrix, including Gd2O2S (GOS) and HoCu2, was used instead of a single-layer HoCu2 around 4 K. A theoretical and experimental comparison between the two types of regenerator materials was made and the precooling requirements for a regenerator operating at high frequencies to reach liquid helium temperatures were given, which provided guidance for the design of a three-stage SPTC.

  15. Large co-axial pulse tube preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, N.; Caughley, A.; Meier, J.; Nation, M.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that Callaghan Innovation, formally known as Industrial Research Ltd (IRL), has designed and built its largest of three high frequency single-stage co-axial pulse tubes, closely coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator (PWG). The previous pulse tube achieved 110 W of cooling power @ 77 K, with an electrical input power of 3.1 kW from a 90 cc swept volume PWG. The pulse tubes have all been tuned to operate at 50 Hz, with a mean helium working pressure of 2.5 MPa. Sage pulse tube simulation software was used to model the latest pulse tube and predicted 280 W of cooling power @ 77 K. The nominal 250 W cryocooler was designed to be an intermediate step to up-scale pulse tube technology for our 1000 cc swept-volume PWG, to provide liquefaction of gases and cooling for HTS applications. Details of the modeling, design, development and preliminary experimental results are discussed.

  16. Fast cooldown coaxial pulse tube microcooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, T.; Olson, J. R.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Kaldas, G.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.; McCay, B. S.; Kenton, A. C.; Dobbins, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report the development and initial testing of the Lockheed Martin first-article, single-stage, compact, coaxial, Fast Cooldown Pulse Tube Microcryocooler (FC-PTM). The new cryocooler supports cooling requirements for emerging large, high operating temperature (105-150K) infrared focal plane array sensors with nominal cooling loads of ~300 mW @105K @293K ambient. This is a sequel development that builds on our inline and coaxial pulse tube microcryocoolers reported at CEC 20137, ICC188,9, and CEC201510. The new FC-PTM and the prior units all share our long life space technology attributes, which typically have 10 year life requirements1. The new prototype microcryocooler builds on the previous development by incorporating cold head design improvements in two key areas: 1) reduced cool-down time and 2) novel repackaging that greatly reduces envelope. The new coldhead and Dewar were significantly redesigned from the earlier versions in order to achieve a cooldown time of 2-3 minutes-- a projected requirement for tactical applications. A design approach was devised to reduce the cold head length from 115mm to 55mm, while at the same time reducing cooldown time. We present new FC-PTM performance test measurements with comparisons to our previous pulse-tube microcryocooler measurements and design predictions. The FC-PTM exhibits attractive small size, volume, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) features with sufficient cooling capacity over required ambient conditions that apply to an increasing variety of space and tactical applications.

  17. Pulse tube refrigerator; Parusukan reitoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Yoshikazu [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Shiraishi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    In the cryogenic field, high temperature superconductivity and research and development of the peripheral technology are popular. Refrigerating machine development of the very low temperature is also one of the results. Research and development are mainly advanced as a refrigerating machine of the center for the aerospace plane installation. There is special and small very low temperature refrigerating machine called 'the pulse tube refrigerating machine' of which the practical application is also recently being attempted for the semiconductor cooling using high temperature superconductivity. At present, the basic research of elucidation of refrigeration phenomenon of pulse tube refrigerating machine and development of high-performance pulse tube refrigerating machine is carried out by experiment in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry Mechanical Engineering Lab., Agency of Industrial Sci. and Technology and numerical simulation in Chiyoda Corp. In this report, the pulse tube refrigerating machine is introduced, and the application in the chemical engineering field is considered. (NEDO)

  18. Cryocooler With Cold Compressor for Deep Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The unique built-in design features of the proposed mini pulse tube cryocooler avoid all thermal expansion issues enabling it to operate within a cold, 150 K...

  19. Cryocooler With Cold Compressor for Deep Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a high-frequency single-stage pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) that operates at a heat rejection temperature of 150 K. It employs a flexure-bearing...

  20. a Study of a High Frequency Miniature Reservoir-Less Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaway, I.; Grossman, G.

    2008-03-01

    A miniature high frequency reservoir-less pulse tube cryocooler has been designed and tested in our laboratory. The cryocooler having a regenerator length of 12.0 mm and an overall volume of 2.3cc (excluding the compressor) reached a low temperature of 146K and provided 100mW of cooling at 160K. This experimental study shows that it is possible to miniaturize a pulse tube cryocooler to very short regenerator lengths by implementing a few basic principles: Most importantly, high operating frequencies at small tidal displacements, a regenerator matrix with small hydraulic diameters, and increased helium fill pressures. This study also shows that as the operating frequency of a miniature cryocooler increases, the reservoir becomes less necessary as a phase shifting device. At higher frequencies and appropriate inertance tube geometries, the impedance and capacitance of the inertance tube itself takes over the phase shifting task. An outline of the design and modeling principles is presented along with some details of the experimental apparatus and testing procedures.

  1. 330 W Cryocooler Developments and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, N.; Caughley, A.; Nation, M.; Kimber, A.; Allpress, N.; Reynolds, H.; Boyle, C.; Meier, J.; Tanchon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Fabrum Solutions in association with Callaghan Innovation and Absolut System has developed a 330 W pulse tube cryocooler based on Callaghan Innovation's novel diaphragm pressure wave generators (DPWG). A cost-effective, long life and robust cryocooler has been achieved due to the pulse tube's lack of moving parts and the DPWG's metal diaphragms separating the working gas from the oil lubricated drive mechanism. A 330 cc DPWG was designed and manufactured to run with an inline pulse tube. Absolut System carried out the pulse tube design; manufacture was by Fabrum Solutions, with integration and testing by Callaghan Innovation. The 330 W pulse tubes were run as cryocoolers mounted to 330 cc DPWG's. 480 W of cooling power at 77 K was achieved (target was 330 W at 77 K) from 7kW PV power and 12 kW of electrical input power. An endurance cryocooler was assembled with the left over parts from the optimization exercise. The endurance cryocooler was assembled to run as a liquefier. Calculation showed that 1 litre per hour of liquid nitrogen production was possible from 91 W of cooling power at 83 K. 1 litre per hour of liquid nitrogen was successfully produced for every 100 W of cooling power at 83 K, in a commercial application. Three more 330 W pulse tubes have been mounted to a single 1000 cc DPWG to produce > 1 kW of cooling power at 77 K. The commercialisation of the 1000 W cryocooler is the topic of another paper presented at this conference. Details of the design, development, testing and integration of the 330 W cryocooler are presented in this paper.

  2. Development of the LPT9510 1 W Concentric Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullié, J. C.; Bruins, P. C.; Benschop, T.; Charles, I.; Coynel, A.; Duband, L.

    2006-04-01

    In order to provide cryogenic cooling for applications that are extremely sensitive to mechanical vibration, Thales Cryogenics has been delivering U-shape pulse tube cryocoolers since 2001. The disadvantage of the U-shape design is that the available regenerator volume is too limited if the application puts constrains on the overall diameter of the cold finger, thus limiting the coolers efficiency. As presented at CEC/ICMC 2003, Thales Cryogenics and CEA/SBT have achieved very good results with a large concentric pulse tube delivering 4W @ 77K driven by a flexure bearing compressor. Furthermore, the same team, together with Air Liquide DTA, developed a very efficient 1W pulse tube cooler for the ESA MPTC project. Based on the experiences obtained with those programs, Thales Cryogenics and CEA/SBT have now developed a small concentric pulse tube that is driven by a flexure bearing compressor. The result is a very compact and reliable cooler, with an efficiency that is nearly doubled compared to the U-shape version with the same overall external diameter dimensions. This paper describes the trade-offs that have been considered in the design phase, and gives a detailed overview of the test results, the status of the qualification program and a comparison with a comparable Stirling cold finger.

  3. Experimental results on V-M type pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Matsubara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Hisayasu

    2002-06-01

    This article mainly introduces experimental results on a new type pulse tube refrigerator named as V-M type pulse tube refrigerator. The main difference from Stirling type or G-M type pulse tube refrigerator is that thermal compressor similar to that of a V-M cryocooler is used instead of mechanical compressor. By using temperature difference between room temperature and liquid nitrogen, pressure wave with high to low pressure ratio around 1.2 is obtained. This pressure wave is used to generate cooling effect at the cold end. With a 20 K pre-cooler, this machine reaches lowest temperature 5.25 K by using helium 4 at 0.77 Hz, 19 bar charge pressure. DC flow plays an important role in our system. It not only influences the final obtainable lowest temperature, but also is used to increase cold end cool-down speed. Total volume of the V-M type pulse tube refrigerator is around 3.3 l. However, dead volume inside rotor housing occupies about 2.8 l and can be much reduced.

  4. Investigation on the Influence of Cold-Head Structure on the Performance of High Frequency Thermoacoustically Driven Pulse Tube Cryocooler%冷头结构对高频热驱动脉中管制冷机性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国瑶; 王晓涛; 戴巍; 罗二仓

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了最低制冷温度达60.5 K的高频300 Hz热驱动单级脉冲管制冷机.为进一步提高耦合系统热效率,在数值计算的指导下,系统研究了高频脉冲管制冷机冷头结构对耦合系统性能的影响特性.采用4.0 MPa氦气为工质,在发动机端加入600 W加热量获得了60.5 K的无负荷最低制冷温度,这是目前国际上报道的高频热驱动单级脉冲管制冷机的最低制冷温度.加入500 W加热量时,制冷机获得了63 K的无负荷最低制冷温度,在80K时有1.16 W的制冷量,耦合系统热效率获得进一步显著提升.%This paper introduces a 300 Hz thermoacoustically driven pulse tube cryocooler whose lowest temperature reached 60.5 K. In order to further improve the thermal efficiency, with the guidance of numerical simulation, the influence of cold-head structure on the system performance was studied in detail. With 4 Mpa helium as working gas and 600 W heating power, a lowest cold-head temperature of 60.5 K was achieved, which is the lowest temperature ever reported in the world. Moreover, with 500 W heating power, a cold-head temperature of 63 K and 1.16 W cooling power at 80 K were obtained, indicating great improvement of thermal efficiency.

  5. Study on a cascade pulse tube cooler with energy recovery: new method for approaching Carnot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. Y.; Wu, M.; Zhu, J. K.; Jin, Z. Y.; Sun, X.; Gan, Z. H.

    2015-12-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) can not achieve Carnot efficiency because the expansion work must be dissipated at the warm end of the pulse tube. How to recover this amount of dissipated work is a key for improving the PTC efficiency. A cascade PTC consists of PTCs those are staged by transmission tubes in between, these can be a two-stage or even more stages, each stage is driven by the recovered work from the last stage by a well-designed long transmission tube. It is shown that the more stages it has, the closer the efficiency will approach the Carnot efficiency. A two-stage cascade pulse tube cooler consisted of a primary and a secondary stage working at 233 K is designed, fabricated and tested in our lab. Experimental results show that the efficiency is improved by 33% compared with the single stage PTC.

  6. Performance Improvement of Pulse Tube Refrigerator for Space Application with Helium-hydrogen mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. B.; Yu, J. P.; Gan, Z. H.

    Weight or size of the cryocoolers used is a key factor in space applications This can be acquired by the selection of high efficiency cryocoolers or through the optimization of structural parameters. Given the type of regenerator, another way to improve the cooling performance is the adoption of gas mixture instead of pure helium as the working fluids. Gas mixtures have been proved very useful to J-T cryocoolers at 80K temperature range. In this paper, we do some theoretical and experimental study to probe into the possibility of using gas mixture to improve the coefficient of performance of regenerative cryocoolers such as pulse tube refrigerators. The performance comparison of regenerator using helium-hydrogen mixtures to pure helium gas is presented based on the analysis of the heat transfer and fluid flow. The pressure drop for helium-hydrogen mixture decreased more rapidly than the increase of thermal loss compared with pure helium, so the improvement of overall regenerator performance can be obtained. Experiments have been done with helium-hydrogen mixture in a coaxial valveless pulse tube refrigerator. Experimental results show that the cooling capacity with He-H2 mixture is 10~20 percent larger than that with pure helium, which is in coincidence with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Inertance Tube Modeling and the Effects of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095102...acoustic power. KEYWORDS: Inertance tube, cryocoolers, pulse tube refrigerators, oscillating flow, computational fluid dynamics INTRODUCTION Pulse

  8. Advances in thermoacoustic engine and its application to pulse tube refrigeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guobang; TANG Ke; JIN Tao

    2004-01-01

    Thermoacoustically driven pulse tube refrigerator, a novel cryocooler without any moving components using heat energy as driving power, attracts much efforts from the researchers in the field of cryogenics and refrigeration in the past decades. After a short introduction of the history about thermoacoustics, we presented the key technology, followed by a detailed review on theoretical and experimental developments and advances of thermoacoustics.The prospective research emphases are also presented at the end of this review.

  9. Cryocoolers: the state of the art and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2009-04-22

    Cryocooler performance and reliability are continually improving. Consequently, they are more and more frequently implemented by physicists in their laboratory experiments or for commercial and space applications. The five kinds of cryocoolers most commonly used to provide cryogenic temperatures for various applications are the Joule-Thomson, Brayton, Stirling, Gifford-McMahon, and pulse tube cryocoolers. Many advances in all types have occurred in the past 20 years that have allowed all of them to be used for a wide variety of applications. The present state of the art and on-going developments of these cryocoolers are reviewed in this paper. In the past five years new research on these cryocoolers has offered the potential to significantly improve them and make them suitable for even more applications. The general trend of this new cryocooler research is also presented.

  10. 4 Kelvin Cooling with Innovative Final Stage of Multistage Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed for development is a proof-of-concept prototype for the final stage of a multistage cryocooler. This final stage comprises a high frequency pulse tube cold...

  11. Novel diaphragm based Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Tucker, Alan; Gschwendtner, Michael; Sellier, Mathieu

    2012-06-01

    Industrial Research Ltd has developed a unique diaphragm-based pressure wave generator technology for employment in pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. The system uses a pair of metal diaphragms to separate the clean cryocooler gas circuit from a conventionally lubricated mechanical driver, thus producing a clean pressure wave with a long-life drive. We have now extended the same diaphragm concept to support and seal the displacer in a free piston Stirling expander. The diaphragms allow displacer movement without rubbing or clearance gap seals, hence allowing for the development of costeffective long-life and efficient Stirling cryocoolers. Initial modeling, operating in conjunction with a 200 cc swept volume pressure wave generator, predicted in excess of 300 W cooling at 77 K with a Carnot efficiency of over 25%. A proof-of-concept prototype has achieved cryogenic temperatures. Details of the concept, modeling, and testing will be presented.

  12. Useful Scaling Parameters for the Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.; Cheng, Pearl L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A set of eight non-dimensional scaling parameters for use in evaluating the performance of Pulse Tube Refrigerators is presented. The parameters result after scaling the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for an axisymmetric, two-dimensional system. The physical interpretation of the parameters are described, and their usefulness is outlined for the enthalpy flow tube (open tube of the pulse tube). The scaling parameters allow the experimentalist to characterize three types of transport: enthalpy flow, mass streaming and heat transfer between the gas and the tube. Also reported are the results from a flow visualization experiment in which steady mass streaming in compressible oscillating flow is observed.

  13. Optimizing the Thermoacoustic Pulse Tube Refrigerator Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Blagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research and optimization of the thermoacoustic pulse tube refrigerator to reach a cryogenic temperature level. The refrigerator is considered as a thermoacoustic converter based on the modified Stirling cycle with helium working fluid. A sound pressure generator runs as a compressor. Plant model comprises an inner heat exchanger, a regenerative heat exchanger, a pulse tube, hot and cold heat exchangers at its ends, an inertial tube with the throttle, and a reservoir. A model to calculate the pulse tube thermoacoustic refrigerator using the DeltaEC software package has been developed to be a basis for calculation techniques of the pulse tube refrigerator. Momentum, continuity, and energy equations for helium refrigerant are solved according to calculation algorithm taking into account the porosity of regenerator and heat exchangers. Optimization of the main geometric parameters resulted in decreasing temperature of cold heat exchanger by 41,7 K. After optimization this value became equal to 115,01 K. The following parameters have been optimized: diameters of the feeding and pulse tube and heat exchangers, regenerator, lengths of the regenerator and pulse and inertial tubes, as well as initial pressure. Besides, global minimum of temperatures has been searched at a point of local minima corresponding to the optimal values of abovementioned parameters. A global-local minima difference is 0,1%. Optimized geometric and working parameters of the thermoacoustic pulse tube refrigerator are presented.

  14. Performance characteristics of pulse tube refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. J.; Tzeng, T. M.

    In the present study experiments were carried out to investigate the performance characteristics of pulse tube refrigerators. It was found that the cool-down time tc during the transient or start-up period is dominated by the time constant of the pulse tube wall τpt and that the dynamics of a basic pulse tube (BPT) refrigerator approaches that of a first-order system. For steady state operation, the cold-end temperature TL was found to vary with τpt, and the cooling load QL increases monotonically with increasing τpt. This indicates that heat pumped by the gas from the cold to the hot end increases with decreasing hpt (i.e. less energy exchange between the gas and wall). The process of heat storage or release of the pulse tube wall is thus shown to have a negative effect on the performance of a BPT refrigerator. It was thus found experimentally that the gas compression/expansion process inside the pulse tube, which is similar to a Brayton cycle but lies between isothermal and adiabatic, can explain the performance of BPT refrigerators. The present experiment also shows that the performance of a pulse tube refrigerator at transient and steady states is mainly dominated by the time constant of the pulse tube wall τpt.

  15. Tandem GM Type-Pulse Tube Refrigerator with Novel Rotary Valve and Bypass Valve Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Jeong, S.; Kwon, Y.; Sohn, M.

    2006-04-01

    A single-stage tandem pulse tube refrigerator has been fabricated, which is driven by two pulsating pressures of opposite phase. The refrigerator is designed as the first stage machine of a 4 K pulse tube refrigerator using a recuperator as the second stage regenerator. In this tandem configuration, two pressure pulsations are generated by a single GM-cryocooler compressor. Two identical pulse tube refrigerators are operated with a novel rotary valve that can supply high and low pressures simultaneously. The pressure measurement at the regenerator inlets of the pulse tube refrigerators confirmed the proper pressure wave of two pulsating pressures in opposite phase. Detrimental DC-flow characteristic of double-inlet GM-type pulse tube refrigerator has been suppressed by the newly designed bypass valve mechanism. This new bypass valve set has one more extra degree of freedom than usual ones to eliminate DC-flow easily. This paper describes a novel feature of the bypass valve set and its performance in the experiment. The two twin pulse tube refrigerators in a tandem mode respectively reached 35 K at no load.

  16. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J. [Cryenco Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism.

  17. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J. [Cryenco Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism.

  18. A review of pulse tube refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    This paper reviews the development of the three types of pulse tube refrigerators: basic, resonant, and orifice types. The principles of operation are given. It is shown that the pulse tube refrigerator is a variation of the Stirling-cycle refrigerator, where the moving displacer is substituted by a heat transfer mechanism or by an orifice to bring about the proper phase shifts between pressure and mass flow rate. A harmonic analysis with phasors is described which gives reasonable results for the refrigeration power, yet is simple enough to make clear the processes which give rise to the refrigeration. The efficiency and refrigeration power are compared with those of other refrigeration cycles. A brief review is given of the research being done at various laboratories on both one- and two-stage pulse tubes. A preliminary assessment of the role of pulse tube refrigerators is discussed.

  19. Phase-locked oscillator at 3 mm waveband using high Tc superconductor mixer mounted on pulse tube crycooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A frequency mixing and phase locking system is designed, in which electromagnetic shielding, microwave coupling, and intermediate frequency (IF) measurement arrangements are included. In lieu of liquid nitrogen, a pulse tube cryocooler is used to cool the whole system. With Josephson grain boundary junction as the mixing element, the 96th harmonic frequency mixing at 3 mm waveband is obtained, and phase-locked voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) is realized.

  20. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems cryocooler overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, J.; Tward, E.

    2010-09-01

    Mechanical long life cryocoolers are an enabling technology used to cool a wide variety of detectors in space applications. These coolers provide cooling over a range of temperatures from 2 K to 200 K, cooling powers from tens of mW to tens of watts. Typical applications are missile warning, Earth and climate sciences, astronomy and cryogenic propellant management. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has delivered many of the US flight cooler systems and has 12 long life pulse tube and Stirling coolers on orbit with two having over 11 years of continuous operation. This paper will provide an overview of the NGAS cryocooler capabilities.

  1. 92 K thermoacoustically driven pulse tube refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ke; CHEN Guobang; JIN Tao; KONG Bo; BAO Rui; QIU Limin; GAN Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    @@ A thermoacoustic prime mover, instead of a mechanical compressor, was firstly proposed in 1990 by Radebaugh and Swift et al. to drive a pulse tube refrigerator [1]. The so-called thermoacoustically driven pulse tube refrigerator (TADPTR) has a number of advantages. First,it is characterized by its long-term stable operation for it has no moving components. Besides, solar energy and waste fuel gas can be adopted as its driving source. Utilization of low-grade energy not only improves its overall thermal efficiency, but also is most attractively applicable to the case which is short of electricity but abundant in heat energy. The potential applications, such as thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier, are under development[2].It burns part of natural gas to drive a pulse tube refrigerator whose cooling capacity is then used to liquefy the rest natural gas.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamic Investigation of Loss Mechanisms in a Pulse-Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K.; Esguerra, J.; Dodson, C.; Razani, A.

    2015-12-01

    In predicting Pulse-Tube Cryocooler (PTC) performance, One-Dimensional (1-D) PTR design and analysis tools such as Gedeon Associates SAGE® typically include models for performance degradation due to thermodynamically irreversible processes. SAGE®, in particular, accounts for convective loss, turbulent conductive loss and numerical diffusion “loss” via correlation functions based on analysis and empirical testing. In this study, we compare CFD and SAGE® estimates of PTR refrigeration performance for four distinct pulse-tube lengths. Performance predictions from PTR CFD models are compared to SAGE® predictions for all four cases. Then, to further demonstrate the benefits of higher-fidelity and multidimensional CFD simulation, the PTR loss mechanisms are characterized in terms of their spatial and temporal locations.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the match between pulse tube cold fingers and linear compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    The match between the cold finger and the linear compressor of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler plays a vital role in optimizing the compressor efficiency and in improving the cold finger cooling performance. To reveal the match mechanism between the linear compressor and pulse tube cold finger (PTCF), detailed analyses have been made to understand the interactions between them. Based on the theoretical investigations, both of the design method of the PTCF to match the given linear compressor and a reverse method of the linear compressor to match the given PTCF have been proposed. In order to verify the validity of these theories and methods, actual PTCF and linear compressor are developed to match the existing linear compressor and PTCF, respectively. The experimental results show good agreements with the simulated ones.

  4. 150K - 200K miniature pulse tube cooler for micro satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassaing, Clément; Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald [Air Liquide Advanced Technologies (AL-AT) - 38360 Sassenage (France); Daniel, Christophe [Centre National D' Etudes Spatiales (CNES) - 31401 Toulouse (France); Crespin, Maurice; Duvivier, Eric [STEEL électronique - 31220 Martres Tolosane (France)

    2014-01-29

    Air Liquide is working with the CNES and Steel électronique in 2013 to design, manufacture and test a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) to cool infrared detectors for micro-satellite missions. The cooler will be particularly adapted to the needs of the CNES MICROCARB mission to study atmospheric Carbon Dioxide which presents absorption lines in the thermal near infrared, at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. The required cooler temperature is from 150 to 200K with cooling power between 1 and 3 watts. The overall electrical power budget including electronics is less than 20W with a 288-300K rejection temperature. Particular attention is therefore paid to optimizing overall system efficiency. The active micro vibration reduction system and thermal control systems already developed for the Air Liquide Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) are currently being implemented into a new high efficiency electronic architecture. The presented work concerns the new cold finger and electronic design. The cooler uses the compressor already developed for the 80K Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler. This Pulse Tube Cooler addresses the requirements of space missions where extended continuous operating life time (>5 years), low mass and low micro vibration levels are critical.

  5. Development of Recuperator for 4 K Pulse Tube Refrigerators Operating at Opposite Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeheon; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2004-06-01

    A 4 K pulse tube refrigerator can be constructed with a recuperator as the second stage regenerator and two pulse tubes operating at opposite phases in the second stage. The recuperator would be the critical component in this configuration, as is the second stage regenerator in typical 4 K cryocoolers. The required condition of this recuperative pulse tube refrigerator for efficient performance is that the recuperator should excel or at least equal the typical second stage regenerator. The recuperator has to have lower pressure drop, lager heat transfer area and smaller void volume. Practically the major difficulty encountered in adapting the recuperator to pulse tube refrigerator is the fact that small void volume is not easily achieved in the recuperator. In order to fulfill such requirement, the recuperator has to be constructed with very narrow channels. The way of constructing narrow channels which is recommended in this paper is forming the metal sheet-porous spacer-metal sheet layers. If the recuperator is constructed in the recommend way in the flat rectangular form, the configuration of placing ports at the four corners with the flow across is revealed to have the optimal performance.

  6. Raytheon RSP2 Cryocooler Low Temperature Testing and Design Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, R. C.; Kirkconnell, C. S.; Shrago, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    The High Capacity Raytheon Stirling/Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage cryocooler (HC-RSP2) was originally developed to provide simultaneous cooling at temperatures of 85 K and 35 K. During testing performed in 2008 it was demonstrated that this stock-configuration cryocooler is capable of providing significant amounts of heat lift at 2nd stage temperatures as low as 12 K, and modeling indicated that minor changes to the 2nd stage inertance tube/surge volume setup could yield improved performance. These changes were implemented and the cooler was successfully retested, producing >350 mW of heat lift at 12 K. A comprehensive redesign of the system has been performed, the result of which is a robust 2-stage cryocooler system that is intended to efficiently produce relatively large amounts of cooling at 2nd stage temperatures system redesign. Expected performance, mass and packaging volume are addressed.

  7. Useful scaling parameters for the pulse tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.M.; Kittel, P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Timmerhaus, K.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A set of dimensionless scaling parameters for use in correlating performance data for Pulse Tube Refrigerators is presented. The dimensionless groups result after scaling the mass and energy conservation equations, and the equation of motion for an axisymmetric, two-dimensional ideal gas system. Allowed are viscous effects and conduction heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall. The scaling procedure results in reducing the original 23 dimensional variables to a set of 11 dimensionless scaling groups. Dimensional analysis is used to verify that the 11 dimensionless groups obtained is the minimum number needed to describe the system. The authors also examine 6 limiting cases which progressively reduce the number of dimensionless groups from 11 to 3. The physical interpretation of the parameters are described, and their usefulness is outlined for understanding how heat transfer and mass streaming affect ideal enthalpy flow.

  8. Investigation of active-buffer pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Kakimi, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Yoichi

    An active-buffer pulse tube refrigerator, which is a GM type pulse tube refrigerator, is described in this paper. Two or more buffers are connected at the hot end of the pulse tube through on/off valves. The main purpose of this method is to increase the efficiency. A numerical method is introduced to analyse the working process. To understand the basic mechanism, an ideal cycle is also introduced. With a prototype single stage active-buffer pulse tube refrigerator, a cooling capacity of 166 W and a percent Carnot of 13% at 80 K have been obtained.

  9. Integrated testing of the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cooler and the iris LCCE electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Carroll, Brian A.; Bustamante, John G.; Kirkconnell, Carl S.; Luong, Thomas T.; Murphy, J. B.; Haley, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has identified the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cryocooler as a candidate low cost cryocooler to provide active cooling on future cost-capped scientific missions. The commercially available cooler can provide refrigeration in excess of 2 W at 100K for 60W of power. JPL purchased the LPT9510 cooler for thermal and dynamic performance characterization, and has initiated the flight qualification of the existing cooler design to satisfy near-term JPL needs for this cooler. The LPT9510 has been thermally tested over the heat reject temperature range of 0C to +40C during characterization testing. The cooler was placed on a force dynamometer to measure the selfgenerated vibration of the cooler. Iris Technology has provided JPL with a brass board version of the Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE) to drive the Thales cooler during characterization testing. The LCCE provides precision closed-loop temperature control and embodies extensive protection circuitry for handling and operational robustness; other features such as exported vibration mitigation and low frequency input current filtering are envisioned as options that future flight versions may or may not include based upon the mission requirements. JPL has also chosen to partner with Iris Technology for the development of electronics suitable for future flight applications. Iris Technology is building a set of radiation-hard, flight-design electronics to deliver to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Test results of the thermal, dynamic and EMC testing of the integrated Thales LPT9510 cooler and Iris LCCE electronics is presented here.

  10. Integrated testing of the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cooler and the iris LCCE electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Carroll, Brian A. [The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bustamante, John G. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Kirkconnell, Carl S.; Luong, Thomas T.; Murphy, J. B.; Haley, Michael F. [Iris Technology, Irvine, CA 92616 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has identified the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cryocooler as a candidate low cost cryocooler to provide active cooling on future cost-capped scientific missions. The commercially available cooler can provide refrigeration in excess of 2 W at 100K for 60W of power. JPL purchased the LPT9510 cooler for thermal and dynamic performance characterization, and has initiated the flight qualification of the existing cooler design to satisfy near-term JPL needs for this cooler. The LPT9510 has been thermally tested over the heat reject temperature range of 0C to +40C during characterization testing. The cooler was placed on a force dynamometer to measure the selfgenerated vibration of the cooler. Iris Technology has provided JPL with a brass board version of the Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE) to drive the Thales cooler during characterization testing. The LCCE provides precision closed-loop temperature control and embodies extensive protection circuitry for handling and operational robustness; other features such as exported vibration mitigation and low frequency input current filtering are envisioned as options that future flight versions may or may not include based upon the mission requirements. JPL has also chosen to partner with Iris Technology for the development of electronics suitable for future flight applications. Iris Technology is building a set of radiation-hard, flight-design electronics to deliver to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Test results of the thermal, dynamic and EMC testing of the integrated Thales LPT9510 cooler and Iris LCCE electronics is presented here.

  11. Comparison of two models of a Double Inlet Miniature Pulse Tube Refrigerator - Part B Electrical Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Y; Bailly, Yannick; Nika, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The design of a Double Inlet Pulse Tube Refrigerator is investigated by means of an analogy with an electric circuit. The results obtained with the electric scheme are compared with both those of the thermodynamic model (Part A) and experiments. The basic formulation of equivalent electronic components is discussed and a few improvements are proposed to adjust the theoretical expressions of the electrical impedances of capillaries and regenerator in order to consider additional effects such pressure drops due to geometrical singularities at different internal flow regimes. A simplified formulation for the regenerator inefficiency is deduced from considerations on its harmonic functioning. The main purpose of this analysis considers especially the design of miniature cryocoolers dedicated to electronic applications. These models are applied to a commercial miniature refrigerator. A discussion of their relevance is achieved and a few suggestions on the refrigerator design are proposed to improve the cooling pro...

  12. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube cooler for refrigeration at 25 K

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage Stirling-type U-shape pulse tube cryocooler driven by a 10 kW-class linear compressor was designed, built and tested. A special feature of the cold head is the absence of a heat exchanger at the cold end of the first stage, since the intended application requires no cooling power at an intermediate temperature. Simulations where done using Sage-software to find optimum operating conditions and cold head geometry. Flow-impedance matching was required to connect the compressor designed for 60 Hz operation to the 40 Hz cold head. A cooling power of 12.9 W at 25 K with an electrical input power of 4.6 kW has been achieved up to now. The lowest temperature reached is 13.7 K.

  13. The pulsed-gas tube, statement and perspectives; Le tube a gaz pulse, bilan et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domblides, J.P.; Neveau, P.; Castaing-Lasvignottes, J. [Laboratoire du froid du CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The pulsed-gas tube has several advantages with respect to the other types of cryo-refrigerating machineries classically used to reach very low temperatures: no mobile parts moving at very low temperatures and no vibrations. However, this system discovered in 1963 is handicapped by its lack of power and by its low energy efficiency. Todays researches about pulsed-gas tubes concern: the technical adaptation of existing systems to applications where its simplicity makes it competitive, the improvement of its energetic performances (refrigerating power and range of temperatures of use), and the development of numerical models in order to better understand the functioning of the system and to optimize it. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  14. CFD simulation and experimental validation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjare, Y. P.; Sahoo, R. K.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    Pulse tube refrigerator has the advantages of long life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as GM and stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) vertically aligned, operating under a variety of thermal boundary conditions. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, Fluent 6.1 is used to model the oscillating flow inside a pulse tube refrigerator. The simulation represents fully coupled systems operating in steady-periodic mode. The externally imposed boundary conditions are sinusoidal pressure inlet by user defined function at one end of the tube and constant temperature or heat flux boundaries at the external walls of the cold-end heat exchangers. The experimental method to evaluate the optimum parameters of DIPTR is difficult. On the other hand, developing a computer code for CFD analysis is equally complex. The objectives of the present investigations are to ascertain the suitability of CFD based commercial package, Fluent for study of energy and fluid flow in DIPTR and to validate the CFD simulation results with available experimental data. The general results, such as the cool down behaviours of the system, phase relation between mass flow rate and pressure at cold end, the temperature profile along the wall of the cooler and refrigeration load are presented for different boundary conditions of the system. The results confirm that CFD based Fluent simulations are capable of elucidating complex periodic processes in DIPTR. The results also show that there is an excellent agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental results.

  15. Pulse tube cooler having 1/4 wavelength resonator tube instead of reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved pulse tube cooler having a resonator tube connected in place of a compliance volume or reservoir. The resonator tube has a length substantially equal to an integer multiple of 1/4 wavelength of an acoustic wave in the working gas within the resonator tube at its operating frequency, temperature and pressure. Preferably, the resonator tube is formed integrally with the inertance tube as a single, integral tube with a length approximately 1/2 of that wavelength. Also preferably, the integral tube is spaced outwardly from and coiled around the connection of the regenerator to the pulse tube at a cold region of the cooler and the turns of the coil are thermally bonded together to improve heat conduction through the coil.

  16. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, 2000 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  17. Innovative phase shifter for pulse tube operating below 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jean-Marc; Charles, Ivan; Daniel, Christophe; André, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    Stirling type pulse tubes are classically based on the use of an inertance phase shifter to optimize their cooling power. The limitations of the phase shifting capabilities of these inertances have been pointed out in various studies. These limitations are particularly critical for low temperature operation, typically below about 50 K. An innovative phase shifter using an inertance tube filled with liquid, or fluid with high density or low viscosity, and separated by a sealed metallic diaphragm has been conceived and tested. This device has been characterized and validated on a dedicated test bench. Operation on a 50-80 K pulse tube cooler and on a low temperature (below 8 K) pulse tube cooler have been demonstrated and have validated the device in operation. These developments open the door for efficient and compact low temperature Stirling type pulse tube coolers. The possibility of long life operation has been experimentally verified and a design for space applications is proposed.

  18. Dynamic Experimental Study of a Multi—bypass Pulse Tube Refrigerator with Two—bypass Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YonglinJu; ChaoWang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic experimental apparatus to measure the instantaneous velocity and pressure in the multibypass pulse tube refrigerator(MPTR) was designed and constructed.Some important experimental results of the instantaneous measurements of the velocity and the pressure in the MPTR with twobypass tubes during actual operation are prsented.The effects of the middle-bypass version on the dynamic pressure and mass flow rate at the cold end of the pulse tube are ev aluated from experimental measurements.DC-flow phenomena are observed in this MPTR.The reasons of the multi-bypass version improved the performance of pulse tube refrigertor are given.

  19. Basic Operation of Cryocoolers and Related Thermal Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the basics of cryocoolers and related thermodynamic systems. The treatment is based on the first and second law of thermodynamics for inhomogeneous, open systems using enthalpy flow, entropy flow, and entropy production. Various types of machines, which use an oscillating gas flow, are discussed such as: Stirling refrigerators, GM coolers, pulse-tube refrigerators, and thermoacoustic coolers and engines. Furthermore the paper deals with Joule-Thomson and dilution refrigerators which use a constant flow of the working medium.

  20. A 300 Hz high frequency thermoacoustically driven pulse tube cooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ShangLong; YU GuoYao; ZHANG XiaoDong; DAI Wei; LUO ErCang; ZHOU Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the latest progress of a 300 Hz thermoacoustically driven pulse tube cooler. Based on the experience of former experiments, improvements have been made in the standing-wave engine, pulse tube cooler and their coupling mechanism. An inlet pressure ratio of 1.248 was obtained with the mean pressure and heating power of 4.13 MPa and 1760 W, respectively. A lowest no-load temperature of 69.5 K has been reached under this condition. This is the first time for thermoacousti-cally driven pulse tube coolers to reach the temperature below 76 K with such a high frequency.

  1. Approximate Design Method for Single Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Gan, Z. H.; Radebaugh, R.

    2008-03-01

    An approximate design method is presented for the design of a single stage Stirling type pulse tube refrigerator. The design method begins from a defined cooling power, operating temperature, average and dynamic pressure, and frequency. Using a combination of phasor analysis, approximate correlations derived from extensive use of REGEN3.2, a few `rules of thumb,' and available models for inertance tubes, a process is presented to define appropriate geometries for the regenerator, pulse tube and inertance tube components. In addition, specifications for the acoustic power and phase between the pressure and flow required from the compressor are defined. The process enables an appreciation of the primary physical parameters operating within the pulse tube refrigerator, but relies on approximate values for the combined loss mechanisms. The defined geometries can provide both a useful starting point, and a sanity check, for more sophisticated design methodologies.

  2. Optimal performance of regenerative cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, P. C. T.

    2011-02-01

    The key component of a regenerative cryocooler is its regenerative heat exchanger. This device is subject to losses due to imperfect heat transfer between the regenerator material and the gas, as well as due to viscous dissipation. The relative magnitudes of these losses can be characterized by the ratio of the Stanton number St to the Fanning friction factor f. Using available data for the ratio St/ f, results are developed for the optimal cooling rate and Carnot efficiency. The variations of pressure and temperature are taken to be sinusoidal in time, and to have small amplitudes. The results are applied to the case of the Stirling cryocooler, with flow being generated by pistons at both sides of the regenerator. The performance is found to be close to optimal at large ratio of the warm space volume to the regenerator void volume. The results are also applied to the Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigerator. In this case, optimal performance additionally requires a large ratio of the regenerator void volume to the cold space volume.

  3. High-frequency Pulse-tube Refrigerator for 4 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaeva, I. A.; Klaasse Bos, C. G.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2006-04-01

    At present pulse-tube refrigerators (PTRs), used for the important temperature region of 4 K, are of the Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type. The main sources of losses in GM-type PTRs are the compressor and the rotary valve. The efficiency of the combination of the compressor and the rotary valve is only about 30%. In addition to that GM-type compressors are heavy and need periodic maintenance. The main goal of this research is to develop a Stirling-type 4-K pulse-tube refrigerator. This implies higher operating frequencies, compared to the usual 1-2 Hz. At higher frequencies a number of properties of a pulse-tube system, such as length-to-diameter ratios of the pulse tubes and the regenerator, volume and configuration of a regenerator material, phase-shift control method, etc., change significantly, and, therefore, require detailed study. The interactions between various parameters of the pulse tube and of the linear compressor are very complicated. Therefore, as a first part of this research, we study the pulse tube at high frequencies, independent of the compressor. We generate high-frequency pressure oscillations, using a GM-type compressor and a special type of rotary valve, which enables us to operate at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Results of this work are described in this contribution.

  4. Why high-frequency pulse tubes can be tipped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Gregory W092710 [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The typical low-frequency pulse-tube refrigerator loses significant cooling power when it is tipped with the pulse tube's cold end above its hot end, because natural convection in the pulse tube loads the cold heat exchanger. Yet most high-frequency pulse-tube refrigerators work well in any orientation with respect to gravity. In such a refrigerator, natural convection is suppressed by sufficiently fast velocity oscil1ations, via a nonlinear hydrodynamic effect that tends to align the density gradients in the pulse tube parallel to the oscillation direction. Since gravity's tendency to cause convection is only linear in the pulse tube's end-to-end temperature difference while the oscillation's tendency to align density gradients with oscillating velocity is nonlinear, it is easiest to suppress convection when the end-to-end temperature difference is largest. Simple experiments demonstrate this temperature dependence, the strong dependence on the oscillating velocity, and little dependence on the magnitude or phase of the oscillating pressure. In some circumstances in this apparatus, the suppression of convection is a hysteretic function of oscillating velocity. In some other circumstances, a time-dependent convective state seems more difficult to suppress.

  5. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc [SBT, UMR-E CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Daniel, Christophe [CNES, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse, F-31401 (France)

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  6. Analysis of basic pulse-tube refrigerator with regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, P. C. T.

    A previously presented thermodynamic analysis of the basic pulse-tube refrigerator is extended to the case with a regenerator. In this case there is a heat exchanger at the warm end of the regenerator, in addition to the cold and warm heat exchangers at the ends of the pulse tube. The analysis is based on a four-step cycle: adiabatic compression of the gas in the pulse tube; isobaric heat transfer from the gas to the wall of the pulse tube; adiabatic expansion of the gas in the pulse tube; and isobaric heat transfer from the wall of the pulse tube to the gas. The pressure is taken to be uniform during the entire cycle. Gas elements inside the regenerator are assumed to be at the local temperature of the regenerator. The performance of the regenerator and its adjacent heat exchangers is investigated using control volume analysis to determine enthalpy flows, and by control mass analysis to determine heat flows associated with individual gas elements. The mechanism by which heat is transported from the cold end to the warm end of the regenerator is discussed. The addition of the regenerator is found to yield significant improvements in the heat removed per cycle, the coefficient of performance and the refrigeration efficiency. Detailed results for these quantities are presented as a function of the temperature ratio of the heat exchangers.

  7. Parametric Study of High Frequency Pulse Detonation Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Anderw D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes development of high frequency pulse detonation tubes similar to a small pulse detonation engine (PDE). A high-speed valve injects a charge of a mixture of fuel and air at rates of up to 1000 Hz into a constant area tube closed at one end. The reactants detonate in the tube and the products exit as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers are used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device and thrust is measured with a balance. The effects of injection frequency, fuel and air flow rates, tube length, and injection location are considered. Both H2 and C2H4 fuels are considered. Optimum (maximum specific thrust) fuel-air compositions and resonant frequencies are identified. Results are compared to PDE calculations. Design rules are postulated and applications to aerodynamic flow control and propulsion are discussed.

  8. Investigation of the effect of a bend in a transfer line that separates a pulse tube cold head and a pressure wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, A. A.; Atrey, M. D.; Vanapalli, S.

    2017-02-01

    A transfer line between a pulse tube cold head and a pressure wave generator is usually required to isolate the cold head from the vibrations of the compressor. Although it is a common practice to use a thin and narrow straight tube, a bent tube would allow design flexibility and easy mounting of the cold head, such as in a split Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. In this paper, we report a preliminary investigation on the effect of the bending of the tube on the flow transfer characteristics. A numerical study using commercial computational fluid dynamics model is performed to gain insight into the flow characteristics in the bent tube. Oscillating flow experiments are performed with a straight and a bent tube at a filling pressure of 15 bar and an operating frequency of 40, 50 and 60 Hz. The data and the corresponding numerical simulations point to the hypothesis that the secondary flow in the bent tube causes a decrease in flow at a fixed pressure amplitude.

  9. Spinal cord evoked magnetic field measurement using a magnetospinography system equipped with a cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Daisuke; Kawai, Jun; Kawabata, Shigenori; Uehara, Gen

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a magnetospinography (MSG) system that detects weak magnetic fields associated with spinal cord neural activity using an array of low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based magnetic flux sensors. A functional image of the spinal cord can be obtained noninvasively by using this system, and it is effective for precise lesion localization in the diagnosis of spinal cord diseases. The running cost of the developed MSG system mainly depends on liquid helium (LHe) consumption, which is required to maintain the superconducting state of the SQUID sensors. To reduce the LHe consumption, we incorporate a pulse-tube-refrigerator-based cryocooler into the MSG system. Cold gaseous helium is circulated between the cryocooler and the MSG system for cooling the thermal radiation shield of the dewar vessel. Consequently, we achieved a 46% decrease in the LHe consumption rate. Conventional biomagnetic field detection such as magnetoencephalography is often hindered by severe low-frequency band noise from the cryocooler. However, in the case of MSG measurements, such noise can be filtered out because the band of the signal is much higher than that of the cryocooler noise. We demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio of the cervical spinal cord evoked magnetic field measurement performed with a working cryocooler is comparable to that of the measurement without a cryocooler.

  10. Condensation stage of a pulse tube pre-cooled dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2008-03-01

    In our article, experiments with a pulse tube (PTR) pre-cooled dilution refrigerator (DR) are presented, where an upgraded 3He condensation stage has been tested. The DR had a 3He flow rate of up to 1.1 mmol/s. The 3He gas entering the refrigerator was first pre-cooled to a temperature of ˜50 K at the first stage of the PTR. In the next cooling step, the 3He was run through a recently installed heat exchanger, which was attached to the regenerator of the second stage of the pulse tube cryocooler; at the outlet of this heat exchanger the temperature of the 3He was as low as ˜4 K. Due to the non-ideality of the helium gas, the second regenerator of a two stage PTR has excess cooling power which can be made use of without affecting the base temperature of this stage, and it is this effect which was put to work, here. Finally, the 3He was further cooled in a heat exchanger, mounted at the second stage of the PTR, before it entered the dilution unit of the cryostat. The installation of a heat exchanger at the regenerator of the second stage of the PTR is especially important for the construction of DRs with high refrigeration capacities; in addition, it allows for a plain design of the subsequent Joule-Thomson (JT) stage, and herewith facilitates considerably the construction of "dry" DRs. The condensation rate of the 3,4He mash prior to an experiment was increased. The pressure during condensation could be kept near 1 bar, and thus a compressor was no longer necessary with the modified apparatus.

  11. A novel coupled VM-PT cryocooler operating at liquid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results on a novel two-stage gas-coupled VM-PT cryocooler, which is a one-stage VM cooler coupled a pulse tube cooler. In order to reach temperatures below the critical point of helium-4, a one-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocooler was gas-coupled on the cold end of the former VM cryocooler. The low temperature inertance tube and room temperature gas reservoir were used as phase shifters. The influence of room temperature double-inlet was first investigated, and the results showed that it added excessive heat loss. Then the inertance tube, regenerator and the length of the pulse tube were researched experimentally. Especially, the DC flow, whose function is similar to the double-orifice, was experimentally studied, and shown to contribute about 0.2 K for the no-load temperature. The minimum no-load temperature of 4.4 K was obtained with a pressure ratio near 1.5, working frequency of 2.2 Hz, and average pressure of 1.73 MPa.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of the basic pulse-tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, P. C. T.

    The basic pulse-tube refrigerator is modelled as a tube with one end closed and with a movable piston at the other end. Both ends contain heat exchangers. The piston is capable of moving through the heat exchanger at its end. The thermodynamic model consists of four steps: adiabatic compression of the gas in the pulse tube; isobaric heat transfer from the gas to the wall of the pulse tube; adiabatic expansion of the gas in the pulse tube; and isobaric heat transfer from the wall of the pulse tube to the gas. During the entire cycle the pressure is taken to be uniform, and the gas inside either heat exchanger is assumed to be at the temperature of that exchanger. Upon neglecting gas motion during the isobaric heat transfer steps, complete analytical results are obtained for the temperature profiles of the wall, of the gas after compression, and of the gas after expansion. Each of these profiles is piecewise adiabatic. The profiles are used in finding the coefficient of performance and the net work done per cycle. The coefficient of performance is derived by noting that the basic heat transfer process consists of several reverse Brayton cycles, staged in series. The net work done per cycle is found by constructing the p-V diagram for the piston. This diagram represents a modified reverse Brayton cycle, with each of the compression and expansion steps consisting of two hyperbolic segments. The parameters determining these segments depend on the temperature at which gas enters the heat exchangers. Results are presented for the coefficient of performance and the heat removed per cycle as a function of the temperature ratio of the heat exchangers, for various values of the pressure ratio π and the non-dimensional length Lh of the heat exchanger at the closed end. The model is non-linear and permits study of the effect of large values of π and Lh.

  13. Integration of a Cryocooler into a SQUID Magnetospinography System for Reduction of Liquid Helium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Daisuke; Kawai, Jun; Ogata, Hisanao; Uehara, Gen

    We are currently developing a magnetospinography (MSG) system for noninvasive functional imaging of the spinal cord. The MSG system is a device for observing a weak magnetic field accompanied by the neural activity of the spinal cord by using an array of low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic flux sensors. As in the case of other biomagnetic measurement systems such as the magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, the running cost of the MSG system is mainly dependent on the liquid helium (LHe) consumption of a dewar vessel. We integrated a cryocooler into the MSG system to reduce LHe consumption. A pulse tube cryocooler with a cooling power of 0.5Wat 4 K was placed adjacent to a magnetically shielded room and was directly connected to the thermal radiation shield of the dewar by an electrically isolated transfer tube. Cold helium gas was circulated between the cryocooler and the radiation shield. Consequently, the temperature of the radiation shield decreased below 40 K. Previous studies have shown that the detection of a weak magnetic field is often hindered by severe low-frequency band noise from the cryocooler. However, the band of the MSG signals is much higher than that of the cryocooler noise. Therefore, the noise can be filtered out and has a less detrimental effect on MSG measurement than on other biomagnetic field measurements such as MEG measurement. As a result, LHe consumption was reduced by 46%, with no increase in the noise floor.

  14. 15 K pulse tube design for ECHO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J. M.; Charles, I.; Chassaing, C.; Butterworth, J.; Aigouy, G.; Mullié, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a proposed space telescope designed to characterize the atmospheres of nearby transiting exoplanets. Its detectors will operate in the 0.4 to 11 micromillimeter range. Two kinds of detectors are currently able to provide the desired sensitivity in this range. Depending on the technology used, cooling to either 6 K or about 30 K will be required. For the former solution, a JT cooler coupled to a pulse tube cooler could be used whereas for the latter, a pulse tube cooler would provide the cooling power. Pulse tube coolers are particularly well adapted for the cryogenics for such mission because of the low level of vibration required and of the temperature range. We developed multistage pulse tube coolers able to cool down to temperature as low as 6 K, with efficient operation from 10 K to 40 K. A design based on our tested prototypes is proposed to fulfill the need for the ECHO missions. This paper describes the experimental results measured with demonstrator models. In particular measured performances of efficient cooling power at 10 K are presented. Several possible configurations for the ECHO cooler will be discussed as well.

  15. Electromechanical cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Kenneth W.

    1996-01-01

    An electromechanical cryocooler is disclosed for substantially reducing vibrations caused by the cooler. The direction of the force of the vibrations is measured and a counterforce sufficient to substantially reduce this vibration is calculated and generated. The counterforce is 180.degree. out of phase with the direction of the force of the vibrations.

  16. A 4-Kelvin Pulse-Tube/Reverse-Brayton Hybrid Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's ability to perform cutting edge space science, including lunar and planetary exploration, requires the use of cryogenically cooled detectors and sensors for...

  17. Miniature Turbine for Pulse-Tube/Reverse-Brayton Hybrid Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many future advances in NASA's ability to perform cutting edge space science will require improvements in cryogenic system technology, including the development of...

  18. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, J. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: junnosuke_imura@yahoo.co.jp; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1, Narashinodai, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., 2-1, Asahi-machi, Kariya, Aichi 448-8650 (Japan); Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 1, Toshin-cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 261-8680 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K under power consumption of 4 kW for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. It was found that there existed large temperature distribution in a circumference of the regenerator. The temperature difference became larger as increasing the piston displacement. The maximum difference of temperature was 150 K. Such the inhomogeneous distribution of the regenerator temperature was caused from turbulent flow of helium gas. Then several hard copper meshes were inserted to prevent the distortion of the mesh. As the result, the difference of temperature decreased to 37 K and the high performance was obtained; the lowest temperature of 37 K and the cooling capacity of 158 W at 80 K. Conclusively %Carnot was improved up to 14%. Furthermore, when power consumption was increased to 3.8 kW and the piston displacement was 16 mm peak to peak, the higher performance was obtained; the cooling capacity of 180 W at 80 K.

  19. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, J.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K under power consumption of 4 kW for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. It was found that there existed large temperature distribution in a circumference of the regenerator. The temperature difference became larger as increasing the piston displacement. The maximum difference of temperature was 150 K. Such the inhomogeneous distribution of the regenerator temperature was caused from turbulent flow of helium gas. Then several hard copper meshes were inserted to prevent the distortion of the mesh. As the result, the difference of temperature decreased to 37 K and the high performance was obtained; the lowest temperature of 37 K and the cooling capacity of 158 W at 80 K. Conclusively %Carnot was improved up to 14%. Furthermore, when power consumption was increased to 3.8 kW and the piston displacement was 16 mm peak to peak, the higher performance was obtained; the cooling capacity of 180 W at 80 K.

  20. Autonomous cryogenic sapphire oscillators employing low vibration pulse-tube cryocoolers at NMIJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takeshi; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Hartnett, John G.

    2016-06-01

    Two liquid-helium-cooled cryogenic sapphire-resonator oscillators (CSOs), have been modified to operate using cryo-refrigerators and low-vibration cryostats. The Allan deviation of the first CSO was evaluated to be better than 2 x 10-15 for averaging times of 1 s to 30 000 s, which is better than that of the original liquid helium cooled CSO. The Allan deviation of the second CSO is better than 4 x 10-15 from 1 s to 6 000 s averaging time.

  1. Investigation of casing inspection through tubing with pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuewen; Yu, Runqiao; Peng, Xuewen; Ren, Shangkun

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion and cracks of casing string in oil wells is a serious problem on which little research has been done when inspecting casing through tubing. In this study, inspecting casing through tubing with pulsed eddy current is investigated. Longitudinal and transverse probes are centred inside the tubing to detect wall thinnings and cracks in casing. A time slice of induced voltage in the receiving coil of the probe is used as the feature to recognise defects. The experimental results show that large area wall thinnings and long cracks in casing are detected successfully through the tubing with appropriate inspection parameters. The probe's orientation to the crack is important and a particular discovery is that the transverse probe should be parallel to the transverse crack and not be perpendicular to it when inspecting. A method based on linear regression is proposed to estimate flaws in casing while wall thinning in the tubing occurs at the same location. The method is effective for large area thinning in casing when tubing thinning is wide.

  2. New Regenerator Materials for use in pulse tube coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kashani; B.P.M. Helvensteijn; P. Kittel; K.A. Gschneidner,jr; V.K. Pecharsky; A.O. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    A two-stage pulse tube cooler driven by a linear compressor is being developed to provide cooling at 20 K. The first stage of the cooler will have the conventional stainless steel screen regenerator matrix. The matrix for the second stage regenerator (<60 K) will be made from a new class of Er based alloys which was recently developed at Ames Laboratory, in Ames, Iowa. These alloys exhibit heat capacities that exceed that of all other materials, including lead, over a Wide range in temperature (15 K < T C 85 K). The performance of one such alloy was shown to be better than lead when tested in a single-stage pulse tube cooler driven by a G-M compressor and operating at 2 Hz. An effort is underway to establish their suitability at frequencies above 40 IIZ. An approach to testing these alloys at low temperatures while using a low-power linear compressor is presented.

  3. Hydrodynamic parameters for ErPr cryocooler regenerator fillers under steady and periodic flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, M. G.; Patel, V. C.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Helvensteijn, B. P.; Kashani, A.; Feller, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The regenerator, typically a microporous structure that is subject to periodic flow of a cryogenic fluid, is the most critical component of Pulse Tube or Stirling cryocoolers, which are widely used for high-demand defense and aerospace applications. Despite the critical impact of hydrodynamic irreversibilities in the regenerator on the overall cycle efficiency, the impact of the parameters that influence these losses are poorly understood.

  4. Development of high-efficiency Stirling cryocoolers for high temperature superconducting motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Yumoto, K.; Hiratsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For wide spread high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, a cryocooler having COP of >0.1, with a compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability is required. For practical use of superconductive devices, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-efficiency Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler (STPC). The STPC had high reliability and low vibration. However, its efficiency was not enough to meet the demands of an HTS motor. To further improve the efficiency, we reconsidered the expander of cryocooler and developed a Stirling cryocooler (STC). Two prototype units of a compact, high-efficiency split Stirling cryocooler were designed, built and tested. With the second prototype unit, a cooling capacity of 151 W at 70 K and a minimum temperature of 33 K have been achieved with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW. Accordingly, COP of about 0.07 has been achieved. The detailed design of the prototype units and the experimental results will be reported in this paper.

  5. Numerical simulation of a step-piston type series two-stage pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi; Inoue, Tatsuo

    2007-09-01

    A two-stage pulse tube refrigerator has a great advantage in that there are no moving parts at low temperatures. The problem is low theoretical efficiency. In an ordinary two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, the expansion work of the first stage pulse tube is rather large, but is changed to heat. The theoretical efficiency is lower than that of a Stirling refrigerator. A series two-stage pulse tube refrigerator was introduced for solving this problem. The hot end of the regenerator of the second stage is connected to the hot end of the first stage pulse tube. The expansion work in the first stage pulse tube is part of the input work of the second stage, therefore the efficiency is increased. In a simulation result for a step-piston type two-stage series pulse tube refrigerator, the efficiency is increased by 13.8%.

  6. Light pulses to photomultiplier tubes from extended scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergo, S. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Boemi, D. [CSFNeSM, I-95129 Catania (Italy); Caccia, Z. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Costa, S. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Insolia, A. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Panebianco, S. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Potenza, R. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Randazzo, N. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Reito, S. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Romanski, J. [The Svedberg Laboratory, University of Uppsala, S751-21 Uppsala (Sweden); Russo, G.V. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Tuve, C. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1995-08-15

    Light pulses seen by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) after propagation within long scintillator slats or rods, or large disc-shaped scintillators are investigated and compared with those from point-like scintillators. Results of experimental tests for the disc-shaped configuration, performed with the single photon counting technique, are presented and compared with numerical calculations. These calculations were performed describing the light pulse shape by means of a new, quite general analytical method based on the geometrical optics concepts of virtual light paths and images. The associated electric pulses produced by the PMTs coupled to the scintillators are then discussed with particular emphasis on their dependence on the distance between light source and photocathode. (orig.).

  7. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  8. 机载红外探测装置中的长分置管斯特林制冷机%Stirling Cryocooler with Long-Connective-Tube Applying to Airborne IR Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余熙武; 张梅; 邓永利

    2012-01-01

    为设计出满足应用要求的长分置管斯特林制冷机,开展了制冷机的应用背景、设计要求、结构特点、关键技术的研究,并对影响制冷机应用的各类因素进行了分析.目前该型号制冷机已应用于机载红外探测装置中,经多次试验证明,该系统重复性好,运行稳定、可靠.%In order to develop a split Stirling cryocooler with long-connective-tube meeting practical application needs,we studied the cryocooler's application background, design requirement, structural feature and critical technologies. The factors that have effect on the application of the cyocooler were also analyzed. This type of cryocooler has been applied to some airborne IR detection systems. Experiments showed that the system has good repeatability and reliability.

  9. Pulsed response of a traveling-wave tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The consequence of frequency-domain multiple access (FDMA) channelization in a satellite communications system is that the ground- and space-based components are often required to operate at reduced output power to prevent the generation of distortions. However, the components of a time-division multiple access (TDMA) satellite system, such as a traveling-wave tube (TWT), can operate at the highest output power because the channelization technique is relatively insensitive to the distortions resulting from saturated operation. A Hughes 30-GHz TWT was tested to determine the suitability of such a device in a TDMA system. Testing was focused on the ability of the TWT to rise up to full power at the leading edge of TDMA bursts, which were simulated by a pulse train. A Wavetek model 8502A peak power meter was used to display and measure the pulsed signal waveform. Measurements of the TWT output signal rise time indicate that the TWT lengthened the rise time by 10 to 20 nsec. Imposing a modulator turn-on time that precedes the data burst by the TWT rise time is a logical approach to coordinating the traveling-wave tube amplifier and modulator specifications.

  10. A novel coupling configuration for thermoacoustically-driven pulse tube coolers: Acoustic amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wei; LUO Ercang; HU Jianying; CHEN Yanyan

    2005-01-01

    Thermoacoustically-driven pulse tube cooler can provide cryogenic cooling power with no moving components. Up to now, pulse tube cooler is directly coupled with the thermoacoustic engine and obtainable pressure ratio for the pulse tube cooler is limited by the capability of the thermoacoustic engine. The authors propose here the concept of acoustic amplifier, which is actually a long tube connecting the engine with the pulse tube cooler. Theoretical calculation shows that suitable length and diameter of the tube can lead to a pressure wave amplification effect which means that pressure wave amplitude coming from the thermoacoustic engine can be much amplified to drive the pulse tube cooler. Based on this, a 2.8 m long copper tube with 8 mm inner diameter is used as the acoustic amplifier in experiments. The experimental results show that due to the amplification effect, pressure wave amplitude at the inlet of the pulse tube cooler is over 2.5 times of that at the engine outlet. Typically, with 1.67 kW heating power, the pressure ratio provided by the engine is 1.11 while at the inlet of the pulse tube cooler the pressure ratio is 1.32, which leads to a lowest no-load temperature of 65.7 K.

  11. A pulse-tube refrigerator using variable-resistance orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. J.; Sun, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a new design of orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (VROPT) using a variable-resistance valve to replace the conventional orifice. The variable-resistance orifice (VRO) is basically a high-speed solenoidal valve similar to the fuel jet device widely used in automobile engines. By changing the frequency and periods of ON and OFF of the valve through an electronic device, we can change the flow resistance of the VRO. This thus provides a possibility for an OPT to be controlled on-line during operation. From the results obtained in the present study, we have shown that VROPT is able to achieve on-line control by regulating the duty cycle d or frequency fv of the VRO. We also show that VROPT will not loss its thermal performance as compared to conventional OPT.

  12. Pulse Tube Interference in Cryogenic Sensor Resonant Circuits - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Tyler [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Transition edge sensors (TES) are extremely sensitive superconducting sensors, operating at 100 mK, which can be used to detect X-rays and Cosmic Microwave Background. The goal of our project is to design the electronics to read out an array of 10000 of these sensors by using microwave signals. However, we noticed the pulse tube used to maintain cryogenic temperatures caused interference in our readout. To determine the cause of the signal distortions, we used a detector with a 370 MHz sampling rate to collect and analyze sensor data. Although this data provided little information towards the nature of the noise, it was determined through a maintenance procedure than the 0.3 mm stainless steel wires were being vibrated due to acoustic waves, which distorted the signal. Replacing this wire appeared to cease the interference from the sensor data.

  13. Single pulse shock tube study of allyl radical recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlyand, Aleksandr; Lynch, Patrick T; Tranter, Robert S; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2013-06-13

    The recombination and disproportionation of allyl radicals has been studied in a single pulse shock tube with gas chromatographic measurements at 1-10 bar, 650-1300 K, and 1.4-2 ms reaction times. 1,5-Hexadiene and allyl iodide were used as precursors. Simulation of the results using derived rate expressions from a complementary diaphragmless shock tube/laser schlieren densitometry study provided excellent agreement with precursor consumption and formation of all major stable intermediates. No significant pressure dependence was observed at the present conditions. It was found that under the conditions of these experiments, reactions of allyl radicals in the cooling wave had to be accounted for to accurately simulate the experimental results, and this unusual situation is discussed. In the allyl iodide experiments, higher amounts of allene, propene, and benzene were found at lower temperatures than expected. Possible mechanisms are discussed and suggest that iodine containing species are responsible for the low temperature formation of allene, propene, and benzene.

  14. Helium compressor for GM and pulse-tube expanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longsworth, R. C.

    2002-05-01

    A new compressor system has been developed for cooling MRI magnets which has more displacement than the present compressor. By increasing the displacement from 2.9 L/s to 5.2 L/s at 60 Hz it is possible to provide more refrigeration at lower temperatures with both GM and Pulse-tube expanders. The 2.9 L/s compressor is a rolling piston type, which is cooled by water circulating through tubes bonded to the outside of the compressor shell. The 5.2 L/s compressor is a scroll type that is cooled by circulating oil to an external heat exchanger. One of the key features of the design is an oil removal system that enables the adsorber replacement interval to be increased to 5 years. A diagnostic module is incorporated in the control circuit to alert the user to an abnormal condition and show the reason for a shut down if it occurs. This paper describes essential design features and the extensive testing that has been done to characterize the compressor over a wide range of operating conditions including extremes that it might experience.

  15. A Compact Remote Heat Transfer Device for Space Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Zhao, Y.; Liang, T.

    In this paper a compact remote heat transfer device (CRHD) for cryocoolers is proposed. This device is especially attractive in cases where cryocoolers are not easy to set near the heat source, generally the infrared sensor. The CRHD is designed on basis of the concept of loop heat pipes, while the primary evaporator is located near the cryocooler cold head and a simple tube-in-tube secondary evaporator is remotely located and thermally connected with the heat source for cooling. With such a device a cooling power of 1 W is achieved across a heat transfer distance of about 2 m. The major problem of this device is the low heat transfer efficiency (1 W of net cooling power at the cost of about 7 W of cooling power from the cryocooler), and in the future a secondary wicked evaporator will be used instead of the tube-in-tube evaporator in order to improve the efficiency.

  16. Dissipation of Alfven wave pulses propagating along dipole magnetic tubes with reflections at the ionosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkaev, NV; Shaidurov, VA; Semenov, VS; Biernat, HK; Heidorn, D; Lakhina, GS

    2006-01-01

    A ratio of the maximal and minimal cross sections of the magnetic tube (contraction ratio) is a crucial parameter which affects very strongly on reflections of MHD wave pulses propagating along a narrowing magnetic flux tube. In cases of large contraction ratios of magnetospheric magnetic tubes, the

  17. Measurement of Work Generation and Improvement in Performance of a Pulse Tube Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Futagi, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Taichi; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Apart from double acting type engines, Stirling engines have either 2 pistons in 2 cylinders or 2 pistons in a single cylinder. Typically, the heater, regenerator and cooler are installed between the 2 pistons. The pulse tube engine, on the other hand, consists of a single piston in a single cylinder, a pulse tube, a heater, a regenerator, a cooler and a second cooler. For this paper, a simple prototype engine that uses air at normal atmospheric pressure as the working gas was fabricated. The oscillating velocity of the working gas in the pulse tube was measured using LDV, and the work flow emitting out of the pulse tube was observed. In addition, the effect of inserting heat storage material in the pulse tube on shaft power and indicated power was examined experimentally. A dramatic increase in the shaft power was achieved.

  18. Eddy-current inspection of ferromagnetic tubing using pulsed magnetic saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, C V; Deeds, W E

    1986-07-01

    A pulsed eddy-current system has been designed and developed for nondestructive evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo steam generator tubing from the bore side. Since the tubing is ferromagnetic, a large current pulse is sent through a driver coil to produce magnetic saturation all the way through the tube wall. A pickup coil produces an output pulse that is dependent upon the tube properties as well as the driving pulse. The output pulse heights at selected times are used as data that are computer-correlated with calibration data taken from machined standards. Performance data, circuit diagrams, and computer programs are given for the system, which has been demonstrated to detect small flaws located near the outside of a thick ferromagnetic tube.

  19. Properties of cryocooler-cooled superconductive pulse coil (1); Chokureishiki chodendo parusu koiru no tokusei hyoka (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hae, T.; Kajikawa, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Hayashi, H.; Tsutsumi, K. [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Tomioka, A.; Konno, M.; Nose, S. [Fuji Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    We manufactured the pulse coil of refrigerating machine direct cooling system using oxide superconducting wire rod, and they succeeded in triangular wave continuous running of 1T and 1Hz. It aimed at future further scale-up using this pulse coil this time, and the relationship between heat quantity and coil temperature rise in the operation was evaluated. (NEDO)

  20. High-T{sub c} DC SQUID system cooled by pulse-tube cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.F.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshizawa, M

    2003-10-15

    We developed a high-T{sub c} DC SQUID system cooled by pulse-tube cooler. To avoid the influence of the wire resistance between SQUID and preamplifier, and to reduce the influence of the temperature fluctuation of pulse-tube cooler, DC coupling between SQUID chip and preamplifier was used and the flux locked loop worked in modulation mode. We also developed a temperature controller, using the DC SQUID as temperature sensor, to control and stabilize the operating temperature of the pulse-tube cooler. With the temperature controller, the DC SQUID system could remain locked for over 8 h.

  1. Method and apparatus for fine tuning an orifice pulse tube refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Wollan, John J.

    2003-12-23

    An orifice pulse tube refrigerator uses flow resistance, compliance, and inertance components connected to a pulse tube for establishing a phase relationship between oscillating pressure and oscillating velocity in the pulse tube. A temperature regulating system heats or cools a working gas in at least one of the flow resistance and inertance components. A temperature control system is connected to the temperature regulating system for controlling the temperature of the working gas in the at least one of the flow resistance and inertance components and maintains a control temperature that is indicative of a desired temporal phase relationship.

  2. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the basic pulse tube refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing DING; Liang GONG; Yaling HE; Wenquan TAO

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional physical and numerical model of the basic pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) was developed. The compressible and oscillating fluid flow and heat transfer phenomenon in the pulse tube were numerically investigated using a self-developed code. Some cross-section average parameter variations such as velocity, temperature and pressure wave during one cycle were revealed. The variations of velocity and temperature distributions in the pulse tube were also analyzed in detail for further understanding of the working process and refrigeration mechanism of PTRs.

  3. Development of a Large-capacity, Stirling-type, Pulse-tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potratz, S. A.; Nellis, G. F.; Maddocks, J. R.; Kashani, A.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Rhoads, G. L.; Flake, B.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes progress towards the development of a large-capacity, single-stage, Stirling-type, pulse-tube refrigerator (PTR) for high temperature superconducting power applications. Specifically, the design and fabrication of an experimental PTR is described followed by a series of design modifications which have focused on optimization of the flow transition components the hot and cold ends of the pulse-tube. Computational fluid dynamic models are described and have been used to guide the design modifications. The impact of each modification on cooler performance is discussed. The cooler is instrumented with piston displacement sensors, high-frequency pressure sensors, and thermocouples along the regenerator wall, within the cold heat exchanger gas volume, and along the pulse-tube wall. These sensors provide some characterization of the flow distribution in the regenerator and pulse-tube.

  4. Design and preliminary experimental investigation of a 4 K Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with precooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hua GAN; Zhuo-pei LI; Jie CHEN; Li DAI; Li-min QIU

    2009-01-01

    that the operating frequency has a significant influence on the performance of the Stirling-type PTC and a relatively low average pressure is favorable for decreasing the loss associated with the real gas effects ofa 4 K Stirling-type PTC.

  5. 压缩机背腔作为脉冲管制冷机气库的研究%Characterization of a Pulse Tube Cooler With the Compressor Backside as the Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓涛; 罗二仓; 戴巍; 周远

    2011-01-01

    As one important cryocooler,the pulse tube cooler usually use inertance-tube plus reservoir as the phase shifter.However,this relatively large volume reservoir makes the cooler not to be as compact as the Stirling cryocoolers.The backside of linear compressor also has a large volume. To improve the compactness,the inertance-tube is connected to the backside of compressor.The theoretical model is present to compare the system performance with the reservoir.The simulation results show that this cooler is able to work properly and can achieve a similar cooling performance after optimizing the size of inertance-tube.%脉冲管制冷机是一种重要的小型低温制冷机,通常高频脉冲管制冷机采用惯性管加气库的调相方式,然而较大的气库降低了系统的紧凑性。对于直线压缩机,其背腔也具有较大的体积,为提高系统的紧凑性,本文进行了使用压缩机背腔作为气库用于调相脉冲管制冷机的研究工作。研究结果表明采用这种方案的制冷机是可行的,当背腔体积足够大时,通过调整惯性管尺寸,其性能接近使用独立气库的脉冲管制冷机的性能。

  6. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  7. Linear Resonance Compressor for Stirling-Type Cryocoolers Activated by Piezoelectric Stack-Type Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, S.; Grossman, G.

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of a PZT- based compressor operating at mechanical resonance, suitable for pneumatically-driven Stirling-type cryocoolers was developed theoretically and built practically during this research. A resonance operation at relatively low frequency was achieved by incorporating the piezo ceramics into the moving part, and by reducing the effective piezo stiffness using hydraulic amplification. The detailed concept, analytical model and the test results of the preliminary prototype were reported earlier and presented at ICC17 [2]. A fine agreement between the simulations and experiments spurred development of the current actual compressor designed to drive a miniature Pulse Tube cryocooler, particularly our MTSa model, which operates at 103 Hz and requires an average PV power of 11 W, filling pressure of 40 Bar and a pressure ratio of 1.3. The paper concentrates on design aspects and optimization of the governing parameters. The small stroke to diameter ratio (about 1:10) allows for the use of a composite diaphragm instead of a clearance-seal piston. The motivation is to create an adequate separation between the working fluid and the buffer gas of the compressor, thus preventing possible contamination in the cryocooler. Providing efficiency and power density similar to those of conventional linear compressors, the piezo compressor may serve as a good alternative for cryogenic applications requiring extreme reliability and absence of magnetic field interference.

  8. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  9. Experimental study of a pulse tube cold head driven by a low frequency thermal compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Dai, W.; Vanapalli, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y; Luo, E.

    2016-01-01

    Cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperature span a number of application domains, such as cooling of superconducting magnets, SQUID devices etc. GM type cryocoolers are widely used at liquid helium temperature but with shortcomings of using an oil-lubricated compressor that require regular maintenance and rotary valves that reduces the efficiency of the cryocooler. We are developing an alternative system that makes use of a Vuilleumier type thermal compressor. The system consists of a ...

  10. Studies on an improved indigenous pressure wave generator and its testing with a pulse tube cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Narsimham, G. S. V. L.; Kranthi, J. Kumar; Damu, C.; Praveen, T.; Samir, M.; Mallappa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier version of an indigenously developed Pressure Wave Generator (PWG) could not develop the necessary pressure ratio to satisfactorily operate a pulse tube cooler, largely due to high blow by losses in the piston cylinder seal gap and due to a few design deficiencies. Effect of different parameters like seal gap, piston diameter, piston stroke, moving mass and the piston back volume on the performance is studied analytically. Modifications were done to the PWG based on analysis and the performance is experimentally measured. A significant improvement in PWG performance is seen as a result of the modifications. The improved PWG is tested with the same pulse tube cooler but with different inertance tube configurations. A no load temperature of 130 K is achieved with an inertance tube configuration designed using Sage software. The delivered PV power is estimated to be 28.4 W which can produce a refrigeration of about 1 W at 80 K.

  11. Experimental study of a pulse tube cold head driven by a low frequency thermal compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Dai, W.; Vanapalli, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.; Luo, E.

    2016-01-01

    Cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperature span a number of application domains, such as cooling of superconducting magnets, SQUID devices etc. GM type cryocoolers are widely used at liquid helium temperature but with shortcomings of using an oil-lubricated compressor that require regular ma

  12. A separate two-stage pulse tube cooler working at liquid helium temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Limin; HE Yonglin; GAN Zhihua; WAN Laihong; CHEN Guobang

    2005-01-01

    A novel 4 K separate two-stage pulse tube cooler (PTC) was designed and tested. The cooler consists of two separate pulse tube coolers, in which the cold end of the first stage regenerator is thermally connected with the middle part of the second regenerator. Compared to the traditional coupled multi-stage pulse tube cooler, the mutual interference between stages can be significantly eliminated. The lowest refrigeration temperature obtained at the first stage pulse tube was 13.8 K. This is a new record for single stage PTC. With two compressors and two rotary valves driving mode, the separate two-stage PTC obtained a refrigeration temperature of 2.5 K at the second stage. Cooling capacities of 508 mW at 4.2 K and 15 W at 37.5 K were achieved simultaneously. A one-compressor and one-rotary valve driving mode has been proposed to further simplify the structure of separate type PTC.

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization Based on Exergy Flow for a Two-Staged Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and magnetostriction Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095102 (2012) Compact radio-frequency resonator for cryogenic ion traps Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 084705...Vol. 55, edited by J. G. Weisend II 2010 American Institute of Physics 978-0-7354-0761-9/10/$30.00 INTRODUCTION Multi-stage Pulse Tube

  14. 13 K thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ke; CHEN Guobang; THUMMES Günter

    2005-01-01

    Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators have attracted academic and commercial interest in recent years due to their more compact configuration and higher efficiency than those of G-M type pulse tube refrigerators. In order to achieve a no-load cooling temperature below 20 K, a thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator has been built. The thermally coupled arrangement was expected to minimize the interference between the two stages and to simplify the adjustment and optimization of the phase shifters. A no-load cooling temperature of 14.97 K has been realized with the two-stage cooler driven by one linear compressor of 200 W electric input. When the two stages are driven by two compressors respectively, with total electric input of 400 W, the prototype has attained a no-load cooling temperature of 12.96 K, which is the lowest temperature ever reported with two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators.

  15. Influence of the Water-Cooled Heat Exchanger on the Performance of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled heat exchanger is one of the key components in a pulse tube refrigerator. Its heat exchange effectiveness directly influences the cooling performance of the refrigerator. However, effective heat exchange does not always result in a good performance, because excessively reinforced heat exchange can lead to additional flow loss. In this paper, seven different water-cooled heat exchangers were designed to explore the best configuration for a large-capacity pulse tube refrigerator. Results indicated that the heat exchanger invented by Hu always offered a better performance than that of finned and traditional shell-tube types. For a refrigerator with a working frequency of 50 Hz, the best hydraulic diameter is less than 1 mm.

  16. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  17. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  18. Diaphragm Stirling cryocooler developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of several ongoing development programs aimed at the demonstration of diaphragm Stirling cycle cryocooler performance. Key attributes of this technology focus on long reliable operating life and excellent efficiency, making it a candidate for cooling of satellite-borne long wavelength sensors for astrophysics and earth observing missions. Three programs are described, each leading to system or component test hardware: a 2 W 65 K single-stage Standard Spacecraft Cryocooler, a 300 mW 30 K two-stage cooler and a 200 mW 4-20 K single-stage cooler. Design features are described, and breadboard experimental data are presented.

  19. Comparison of two models of a double inlet miniature pulse tube refrigerator: Part A thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Philippe; Bailly, Yannick

    2002-10-01

    The cooling of electronic components is of great interest to improve their capabilities, especially for CMOS components or infrared sensors. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and the optimization of a miniature double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) dedicated to such applications. Special precautions have to be considered in modeling the global functioning of small scale DIPTR systems and also in estimating the net cooling power. In fact, thermal gradients are greater than those observed in normal scale systems, and moreover, because of the small dimensions of ducts (diameter), the pulse tube cannot be assumed to be adiabatic. Hence thermal heat conduction phenomena must be considered. Besides dead volumes introduced by junctions and capillaries cannot be neglected any more in front of the volume of the gas tube itself. The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the cooler are predicted by means of two different approaches: a classical thermodynamic model and a model based on an electrical analogy. The results of these analysis are tested and criticized by comparing them with experimental data obtained on a small commercial pulse tube refrigerator.

  20. Heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler operating at liquid hydrogen temperature with a unique coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Li, S. F.; Yu, B.; Dai, W.

    2008-05-01

    A heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler is constructed. A unique coupler composed of a tube, reservoir, and elastic diaphragm is introduced to couple a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine (TE) and two-stage pulse tube refrigerator (PTR). The amplitude of the pressure wave generated in the engine is first amplified in the coupler and the wave then passes into the refrigerator to pump heat. The TE uses nitrogen as its working gas and the PTR still uses helium as its working gas. With this coupler, the efficiency of the system is doubled. The engine and coupler match at a much lower operating frequency, which is of great benefit for the PTR to obtain a lower cooling temperature. The coupling place between the coupler and engine is also optimized. The onset problem is effectively solved. With these improvements, the heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler reaches a lowest temperature of 18.1K, which is the demonstration of heat-driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology used for cooling at liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  1. Development of miniature moving magnet cryocooler SX040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Rosenhagen, C.; Schreiter, A.; Möhl, C.

    2011-06-01

    State of the art high performance cooled IR systems need to have more than just excellent E/O performance. Minimum size weight and power (SWaP) are the design goals to meet our forces' mission requirements. Key enabler for minimum SWaP of IR imagers is the operation temperature of the focal plane array (FPA) employed. State of the art MCT or InAsSb nBn technology has the potential to rise the FPA temperature from 77 K to 130-150 K (high operation temperature HOT) depending on the specific cut-off wavelength. Using a HOT FPA will significantly lower SWaP and keep those parameters finally dominated by the employed cryocooler. Therefore compact high performance cryocoolers are mandatory. For highest MTTF life AIM developed its Flexure Bearing Moving Magnet product family "SF". Such coolers achieve more than 20000 h MTTF with Stirling type expander and more than 5 years MTTF life with Pulse Tube coldfinger (like for Space applications). To keep the high lifetime potential but to significantly improve SWaP AIM is developing its "SX" type cooler family. The new SX040 cooler incorporates a highly efficient dual piston Moving Magnet driving mechanism resulting in very compact compressor of less than 100mm length. The cooler's high lifetime is also achieved by placing the coils outside the helium vessel as usual for moving magnet motors. The mating ¼" expander is extremely compact with less than 63 mm length. This allows a total dewar length from optical window to expander warm end of less than 100 mm even for large cold shields. The cooler is optimized for HOT detectors with operating temperatures exceeding 95 K. While this kind of cooler is the perfect match for many applications, handheld sights or targeting devices for the dismounted soldier are even more challenging with respect to SWaP. AIM therefore started to develop an even smaller cooler type with single piston and balancer. This paper gives an overview on the development of this new compact cryocooler. Technical

  2. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  3. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  4. A Superfluid Pulse Tube Refrigerator Without Moving Parts for Sub-Kelvin Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin K.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes a pulse tube refrigerator that uses a mixture of He-3 and superfluid He-4 to cool to temperatures below 300 mK, while rejecting heat at temperatures up to 1.7 K. The refrigerator is driven by a novel thermodynamically reversible pump that is capable of pumping the He-3 He-4 mixture without the need for moving parts. The refrigerator consists of a reversible thermal magnetic pump module, two warm heat exchangers, a recuperative heat exchanger, two cold heat exchangers, two pulse tubes, and an orifice. It is two superfluid pulse tubes that run 180 out of phase. All components of this machine except the reversible thermal pump have been demonstrated at least as proof-of-concept physical models in previous superfluid Stirling cycle machines. The pump consists of two canisters packed with pieces of gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). The canisters are connected by a superleak (a porous piece of VYCOR glass). A superconducting magnetic coil surrounds each of the canisters.

  5. Improved Performance of an Indigenous Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cooler and Pressure Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J. Kranthi; Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Narasimham, G. S. V. L.; Damu, C.; Praveen, T.; Samir, M.

    Sustained efforts have been made in our laboratory to improve the performance of an indigenously developed pressure wave gen- erator by reducing the mechanical losses and the required input power. An acoustically matching pulse tube cooler, with a design target of 0.5 W at 80 K, was designed using Sage and experience gained from previous studies. The pulse tube cooler was fabri- cated and tested. The effect of regenerator stacking pattern on the cooler performance was studied by filling the regenerator with mesh of the same size #400 and with multi meshes #250, 325, 400. In present experiments, regenerator with #400 mesh at 30 bar filling pressure performed better with more energy efficiency. A no load temperature of 74 K was achieved with input power of 59 W corresponding to a cooling power of 0.22 W at 80 K. Parasitic heat load to the cooler was measured be 0.68 W. This heat load is primarily by heat conduction through the regenerator and pulse tube wall. By reducing the wall thickness from 0.30 mm to 0.15 mm, the parasitic loads can be reduced by 50%.

  6. 10th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Cryocoolers 10 is the premier archival publication of the latest advances and performance of small cryogenic refrigerators designed to provide localized cooling for military, space, semi-conductor, medical, computing, and high-temperature superconductor cryogenic applications in the 2-200 K temperature range. Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, Cryocoolers 10 reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.

  7. Pulsed electron beam propagation in gases under pressure of 6.6 kPa in drift tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Poloskov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of pulsed electron beam transport propagated in a drift tube filled with different gases (He, H2, N2, Ar, SF6, and CO2). The total pressure in the drift tube was 6.6 kPa. The experiments were carried out using a TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The electron beam was propagated in the drift tube composed of two sections equipped with reverse current shunts. Under a pressure of 6.6 kPa, the maximum value of the electron beam charge closed on the walls of the drift tube was recorded when the beam was propagated in hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The minimum value of the electron beam charge closed on the walls of the drift tube was recorded for sulfur hexafluoride. The visualization of the pulsed electron beam energy losses onto the walls of the drift chamber was carried out using radiation-sensitive film.

  8. Finite element modeling and analysis of electro-magnetic pulse welding of aluminium tubes to steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Doley, Jyoti; Kore, Sachine

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic pulse welding is a high-speed, solid-state welding process that is applicable to sheets or tube-to-tube or tube-to-bar configurations. In this article we discuss about the MPW process modeling and simulation for welding Al tubes to steel bars. Finite element simulation was done to weld 6061 Al tubes of 1.65 mm wall thickness to 1010 steel bars of a 47.6 mm nominal diameter. Simulation results indicate that Al tubes can be successfully welded to steel bars using MPW. It is found that the standoff distance between the Al tube and the steel bar i.e. gap between inner diameter of Al tube and diameter of steel bar is a dominant factor for achieving a sound weld. The addition of receding angles to the bars can promote MPW weldability window.

  9. Analysis of pulsed eddy current data using regression models for steam generator tube support structure inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear steam generators (SGs) are a critical component for ensuring safe and efficient operation of a reactor. Life management strategies are implemented in which SG tubes are regularly inspected by conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing (UT) technologies to size flaws, and safe operating life of SGs is predicted based on growth models. ECT, the more commonly used technique, due to the rapidity with which full SG tube wall inspection can be performed, is challenged when inspecting ferromagnetic support structure materials in the presence of magnetite sludge and multiple overlapping degradation modes. In this work, an emerging inspection method, pulsed eddy current (PEC), is being investigated to address some of these particular inspection conditions. Time-domain signals were collected by an 8 coil array PEC probe in which ferromagnetic drilled support hole diameter, depth of rectangular tube frets and 2D tube off-centering were varied. Data sets were analyzed with a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) to extract dominant signal features. Multiple linear regression models were applied to MPCA scores to size hole diameter as well as size rectangular outer diameter tube frets. Models were improved through exploratory factor analysis, which was applied to MPCA scores to refine selection for regression models inputs by removing nonessential information.

  10. Optical cryocooling of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M.; Jeske, J.; Lau, D. W. M.; Greentree, A. D.; Jelezko, F.; Twamley, J.

    2017-06-01

    The cooling of solids by optical means only using anti-Stokes emission has a long history of research and achievements. Such cooling methods have many advantages ranging from no moving parts or fluids through to operation in vacuum and may have applications to cryosurgery. However, achieving large optical cryocooling powers has been difficult to manage except in certain rare-earth crystals but these are mostly toxic and not biocompatible. Through study of the emission and absorption cross sections we find that diamond, containing either nitrogen vacancy (NV) or silicon vacancy defects, shows potential for optical cryocooling and, in particular, NV doping shows promise for optical refrigeration. We study the optical cooling of doped diamond microcrystals ranging 10-250 μ m in diameter trapped either in vacuum or in water. For the vacuum case we find NV-doped microdiamond optical cooling below room temperature could exceed |Δ T |>10 K for irradiation powers of Pin<100 mW. We predict that such temperature changes should be easily observed via large alterations in the diffusion constant for optically cryocooled microdiamonds trapped in water in an optical tweezer or via spectroscopic signatures such as the zero-phonon line width or Raman line.

  11. Cryocoolers for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter; Feller, Jeff; Roach, Pat; Kashani, Ali; Helvensteijn, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Many planetary and Earth science missions require cooling to increase sensitivity and reduce thermal noise of detectors, for preserving high Isp propellants, or for protecting instruments from hostile environments. For space applications, such cooling requires reliable, efficient, long-life coolers that are relatively compact, lightweight, and have low vibration. We have developed and are developing coolers that meet these requirements over a wide range of temperatures. These include pulse tube coolers cooling from 300 K to below 6 K, a magnetic cooler cooling from 10 K to 2 K, a 3He sorption cooler cooling from 2 K to 0.3 K and a helium dilution cooler cooling from 0.3 K to 0.05 K. Details of these coolers and their advantages are presented.

  12. Inspection of ferromagnetic support structures from within alloy 800 steam generator tubes using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Jeremy Andrew

    Nondestructive testing is a critical aspect of component lifetime management. Nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes are the thinnest barrier between irradiated primary heat transport system and the secondary heat transport system, whose components are not rated for large radiation fields. Conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing are currently employed for inspecting SG tubes, with the former doing most inspections due to speed and reliability based on an understanding of how flaws affect coil impedance parameters when conductors are subjected to harmonically induced currents. However, when multiple degradation modes are present simultaneously near ferromagnetic materials, such as tube fretting, support structure corrosion, and magnetite fouling, ECT reliability decreases. Pulsed eddy current (PEC), which induces transient eddy currents via square wave excitation, has been considered in this thesis to simultaneously examine SG tube and support structure conditions. An array probe consisting of a central driver, coaxial with the tube, and an array of 8 sensing coils, was used in this thesis to perform laboratory measurements. The probe was delivered from the inner diameter (ID) of the SG tube, where support hole diameter, tube frets, and 2D off-centering were varied. When considering two variables simultaneously, scores obtained from a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) were sufficient for parameter extraction. In the case of hole ID variation with two dimensional tube off-centering (three parameters), multiple linear regression (MLR) of the MPCA scores provided good estimates of parameters. However, once a fourth variable, outer diameter tube frets, was introduced, MLR proved insufficient. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were investigated in order to perform pattern recognition on the MPCA scores to simultaneously extract the four measurement parameters from the data. All models throughout this thesis were created and validated using

  13. High-power stirling-type pulse tube cooler for power engineering applications of high temperature superconductivity; Hochleistungspulsrohrkuehler vom Stirling-Typ fuer energietechnische Anwendungen der Hochtemperatursupraleitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Marc

    2015-12-15

    For the cooling of high temperature superconducting 4 MVA machines (motors or generators), a single-stage Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocooler was built. The cooling power, which the cryocooler was aimed for, is 80 - 100 W at 30 K with an electrical input power of 10 kW (8 kW pV-power). The advantages of this cooler type compared to traditional cooling concepts are an increased reliability and long maintenance intervals. While single-stage Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocoolers for the temperature range of liquid nitrogen (77 K) are already commercially available, there exist currently no commercial systems for the temperature range near 30 K, which is the important range for applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The experimental setup consisted of a 10 kW linear compressor, type 2S297W, from CFIC Inc. which was used as the pressure wave generator. The compressor was operated by a Micromaster 440 frequency inverter from Siemens, which was controlled by a custom-made computer program. The cold head was made in inline configuration, in order to avoid deflection losses. During the first cool-downs tests a temperature inhomogeneity occurred in the regenerator at low temperature and high pV-power, which was attributed to a constant mass flow (circular dc-flow) within the regenerator. This firstly observed dc-flow, generates a net energy flow from the hot end to the cold end of the regenerator, which reduces the cooling capacity considerably and hence the minimum attainable temperature is severely increased. For the design and optimization of the cold-head, a cryocooler model was initially created using the commercial simulation software Sage, which did not include the regenerator inhomogeneity seen in the experiment. For the modeling of the observed streaming inhomogeneity caused by the dc-flow, the regenerator was replaced by two identical parallel regenerators with variable transverse thermal coupling. In the inhomogeneous case (without dc-flow) the

  14. Low-power cryocooler survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, ter H.J.M.; Wiegerinck, G.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    A cryocooler survey has been performed on data of 235 cryocoolers, with cooling powers below some tens of watts and operating between 4 and 120 K. The state-of-the-art is discussed and trends are investigated on cooling performance, mass and size, cost, lifetime and reliability. The data were compar

  15. Pulse wave attenuation measurement by linear and nonlinear methods in nonlinearly elastic tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C D; Pythoud, F; Stergiopulos, N; Meister, J J

    1999-04-01

    Reasons for the continuing difficulty in making definitive measurements of pulse wave attenuation in elastic tubes and arteries in the presence of reflections are sought. The measurement techniques available were re-examined in elastic tubes mimicking the arterial compliance nonlinearity, under conditions of strong reflection. The pulse was of physiological shape, and two different pulse amplitudes in the physiological range were used. Measurements of pressure, flow-rate and diameter pulsation allowed the deployment of four of the classical linear methods of analysis. In addition, a method of separating the forward- and backward-travelling waves that does not require linearising assumptions was used, and the attenuation in the forward and reverse directions was calculated from the resulting waveforms. Overall, the results obtained here suggest that a fully satisfactory way of measuring arterial attenuation has yet to be devised. The classical linear methods all provided comparable attenuation estimates in terms of average value and degree of scatter across frequency. Increased scatter was generally found at the higher pulse amplitude. When the forward waveforms from the separation were similarly compared in terms of frequency components, the average value at energetic harmonics was similar to both the value indicated by the linear methods and the values predicted from linear theory on the basis of estimated viscous and viscoelastic parameter data. The backward waveforms indicated a physically unreasonable result, attributed as the expression for this technique of the same difficulties that normally manifest in scatter. Data in the literature suggesting that one of the classical methods, the three-point, systematically over-estimates attenuation were not supported, but it was confirmed that this method becomes prone to negative attenuation estimates at low harmonics as pulse amplitude increases. Although the goal of definitive attenuation measurement remains elusive

  16. A nanoscale vacuum-tube diode triggered by few-cycle laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takuya, E-mail: takuya.higuchi@fau.de; Hommelhoff, Peter, E-mail: peter.hommelhoff@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstrasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Maisenbacher, Lothar; Liehl, Andreas; Dombi, Péter [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-02-02

    We propose and demonstrate a nanoscale vacuum-tube diode triggered by few-cycle near-infrared laser pulses. It represents an ultrafast electronic device based on light fields, exploiting near-field optical enhancement at surfaces of two metal nanotips. The sharper of the two tips displays a stronger field-enhancement, resulting in larger photoemission yields at its surface. One laser pulse with a peak intensity of 4.7 × 10{sup 11 }W/cm{sup 2} triggers photoemission of ∼16 electrons from the sharper cathode tip, while emission from the blunter anode tip is suppressed by 19 dB to ∼0.2 electrons per pulse. Thus, the laser-triggered current between two tips exhibit a rectifying behavior, in analogy to classical vacuum-tube diodes. According to the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons and the distance between the tips, the total operation time of this laser-triggered nanoscale diode is estimated to be below 1 ps.

  17. Steady Secondary Momentum and Enthalpy Streaming in the Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Our study investigates the steady secondary streaming that occurs in the pulse tube refrigerator through application of the conservation laws and support by flow visualization experiments. A series expansion of the mass, momentum and energy conservation laws for an axisymmetric system yields a set of linear differential equations. The series solution is expanded in the small parameter epsilon = 1/Str where Str is the Strouhal number. The O(1) basic flow problem is solved for the case of a compressible ideal gas oscillating within a cylindrical tube. The phase and amplitude of the boundary conditions on axial velocity are treated as independent parameters. The basic solution for the gas domain is solved for the case of temperature and heat flux coupling to the tube wall. The temperature coupled solution shows how the Fourier number of the tube wall affects the gas temperature, phase angle, and time-averaged enthalpy flow. The basic solution is also examined for the time-averaged Reynolds stresses which are shown to be the driving force that produces steady secondary momentum streaming. Calculated solutions to the steady momentum streaming are shown to be in qualitative agreement with flow visualization experiments.

  18. Gifford-McMahon cryocooler below 2K; 2K-GM reitoki no reikyaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Onishi, A. [Sumitomo Heavy Industry, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umehara, I.; Adachi, Y.; Sato, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan); Minehara, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    Cooling experiments to achieve the lowest temperature below 2 K by cryocooler refrigerator using helium 3 as working fluid have been carried out for various refrigerators, and the lowest temperature 1.78 K was achieved by pulse tube refrigerator. In this study, a cooling test was carried out on GM refrigerator of high reliability using helium 3 as working fluid. 2-stage type GM refrigerator was used for experiment, copper net and lead ball were used for the first stage of cryocooler, lead ball (150 g) and HoCu{sub 2} ball (145 g) for the second stage respectively. The comparison results on working fluids of helium 3 and 4 showed that helium 3 showed lower temperature for both the first and second stages at all rotation number of motor, and the lowest temperature 1.65 K was obtained with helium 3 at number of motor rotation 54 rpm as against 2.3 K of helium 4. Helium 3 improved refrigeration capacity by 20% or more around 4 K compared with helium 4. (NEDO)

  19. Amorphous carbon film deposition on inner surface of tubes using atmospheric pressure pulsed filamentary plasma source

    CERN Document Server

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Uniform amorphous carbon film is deposited on the inner surface of quartz tube having the inner diameter of 6 mm and the outer diameter of 8 mm. A pulsed filamentary plasma source is used for the deposition. Long plasma filaments (~ 140 mm) as a positive discharge are generated inside the tube in argon with methane admixture. FTIR-ATR, XRD, SEM, LSM and XPS analyses give the conclusion that deposited film is amorphous composed of non-hydrogenated sp2 carbon and hydrogenated sp3 carbon. Plasma is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, voltage-current measurement, microphotography and numerical simulation. On the basis of observed plasma parameters, the kinetics of the film deposition process is discussed.

  20. Cryocooled Josephson standards for AC voltage metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandetto, P.; Sosso, A.; Monticone, E.; Trinchera, B.; Fretto, M.; Lacquaniti, V.

    2017-05-01

    The Josephson effect is worldwide used as a basis for constant reference voltages in national metrological institutes and in calibration laboratories of industry. Research on Josephson voltage standards is aiming at a fundamental change also in the metrology of the volt for AC and arbitrary waveforms: programmable Josephson voltage standards converting a digital code into a quantum-accurate stepwise waveform are already available in primary laboratories and even more advanced standards for converting sub-nanosecond binary coded pulses into any arbitrary signal with quantum accuracy are now actively developed and tested. A new experimental setup based on a two-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler has been developed at INRiM for the operation of AC-Josephson voltage standards. Among its distinct features, the possibility of employing both the aforementioned techniques (programmable and pulsed Josephson voltage standards) is particularly interesting. Quantum-based AC voltage sine waves have been synthesized with both programmable and pulse-driven arrays, although their accuracy is still limited by thermal oscillations due to the cryocooler piston motion.

  1. Visualization of gas displacement and temperature distribution in the pulse tube; Parusukan nai deno ryutai no kyodo kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.

    1999-11-10

    It is important that measures and visualizes displacement and temperature distribution of the fluid to which vibrate in pulse service area of pulse tube refrigerating machine in order to attempt understanding and performance improvement of the refrigeration principle. Then, example of light measurement method of the fluid displacement using the sphere which the transfer possibly installed in pulse service area and measurement method of temperature distribution using the plane laser Rayleigh scattering method and each measuring result is outlined in this lecture. (NEDO)

  2. A coaxial tube model of the cerebrospinal fluid pulse propagation in the spinal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirovic, Srdjan

    2009-02-01

    The dynamics of the movement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may play an important role in the genesis of pathological neurological conditions such as syringomyelia, which is characterized by the presence of a cyst (syrinx) in the spinal cord. In order to provide sound theoretical grounds for the hypotheses that attribute the formation and growth of the syrinx to impediments to the normal movement of the CSF, it is necessary to understand various modes through which CSF pulse in the spinal column propagates. Analytical models of small-amplitude wave propagation in fluid-filled coaxial tubes, where the outer tube represents dura, the inner tube represents the spinal cord, and the fluid is the CSF, have been used to that end. However, so far, the tendency was to model one of the two tubes as rigid and to neglect the effect of finite thickness of the tube walls. The aim of this study is to extend the analysis in order to address these two potentially important issues. To that end, classical linear small-amplitude analysis of wave propagation was applied to a system consisting of coaxial tubes of finite thickness filled with inviscid incompressible fluid. General solutions to the governing equations for the case of harmonic waves in the long wave limit were replaced with the boundary conditions to yield the characteristic (dispersion) equation for the system. The four roots of the characteristic equation correspond to four modes of wave propagation, of which the first three are associated with significant motion of the CSF. For the normal range of parameters the speeds of the four modes are c(1)=13 ms, c(2)=14.7 ms, c(3)=30.3 ms, and c(4)=124.5 ms, which are well within the range of values previously reported in experimental and theoretical studies. The modes with the highest and the lowest speeds of propagation can be attributed to the dura and the spinal cord, respectively, whereas the remaining two modes involve some degree of coupling between the two. When the

  3. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by "fresh" electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.

  4. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Zaslavsky, V. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov Str., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Ave., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov Str., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.

  5. 6th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Cryocoolers 6 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 6th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on October 25-26, 1990. This year's conference consisted of 54 papers and was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland. The conference proceedings containing 49 submitted manuscripts was published by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center in the report reproduced here.

  6. 7th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    Cryocoolers 7 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 7th International Cryocooler Conference which was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 17-19, 1992. This year's conference consisted of over 100 papers and was hosted by the Nichols Research Corp. and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The conference proceedings were published by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory in the four-volume set reproduced here.

  7. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  8. 4th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, George; Knox, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 4 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 4th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Easton, Maryland on September 25-26, 1986. About 170 people attended the conference representing 11 countries, 14 universities, 21 government laboratories and 60 industrial companies. Thirty-one papers were presented describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland, and the conference proceedings reproduced here was published by them.

  9. Simple Two-Dimensional Corrections for One-Dimensional Pulse Tube Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional oscillating flow models are very useful for designing pulse tubes. They are simple to use, not computationally intensive, and the physical relationship between temperature, pressure and mass flow are easy to understand when used in conjunction with phasor diagrams. They do not possess, however, the ability to directly calculate thermal and momentum diffusion in the direction transverse to the oscillating flow. To account for transverse effects, lumped parameter corrections, which are obtained though experiment, must be used. Or two-dimensional solutions of the differential fluid equations must be obtained. A linear two-dimensional solution to the fluid equations has been obtained. The solution provides lumped parameter corrections for one-dimensional models. The model accounts for heat transfer and shear flow between the gas and the tube. The complex Nusselt number and complex shear wall are useful in describing these corrections, with phase relations and amplitudes scaled with the Prandtl and Valensi numbers. The calculated ratio, a, between a two-dimensional solution of the oscillating temperature and velocity and a one-dimensional solution for the same shows a scales linearly with Va for Va less than 30. In this region alpha less than 0.5, that is, the enthalpy flow calculated with a two-dimensional model is 50% of a calculation using a one-dimensional model. For Va greater than 250, alpha = 0.8, showing that diffusion is still important even when it is confined to a thing layer near the tube wall.

  10. 14th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    This is the 14th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  11. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  12. Pressure and Thrust Measurements of a High-Frequency Pulsed Detonation Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N.; Cutler, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of a small-scale, high-frequency pulsed detonation tube. The device utilized a mixture of H2 fuel and air, which was injected into the device at frequencies of up to 1200 Hz. Pulsed detonations were demonstrated in an 8-inch long combustion volume, at about 600 Hz, for the quarter wave mode of resonance. The primary objective of this experiment was to measure the generated thrust. A mean value of thrust was measured up to 6.0 lb, corresponding to H2 flow based specific impulse of 2970 s. This value is comparable to measurements in H2-fueled pulsed detonation engines (PDEs). The injection and detonation frequency for this new experimental case was much higher than typical PDEs, where frequencies are usually less than 100 Hz. The compact size of the device and high frequency of detonation yields a thrust-per-unit-volume of approximately 2.0 pounds per cubic inch, and compares favorably with other experiments, which typically have thrust-per-unit-volume of order 0.01 pound per cubic inch. This much higher volumetric efficiency results in a potentially much more practical device than the typical PDE, for a wide range of potential applications, including high-speed boundary layer separation control, for example in hypersonic engine inlets, and propulsion for small aircraft and missiles.

  13. Experimental study on the pressure and pulse wave propagation in viscoelastic vessel tubes-effects of liquid viscosity and tube stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

    2013-11-01

    A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.

  14. Dependence of convective secondary flow on inclination angle in an inclined pulse tube refrigerator revealed by visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Masao; Takamatsu, Koichi; Murakami, Masahide; Nakano, Akihiro

    2004-02-01

    Secondary flow in an inclined orifice pulse tube refrigerator at typical inclination angles of 0-180° was studied by using a smoke-wire flow visualization technique. It was revealed that the secondary flow formed a unicellular convective flow in the pulse tube and had two flow patterns depending on the angle. This dependence of flow pattern on the inclination angle is well explained by the superposition of gravity-driven convective flow on acoustic streaming. Even if the cold end was lower than the hot end, the gravity-driven convective flow occurred and the secondary flow was affected by gravity.

  15. Visualization of oscillating flow in a double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator with a diaphragm inserted in a bypass-tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Masao; Murakami, Masahide

    2012-07-01

    The double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator that has a diaphragm inserted in a bypass-tube, which enabled it to transmit a pressure oscillation whereas to obstruct a DC gas flow, was manufactured and tested. The oscillating flow behavior inside of the refrigerator was studied by using a smoke-wire flow visualization technique. It was found that if the diaphragm was optimized, the performance would be improved more than that of the refrigerator with a bypass valve due to the increase in the P-V work of the gas and the decrease in the convective heat loss caused by a secondary flow.

  16. Numerical simulation of a three-stage stirling-type pulse-tube refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaati, M.A.

    2011-06-22

    The pulse-tube refrigerator (PTR) is a rather new device for cooling down to extremely low temperatures, i.e. below 4 K. The PTR works by the cyclic compression and expansion of helium that flows through a regenerator made of porous material, a cold heat exchanger, a tube, a hot heat exchanger and an orifice, in series. In a Stirling-type PTR compression and expansion are generated by a piston. The compression increases the temperature of the helium in the tube and makes it flow towards the orifice; the expansion decreases the temperature and makes the helium flow backwards to the regenerator. The net effect of warmer helium flowing in one direction and colder helium in the opposite direction is that of cooling power at the cold heat exchanger. Three PTRs are inter-connected aiming to obtain the desired 4 K lowest temperature. The conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy, and an equation of state, are simplified using asymptotic analysis based on low Mach-numbers. The regenerator is modelled one-dimensionally with Darcy's law for flow resistance. The tube is modelled either one-dimensionally without resistance or two-dimensionally with axisymmetric laminar viscous flow. The heat transfer in the porous medium of the regenerator and in the solid tube wall is taken into account. The gas can be either ideal or real. All the material properties, including viscosity and conductivity, are taken temperature and pressure dependent. Three single-stage PTRs are connected with the regenerators in series and the tubes in parallel and six flow possibilities at the junctions are considered. Three by-passes (double-inlets) are used to enhance and tune the performance. The governing equations are numerically solved with a finite-difference method of nominally second-order accuracy in space and time. Pressure correction, flux limiter, 1D-2D connections and domain decomposition are the keywords here. Special attention is paid to suitable initial conditions, high resolution

  17. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  18. Finite element modeling of wall-loss sizing in a steam generator tube using a pulsed eddy current probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, V. K.; Lepine, B.; Buck, J.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of steam generator (SG) tubes by conventional eddy current may, in general, involve analysis of indications from volumetric wall loss, cracks, fouling and support-plate degradation; however, it may be difficult to size or quantify effects from support-to-tube gap and tube tilt, especially in the presence of support plates. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology is being developed to investigate such complex tube and flaw geometries. The present work employs finite element modeling to investigate the effectiveness of PEC in identifying and sizing the outer diameter wall-loss in SG tubes. The signals analyzed using a modified principal components analysis (PCA) method reveal the potential success of a PEC-PCA combination to produce scores that can be used to size the wall-loss in the presence of support plates. The modeling results are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  19. Single-pulse shock tube pyrolysis of toluene and 1,3-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colket, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the rate limiting chemical mechanisms leading to the formation of soot precursors. A single-pulse shock tube is being used to collect gas samples of stable intermediates and end products of hydrocarbon pyrolysis. These gas samples are analyzed quantitatively using gas chromatography and any mass imbalance is believed to be due to the formation of PAH's and soot. Experimental decomposition rates of the parent hydrocarbon are determined and compared to predictions from the literature. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms describing hydrocarbon pyrolysis are being developed and models of soot formation are being compared with the experimental results. Information developed from these pyrolysis studies will provide the fundamental understanding for modeling subsequent oxidation experiments.

  20. DC FLOW SUPPRESSION IN A SINGLE-STAGE G-M TYPE PULSE TUBE COOLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGYan-long; CHENGuo-bang; THUMMESGuenter

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation on DC flow suppression in a single-stage G-M type pulse tube cooler is made. The influence of DC flow induced by the introduction of the double-inlet on the refrigeration performance of the cooler is experimentally examined. Two parallelplaced needle valves with an opposite flow direction called as double-valved configuration, instead of conventional single-valved configuration as the double-inlet is used to reduce the DC flow. With the double-valved configuration, the minimum temperatures of 18.4 K and 14.7 K, and the cooling powers of 11.5 W and 29.5 W are also obtained by RW2 and CP4000, respectively.

  1. Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) with cold compression: Cold compressor, colder expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiho; Ko, Junseok; Cha, Jeongmin; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2016-03-01

    This research paper focuses on the performance prediction and its validation via experimental investigation of a Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) equipped with a cold linear compressor. When the working gas is compressed at cryogenic temperature, the acoustic power (PV power) can be directly transmitted through the regenerator to the pulsating tube without experiencing unnecessary precooling process. The required PV power generated by the linear compressor, furthermore, can be significantly diminished due to the relatively small specific volume of the working gas at low temperature. The PTR can reach lower temperature efficiently with higher heat lift at the corresponding temperature than other typical single-stage Stirling-type PTRs. Utilizing a cryogenic reservoir as a warm end and regulating the entire operating temperature range of the PTR will enable a PTR to operate efficiently under space environment. In this research, the experimental validation as a proof of concept was carried out to demonstrate the capability of PTR operating between 80 K and 40 K. The linear compressor was submerged in a liquid nitrogen bath and the lowest temperature was measured as 38.5 K. The test results were analyzed to identify loss mechanisms with the simple numerical computation (linear model) which considers the dynamic characteristics of the cold linear compressor with thermo-hydraulic governing equations for each of sub components of the PTR. All the mass flows and pressure waves were assumed to be sinusoidal.

  2. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R. [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-02-18

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  3. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  4. High pressure ratio cryocooler with integral expander and heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunkleton, J. A.; Smith, J. L., Jr.; Iwasa, Y.

    A new 1 W, 4.2 K cryocooler is under development that is intended to miniaturize helium temperature refrigeration systems using a high-pressure-ratio Collins-type cycle. The configuration resulted from optimization studies of a saturated vapor compression (SCV) cycle that employs miniature parallel-plate heat exchangers. The basic configuration is a long displacer in a close-fitting, thin-walled cylinder. The displacer-to-cylinder gap is the high-pressure passage of the heat exchanger, and the low-pressure passage is formed by a thin tube over the OD of the cylinder. A solenoid-operated inlet valve admits 40 atm helium to the displacer-to-cylinder gap at room temperature, while the solenoid-operated exhaust valve operates at 4 atm. The single-stage cryocooler produces 1 W of refrigeration at 40 K without precooling and at 20 K with liquid nitrogen precooling.

  5. 脉管制冷机液氦温区高频特性%High Frequency Characteristics of Pulse Tube Cryocooler at Liquid Helium Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘智华; 陈杰; 李卓裴; 邱利民

    2009-01-01

    从主动制冷的角度,探索冷端无运动部件的低温制冷机-脉管制冷机高频下达到液氯温区的条件,在前期理论设计的基础上,研制了一台预冷型的单级高频脉管制冷机,采用低温惯性管和低温气库为调相方式,开展了频率、平均充气压力、预冷温度以及输入功率等对制冷机性能影响的实验研究.实验结果表明:当采用氦-4为工质,预冷温度为4.54 K,工作压力为0.775 MPa,工作频率为40 Hz时,该制冷机最低无负荷制冷温度达4.23 K.

  6. Isomerization of cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane in single-pulse shock tube experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Tsang, Wing

    2014-09-11

    Cyclic hydrocarbons are major constituents of jet fuels and reference compounds in jet fuel surrogates. The kinetic and thermal stability and reaction mechanisms of fuel molecules are essential input parameters in the models and simulations used in the design of novel fuels, renewable energy technologies, and devices. A detailed study and analysis of the pyrolytic chemistry of cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane has been performed in single-pulse shock tube experiments. The investigations are carried out over the temperature range of 1100 to 1200 K at about 2.5 atm pressure. The isomeric products are trans-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane, 1-octene, and (cis + trans)-2-octene. The three octene isomers can be attributed to internal disproportionation processes. Assuming a diradical mechanism and that cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane is formed in equal amount with respect to its trans isomer, the total rate expression for isomerization is kC-C = 10(15.5±0.8) exp(-38,644 ± 2061 K/T) s(-1). The rate constants are over an order of magnitude smaller than the equivalent noncyclic hydrocarbon system. The presence of the isomeric octenes suggests that internal disproportionation is an important component of the isomerization process.

  7. Thermal decomposition of propargyl alcohol: single pulse shock tube experimental and ab initio theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath, N; Reddy, K P J; Arunan, E

    2014-08-07

    Thermal decomposition of propargyl alcohol (C3H3OH), a molecule of interest in interstellar chemistry and combustion, was investigated using a single pulse shock tube in the temperature ranging from 953 to 1262 K. The products identified include acetylene, propyne, vinylacetylene, propynal, propenal, and benzene. The experimentally observed overall rate constant for thermal decomposition of propargyl alcohol was found to be k = 10((10.17 ± 0.36)) exp(-(39.70 ± 1.83)/RT) s(-1). Ab initio theoretical calculations were carried out to understand the potential energy surfaces involved in the primary and secondary steps of propargyl alcohol thermal decomposition. Transition state theory was used to predict the rate constants, which were then used and refined in a kinetic simulation of the product profile. The first step in the decomposition is C-O bond dissociation, leading to the formation of two important radicals in combustion, OH and propargyl. This has been used to study the reverse OH + propargyl radical reaction, about which there appears to be no prior work. Depending on the site of attack, this reaction leads to propargyl alcohol or propenal, one of the major products at temperatures below 1200 K. A detailed mechanism has been derived to explain all the observed products.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation on performance of a double inlet type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Animesh; Ghosh, Subrata K.

    2016-09-01

    A helium filled double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) has been designed, built and operated to provide cryogenic cooling. The experimental studies have been carried out to characterize the performance of the DIPTR at various values of the mean pressure of helium (0.7-1.5 MPa), amplitudes of pressure oscillations, and sizes of orifice opening. A detailed time-dependent three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the DIPTR has also been developed to predict its performance. In the CFD model, the continuity, momentum and energy equations have been solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and heat exchangers) in the DIPTR. The computational results have been compared with specific experimental results to validate the numerical model. The results predicted by the model show better results as compared to experimental results, as the effects of wall thicknesses and natural convective losses of the various components of the DIPTR to the surroundings have not been included in the model.

  9. He-H2 mixture and Er3NiHx packing for the refrigeration enhancement of pulse tube refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guobang; TANG Ke; HUANG Yonghua; GAN Zhihua; BAO Rui

    2004-01-01

    The computation with the theory of modified Brayton Cycle indicates that higher cooling power and coefficient of performance for a pulse tube refrigerator can be achieved with He-H2 mixture as working gas than those with pure He in the temperature region of 30 K. In addition, it is found that Er3Ni, a regenerative material, is able to absorb H2 and produces Er3NiHx. The computation presents that the regenerative performance of Er3NiHx is better than that of Er3Ni due to its higher volume specific heat. Experimental results show that the pulse tube refrigeration performance in 30 K temperature region is enhanced greatly with He-H2mixture and Er3NiHx packing.

  10. Improvement of xenon purification system using a combination of a pulse tube refrigerator and a coaxial heat exchanger

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wan-Ting; Cussonneau, J -P; Donnard, J; Duval, S; Lemaire, O; Calloch, M Le; Ray, P Le; Mohamad-Hadi, A -F; Morteau, E; Oger, T; Scotto-Lavina, L; Stutzmann, J -S; Thers, D; Briend, P; Haruyama, T; Mihara, S; Tauchi, T

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a compact cryogenic system with a pulse tube refrigerator and a coaxial heat exchanger. This liquefaction-purification system not only saves the cooling power used to reach high gaseous recirculation rate, but also reduces the impurity level with high speed. The heat exchanger operates with an efficiency of 99%, which indicates the possibility for fast xenon gas recirculation in a highpressurized large-scale xenon storage with much less thermal losses.

  11. Deposition of hard and adherent diamond-like carbon films inside steel tubes using a pulsed-DC discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Capote, Gil; Bonetti, Luís Francisco; Fernandes, Jesum; Blando, Eduardo; Hübler, Roberto; Radi, Polyana Alves; Santos, Lúcia Vieira; Corat, Evaldo José

    2009-06-01

    A new, low cost, pulsed-DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system that uses a bipolar, pulsed power supply was designed and tested to evaluate its capacity to produce quality diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of steel tubes. The main focus of the study was to attain films with low friction coefficients, low total stress, a high degree of hardness, and very good adherence to the inner surface of long metallic tubes at a reasonable growth rate. In order to enhance the diamond-like carbon coating adhesion to metallic surfaces, four steps were used: (1) argon ion sputtering; (2) plasma nitriding; (3) a thin amorphous silicon interlayer deposition, using silane as the precursor gas; and (4) diamond-like carbon film deposition using methane atmosphere. This paper presents various test results as functions of the methane gas pressure and of the coaxial metal anode diameter, where the pulsed-DC voltage constant is kept constant. The influence of the coaxial metal anode diameter and of the methane gas pressure is also demonstrated. The results obtained showed the possibilities of using these DLC coatings for reduced friction and to harden inner surface of the steel tubes.

  12. 5th International Conference on Cryocoolers

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 5 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 5th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Monterey, California on August 18-19, 1988. The authors submitted twenty six papers describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was hosted by the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and the conference proceedings reproduced here were published by the Wright-Patterson AFB in Ohio.

  13. Regenerators for Liquid Hydrogen Cryocoolers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exloration, planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced...

  14. Regenerators for Liquid Hydrogen Cryocoolers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exloration, planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced...

  15. Development of GM cryocooler separate type liquid-helium-free 3He-4He dilution refrigerator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Y.; Ito, T.; Umeno, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Kamioka, Y.; Maehata, K.

    2009-02-01

    We developed the new liquid-helium-free dilution refrigerator system, in which the Gifford-McMahon (GM) cycle cryocooler and dilution refrigerator (DR) unit are separated. We obtained the base temperature below 50 mK in this DR system. In usual liquid-helium-free DR systems, the DR unit directly couples with GM-cryocooler in the same vacuum chamber. Therefore the mechanical vibration of GM-cryocooler is hardly removed from DR unit. In order to eliminate the vibration problem, the separated vacuum chamber contacting the GM-cryocooler is connected with the DR unit chamber by the flexible hose with length of about 1 meter. Thin flexible tubes used for circulation of the refrigerant gas and radiation shield are installed in the connection hose. The 4He gas, cooled in the GM-cryocooler unit, transfers to the DR unit throw the thin flexible tubes. After cooling the DR unit, the gas returns to GM-cryocooler unit with cooling of the radiation shield. We expect that our separate-type dilution refrigerator becomes a useful piece of apparatus for the low temperature experiments.

  16. Development of GM cryocooler separate type liquid-helium-free {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Y; Ito, T; Umeno, T; Suzuki, Y; Yoshida, S; Kamioka, Y [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, 10 Okubo, Tsukuba-shi, 300-2611 (Japan); Maehata, K [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka-shi, 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihiro.Yamanaka@tn-sanso.co.jp

    2009-02-01

    We developed the new liquid-helium-free dilution refrigerator system, in which the Gifford-McMahon (GM) cycle cryocooler and dilution refrigerator (DR) unit are separated. We obtained the base temperature below 50 mK in this DR system. In usual liquid-helium-free DR systems, the DR unit directly couples with GM-cryocooler in the same vacuum chamber. Therefore the mechanical vibration of GM-cryocooler is hardly removed from DR unit. In order to eliminate the vibration problem, the separated vacuum chamber contacting the GM-cryocooler is connected with the DR unit chamber by the flexible hose with length of about 1 meter. Thin flexible tubes used for circulation of the refrigerant gas and radiation shield are installed in the connection hose. The {sup 4}He gas, cooled in the GM-cryocooler unit, transfers to the DR unit throw the thin flexible tubes. After cooling the DR unit, the gas returns to GM-cryocooler unit with cooling of the radiation shield. We expect that our separate-type dilution refrigerator becomes a useful piece of apparatus for the low temperature experiments.

  17. Reducing the Liquid Helium Consumption of Superconducting Rock Magnetometers (SRMs) used in Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic studies: Gallium Lubrication of Gifford-McMahon Cryocoolers Leads to a Dramatic Increase in Cool-down Efficiency, and a Drop in Liquid Helium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium-gas cryocoolers have been used for the past 40+ years in a wide variety of cryogenic applications, including reducing the liquid helium consumption of SRMs. However, the cooling efficiency depends greatly on the friction of the displacement pistons, which need to be replaced every few years. This and the rising cost of liquid helium are major headaches in the operation of modern paleomagnetic laboratories. Although the development of efficient pulse-tube cryocoolers has eliminated the need for liquid helium in new superconducting magnetometers, there are still nearly 100 older SRMs around the globe that use liquid helium. In a failed attempt to replace the Gifford-McMahon unit on one of Caltech's SRMs with a pulse-tube, we irreversibly contaminated the cylindrical surfaces of the stainless-steel heat exchanger with a thin film of gallium, a non-toxic metal that has a melting temperature of ~ 30˚C. Liquid gallium will diffuse into other metals, altering their surface properties. We noticed that the next cryocooler-assisted cool down of the SRM went nearly twice as fast as in previous cycles, and the helium boiloff rate for the past 2 years has stabilized at less than half of its average over the past 30 years. It seems that the thin layer of gallium may be reducing the sliding friction of the Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. We recently tested this on a second SRM, with similar results. We found that the inner cryocooler surface reached its equilibrium temperature in about 1/3 of the time that it took in previous cool-down cycles. WSGI also confirmed that this cool-down was unusually efficient compared to other instruments they have built. Subsequent records of the helium gas boiloff show that this system is also running at about half of its former loss rate. Based on these two results, we tentatively recommend this simple procedure any time cold-head swaps are performed on these cryocoolers.

  18. Cool Down Analysis of a Cryocooler Based Quadrupole Magnet Cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Kar, S.; Chacko, J.; Kumar, M.; Babu, S.; Sahu, S.; Kumar, R.; Antony, J.; Datta, T. S.

    A superconducting quadrupole doublet magnet with cold superferric iron cover for the Hybrid Recoil Mass Analyzer (HYRA) beam line has been commissioned. The total cold mass of the helium vessel with iron yoke and pole is 2 ton. A set of two Sumitomo cryocoolers take care of various heat loads to the cryostat. The first successful cool down of the cryostat has been completed recently, magnets have been powered and magnetic field profiling has been done inside theroom temperature beam tube. This paper will highlight the cryostat details along with the cool down and operational test results obtained from the first cool down.

  19. Hampson’s type cryocoolers with distributed Joule-Thomson effect for mixed refrigerants closed cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion

    2014-05-01

    Most previous studies on Joule-Thomson cryocoolers of mixed refrigerants in a closed cycle focus on the Linde kind recuperator. The present study focuses on four constructions of Hampson’s kind miniature Joule-Thomson cryocoolers based on finned capillary tubes. The frictional pressure drop along the tubes plays the role of distributed Joule-Thomson expansion so that an additional orifice or any throttle at the cold end is eliminated. The high pressure tube is a throttle and a channel of recuperation at the same time. These coolers are tested within two closed cycle systems of different compressors and different compositions of mixed coolants. All tests were driven by the same level of discharge pressure (2.9 MPa) while the associated suction pressures and the associated reached temperatures are dependent on each particular cryocooler and on the closed cycle system. The mixture of higher specific cooling capacity cannot reach temperatures below 80 K when driven by the smaller compressor. The other mixture of lower specific cooling capacity driven by the larger compressor reaches lower temperatures. The examined parameters are the cooldown period and the reachable temperatures by each cryocooler.

  20. Steady Secondary Flows Generated by Periodic Compression and Expansion of an Ideal Gas in a Pulse Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.

  1. Experimental Investigation on Regenerator Materials of Stirling-type Pulse-tube Refrigerator Working at 20 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Liubiao; Pan, Changzhao; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    This paper will introduce our recent experimental results of cryogenic regenerator materials employed in Stirling-type one-stage pulse-tube refrigerator for the use at liquid hydrogen temperature. Thermal diffusion coefficient, according to which we choose the suitable regenerator materials, will prove to be a useful reference. We will also discuss the impact of resistance of sphere regenerator materials on the performance of the refrigerator and the method to improve it. Take an overall consideration, suitable-size Er3Ni will be applied as the regenerator materials at the cold head and we achieve a remarkable 14.7 K no-load temperature.

  2. Numerical study on transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of a regenerator in a pulse tube cooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Dietrich, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of the regenerator in a Stirling-type pulse tube cooler as observed in experiments was analysed in a numerical study. The asymmetry was reproduced using a one-dimensional model of the cooler where the regenerator was modelled using two identical...... parallel regenerator channels. The asymmetry was caused by a circulating flow that was superimposed on the oscillating flow. The primary mechanism driving the circulating flow was due to the wave form of the pressure difference between the ends of the regenerator and the dependence of the instantaneous...

  3. Numerical study on transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of a regenerator in a pulse tube cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegaard; Carlsen, Henrik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Engineering Section, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dietrich, Marc; Thummes, Guenter [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of the regenerator in a Stirling-type pulse tube cooler as observed in experiments was analysed in a numerical study. The asymmetry was reproduced using a one-dimensional model of the cooler where the regenerator was modelled using two identical parallel regenerator channels. The asymmetry was caused by a circulating flow that was superimposed on the oscillating flow. The primary mechanism driving the circulating flow was due to the wave form of the pressure difference between the ends of the regenerator and the dependence of the instantaneous mass flow rate on the pressure difference and temperature. (author)

  4. Ultra-low-phase-noise cryocooled microwave dielectric-sapphire-resonator oscillators with frequency instability below 1 x 10^-16

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett, John G; Lu, Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Two nominally identical ultra-stable cryogenic microwave oscillators are compared. Each incorporates a dielectric-sapphire resonator cooled to near 6 K in an ultra-low vibration cryostat using a low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler. The phase noise for a single oscillator is measured at -105 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset on the 11.2 GHz carrier. The oscillator fractional frequency stability is characterized in terms of Allan deviation by 5.3 x 10^-16 tau^-1/2 + 9 x 10^-17 for integration times 0.1 s < tau < 100 s and is limited by a flicker frequency noise floor below 1 x 10^-16.

  5. The Autonomous Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator: A Reference for Frequency Stability and Phase Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, V.; Grop, S.; Fluhr, C.; Dubois, B.; Kersalé, Y.; Rubiola, E.

    2016-06-01

    The Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator (CSO) is the microwave oscillator which feature the highest short-term stability. Our best units exhibit Allan deviation σy (τ) of 4.5x10-16 at 1s, ≈ 1.5x10-16 at 100 s ≤ t ≤ 5,000 s (floor), and ≤ 5x10-15 at one day. The use of a Pulse-Tube cryocooler enables full two year operation with virtually no maintenance. Starting with a short history of the CSO in our lab, we go through the architecture and we provide more details about the resonator, the cryostat, the oscillator loop, and the servo electronics. We implemented three similar oscillators, which enable the evaluation of each with the three- cornered hat method, and provide the potential for Allan deviation measurements at parts of 10-17 level. One of our CSOs (ULISS) is transportable, and goes with a small customized truck. The unique feature of ULISS is that its σy (τ) can be validated at destination by measuring before and after the roundtrip. To this extent, ULISS can be regarded as a traveling standard of frequency stability. The CSOs are a part of the Oscillator IMP project, a platform dedicated to the measurement of noise and short-term stability of oscillators and devices in the whole radio spectrum (from MHz to THz), including microwave photonics. The scope spans from routine measurements to the research on new oscillators, components, and measurement methods.

  6. Performance analysis of a miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rashmin; Atrey, Milind

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are obtained with Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers in an easier way as compared to other cooling techniques. Miniature J-T cryocoolers are often employed for cooling of infrared sensors, cryoprobes, biological samples, etc. A typical miniature J-T cryocooler consists of a storage reservoir/compressor providing the high pressure gas, a finned tube recuperative heat exchanger, an expansion valve/orifice, and the cold end. The recuperative heat exchanger is indispensable for attaining cryogenic temperatures. The geometrical parameters and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger drastically affect the cryocooler performance in terms of cool down time and cooling effect. In the literature, the numerical models for the finned recuperative heat exchanger have neglected the distributed J-T effect. The distributed J-T effect accounts for the changes in enthalpy of the fluid due to changes of pressure in addition to those due to changes of temperature. The objective of this work is to explore the distributed J-T effect and study the performance of a miniature J-T cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect. A one dimensional transient model is employed for the numerical analysis of the cryocooler. Cases with different operating conditions are worked out with argon and nitrogen as working fluids.

  7. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  8. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Page R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV. The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. Methods An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. Results For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for

  9. A Computational Model for Two-stage 4K-Pulse Tube Cooler: Part I.Theoretical Model and Numerical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L. Ju; A.T.A.M. de Waele

    2001-01-01

    A new mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian computational model for simulating and visualizing the internal processes and the variations of dynamic parameters of a two-stage pulse tube cooler (PTC) operating at 4 K-temperature region has been developed. We use the Lagrangian method, a set of moving grids, to follow the exact tracks of gas particles as they move with pressure oscillation in the pulse tube to avoid any numerical false diffusion. The Eulerian approach, a set of fixed computational grids, is used to simulate the variations of dynamic parameters in the regenerator. A variety of physical factors, such as real thermal properties of helium, multi-layered magnetic regenerative materials, pressure drop and heat transfer in the regenerator, and heat exchangers, are taken into account in this model. The present modeling is very effective for visualizing the internal physical processes in 4 K-pulse tube coolers.

  10. Hydrodynamic parameters of micro porous media for steady and oscillatory flow: Application to cryocooler regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeesung Jeff

    Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC) are a class of rugged and high-endurance refrigeration systems that operate without a moving part at their low temperature ends, and are capable of easily reaching 120°K. These devices can also be configured in multiple stages to reach temperatures below 10 °K. PTCs are particularly suitable for applications in space, missile guiding systems, cryosurgery, medicine preservation, superconducting electronics, magnetic resonance imaging, weather observation, and liquefaction of nitrogen. Although various designs of PTCs have been in use for a few decades, they represent a dynamic and developmental field. PTCs ruggedness comes at the price of relatively low efficiency, however, and thus far they have been primarily used in high-end applications. They have the potential of extensive use in consumer products, however, should sufficiently higher efficiencies be achieved. Intense research competition is underway worldwide, and newer designs are continuously introduced. Some of the fundamental processes that are responsible for their performance are at best not fully understood, however, and consequently systematic modeling of PTC systems is difficult. Among the challenges facing the PTC research community, besides improvement in terms of system efficiency, is the possible miniaturization (total fluid volume of few cubic centimeters (cc)) of these systems. The operating characteristics of a PTC are significantly different from the conventional refrigeration cycles. A PTC implements the theory of oscillatory compression and expansion of the gas within a closed volume to achieve desired refrigeration. Regenerators and pulse tubes are often viewed as the two most complex and essential components in cryocoolers. An important deficiency with respect to the state of art models dealing with PTCs is the essentially total lack of understanding about the directional hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters associated with periodic flow in

  11. Thermal Systems (TS): High Capacity Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 20 Watt, 20 Kelvin cryocooler utilizes the reverse turbo-Brayton thermodynamic cycle to cool helium working gas at cryogenic temperatures, circulated through a...

  12. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

  13. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to predict optimal tube pulsing window for coronary artery CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gang, E-mail: cjr.sungang@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Min, E-mail: limin22000@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jiang, Xiang-sen, E-mail: jiangxiangsen123@126.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Li, E-mail: leely1976@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Peng, Zhao-hui, E-mail: zhaohuipeng_R@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Mu, Nan-nan, E-mail: munannan22000@sohu.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Rationale and objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to determine the optimal pulsing windows for CT coronary angiography to narrow the pulsing windows further, especially in higher heart rate. Materials and methods: Doppler was performed on 135 patients before CT scanning. For Doppler, the intervals with minimal motion were evaluated during both systole and diastole integrating electrocardiogram (ECG) intervals. For CT scanning, the retrospective ECG-gating was applied and the optimal reconstruction intervals were determined. The accuracy of Doppler analysis to predict the optimal reconstruction intervals was tested. The predicted length of pulsing windows was compared between Doppler analysis and traditional prospective ECG-gating protocol (heart rate ≦ 65 bpm, 60–76%; 66–79 bpm, 30–77%; ≧80 bpm, 31–47%). Results: According to Doppler analysis, the mean length of intervals with minimal motion in systole was 106.4 ± 39.2 ms and 125.2 ± 92.0 ms in diastole. When the intervals with minimal motion during diastole > 90 ms, the optimal reconstruction intervals were located at diastole; otherwise, at systole (P < 0.001). The optimal reconstruction intervals in 93.8% (132/135) patients could be predicted accurately by Doppler analysis. If the optimal reconstruction intervals predicted by Doppler were applied as the exposure windows, the mean length of pulsing windows should has been 105.2 ± 69.4 ms (range: 26.9–510.3 ms), which was significantly shorter than that of traditional prospective ECG-gating protocol (232.0 ± 120.2 ms, range: 93.2–427.3 ms, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Doppler can help detecting the optimal pulsing windows accurately. Prospective ECG-gating incorporating Doppler analysis may narrow pulsing windows significantly while maintaining image quality.

  14. Thermal characterization of rods, tubes and spheres using pulsed infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinaniz, E [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Mendioroz, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Madariaga, N [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Oleaga, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Celorrio, R [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Rio Ebro, Edificio Torres Quevedo, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Salazar, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-01-07

    In this work we analyse the accuracy of an extension of the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of rods, tubes and spheres, which was recently proposed by the authors. We have performed measurements in a wide set of calibrated samples of different sizes and we have found that a lower limiting size of the radius can be established for the validity of the method. On the other hand, a procedure to retrieve the thermal conductivity of tubes, based on filling them with a contrast liquid (water), is proposed. Moreover, the thermal contact resistance between the two layers of coated cylinders is also obtained. Measurements on calibrated samples confirm the validity of the two latest methods.

  15. Prototype Low Temperature Low Power Cryocooler,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    4 t CO-other superconducting devices. lLEb In 1977 Dr. Jim Zimmerman of National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO described a stirling cycle...Zimmerman successfully operated a point-Contact Nb SQUID on a four- stage stirling cycle cryocooler with a mechanical drive power of approxi- mately 15...allow a complete pressure change in the Cryocooler cylinder (plus expan- ion volume and regenerator ). Since this is not easily accomplished in a

  16. A useful method to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and its application to rate effect studies in a photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kurashige, H; Matono, Y; Murakami, K; Nomura, T; Sakamoto, H; Sasao, N; Suehiro, M; Fukushima, Y; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, T T; Taniguchi, T; Asai, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to study short-term gain stability in a photomultiplier tube at high counting rate, we constructed an LED pulsed light source and its output monitoring system. For the monitoring system, we employed a photon counting method using a photomultiplier as a monitor photon detector. It is found that the method offers a simple way to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and that, together with an LED light source, it provides a useful method to investigate photomultiplier's rate effects.

  17. Experimental Investigation on Heating Kerosene Using Thrust Tube Waste Heat of Pulse Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiqiao; Yan, Yu; Mu, Yang; Zheng, Longxi; Chen, Le

    2013-12-01

    Performance of liquid hydrocarbon fueled pulse detonation engines are hindered by the time required to evaporate liquid fuel droplets within the mixture. Efforts such as heating the liquid fuel before introduced into the engine were made to overcome this problem. The engine wall suffered high temperature of gaseous detonative products, which is harmful to the engine. Therefore the waste heat of PDE engine wall was used here to heat the liquid kerosene of the engine by using two concentric heat-exchangers with helical slot inside mounted at the tail of the pulse detonation engine. The pulse detonation engine (PDE) used here are 110 mm in inner diameter and 1700 mm in length and liquid kerosene and gaseous air were used as fuel and oxidizer respectively. Heating liquid kerosene was found effective in enhancing the engine performance, which was helpful for deflagration to detonation transition process. It was found that the waste heat could elevate the kerosene temperature effectively and the wall temperature could also be decreased obviously.

  18. Experimental study of the influence of cold heat exchanger geometry on the performance of a co-axial pulse tube cooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Xiaomin; Dai, Wei; Wang, Xiaotao; Vanapalli, S.; Luo, Ercang

    2016-01-01

    Improving the performance of the pulse tube cooler is one of the important objectives of the current studies. Besides the phase shifters and regenerators, heat exchangers also play an important role in determining the system efficiency and cooling capacity. A series of experiments on a 10 W @ 77 K c

  19. Characteristics of Spherical Shock Wave and Circular Pulse Jet Generated by Discharge of Propagating Shock Wave at Open End of Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsukasa Irie; Tsuyoshi Yasunobu; Hideo Kashimura; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kazuyasu Matsuo

    2003-01-01

    When the shock wave propagating in the straight circular tube reaches at the open end, the impulsive wave is generated by the emission of a shock wave from an open end, and unsteady pulse jet is formed near the open end behind the impulsive wave under the specific condition. The pulse jet transits to spherical shock wave with the increase in the strength of shock wave. The strength is dependent on the Mach number of shock wave, which attenuates by propagation distance from the open end. In this study, the mechanism of generating the unsteady pulse jet, the characteristics of the pressure distribution in the flow field and the emission of shock wave from straight circular tube which has the infinite flange at open end are analyzed numerically by the TVD method. Strength of spherical shock wave, relation of shock wave Mach number, distance decay of spherical shock wave and directional characteristics are clarified.

  20. Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the person's heart is pumping. Pulse ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  1. Operation of a Wideband Terahertz Superconducting Bolometer Responding to Quantum Cascade Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, S.; Beck, M.; Carelli, P.; Castellano, M. G.; Chiarello, F.; Faist, J.; Leoni, R.; Ortolani, M.; Sabbatini, L.; Scalari, G.; Torrioli, G.; Turcinkova, D.

    2012-06-01

    We make use of a niobium film to produce a micrometric vacuum-bridge superconducting bolometer responding to THz frequency. The bolometer works anywhere in the temperature range 2-7 K, which can be easily reached in helium bath cryostats or closed-cycle cryocoolers. In this work the bolometer is mounted on a pulse tube refrigerator and operated to measure the equivalent noise power (NEP) and the response to fast (μs) terahertz pulses. The NEP above 100 Hz equals that measured in a liquid helium cryostat showing that potential drawbacks related to the use of a pulse tube refrigerator (like mechanical and thermal oscillations, electromagnetic interference, noise) are irrelevant. At low frequency, instead, the pulse tube expansion-compression cycles originate lines at 1 Hz and harmonics in the noise spectrum. The bolometer was illuminated with THz single pulses coming either from a Quantum Cascade Laser operating at liquid nitrogen temperature or from a frequency-multiplied electronic oscillator. The response of the bolometer to the single pulses show that the device can track signals with a rise time as fast as about 450 ns.

  2. Cool-down acceleration of G-M cryocoolers with thermal oscillations passively damped by helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, R. J.; Delmas, J.

    2015-12-01

    4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers suffer from inherent temperature oscillations which can be a problem for certain attached electronic instrumentation. Sumitomo Heavy Industries has exploited the high volumetric specific heat of super-critical He to quell these oscillations (approx. 10 dB) by strongly thermally linking a separate vessel of He to the second stage; no significant thermal resistance is added between the payload and the working gas of the cryocooler. A noticeable effect of the helium damper is to increase the cool-down time of the second stage below 10 K. For the operation of niobium-based superconducting electronics (NbSCE), a common practice is to warm the circuits above the critical temperature (∼9 K) and then cool to the operating point in order to redistribute trapped magnetic fluxons, so for NbSCE users, the time to cool from 10 K is important. The gas in the helium damper is shared between a room-temperature buffer tank and the 2nd stage vessel, which are connected by a capillary tube. We show that the total cool-down time below 10 K can be substantially reduced by introducing a combination of thermal linkages between the cryocooler and the capillary tube and in-line relief valves, which control the He mass distribution between the warm canister and cold vessel. The time to reach operating temperature from the superconducting transition has been reduced to <25% of the time needed without these low-cost modifications.

  3. Qualification test results for the TIRS cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Eric; Gully, Wilfred; Marquardt, Jennifer; Boyle, Robert; Hale, Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace has completed qualification testing of its flight Stirling-cycle mechanical cryocooler for the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), an instrument slated to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) platform. The TIRS cooler, developed under subcontract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, consists of a sophisticated and highly reliable, two-stage, fixed regenerator Stirling cryocooler and its drive electronics. The TIRS cooler provides 2 W of 38 K cooling to the TIRS detectors and 9.8 W shield cooling to 85 K for less than 225 W total input power. Performance test results are reported.

  4. Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E

    2001-01-01

    With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.

  5. 主动式配气系统驱动的低温制冷机理论与实验研究%Study on Cryocooler With an Active Gas Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 邱利民; 董文庆; 甘智华; 张小斌

    2011-01-01

    针对G—M型脉管制冷机传统配气方式中压缩机配气量耗功和不可逆损失较大等缺点,本文提出一种带有中间气库的主动式配气系统。理论分析表明,和传统配气方式相比,主动式配气系统可显著降低压缩机配气量耗功和配气系统熵产。基于自行研制的G—M型脉管制冷机开展实验。当中间气库开启时间比例为30%时,制冷机可获得较低的制冷温度且对制冷性能影响较小。主动式配气系统提高了阀门寿命并且改善了配气系统运行工况。%In order to overcome the disadvantages of traditional gas distribution system of G-M type pulse tube cryocooler, such as high irreversible losses during the intake and exhaust processes and power consumption, a novel active gas distribution system with middle stage reservoir is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that active distribution system can reduce the power consumption of the compressor due to the reduction of irreversible losses during the intake and exhaust processes. The self-made pulse tube cooler with the active gas distribution system was tested. When the proportion of opening time of the middle stage reservoir is 30%, cryocooler reaches a lower temperature with minor decrease of cooling power. Besides, active gas distribution system increases the life time for valves.

  6. Closed cycle cryocooler for low temperature electronics circuits: Cold end test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirtle, F. W.

    1983-08-01

    A fabricated MACOR cold end including a metallic coating to prevent helium permeation and a fabricated die post displacer support bearing were combined with a compressor and motor which are standard CTI-CRYOGENICS products. A mechanical test was performed on the test cryocooler to determine that the mechanical test was performed on the test cryocooler to determine that the MACOR displacer was successfully guided by the die post bearing. Thermodynamic tests were conducted to determine the lowest temperature of the 4th (coldest) stage as a function of operating speed, helium charge pressure, 4th stage electrical heat load, and transfer tube diameter. Cooldown and steady state results are reported. Results indicate a low temperature limit of approximately 95K with the current test hardware. Although this represents an improvement from 122K during the program, a resizing will be necessary to reach 10K. The die post displacer support bearing and the MACOR cold finger construction are mechanically satisfactory.

  7. Performance of a 4 Kelvin pulse-tube cooled cryostat with dc SQUID amplifiers for bolometric detector testing

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Darcy; Keating, Brian; Quillin, Ron; Stebor, Nathan; Wilson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes is searching for the undetected faint signature of gravitational waves from inflation in the polarized signal of the CMB. To achieve the unprecedented levels of sensitivity required, these experiments use arrays of superconducting Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers that are cooled to sub-Kelvin temperatures for photon-noise limited performance. These TES detectors are read out using low- noise SQUID amplifiers. To rapidly test these detectors and similar devices in a laboratory setting, we constructed a cryogenic refrigeration chain consisting of a commercial two-stage pulse-tube cooler, with a base temperature of 3 K, and a closed-cycle 3He/4He/3He sorption cooler, with a base temperature of 220 mK. A commercial dc SQUID system, with sensors cooled to 4 K, was used as a highly-sensitive cryogenic ammeter. Due to the extreme sensitivity of SQUIDs to changing magnetic fields, there are several challenges involving cooling them with puls...

  8. Visualization study on effects of frequency on acoustic streaming in a pulse tube refrigerator; Parusu kan reitokinai ni yukisareru nijitekina nagare ni oyobosu shuhasu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M.; Nakano, A. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Takamatsu, K.; Murakami, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    It induces the otherwise secondary and fundamental flow in pulse tube refrigerating machine of an oscillating flow. This secondary flow is connected with the improvement on the performance, if it can be reduced, since it becomes a cause of the usual heat loss. Therefore, we systematically examine the secondary flow induced in the pulse tube refrigerator. Until now, the dependent main factor by sound flow secondary flow and existence of a natural convection secondary flow and angle value of the refrigeration performance clarified the fact by the generation of a natural convection secondary flow. Here, it introduces the result of examining frequency dependence and effect of compression ratio in the visualization experiment on characteristics of a sound flow secondary flow, which always exists. (NEDO)

  9. Study on LXe system for particle detector. Liquefaction test by pulse tube refrigerator; Ryushi kenshutsuyo ekitai Xenon shisutemu no kenkyu. Parusu kan reitokini yoru ekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K. [High energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    It is supersensitively used for the particle detection from electrons and that they release the light, that it can deal with fast process, etc. for the high-energy particle which emits liquid Xenon. It recently proposes the experiment which uses large liquid Xenon as a calorimeter in order to detect {gamma}ray of the high energy. It examines the thermal characteristic of liquid Xenon, while this study attempts the optimization in liquefying Xenon by pulse tube refrigerating machine. This time, the following are reported: Introduction of the Xenon gas system for the small-scale liquefaction experiment and experiment near 165K of small pulse tube refrigerating machine on a refrigerating capacity. (NEDO)

  10. NASA Space Cryocooler Programs: A 2003 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Boyle, R. F.; Kittel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. An overview is presented of ongoing cryocooler activities within NASA in support of current flight projects, near-term flight instruments, and long-term technology development. NASA programs in Earth and space science observe a wide range of phenomena, from crop dynamics to stellar birth. Many of the instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to improve dynamic range, extend wavelength coverage, and enable the use of advanced detectors. Although, the largest utilization of coolers over the last decade has been for instruments operating at medium to high cryogenic temperatures (55 to 150 K), reflecting the relative maturity of the technology at these temperatures, important new developments are now focusing at the lower temperature range from 4 to 20 K in support of studies of the origin of the universe and the search for planets around distant stars. NASA's development of a 20K cryocooler for the European Planck spacecraft and its new Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) for 6-18 K coolers are examples of the thrust to provide low temperature cooling for this class of missions.

  11. Experimental study of thermo-fluiddynamic phenomena in a regenerator of pulse tube refrigerator; Parusu kan reitoki no chikureikinai no netsuryutai gensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, K.; Murakami, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Shiraishi, M.; Nakano, A. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    The regeneration vessel occupies the important part in the design of the real machine of pulse tube refrigerating machine. However, it is not supposed that thermo-fluiddynamic phenomena of the regeneration vessel inside under operation of the real machine have sufficiently been grasped. We advance the investigation on thermo-fluiddynamic phenomena under the operating condition in the regeneration vessel. Here, it introduces the part of the result got until now. (NEDO)

  12. The 4 K Stirling cryocooler demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, W. Dodd

    1992-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the results and conclusions from an SBIR program intended to demonstrate an innovative Stirling cycle cryocooler concept for efficiently lifting heat from 4 K. Refrigeration at 4 K, a temperature useful for superconductors and sensitive instruments, is beyond the reach of conventional regenerative thermodynamic cycles due to the rapid loss of regenerator matrix heat capacity at temperatures below about 20 K. To overcome this fundamental limit, the cryocooler developed under this program integrated three unique features: recuperative regeneration between the displacement gas flow streams of two independent Stirling cycles operating at a 180 degree phase angle, tailored distortion of the two expander volume waveforms from sinusoidal to perfectly match the instantaneous regenerator heat flux from the two cycles and thereby unload the regenerator, and metal diaphragm working volumes to promote near isothermal expansion and compression processes. Use of diaphragms also provides unlimited operating life potential and eliminates bearings and high precision running seals. A phase 1 proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that counterflow regenerator operation between 77 K and 4 K increases regenerator effectiveness by minimizing metal temperature transient cycling. In phase 2, a detailed design package for a breadboard cryocooler was completed. Fabrication techniques were successfully developed for manufacturing high precision miniature parallel plate recuperators, and samples were produced and inspected. Process development for fabricating suitably flat diaphragms proved more difficult and expensive than anticipated, and construction of the cryocooler was suspended at a completion level of approximately 75%. Subsequent development efforts on other projects have successfully overcome diaphragm fabrication difficulties, and alternate funding is currently being sought for completion and demonstration testing of the 4 K Stirling cryocooler.

  13. Performance of an adjustable, threaded inertance tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Nellis, G. F.; Liu, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler depends strongly on the design of the inertance tube. The phase angle produced by the inertance tube is very sensitive to its diameter and length. Recent developments are reported here regarding an adjustable inertance device that can be adjusted in real time. The inertance passage is formed by the root of a concentric cylindrical threaded device. The depth of the threads installed on the outer screw varies. In this device, the outer screw can be rotated four and half turns. At the zero turn position the length of the passage is 1.74 m and the hydraulic diameter is 7 mm. By rotating the outer screw, the inner threaded rod engages with additional, larger depth threads. Therefore, at its upper limit of rotation, the inertance passage includes both the original 1.74 m length with 7mm hydraulic diameter plus an additional 1.86 m length with a 10 mm hydraulic diameter. A phase shift change of 24° has been experimentally measured by changing the position of outer screw while operating the device at a frequency of 60 Hz. This phase angle shift is less than the theoretically predicted value due to the presence of a relatively large leak through the thread clearance. Therefore, the distributed component model of the inertance tube was modified to account for the leak path causing the data to agree with the model. Further, the application of vacuum grease to the threads causes the performance of the device to improve substantially.

  14. Reactions of 1-naphthyl radicals with ethylene. Single pulse shock tube experiments, quantum chemical, transition state theory, and multiwell calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Assa; Tamburu, Carmen; Dubnikova, Faina

    2008-02-07

    The reactions of 1-naphthyl radicals with ethylene were studied behind reflected shock waves in a single pulse shock tube, covering the temperature range 950-1200 K at overall densities behind the reflected shocks of approximately 2.5 x 10(-5) mol/cm3. 1-Iodonaphthalene served as the source for 1-naphthyl radicals as its C-I bond dissociation energy is relatively small. It is only approximately 65 kcal/mol as compared to the C-H bond strength in naphthalene which is approximately 112 kcal/mol and can thus produce naphthyl radicals at rather low reflected shock temperatures. The [ethylene]/[1-iodo-naphthalene] ratio in all of the experiments was approximately 100 in order to channel the free radicals into reactions with ethylene rather than iodonaphthalene. Four products resulting from the reactions of 1-naphthyl radicals with ethylene were found in the post shock samples. They were vinyl naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, and naphthalene. Some low molecular weight aliphatic products at rather low concentrations, resulting from the attack of various free radicals on ethylene were also found in the shocked samples. In view of the relatively low temperatures employed in the present experiments, the unimolecular decomposition rate of ethylene is negligible. Three potential energy surfaces describing the production of vinyl naphthalene, acenaphthene, and acenaphthylene were calculated using quantum chemical methods and rate constants for the elementary steps on the surfaces were calculated using transition state theory. Naphthalene is not part of the reactions on the surfaces. Acenaphthylene is obtained only from acenaphthene. A kinetics scheme containing 27 elementary steps most of which were obtained from the potential energy surfaces was constructed and computer modeling was performed. An excellent agreement between the experimental yields of the four major products and the calculated yields was obtained.

  15. High-Efficiency, Low-Temperature Regenerators for Cryocoolers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration...

  16. Thermodynamic performance of a laser cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Shuang; Sun, Fengrui

    2007-05-28

    The quantum dynamic action of a laser cooling system is analyzed by means of a simplified luminescence center model with ground state and excited state in this paper. The thermodynamic performance of a laser cryocooler is described by solving quantum master equation. The cooling load and the coefficient of performance of the cooler are obtained by using finite time thermodynamics. Some features of the system under the weak coupling and under the intense coupling conditions are discussed.

  17. Development of Compact 2K GM Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingyao; Bao, Qian; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Li, Rui

    A compact 2K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler has been developed for cooling electronic devices, such as Superconducting Single Photo Detectors (SSPD). The heat exchangers, regenerators are optimized with the numerical simulation method developed for 4K GM cryocoolers. After optimizing, the cylinder length is reduced by 85 mm compared with a commercial 0.1W 4K GM cryocooler. With no load on the second stage, a temperature of about 2.1 K has been achieved. With 1 W and 20 mW heat load, the temperature is 44.4 K at the first stage and 2.23 K at the second stage with an input power of about 1.1 kW. And also, it is found that the temperature oscillation decreases as the average temperature decreases. A temperature oscillation of about ±20 mK has been achieved. The object of the project, target specification, and a summary of experiment results will also be introduced in this paper.

  18. Experimental study of the influence of cold heat exchanger geometry on the performance of a co-axial pulse tube cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaomin; Dai, Wei; Wang, Xiaotao; Vanapalli, S.; Luo, Ercang

    2016-09-01

    Improving the performance of the pulse tube cooler is one of the important objectives of the current studies. Besides the phase shifters and regenerators, heat exchangers also play an important role in determining the system efficiency and cooling capacity. A series of experiments on a 10 W @ 77 K class co-axial type pulse tube cooler with different cold heat exchanger geometries are presented in this paper. The cold heat exchangers are made from a copper block with radial slots, cut through using electrical discharge machining. Different slot widths varying from 0.12 mm to 0.4 mm and different slot numbers varying from around 20-60 are investigated, while the length of cold heat exchangers are kept the same. The cold heat exchanger geometry is classified into three groups, namely, constant heat transfer area, constant porosity and constant slot width. The study reveals that a large channel width of 0.4 mm (about ten times the thermal penetration depth of helium gas at 77 K, 100 Hz and 3.5 MPa) shows poor performance, the other results show complicated interaction effects between slot width and slot number. These systematic comparison experiments provide a useful reference for selecting a cold heat exchanger geometry in a practical cooler.

  19. Exploring the polymerization of bioactive nano-cones on the inner surface of an organic tube by an atmospheric pressure pulsed micro-plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. M.; Yu, J. S.; Chen, G. L.; Qiu, X. P.; Hu, W.; Chen, W. X.; Bai, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the successful deposition of acrylic acid polymer (PAA) nano-cones on the inner surface of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube using an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma jet (APPJ) with acrylic acid (AA) monomer is presented. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements indicated that various reactive radicals, such as rad OH and rad O, existed in the plasma jet. Moreover, the pulsed current proportionally increased with the increase in the applied voltage. The strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (Cdbnd O) at 1700 cm-1, shown in the ATR-FTIR spectra, clearly indicated that the PAA was deposited on the PVC surface. The maximum height of the PAA nano-cones deposited by this method ranged from 150 to 200 nm. FTIR and XPS results confirmed the enhanced exposure of the carboxyl groups on the modified PVC surface, which was considered highly beneficial for successfully immobilizing a high density of biomolecules. The XPS data showed that the carbon ratios of the Csbnd OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 7.03% and 2.6% to 18.69% and 6.81%, respectively (more than doubled) when an Ar/O2 plasma with AA monomer was applied to treat the inner surface of the PVC tube. Moreover, the enhanced attachment density of MC3T3-E1 bone cells was observed on the PVC inner surface coated with PAA nano-cones.

  20. 液氦温区两级4K脉冲管制冷机数值模拟%NUMERICAL STUDY OF A TWO-STAGE 4K-PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLER OPERATING AT LIQUID HELIUM TEMPERATURE RANGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨永林; DEWAELEA.T.A.M^2

    2003-01-01

    为模拟和动态显示工作在液氦温区的两级4 K脉冲管制冷机内部工作过程和参数变化规律,发展了一种新的欧拉法-拉格朗日法数值计算模型.采用拉格朗日方法,直接跟踪脉冲管中气体微元随周期性压力波动的具体运行轨迹;采用欧拉法,直接模拟蓄冷器内部的动态参数变化.本文简单介绍该模型,并模拟了一典型两级4 K脉冲管制冷机各参数的变化情况,分析了多层磁性蓄冷材料对制冷机性能的影响情况.

  1. Versatile experimental low power 4 K cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N.; Barbanera, S.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    The construction of a low power cryocooler consisting of a five-stage plastic Stirling cooler with an additional Joule-Thomson stage is described. Among its novel features are a contamination-free, pneumatic helium compressor and displacer drive. Valve timing is under computer control. Titanium foil embedded in the cylinder wall reduces helium diffusion through the plastic. The Joule-Thomson stage uses the same low pressure helium as the Stirling stages. The Stirling system cools down below 9 K. The Joule-Thomson stage delivers a few mW cooling at 4.2 K.

  2. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  3. Cryogenic thermal absorptance measurements on small-diameter stainless steel tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James; Jahromi, Amir; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope includes a mechanical cryocooler which cools its detectors to their 6 K operating temperature. The coolant gas flows through several meters of small-diameter stainless steel tubing, which is exposed to thermal radiation from its environment. Over much of its length this tubing is gold-plated to minimize the absorption of this radiant heat. In order to confirm that the cryocooler will meet MIRI's requirements, the thermal absorptance of this tubing was measured as a function of its environment temperature. We describe the measurement technique and present the results.

  4. RICOR development of the next generation highly reliable rotary cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Itai; Nachman, Ilan; Livni, Dorit; Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Segal, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Early rotary cryocoolers were designed for the lifetime of a few thousands operating hours. Ricor K506 model's life expectancy was only 5,000 hours, then the next generation K508 model was designed to achieve 10,000 operating hours in basic conditions, while the modern K508N was designed for 20,000 operating hours. Nowadays, the new challenges in the field of rotary cryocoolers require development of a new generation cooler that could compete with the linear cryocooler reliability, achieving the lifetime goal of 30,000 operating hours, and even more. Such new advanced cryocooler can be used for upgrade existing systems, or to serve the new generation of high-temperature detectors that are currently under development, enabling the cryocooler to work more efficiently in the field. The improvement of the rotary cryocooler reliability is based on a deep analysis and understating of the root failure causes, finding solutions to reduce bearings wear, using modern materials and lubricants. All of those were taken into consideration during the development of the new generation rotary coolers. As a part of reliability challenges, new digital controller was also developed, which allows new options, such as discrete control of the operating frequency, and can extend the cooler operating hours due to new controlling technique. In addition, the digital controller will be able to collect data during cryocooler operation, aiming end of life prediction.

  5. Space Flight Qualification Program for the AMS-2 Commercial Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, K. A.; Banks, I. S.; Breon, S. R.; Boyle, R. F.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector containing a large superfluid helium-cooled superconducting magnet. Highly sensitive detector plates inside the magnet measure a particle's speed, momentum, charge, and path. The AMS-02 experiment will study the properties and origin of cosmic particles and nuclei including antimatter and dark matter. AMS-02 will be installed on the International Space Station on Utilization Flight-4. The experiment will be run for at least three years. To extend the life of the stored cryogen and minimize temperature gradients around the magnet, four Stirling-cycle Sunpower M87N cryocoolers will be integrated with AMS-02. The cryocooler cold tip will be connected via a flexible strap to the outer vapor cooled shield of the dewar. Initial thermal analysis shows the lifetime of the experiment is increased by a factor of 2.8 with the use of the cryocooler. The AMS-02 project selected the Sunpower M87 cryocoolers and has asked NASA Goddard to qualify the cryocoolers for space flight use. This paper describes the interfaces with the cryocoolers and presents data collected during testing of the two engineering model cryocoolers. Tests include thermal performance characterization and launch vibration testing. Magnetic field compatibility testing will be presented in a separate paper at the conference.

  6. A high pressure ratio DC compressor for tactical cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Cameron, Benjamin H.; Zagarola, Mark V.; Narayanan, Sri R.

    2016-05-01

    A high pressure ratio DC compressor is a critical component for many cryocooler cycles. Prior research has focused on the adaptation of commercial compressor technology (scroll, screw, linear with rectification valves, and regenerative) for use in cryogenic applications where long-life and oil-free (i.e., volatile contamination free) are unique requirements. In addition, many cryocooler applications are for cooling imaging instruments making low vibration an additional requirement. Another candidate compressor technology has emerged from the fuel cell industry. Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMs) are used in fuel cells to separate reactants and transport protons, and these capabilities may be used in cryocoolers to compress hydrogen from low to high pressure. A particular type of PEM utilizing an anhydrous membrane forms the basis of a solid-state cryocooler. Creare has been investigating the use of PEM compressors for low temperature Joule-Thomson and dilution cryocoolers. These cryocoolers have no moving parts, can operate at temperatures down to nominally 23 K, produce no vibration, and are low cost. Our work on the cycle optimization, cryocooler design, and development and demonstration of the compressor technology is the subject of this paper.

  7. Thermal Properties of Loose Tube Secondary Coated Optical Fibres Experimentally Discussed by a Relative Light Pulse Delay Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-17

    mechanical stability of fibre optic cables for example, shrinkage of the extruded operating at varying ambient conditions, plastic tubes at elevated...heating process. Controlling the Fibre Excess Length In the design of fibre optic cables -- with respect to temperature characteri- stics, it should be

  8. Application concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducting magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, M. T. G.; Tax, R. B.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    Superconducting magnets are in growing use outside laboratories for example MRI scanners in hospitals. Other applications under development are magnet systems for separation, levitated trains and ship propulsion. The application of cryocoolers can make these systems more practical. Interfacing these cryocoolers to the magnets can be designed in several different ways. The four basic methods will be dealt with. Test results of a realized GM cryocooler-SC magnet system will be shown. It handles about a 1:3 scale MRI magnet of which one of the six coils has been successfully tested at temperatures between 10 and 14 K.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the efficiency of linear compressors for cryocoolers%低温制冷机用线性压缩机效率的理论及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗; 熊超; 吴亦农; 党海政

    2011-01-01

    为了提高低温制冷机整机效率,基于力的平衡及电压平衡方程理论,分析了线性压缩机电机效率及电功转化为活塞表面声功效率的影响因素;并对线性压缩机效率进行了实验测量;理论与实验吻合较好;电机效率、电功转化为声功效率测量值与理论值偏差分别在3%及7%以内.最后对冷指确定时线性压缩机的优化设计方法进行了总结.%In order to increase the total efficiency of the Stirling cryocooler and Stirling - type pulse tube cryocooler, theoretical analysis was carried out on the efficiency of the motor and transduction efficiency of electrical power to acoustic power at the piston surface of the linear compressor based on the force balance and voltage balance equation. The two efficiencies of two different linear compressors connected with cold fingers were measured. The calculated results agreed well with the test values, and the differences between the experimental results and the theoretical values were respectively 3% for the efficiency of the motor and 7% for the transduction efficiency of electrical power to acoustic power at the piston surface of the linear compressor. At last the optimal design method of the linear compressor with known load impedance was summarized.

  10. Investigations for low noise cooling by means of a pulse tube cooler for highly sensitive SQUID magnetometers from high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lienerth, C

    2000-01-01

    110fT/[Root]Hz at 10 Hz. For the discret peaks at the working frequency the vibration compensation is capable of reducing the cooler-generated peaks in the field noise spectrum by a factor of the order of 4. This noise level is low enough for applications such as nondestructive evaluation of materials. For identifying the origin of the remaining disturbances, one has to consider in addition to the residual vibrations also temperature oscillations and oscillating fields from eddy current at the SQUID location. The commercial acceptance of superconducting applications is closely associated with the availability of appropriate cryocoolers that enable continuous operation without the need to re-fill liquid cryogens. For cooling of highly-sensitive HT-SQUID sensors the cryocooler has to meet rather severe demands concerning interference from the cooler itself. In particular, cooler-generated noise from electromagnetic interference (EMI), mechanical vibrations and temperature fluctuations should be below the intrin...

  11. Highly Effective Thermal Regenerator for Low Temperature Cryocoolers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future missions to investigate the structure and evolution of the universe require highly efficient, low-temperature cryocoolers for low-noise detector systems. We...

  12. A Low Input Power Cryocooler for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA missions will require cryocoolers providing cooling capacities upwards of 0.3W at 35K with heat rejection capability to temperature sinks as low as 150K...

  13. High Pressure Cryocooling of Protein Crystals: The Enigma of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2010-03-01

    A novel high-pressure cryocooling technique for preparation biological samples for x-ray analysis is described. The method, high-pressure cryocooling, involves cooling samples to cryogenic temperatures (e.g., 100 K) in high-pressure Helium gas (up to 200 MPa). It bears both similarities and differences to high-pressure cooling methods that have been used to prepare samples for electron microscopy, and has been especially useful for cryocooling of macromolecular crystals for x-ray diffraction. Examples will be given where the method has been effective in providing high quality crystallographic data for difficult samples, such as cases where ligands needed to be stabilized in binding sites to be visualized, or where very high resolution data were required. The talk concludes with a discussion of data obtained by high-pressure cryocooling that pertains to two of the most important problems in modern science: the enigma of water and how water affects the activity of proteins.

  14. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  15. Applications concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducitng magnet systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are in growing use outside laboratories for example MRI scanners in hospitals. Other applications under development are magnet systems for separation, levitated trains and ship propulsion. The application of cryocoolers can make these systems more practical. Interfacing these

  16. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  17. Thermal decomposition of 1-chloropropane behind the reflected shock waves in the temperature range of 1015-1220 K: Single pulse shock tube and computational studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sudhakar; B Rajakumar

    2014-07-01

    The thermal decomposition of 1-chloropropane in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in a single pulse shock tube over the temperature range of 1015-1220 K. The reaction mainly goes through unimolecular elimination of HCl. The major products observed in the decomposition are propylene and ethylene, while the minor products identified are methane and propane. The rate constant for HCl elimination in the studied temperature range is estimated to be k(1015-1220 K) = 1.63 × 1013exp(-(60.1 ± 1.0) kcal mol-1/RT) s-1. The DFT calculations were carried out to identify the transition state(s) for the major reaction channel; and rate coefficient for this reaction is obtained to be k(800-1500 K) = 5.01 × 1014exp(-(58.8) kcal mol-1/RT) s-1. The results are compared with the experimental findings.

  18. Remote actuated cryocooler for superconducting generator and method of assembling the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang; Haran, Kiruba Sivasubramaniam; Fair, Ruben Jeevanasan

    2017-02-14

    In one embodiment, a cryocooler assembly for cooling a heat load is provided. The cryocooler assembly includes a vacuum vessel surrounding the heat load and a cryocooler at least partially inserted into the vacuum vessel, the cryocooler including a coldhead. The assembly further includes an actuator coupled to the cryocooler. The actuator is configured to translate the cryocooler coldhead into thermal engagement with the heat load and to maintain constant pressure of the coldhead against the heat load to facilitate maintaining thermal engagement with the heat load as the heat load shrinks during a cool down process.

  19. An Investigation of Certain Thermodynamic Losses in Minature Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Background A Stirling cycle cryocooler can be considered as undergoing an ideal cycle (with Carnot efficiency), with loss processes degrading the...causes no amplitude or start-up distortion (unlike synthesised ‘ reverse time’ inverse filters). 2. Calculate RMS and DC values (from full cycles ). 3...unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Stirling cycle cryocoolers developed at Oxford have typically been

  20. On-Orbit Performance of the RHESSI Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    The Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft was launched on February 5,2002. With more than a year of operation on-orbit, its Sunpower M77 cryocooler continues to maintain the array of nine germanium detectors at 7% Trends have begun to emerge in cryocooler power and vibration, suggesting that the cooler's operating point is slowly changing. Possible causes are identified and discussed.

  1. An approach to optimization of low-power Stirling cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Radebaugh, R.; Daney, D. E.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    A method for optimizing the design (shape of the displacer) of low power Stirling cryocoolers relative to the power required to operate the systems is described. A variational calculation which includes static conduction, shuttle and radiation losses, as well as regenerator inefficiency, was completed for coolers operating in the 300 K to 10 K range. While the calculations apply to tapered displacer machines, comparison of the results with stepped displacer cryocoolers indicates reasonable agreement.

  2. Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, R. C.

    1998-05-22

    The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping.

  3. Miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooling principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Maytal, Ben-Zion

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. • The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types • Theoretical Aspec...

  4. (abstract) JPL Cryocooler Development and Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Many near-term and future space-instrument programs within NASA and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) depend on the successful development of long-life, low-vibration space cryocoolers. The most demanding near-term programs include a number of science instruments selected for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos) program, and a number of space reconnaissance instruments associated with the BMDO's Brilliant Eyes program; both of these programs require delivery of similar types of flight coolers in the next few years. To help ensure the success of these cooler commitments, JPL has implemented an extensive cryocooler program in support of the NASA/JPL AIRS project, the Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AFPL), and the Air Force Space and Missiles Systems Division (SMC). This program is directed at assisting industry in developing advanced cryocoolers that successfully address the broad array of complex performance requirements needed for NASA and BMDO long-life space instruments. The JPL cryocooler program includes extensive characterization and life testing of industry-developed cryocoolers, development and flight testing of advanced sorption cooler systems for detector cooling to 10 K , development of mechanical cryocooler enhancement technologies, and flight tests of advanced low-vibration Stirling-cooler systems.

  5. Ferromagnetic Tubes Testing Based Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current Technique%基于脉冲远场涡流的管道内检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 王赓; 高松巍

    2012-01-01

    针对传统远场涡流检测方法对铁磁性管道内外壁缺陷灵敏度相同,无法有效区分缺陷在管道内壁还是管道外表面的问题,提出了采用具有丰富频率成分的脉冲激励信号取代传统的远场涡流中正弦信号激励的方法.采用小波去噪方法滤除检测数据中的信号噪声;研究了将检测线圈分别置于近场区、过渡区和远场区时的信号时域特性与管壁伤的关系;进行了针对管道管壁内外相同宽度不同深度缺陷的检测试验,结果表明采用脉冲激励作为激励源并综合运用过渡区的检测信号的幅值和过零时间特征能够有效地区分管壁内外全周向的缺陷.%In view of the traditional remote field eddy current technique for ferromagnetic tube having the same sensitivity of inner and outside walls defect,unable to distinguish the defects in the inner wall or in the outer surface,this paper adopt with abundant frequency components of the pulse signal to replace the traditional remote field eddy current sinusoidal excitation signal. Using the methods of wavelet denoising to filter acquired signal and process the data. This paper studied the relationship between the tube wall defects and signal time-domain characteristics when the detector coil was placed in the direct zone, transition zone and remote field zone. Conduct experiments to acquire data about different depth defects in the inside or outside of the walls, the results show that using the pulse signal as excitation source and characteristics about the detect signal amplitude and zero-crossing time can effectively distinguish between the inner and outer circumferential direction tube wall defects.

  6. Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a ps-pulsed UV laser for sensitive, high-speed measurements in a shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengkai; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2016-01-11

    We report the first application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) with a ps-pulsed UV laser for sensitive and rapid gaseous species time-history measurements in a transient environment (in this study, a shock tube). The broadband nature of the ps pulses enabled instantaneous coupling of the laser beam into roughly a thousand cavity modes, which grants excellent immunity to laser-cavity coupling noise in environments with heavy vibrations, even with an on-axis alignment. In this proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrated an absorption gain of 49, which improved the minimum detectable absorbance by ~20 compared to the conventional single-pass strategy at similar experimental conditions. For absorption measurements behind reflected shock waves, an effective time-resolution of ~2 μs was achieved, which enabled time-resolved observations of transient phenomena, such as the vibrational relaxation of O(2) demonstrated here. The substantial improvement in detection sensitivity, together with microsecond measurement resolution implies excellent potential for studies of transient physical and chemical processes in nonequilibrium situations, particularly via measurements of weak absorptions of trace species in dilute reactive systems.

  7. Demonstration of active vibration control on a stirling-cycle cryocooler testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Johnson, Dean L.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has demonstrated excellent vibration reduction performance using active control on the JPL Stirling-cycle cryocooler testbed. The authors address the use of classical narrowband feedback control to meet the cryocooler vibration specifications using one cryocooler in a self-cancellation configuration. Similar vibration reduction performance was obtained using a cryocooler back-to-back configuration by actively controlling a reaction mass actuator that was used to mimic the second cooler.

  8. Analysis and measurement of cryocooler vibration%低温制冷机振动测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马坤全; 梅鲁生; 刘元琼; 王凯; 林伟; 黎军; 谢端; 雷海乐

    2013-01-01

    A method is proposed to measure the cryocooler vibration via the Doppler effect. Both axial and radial vibration of a typical G-M RDK-408S cryocooler is measured on the experimental setup. The experimental results indicate that the cryocooler has a working frequency of about 1 Hz. Compared with other directions, the axial direction vibration is the largest, which is about 30 μm, while the radial direction also has pulse vibration, equivalent to that of the axial vibration. The experimental results are much larger than the vibration requirements in inertial confinement fusion research and therefore vibration reduction methods must be adopted.%提出采用激光多普勒效应测量GM低温制冷机振动,并搭建实验台测试了RDK-408S型GM制冷机各方向的振动大小.实验结果表明,型号为RDK-408S的GM制冷机振动频率约为1 Hz,轴线方向的振动最大,约为30μm,x方向也存在脉冲振动,达到30 μm,都远远大于激光约束聚变研究中所需要的振动要求,必须采取具体措施进行减振或隔振.

  9. Cryogenic infrared mission “JAXA/SPICA” with advanced cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica Working Group; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Nagai, Hiroki; Murakami, Masahide; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Hirabayashi, Masayuki; SPICA Working Group

    2006-02-01

    Since the next cryogenic infrared mission "JAXA/SPICA" employs advanced mechanical cryocoolers with effective radiant cooling in place of cryogen, the primary mirror, 3.5 m in diameter, and the optical bench can be maintained at 4.5 K for at least 5 years. First, the feasibility of the thermal design of the cryogenic system is presented. A 20 K-class Stirling cryocooler was then improved in cooling capacity and reliability for the mission, and the effects of contaminated working gas or new regenerator materials on cooling performance were investigated. Development of a new 3He-JT (Joule-Thomson) cryocooler for use at 1.7 K is also described, along with the successful results of a cooling capacity higher than the required 10 mW. A 4 K-class cryocooler was modified and developed for higher reliability over a five-year operational life and a higher cooling capacity exceeding the current 30 mW. Finally, we discuss a system for heat rejection from cryocoolers using thermal control devices.

  10. High-precision temperature control and stabilization using a cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Daiki; Murata, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Hiroya; Komine, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    We describe a method for precisely controlling temperature using a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler that involves inserting fiber-reinforced-plastic dampers into a conventional cryosystem. Temperature fluctuations in a GM cryocooler without a large heat bath or a stainless-steel damper at 4.2 K are typically of the order of 200 mK. It is particularly difficult to control the temperature of a GM cryocooler at low temperatures. The fiber-reinforced-plastic dampers enabled us to dramatically reduce temperature fluctuations at low temperatures. A standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations of 0.21 mK could be achieved when the temperature was controlled at 4.200 0 K using a feedback temperature control system with two heaters. Adding the dampers increased the minimum achievable temperature from 3.2 to 3.3 K. Precise temperature control between 4.200 0 and 300.000 K was attained using the GM cryocooler, and the standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations was less than 1.2 mK even at 300 K. This technique makes it possible to control and stabilize the temperature using a GM cryocooler.

  11. Helium POT System for Maintaining Sample Temperature after Cryocooler Deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, B. J.

    2006-04-01

    A system for maintaining a sample at a constant temperature below 10 K after deactivating the cooling source is demonstrated. In this system, the cooling source is a 4 K GM cryocooler that is joined with the sample through an extension that consists of a helium pot and a thermal resistance. Upon stopping the cryocooler, the power applied to a heater located on the sample side of the thermal resistance is decreased gradually to maintain an appropriate temperature rise across the thermal resistance as the helium pot warms. The sample temperature is held constant in this manner without the use of solid or liquid cryogens and without mechanically disconnecting the sample from the cooler. Shutting off the cryocooler significantly reduces sample motion that results from vibration and expansion/contraction of the cold-head housing. The reduction in motion permits certain procedures that are very sensitive to sample position stability, but are performed with limited duration. A proof-of-concept system was built and operated with the helium pot pressurized to the cryocooler's charge pressure. A sample with 200 mW of continuous heat dissipation was maintained at 7 K while the cryocooler operated intermittently with a duty cycle of 9.5 minutes off and 20 minutes on.

  12. Size effects on miniature Stirling cycle cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqin; Chung, J. N.

    2005-08-01

    Size effects on the performance of Stirling cycle cryocoolers were investigated by examining each individual loss associated with the regenerator and combining these effects. For the fixed cycle parameters and given regenerator length scale, it was found that only for a specific range of the hydrodynamic diameter the system can produce net refrigeration and there is an optimum hydraulic diameter at which the maximum net refrigeration is achieved. When the hydraulic diameter is less than the optimum value, the regenerator performance is controlled by the pressure drop loss; when the hydraulic diameter is greater than the optimum value, the system performance is controlled by the thermal losses. It was also found that there exists an optimum ratio between the hydraulic diameter and the length of the regenerator that offers the maximum net refrigeration. As the regenerator length is decreased, the optimum hydraulic diameter-to-length ratio increases; and the system performance is increased that is controlled by the pressure drop loss and heat conduction loss. Choosing appropriate regenerator characteristic sizes in small-scale systems are more critical than in large-scale ones.

  13. Size effects on miniature Stirling cycle cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoqin Yang; Chung, J.N. [Florida Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Size effects on the performance of Stirling cycle cryocoolers were investigated by examining each individual loss associated with the regenerator and combining these effects. For the fixed cycle parameters and given regenerator length scale, it was found that only for a specific range of the hydrodynamic diameter the system can produce net refrigeration and there is an optimum hydraulic diameter at which the maximum net refrigeration is achieved. When the hydraulic diameter is less than the optimum value, the regenerator performance is controlled by the pressure drop loss; when the hydraulic diameter is greater than the optimum value, the system performance is controlled by the thermal losses. It was also found that there exists an optimum ratio between the hydraulic diameter and the length of the regenerator that offers the maximum net refrigeration. As the regenerator length is decreased, the optimum hydraulic diameter-to-length ratio increases; and the system performance is increased that is controlled by the pressure drop loss and heat conduction loss. Choosing appropriate regenerator characteristic sizes in small-scale systems are more critical than in large-scale ones. (Author)

  14. Colouring cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeehan, John [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Biophysics Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom); Ravelli, Raimond B. G., E-mail: ravelli@lumc.nl [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Section Electron Microscopy, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands); Murray, James W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Owen, Robin Leslie [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Cipriani, Florent [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weik, Martin [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Structurale, Jean Pierre EBEL, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Garman, Elspeth F., E-mail: ravelli@lumc.nl [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-01

    A portable and readily aligned online microspectrophotometer that can be easily installed on macromolecular crystallography beamlines is described. It allows measurement of the spectral characteristics of macromolecular crystals prior, during, and after the X-ray diffraction experiment. X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100 nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue colour that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400 nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100 K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is different for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes.

  15. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, Alexander; Tuito, Avi

    2016-05-01

    Low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocooler usually comprises electro-dynamically driven compressor and pneumatically driven expander which are side-by-side fixedly mounted upon the common frame and interconnected by the configurable transfer line. Vibration export produced by such a cryocooler comprises of a pair of tonal forces, the frequency of which essentially equals fixed driving frequency. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber, having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. Dynamic analysis shows that the dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a dynamic absorber are capable of simultaneous attenuation of translational and tilting components of cryocooler induced vibration. The authors reveal the preferable design, the method of fine tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  16. Cryogenic performance of a cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, J. D.; Doose, C.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    A cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator has been installed and operated with beam at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The device consists of a dual-core 42-pole magnet structure that is cooled to 4.2 K with a system of four cryocoolers operating in a zero-boil-off configuration. This effort represents the culmination of a development program to establish concept feasibility and evaluate cryostat design and cryocooler-based refrigeration. Cryostat performance is described including cool-down/warm-up, steady-state operation, cooling margin, and the impact of beam during operation in the APS storage ring. Plans for future devices with longer magnets, which will incorporate lessons learned from the development program, are also discussed.

  17. Study of the minimum refrigeration temperature of regenerative cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangming; Chen, Guobang; Yu, Jianping

    Based on the principles of thermodynamics, the relation between the isentropic expansion coefficient μs and the isobaric specific heat Cp has been found. The values of μs at different temperatures and pressures are calculated. From theoretical and experimental values of Cp of helium in the supercritical area, the minimum refrigeration temperature which may be reached by traditional regenerative cryocoolers is theoretically demonstrated. It is pointed out that this boundary is just the lambda line of helium. In order to obtain temperatures lower than the lambda line, a new type of regenerative cryocooler which can work in the helium II region is proposed. The working principle, schematic diagram and theoretical refrigeration temperature of this new cryocooler are discussed.

  18. CFD analysis of a diaphragm free-piston Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a novel free-piston Stirling cryocooler that uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicated the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. The diaphragm's large diameter and short stroke produces a significant radial component to the oscillating flow fields inside the cryocooler which were not modelled in the one-dimensional analysis tool Sage that was used to design the prototypes. Compared with standard pistons, the diaphragm geometry increases the gas-to-wall heat transfer due to the higher velocities and smaller hydraulic diameters. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the cryocooler was constructed to understand the underlying fluid-dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms with the aim of further improving performance. The CFD modelling of the heat transfer in the radial flow fields created by the diaphragms shows the possibility of utilizing the flat geometry for heat transfer, reducing the need for, and the size of, expensive heat exchangers. This paper presents details of a CFD analysis used to model the flow and gas-to-wall heat transfer inside the second prototype cryocooler, including experimental validation of the CFD to produce a robust analysis.

  19. Sub-millikelvin stabilization of a closed cycle cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Guy; He, Xi; Božović, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Intrinsic temperature oscillations (with the amplitude up to 1 K) of a closed cycle cryocooler are stabilized by a simple thermal damping system. It employs three different materials with different thermal conductivity and specific heat at various temperatures. The amplitude of oscillations of the sample temperature is reduced to less than 1 mK, in the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K, while the cooling power is virtually undiminished. The damping system is small, inexpensive, can be retrofitted to most existing closed cycle cryocoolers, and may improve measurements of any temperature-sensitive physics properties.

  20. Recent development status of compact 2 K GM cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q.; Xu, M. Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Li, R.

    2015-12-01

    To meet the growing demand for a compact cooling solution for superconducting electronic devices, we developed a two-stage 2 K GM cryocooler and a cryostat system, which can reach 46.3 K / 2.2 K on the first and second stages under no-load conditions. Nevertheless, with several innovative technologies applied, the total length of the expander cylinder is reduced to under 70% of the smallest conventional 4 K GM cryocooler. In this paper we will present the design method, including material selection and structure design with detailed explanation, which has been confirmed by both simulation and experiment.

  1. On the possible cycles via the unified perspective of cryocoolers. Part A: The Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion [Rafael, Ltd., P.O. Box 2250, Haifa 3102102 (Israel); Pfotenhauer, John M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers possess a self adjusting effect, which preserves the state of the returning stream from the evaporator as a saturated vapor. The heat load can be entirely absorbed at constant temperature by evaporation even for different sized heat exchangers. It is not possible for the steady state flow resulting from a gradual cool down to penetrate 'deeper' into the two-phase dome, and produce a two phase return flow even with a heat exchanger of unlimited size. Such behavior was implicitly taken for granted in the literature but never clearly stated nor questioned and therefore never systematically proven. The discussion provided below provides such a proof via the unified model of cryocoolers. This model portrays all cryocoolers as magnifiers of their respective elementary temperature reducing mechanism through the process of 'interchanging'.

  2. Prediction of two-phase pressure drop in heat exchanger for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The overall efficiency of a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocooler is governed by the performance of the recuperative heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, the hot stream of the mixed refrigerant undergoes condensation at high pressure while the cold stream gets evaporated at low pressure. The pressure drop in the low pressure stream is crucial since it directly influences the achievable refrigeration temperature. However, experimental and theoretical studies related to two-phase pressure drop in mixtures at cryogenic temperatures, are limited. Therefore, the design of an efficient MR J-T cryocooler is a challenging task due to the lack of predictive tools. In the present work, the existing empirical correlations, which are commonly used for the prediction of pressure drop in the case of pure refrigerants, evaporating at near ambient conditions, are assessed for the mixed refrigerants. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop in the evaporating cold stream of the tube-in-tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The predicted frictional pressure drop in the heat exchanger is compared with the experimental data. The suggested empirical correlations can be used to predict the hydraulic performance of the heat exchanger.

  3. Cryocoolers for superconducting devices; Chodendo debaisu reikyaku ni tekishita reitoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Y. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Institute

    1999-06-07

    In the case in which it intends to replace the superconductive technology until now with the technology generally and case in which the application on the moving object of artificial satellite and rolling stock, etc. is considered, we doubt the surplus power necessary for the penalty, namely the cooling, and the refrigeration development of which the high rate is good becomes an important problem. We try to examine the pulse tube refrigerating machine of which the advance is remarkable recently center including the new possibility. (NEDO)

  4. A free-piston Stirling cryocooler using metal diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-12-01

    A novel concept for a free-piston Stirling cryocooler has been proposed. The concept uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer of a free-piston Stirling cryocooler. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals, potentially resulting in a long-life mechanism. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicates the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. Sage predicted the macroscopic behaviour of the prototype well but did not provide sufficient insights to improve performance significantly. This paper presents details of the development, modelling and testing of the proof-of-concept prototype and a second, improved prototype.

  5. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Shugo; Kawai, Masanori; Tajima, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (> 99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition; cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 revolutions per minute. The developed system can be applied in various fields; e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio as...

  6. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Krüger, L.; Gschrey, M.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.04 from this Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g{sup (2)}(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  7. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.

  8. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Kawai, M.; Tajima, O.

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.

  9. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehahn, A; Krüger, L; Gschrey, M; Schulze, J-H; Rodt, S; Strittmatter, A; Heindel, T; Reitzenstein, S

    2015-01-01

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g((2))(0) Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g((2))(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  10. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehahn, A.; Krüger, L.; Gschrey, M.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g(2)(0) < 0.04 from this Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g(2)(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  11. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  12. Reactions of 1-naphthyl radicals with acetylene. Single-pulse shock tube experiments and quantum chemical calculations. Differences and similarities in the reaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Assa; Tamburu, Carmen; Dubnikova, Faina

    2009-10-01

    The reactions of 1-naphthyl radicals with acetylene were studied behind reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube, covering the temperature range 950-1200 K at overall densities behind the reflected shocks of approximately 2.5 x 10(-5) mol/cm3. 1-Iodonaphthalene served as the source for 1-naphthyl radicals. The [acetylene]/[1-iodonaphthalene] ratio in all of the experiments was approximately 100 to channel the free radicals into reactions with acetylene rather than iodonaphthalene. Only two major products resulting from the reactions of 1-naphthyl radicals with acetylene and with hydrogen atoms were found in the post shock samples. They were acenaphthylene and naphthalene. Some low molecular weight aliphatic products at rather low concentrations, resulting from an attack of various free radicals on acetylene, were also found in the shocked samples. In view of the relatively low temperatures employed in the present experiments, the unimolecular decomposition rate of acetylene is negligible. One potential energy surface describes the production of acenaphthylene and 1-naphthyl acetylene, although the latter was not found experimentally due to the high barrier (calculated) required for its production. Using quantum chemical methods, the rate constants for three unimolecular elementary steps on the surface were calculated using transition state theory. A kinetics scheme containing 16 elementary steps was constructed, and computer modeling was performed. An excellent agreement between the experimental yields of the two major products and the calculated yields was obtained. Differences and similarities in the potential energy surfaces of 1-naphthyl radical + acetylene and those of ethylene are presented, and the kinetics mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Elevated-pressure mixed-coolants Joule Thomson cryocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytal, B.-Z.; Nellis, G. F.; Klein, S. A.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of mixed coolants at elevated pressures for Joule-Thomson cryocooling. A numerical model of a Joule-Thomson cryocooler is developed that is capable of simulating operation with mixtures of up to 9 components consisting of hydrocarbons, non-flammable halogenated refrigerants, and inert gases. The numerical model is integrated with a genetic optimization algorithm, which has a high capability for convergence in an environment of discontinuities, constraints and local optima. The genetic optimization algorithm is used to select the optimal mixture compositions that separately maximizes following two objective functions at each elevated pressure for 80, 90 and 95 K cryocooling: the molar specific cooling capacity (the highest attainable is 3200 J/mol) and the produced cooling capacity per thermal conductance which is a measure of the compactness of the recuperator. The optimized cooling capacity for a non-flammable halogenated refrigerant mixture is smaller than for a hydrocarbon mixture; however, the cooling capacity of the two types of mixtures approach one another as pressure becomes higher. The coefficient of performance, the required heat transfer area and the effect of the number of components in the mixture is investigated as a function of the pressure. It is shown that mixtures with more components provide a higher cooling capacity but require larger recuperative heat exchangers. Optimized mixtures for 90 K cryocooling have similar cooling capacity as those for 80 K. Optimized compactness for 80 K is about 50% higher than can be achieved by pure nitrogen. For 90 K, no mixture provides a more compact recuperator than can be achieved using pure argon. The results are discussed in the context of potential applications for closed and open cycle cryocoolers.

  14. Theory on single molecule_photon cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; Weiping

    2001-01-01

    [1]Pringsheim, P., Zwei Bemerkungen über den Unterschied von Lumineszenz_ und Temperaturstrahlung, Z. Phys., 929, 57(8): 739.[2]Djeu, N., Whitney, W. T., Laser cooling by spontaneous anti_Stokes scattering, Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 46(4): 236.[3]Epstein, I., Buchwald, M. I., Edwards, B. C. et al., Observation of laser_induced fluorescent cooling of a solid, Nature, 995, 377(2): 500.[4]Clark, J. L., Rumbles, G., Laser cooling in the condensed phase by frequency up_conversion, Phys. Rev. Lett., 996, 76(2): 2037.[5]Mungan, C. E., Buchwald, M. I., Edwards, B. C. et al., Laser cooling of a solid by 6 K starting from room temperature, Phys. Rev. Lett., 997, 78(6): 030.[6]Luo, X., Eisaman, M. D., Gosnell, T. R., Laser cooling of a solid by 2K starting from room temperature, Opt. Lett., 998, 23(8): 639.[7]Gosnell, T. R., Laser cooling of a solid by 2K starting from room temperature, Optics Let., 999, 24(5): 04.[8]Epstein, I., Buchwald, M. I., Edwards, B. C. et al., The Los Alamos solid_state optical refrigerator, Cryocoolers 9, New York: Plenum, 997, 68—686.[9]Qin Weiping, Zhang Jiahua, Huang Shihua, Laser_induced anti_Stokes fluorescent cooling, Physics (in Chinese), 998, 27(6): 323.[10]Christiansen, W. H., Hertzberg, A., Gasdynamic lasers and photon machines, Proc. IEEE, 973, 6(8): 060.[11]Qin Weiping, Zhang Jiahua, Huang Shihua, Study on the fluorescent cooling by energy transfer within in homogenous line shape in solids, Acta Physica Sinica (in Chinese), 998, 47(8): 397.[12]Qin Weiping, Zhang Jiahua, Chen Baojiu et al., Two basic mechanism in anti_Stokes fluorescent cooling of solids, Chinese Journal of Luminescence, 999, 20(2): 26.[13]Fournier, J. T., Bartram, R. H., Inhomogeneous broadening of the optical spectra of Yb3+in phosphate glass, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 970, 3(2): 265.

  15. Development and optimization progress with RICOR cryocoolers for HOT IR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Amiram; Bar Haim, Zvi; Riabzev, Sergey; Segal, Victor; Filis, Avishai; Gover, Dan

    2016-05-01

    The world growth in research and development of High Operating Temperature (HOT) IR detectors impels the development and optimization of suitable cryocoolers. The current developments at RICOR, which include three different cryocooler models and two new controllers, are focused on the - oriented design process, meaning small Size, low Weight, low Power consumption, improved performance and lower production cost, providing proper cryocoolers for future hand held thermal imagers. This paper shows the progress made during development of "HOT" cryocooler prototypes, engineering pre-production series and qualified production series cryocoolers working at the FPA temperature range of 130 - 200K. The progress with development of electronic control modules providing minimized regulated power consumption is also shown. The progress in development of cryocoolers reliability is also reported in the paper.

  16. High frequency pressure oscillator for microcryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Zhao, Yiping; Holland, Herman J.; Burger, Johannes Faas; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    Microminiature pulse tube cryocoolers should operate at a frequency of an order higher than the conventional macro ones because the pulse tube cryocooler operating frequency scales inversely with the square of the pulse tube diameter. In this paper, the design and experiments of a high frequency

  17. High frequency pressure oscillator for microcryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Zhao, Yiping; Holland, Herman J.; Burger, Johannes Faas; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    Microminiature pulse tube cryocoolers should operate at a frequency of an order higher than the conventional macro ones because the pulse tube cryocooler operating frequency scales inversely with the square of the pulse tube diameter. In this paper, the design and experiments of a high frequency pre

  18. High frequency pressure oscillator for microcryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, S.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Jansen, H.V.; Zhao, Y.; Holland, H.J.; Burger, J.F.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Microminiature pulse tube cryocoolers should operate at a frequency of an order higher than the conventional macro ones because the pulse tube cryocooler operating frequency scales inversely with the square of the pulse tube diameter. In this paper, the design and experiments of a high frequency pre

  19. A Cryogen-free Cryostat for Scientific Experiment in Pulsed High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoliang; Li, Liang; Zuo, Huakun; Liu, Mengyu; Peng, Tao

    Traditional cryostats for scientific experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields use liquid helium as the cooling source. To reduce the running cost and to increase the operational efficiency, a cryogen-free cryostat based on a GM cryocooler has been developed for a 60 T pulsed field measurement cell at Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. A double layer temperature-control insert was designed to obtain a stable temperature in the sample chamber of the cryostat. In order to eliminate the sample temperature fluctuation caused by the eddy current heating during the pulse, the inner layer is made from a fiberglass tubing with an epoxy coating. Different from the traditional cryostat, the sample and the temperature controller are not immerged in the 4He bath. Instead, they are separated by helium gas under sub-atmospheric pressure, which makes the heat transfer smoother. At the sample position, a resistance heater wound with antiparallel wires is mounted on the inner layer to heat the sample. Using the temperature-control insert, the temperature can be controlled with an accuracy of ±0.01 K in the range of 1.4 K-20 K, and ±0.05 K between 20 K and 300 K.

  20. Development of miniature Stirling cryocooler technology for Infrared Focal Plane array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manmohan Singh; Mukesh Sadana; Sunil Sachdev; Gaurav Pratap

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper presents the progress of the development activities in Stirling cryocooler technology at SSPL, which evolved through essential milestones like the development of single and dual piston...

  1. Development of SNSPD System with Gifford-McMahon Cryocooler

    CERN Document Server

    Miki, Shigehito; Sasaki, Masahide; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) system for telecommunication wavelength using a GM cryocooler was developed and its performance was verified. The cryocooler based SNSPD system can operate continuously with a 100 V AC power supply without any cryogen. The packaged SNSPD device was cooled to 2.96 K within a thermal fluctuation range of 10 mK. An SNSPD with an area of 20 x 20 $\\mu m^2$ showed good system detection efficiency (DE) at 100 Hz dark count rate of 2.6% and 4.5% at wavelengths of 1550 and 1310 nm, respectively. An SNSPD with an area of 10 x 10 $\\mu m^2$ and kinetic inductance lower than that of the large area device showed good system DE of 2.6% at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The SNSPD system could be operated for over 10 h with constant system DE and dark count rate.

  2. A GM cryocooler with cold helium circulation for remote cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Brown, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    A GM cryocooler with new cold helium circulation system has been developed at Cryomech. A set of check valves connects to the cold heat exchanger to convert a small portion of AC oscillating flow in the cold head to a DC gas flow for circulating cold helium in the remote loop. A cold finger, which is used for remote cooling, is connected to the check valves through a pair of 5 m long vacuum insulated flexible lines. The GM cryocooler, Cryomech model AL125 having 120 W at 80 K, is employed in the testing. The cold finger can provide 50 W at 81 K for the power input of 4.1 kW and 70.5 W at 81.8 K for the power input of 6 kW. This simple and low cost design is very attractive for some applications in the near future.

  3. 5W@80K自由活塞斯特林制冷机工况及重力特性实验研究%Characteristic of working conditions and gravity investigation of 5 W@80 K Stirling cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾红书; 洪国同; 陈厚磊; 刘彦杰

    2011-01-01

    In order to find out the Stirling cryocooler's performace, water cooler of the hot end was designed and performance testing was conducted on an existing pulse tube refrigerator performance tester. The influences of operating frequency, filling pressure, input power on Stirling cryocooler were investigated during experiments, so as to determine the optimized operating conditions. The results show that the optimized operating condition was 2.0 MPa of filling pressure and 42 Hz of working frequency. The gravity characteristic was done by changing the cold head arrangement direction and result showed that the cooling performance under the condition of vertical downward cold head was better than horrizon and upward, however, the difference was only 1.2 K, which indicated that the ratio of spring plate axial stiffness to mass was large enough to ignore the effect of gravitation on the displacer static displacement. The cooling performance had little change when cold head was at different circumference position in horizontal direction, which indicated that the displacer had a excellent clearance seal.%利用现有的脉冲管制冷机性能测试实验台,针对某型号自由活塞斯特林制冷机,设计了热端水冷器并进行了性能测试.实验研究了工作频率、充气压力、输入功率等参数对制冷机性能的影响规律,结果表明斯特林制冷机的最佳运行工况为充气压力2.0 MPa,频率42 Hz.改变冷头在竖直方向和水平面不同的朝向,实验结果表明冷头竖直向下时最低制冷温度低于冷头水平布置和冷头向上的情况,但差距最大1.2 K,证明板弹簧的轴向刚度与排出器质量的比值较大,排出器重力产生的静位移较小;冷头水平放置处于不同圆周方位的制冷性能变化很小,证明排出器的密封间隙保持较好.

  4. Theoretical study on a Miniature Joule-Thomson & Bernoulli Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L. Y.; Kaiser, G.; Binneberg, A.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, a microchannel-based cryocooler consisting of a compressor, a recuperator and a cold heat exchanger has been developed to study the feasibility of cryogenic cooling by the use of Joule-Thomson effect and Bernoulli effect. A set of governing equations including Bernoulli equations and energy equations are introduced and the performance of the cooler is calculated. The influences of some working conditions and structure parameters on the performance of coolers are discussed in details.

  5. Space Stirling Cryocooler Contamination Lessons Learned and Recommended Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, D. S.; Price, K.; Gully, W.; Castles, S.; Reilly, J.

    The most important characteristic of a space cryocooler is its reliability over a lifetime typically in excess of 7 years. While design improvements have reduced the probability of mechanical failure, the risk of internal contamination is still significant and has not been addressed in a consistent approach across the industry. A significant fraction of the endurance test and flight units have experienced some performance degradation related to internal contamination. The purpose of this paper is to describe and assess the contamination issues inside long life, space cryocoolers and to recommend procedures to minimize the probability of encountering contamination related failures and degradation. The paper covers the sources of contamination, the degradation and failure mechanisms, the theoretical and observed cryocooler sensitivity, and the recommended prevention procedures and their impact. We begin with a discussion of the contamination sources, both artificial and intrinsic. Next, the degradation and failure mechanisms are discussed in an attempt to arrive at a contaminant susceptibility, from which we can derive a contamination budget for the machine. This theoretical sensitivity is then compared with the observed sensitivity to illustrate the conservative nature of the assumed scenarios. A number of lessons learned on Raytheon, Ball, Air Force Research Laboratory, and NASA GSFC programs are shared to convey the practical aspects of the contamination problem. Then, the materials and processes required to meet the proposed budget are outlined. An attempt is made to present a survey of processes across industry.

  6. Jitter suppression techniques for mechanical cryocooler-induced disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D. W.; Kirkconnell, C. S.; Fleischman, G. L.; Sunada, W. H.

    2008-08-01

    Closed-cycle mechanical cryogenic refrigerators, or cryocoolers, are an enabling technology for next generation infrared (IR) sensors. Passive cryoradiators and stored cryogen systems have been used successfully in the past, but the increased cooling requirements for emerging systems cannot practically be met with these passive techniques. Modern systems are employing much larger focal plane arrays that dissipate more energy and have higher parasitic thermal loads than in the past. Additional "on chip" FPA data processing capability, such as time delay and integration (TDI) and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), is further driving up the heat loads. While loads are going up, temperatures are going down. The desire to operate at long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths (>9 microns) for a broader range of remote sensing missions is driving the need for 35-40 K refrigeration, significantly colder than past systems that operated at shorter wavelengths. Unfortunately, the use of a mechanical rather than passive cryocooler introduces an additional jitter source that must be properly mitigated. Techniques include the use of inherently low vibration cryocoolers, closedloop active vibration cancellation servo systems, damping struts, soft mounts, or a combination of these techniques. Implementation of these techniques within a proper system engineering context is presented.

  7. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  8. Effects of Improved Pulsed Washpipe Method in Preventing Nasogastric Tube Occlusion%改良脉冲式冲管法预防鼻胃管堵管的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金月红; 张锦丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of pulse washpipe in preventing nasogastric tube occlusion in critical patients.Methods From March 2007 to August 2010,102 critical patients with nasogastric tube enteral nutrition were divided in to experiment group(n= 58)and control group(n=44).The patients in the control group and the experiment group adopted the traditional washpipe method and improved pulse injection method respectively.The incidences of nasogastric tube occlusion and complications were compared between the two groups.Results The incidence of nasogastric tube occlusion(3.4%) in experiment group was significantly lower than that (15.9 %) of control group (P < 0.05).The two group of patients were presented with different degrees of complications of diarrhea, stomach retention, food reverse flow and gastrointestinal bleeding, without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusion The improved pulsed washpipe method can effectively prevent stomach tube obstruction and do not increase the incidence of complications.%目的 探讨脉冲式冲管在预防鼻胃管堵塞中的效果.方法 将2007年3月至2010年8月入住ICU且使用鼻胃管的102例危重症患者分为试验组58例和对照组44例,管饲后分别采用改良脉冲式法及传统方法 冲洗管道,比较两组患者的堵管发生率及并发症发生情况.结果 试验组堵管发生率(3.4%)低于对照组(15.9%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者均出现不同程度的腹泻、胃潴留、食物反流、消化道出血等并发症,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 采用改良的脉冲式推注法冲管能有效预防鼻胃管堵塞,且不增加并发症的发生率.

  9. 2D numerical modelling of gas temperature in a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge excited in a high temperature gas-discharge tube for the high-power strontium laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    An active volume scaling in bore and length of a Sr atom laser excited in a nanosecond pulse longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge is carried out. Considering axial symmetry and uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed by numerical methods for determination of gas temperature in a new large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge free zone, in order to find out the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. A 2D model (r, z) of gas temperature is developed by numerical methods for axial symmetry and uniform power input. The model determines gas temperature of nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.

  10. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  11. Facilitating protein crystal cryoprotection in thick-walled plastic capillaries by high-pressure cryocooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M

    2009-06-01

    Many steps in the X-ray crystallographic solution of protein structures have been automated. However, the harvesting and cryocooling of crystals still rely primarily on manual handling, frequently with consequent mechanical damage. An attractive alternative is to grow crystals directly inside robust plastic capillaries that may be cryocooled and mounted on the beamline goniometer. In this case, it is still desirable to devise a way to cryoprotect the crystals, which is difficult owing to the poor thermal conductivity of thick plastic capillary walls and the large thermal mass of the capillary and internal mother liquor. A method is described to circumvent these difficulties. It is shown that high-pressure cryocooling substantially reduced the minimal concentrations of cryoprotectants required to cryocool water inside capillaries without formation of ice crystals. The minimal concentrations of PEG 200, PEG 400 and glycerol necessary for complete vitrification under pressure cryocooling were determined.

  12. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Sn, Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Pb, Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 (Sn.sub.0.75 Ga.sub.0.25), and Er.sub.9 Ni.sub.3 Sn comprising a mixture of Er.sub.3 Ni and Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Sn in the microstructure.

  13. Multi-axis analog adaptive feedforward cancellation of cryocooler vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Simon Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The vibration produced by Stirling cryocoolers is incompatible with spacecraft-borne precision-pointing imaging instruments. Thermal considerations prevent the addition of sufficient mechanical isolation to eliminate the effects of this vibration. The objective of this research is the design, analysis, and experimental verification of a multi-axis vibration cancellation system for the expander of a split Stirling cryocooler. Cancellation of the periodic cryocooler vibration is achieved with a set of load cells, a custom three-axis electrodynamic actuator, and a narrowband adaptive feedforward controller. In order to size the actuator, a simple model of the cryocooler's vibration is combined with a first-order analysis of a four-magnet two-return-plate forcing element. While the resulting actuator has sufficient force capability, it exhibits significant nonlinearity. A nonlinear actuator model is developed that accounts for in-plane flexure restraint due to both large-amplitude static deflections and large-amplitude vibrations. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear model accurately reflect jump phenomena and higher harmonics observed in the actuator's response. The adaptive feedforward controller employs the filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) algorithm to update an adaptive filter. Rather than implementing this filter with a digital signal processor (DSP), for which there is little flight heritage, a continuous-time analog realization of the FXLMS filter is selected. Theoretically, the FXLMS filter may be represented by an equivalent linear transfer function. However a comprehensive treatment of factors associated with the actual implementation reveals the limitations of the transfer function representation. Factors such as harmonic distortion of the reference signal and imperfect quadrature are shown to result in frequency-shifted terms in the filter's output. The presence of these output components is confirmed experimentally, and their effect on performance is

  14. Performance Testing of a Lightweight, High Efficiency 95 K Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Lou; Kittel, P.; Kashani, A.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Tward, E.; Arnold, Jim A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Performance data are presented for a flight-like, lightweight, high efficiency pulse tube cryogenic cooler. The cooler has a mass of less than 4.0 kg, and an efficiency of 12 W/W, which is 18% of Carnot at 95 K, nearly double the efficiency of previous cooler designs, The mass of the cooler has been reduced by approximately a factor of three. The design point cooling power is 10 watts at 95 K at a heat rejection temperature of 300 K. The no-load temperature is 45 K. The compressor is built by Hymatic Engineering, UK, and is of a horizontally opposed piston design using flexure bearings. The vertical pulse tube is built by TRW with the heat exchanger or cold block located approximately mid-way along the tube. The final assembly and integration is also performed by TRW. The inertance tube and dead volume are contained within one of the compressor end caps. The cooler was developed by TRW under a joint NASA-DOD program, and has a goal of 10 yr operating lifetime. Potential NASA applications will focus on using coolers of this type in Zero boil off (ZBO) cryogen storage topologies for next generation launch vehicles. Zero boil off systems will feature significant reductions in tank size and Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), thereby significantly reducing the cost of access to space, and enabling future missions. The coolers can be used directly in liquid oxygen (LOx) or liquid methane ZBO systems, as shield coolers in liquid hydrogen tanks, or as first stage coolers in two-stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) ZBO cooler systems. Finally, the coolers could find applications in exploration missions where either propellants or breathable oxygen are extracted from the planetary atmosphere using a Sabatier or similar process. The gases could then be liquefied for storage either directly in return vehicle propellant tanks or on the planetary surface. Data presented were taken with the cooler operating in a vacuum of 10 (exp -5) torr, at controlled rejection temperatures from

  15. Effects of cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performance of integral crank driven stirling cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Ko, Jun Seok; Kim, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    An integral crank driven Stirling cryocooler is solidly based on concepts of direct IR detector mounting on the cryocooler's cold finger, and the integral construction of the cryocooler and Dewar envelope. Performance factors of the cryocooler depend on operating conditions of the cryocooler such as a cyclic mean pressure of the working fluid, a rotational speed of driving mechanism, a thermal environment, a targeted operation temperature and etc.. At given charging condition of helium gas, the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas in the cryocooler changes with temperatures of the cold end and the environment. In this study, effects of the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performances of the Stirling cryocooler were investigated by numerical analyses using the Sage software. The simulation model takes into account thermodynamic losses due to an inefficiency of regenerator, a pressure drop, a shuttle heat transfer and solid conductions. Simulations are performed for the performance variation according to the cyclic mean pressure induced by the temperature of the cold end and the environment. This paper presents P-V works in the compression and expansion space, cooling capacity, contribution of losses in the expansion space.

  16. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  17. Cryocooled Facilities for Superconducting Coils Testing in Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, A. V.; Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shevchenko, S. A.; Ilin, A. A.

    Two superconducting coil test facilities equipped by Sumitomo SRDK-415D cryocoolers were developed, manufactured and tested. The motivation for their constructing was to make cheaper the testing (and especially training of LTS magnets) by liquid helium (LHe) saving. It is well known that the helium price increases rapidly and this tendency most probably will continue for a long time, as the demand of helium grows faster than its production. The utilization of heat-exchange gas considerably reduces many problems, that arise in the design of completely dry LTS magnets. The goal was to decrease or even completely avoid the consumption of rather expensive liquid helium for testing the laboratory size Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn coils including their training process. Several superconducting magnets were tested by using these facilities. For example, the first facility was successfully used for testing of 13 T, 60 kg coil cooled by cryocooler in helium gas (several torr pressure) heat exchange atmosphere. The precooling time was about 45 hours. The quench current (240 A at 4.2 K) was equal to that reached in the pool boiling LHe cryostat. The second facility with 420 mm wide access bore can be used for testing of corresponding size superconducting coils with very modest consumption of liquid helium with its level well below the lower flange of the coil. Each test facility is equipped by 2 pairs of HTS current leads. Design and operational experience of one of them is described.

  18. Cryocooler operation of SNIS Josephson arrays for AC Voltage standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosso, A.; De Leo, N.; Fretto, M.; Monticone, E.; Roncaglione, L.; Rocci, R.; Lacquaniti, V.

    2014-05-01

    Avoiding liquid helium is now a worldwide issue, thus cryocooler operation is becoming mandatory for a wider use of superconductive electronics. Josephson voltage standards hold a peculiar position among superconducting devices, as they are in use in high precision voltage metrology since decades. Higher temperature operation would reduce the refrigerator size and complexity, however, arrays of Josephson junctions made with high temperature superconductors for voltage standard applications are not to date available. The SNIS (Superconductor-Normal metal-Insulator-Superconductor) junction technology developed at INRIM, based on low temperature superconductors, but capable of operation well above liquid helium temperature, is interesting for application to a compact cryocooled standard, allowing to set a compromise between device and refrigerator requirements. In this work, the behavior of SNIS devices cooled with a closed-cycle refrigerator has been investigated, both in DC and under RF irradiation. Issues related to thermal design of the apparatus to solve specific problems not faced with liquid coolants, like reduced cooling power and minimization of thermal gradients for uniform operation of the chip are discussed in detail.

  19. Performance and reliability characteristic of Stirling cryocoolers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. G.; Wu, Y. N.; He, L.

    2008-03-01

    With extensive application of infrared detective techniques, Stirling cryocoolers, used as an active cooling source, have been developed vigorously in China. An overview of the status and performance for some Stirling cryocoolers having been developed is presented. To analyze the cooler's reliability characteristic, failure analysis has been done, and the four crucial failure modes affecting cooler's long-life running are wear, gaseous contamination, Helium leakage and fatigue. According to each failure mechanism, the measures taken to control or minimize its damage were discussed, and some experiments were designed and carried to quantitatively analyze the relationship between failure and performance in detail. To the wear, an ageing test, which was thermal cycle and for about 500 h, was used to improve the internal frication status and eliminate the defective products. To the gaseous contamination, an accelerated experiment was carried by adding contaminants to the cooler by a 3-way valve to get the relationship between performance degradation and amount of contaminants. The chance of a fatigue related failure is very small now because of the FEM analysis and screening test. Based on charge pressure experiment results, the criteria to judge the sealing procedure was given by the ratio of leak rate to cooler volume.

  20. Study of Random Wire Type Regenerators for Stirling Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangkwon; Nam, Kwanwoo; Choi, Sungryel

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the performance evaluation for the random wire type regenerator used in Stirling cryocoolers. Metallic and non-metallic regenerators are tested and analyzed. Non-metallic regenerator we test is made of high-temperature resistant polymer. First, the ineffectiveness is determined by measuring the instantaneous pressure, the flow rate and the gas temperature at both ends of the regenerator. The cold-end temperature is maintained around 100 K and the operating frequency is fixed at 60 Hz. It is found that the non-metallic regenerator with high heat transfer area has a low ineffectiveness even though its volumetric heat capacity is lower than the metallic regenerator. Second, dynamic analysis is performed for the displacer of Stirling cryocooler containing the above regenerators. Oscillating flow model is proposed to accurately predict the pressure drop through the regenerator. Amplitude and phase angle of the displacer are calculated both from the oscillating flow model and the steady flow model. Superiority of the proposed oscillating flow model is demonstrated by the comparison between the analysis result and the experimental measurements.

  1. Scaling STI's sapphire cryocooler for applications requiring higher heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Abhijit; Fiedler, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Superconductor Technologies Inc. (STI) developed the Sapphire cryocooler specifically for the SuperLink® product; a high performance superconducting Radio Frequency (RF) front-end receiver used by wireless carriers such as Verizon Wireless and AT&T to improve network cell coverage and data speeds. STI has built and deployed over 6,000 systems operating 24 hours a day (24/7), 7 days a week in the field since 1999. Sapphire is an integrated free piston Stirling cycle cryocooler with a cooling capacity of 5 Watts at 77 Kelvin (K) with less than 100 Watts (W) input power. It has a field-proven Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of well over 1 million hours, requires zero maintenance and has logged over 250 million cumulative runtime hours. The Sapphire cooler is built on a scalable technology platform, enabling the design of machines with cooling capacities greater than 1 kilowatt (kW). This scalable platform also extends the same outstanding attributes as the Sapphire cooler, namely high reliability, zero maintenance, and compact size - all at a competitive cost. This paper will discuss emerging applications requiring higher heat loads and these attributes, describe Sapphire, and show a preliminary concept of a scaled machine with a 100 W cooling capacity.

  2. Design of an improved high cooling power 4 K GM cryocooler and helium compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    High cooling power 4 K cryocoolers are in high demand given their broad applications in such fields as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low temperature superconductors. ARS has recently designed and developed a high cooling power 4 K pneumatic-drive GM cryocooler which achieves a typical cooling power of 1.75 W/4.2 K. Steady input power of our newly developed helium compressor supplied to the cold head is 11.8 kW at 60 Hz. The operational speed of the cold head is 30 RPM. The effects of geometries and operational conditions on the cooling performance of this 4 K GM cryocooler are also experimentally tested.

  3. Development of a Novel Brayton-Cycle Cryocooler and Key Component Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Mohling, R. A.

    2004-06-01

    Brayton-cycle cryocoolers are being developed to provide efficient cooling in the 6 K to 70 K temperature range. The cryocoolers are being developed for use in space and in terrestrial applications where combinations of long lifetime, high efficiency, compactness, low mass, low vibration, flexible interfacing, load variability, and reliability are essential. The key enabling technologies for these systems are a mesoscale expander and an advanced oil-free scroll compressor. Both these components are nearing completion of their prototype development phase. The emphasis on the component and system development has been on invoking fabrication processes and techniques that can be evolved to further reduction in scale tending toward cryocooler miniaturization.

  4. Determination of space-time resolved electron temperature in nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in various noble gases and discharge tube constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelkov, K. A.; Slaveeva, S. I.; Chernogorova, T. P.

    2016-03-01

    Using our results obtained by the analytical solution of the steady-state heat conduction equation for electrons and deriving a new thermal conductivity, 2D (r, t) numerical solution of nonstationary heat conduction, an equation for electrons is found for nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium for two different pressures and in neon.

  5. 基于热力学非对称效应的脉冲管制冷机模拟方法的改进%MODIFIED SIMULATION OF PULSE TUBE REFRIGERATOR BASED ON THERMODYNAMIC NON-SYMMETRY EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴巍; 王如竹; 周远

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the theory of thermodynamic non-symmetry effect and some problems in using this theory by former researchers are discussed. Then we give a modified simulation procedure to improve calculation accuracy. Understanding of mechanism inside pulse tube refrigerator is thus further deepened. Some results are given for comparison, which shows that accuracy of refrigeration power and mass flow rate calculation may improve by over 20%.%本文讨论了热力学非对称理论以及目前应用它的过程中存在的问题,在此基础之上编制了改进的程序,可以更深入地理解脉冲管的内部过程.从给出的一些计算结果来看,计算的精度可能会提高20%以上.

  6. Tracheostomy tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R; Altobelli, Neila P

    2014-06-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in dimensions between tubes with the same inner diameter from different manufacturers are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed and may be fenestrated. Some tracheostomy tubes are designed with an inner cannula. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to appreciate the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient. The optimal frequency of changing a chronic tracheostomy tube is controversial. Specialized teams may be useful in managing patients with a tracheostomy. Speech can be facilitated with a speaking valve in patients with a tracheostomy tube who are breathing spontaneously. In mechanically ventilated patients with a tracheostomy, a talking tracheostomy tube, a deflated cuff technique with a speaking valve, or a deflated cuff technique without a speaking valve can be used to facilitate speech. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. A single-pulse shock tube coupled with high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for high-temperature gas-phase kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, P.; Shu, B.; Aghsaee, M.; Herzler, J.; Welz, O.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2016-10-01

    Shock tubes are frequently used to investigate the kinetics of chemical reactions in the gas phase at high temperatures. Conventionally, two complementary arrangements are used where either time-resolved intermediate species measurements are conducted after the initiation of the reaction or where the product composition is determined after rapid initiation and quenching of the reaction through gas-dynamic processes. This paper presents a facility that combines both approaches to determine comprehensive information. A single-pulse shock tube is combined with high-sensitivity gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for product composition and concentration measurement as well as high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry for time-dependent intermediate concentration determination with 10 μs time resolution. Both methods can be applied simultaneously. The arrangement is validated with investigations of the well-documented thermal unimolecular decomposition of cyclohexene towards ethylene and 1,3-butadiene at temperatures between 1000 and 1500 K and pressures ranging from 0.8 to 2.4 bars. The comparison shows that the experimental results for both detections are in very good agreement with each other and with literature data.

  8. Development of Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric Cryocooling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Development of Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric...Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric Cryocooling Devices Report Title The research

  9. Development of a 77K Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler with Multiple Coldheads Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RTI will design and optimize an 80 W, 77K cryocooler based on the reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) with four identical coldheads for distributed cooling. Based on...

  10. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF A MINIATURE STIRLING CRYOCOOLER WITH A MULTI MESH REGENERATOR DESIGN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KISHOR KUMAR V. V; BIJU T. KUZHIVELI

    2017-01-01

    A parametric study has been carried out using the software REGEN 3.3 to optimize the regenerator of a miniature Stirling cryocooler operating with a warm end temperature of 300 K and cold end temperature of 80 K...

  11. Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and...

  12. Miniature Stirling cryocoolers at Thales Cryogenics: qualification results and integration solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, R.; Martin, J.-Y.; Willems, D.; Seguineau, C.; de Jonge, G.; Van Acker, S.; Mullié, J.; Le Bordays, J.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    During the 2015 SPIE-DSS conference, Thales Cryogenics presented new miniature cryocoolers for high operating temperatures. In this paper, an update is given regarding the qualification programme performed on these new products. Integration aspects are discussed, including an in-depth examination of the influence of the dewar cold finger on sizing and performance of the cryocooler. The UP8197 will be placed in the reference frame of the Thales product range of high-reliability linear cryocoolers, while the rotary solution will be considered as the most compact solution in the Thales portfolio. Compatibility of the cryocoolers design with new and existing 1/4" dewar designs is examined, and potential future developments are presented.

  13. 带包覆层铁磁性管道腐蚀脉冲涡流检测技术%Pulsed Eddy Current Inspection Technique in for Corrosion under Insulation in Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康小伟; 付跃文

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we applied pulsed eddy current(PEC} inspection technique to detect ferromagnetic tubes corrosion under insulation. By detecting corrosion of different thickness insulation and different defect areas and deepness, variation of detection sensitivity was analyzed. It was proved that as for corrosion defect with a large area, pulsed eddy current had a very good ability in testing under appropriate inspection parameters, even with a thick insulation.%应用脉冲涡流检测技术,对带包覆层的铁磁性管道腐蚀进行了检测。对不同厚度的包覆层、不同面积和深度的腐蚀缺陷进行了试验,分析检测灵敏度的变化。试验结果表明,对于较大面积的腐蚀缺陷,即使包覆层较厚,在合适的检测参数下,脉冲涡流也具有很好的检测能力。

  14. Physical and Structural Studies on the Cryo-cooling of Insulin Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Reflection profiles were analyzed from microgravity-(mg) and earth-grown insulin crystals to measure mosaicity (h) and to reveal mosaic domain structure and composition. The effects of cryocooling on single and multi-domain crystals were compared. The effects of cryocooling on insulin structure were also re-examined. Microgravity crystals were larger, more homogeneous, and more perfect than earth crystals. Several mg crystals contained primarily a single mosaic domain with havg of 0.005deg. The earth crystals varied in quality and all contained multiple domains with havg of 0.031deg. Cryocooling caused a 43-fold increase in h for mg crystals (havg=0.217deg) and an %fold increase for earth crystals (havg=0.246deg). These results indicate that very well-ordered crystals are not completely protected from the stresses associated with cryocooling, especially when structural perturbations occur. However, there were differences in the reflection profiles. For multi-mosaic domain crystals, each domain individually broadened and separated from the other domains upon cryo-cooling. Cryo-cooling did not cause an increase in the number of domains. A crystal composed of a single domain retained this domain structure and the reflection profiles simply broadened. Therefore, an improved signal-to-noise ratio for each reflection was measured from cryo-cooled single domain crystals relative to cryo-cooled multi-domain crystals. This improved signal, along with the increase in crystal size, facilitated the measurement of the weaker high- resolution reflections. The observed broadening of reflection profiles indicates increased variation in unit cell dimensions which may be linked to cryo-cooling-associated structural changes and disorder.

  15. Optimization of a Brayton cryocooler for ZBO liquid hydrogen storage in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserranno, D.; Zagarola, M.; Li, X.; Mustafi, S.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is evaluating and developing technology for long-term storage of cryogenic propellant in space. A key technology is a cryogenic refrigerator which intercepts heat loads to the storage tank, resulting in a reduced- or zero-boil-off condition. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are particularly well suited for cryogen storage applications because the technology scales well to high capacities and low temperatures. In addition, the continuous-flow nature of the cycle allows direct cooling of the cryogen storage tank without mass and power penalties associated with a cryogenic heat transport system. To quantify the benefits and mature the cryocooler technology, Creare Inc. performed a design study and technology demonstration effort for NASA on a 20 W, 20 K cryocooler for liquid hydrogen storage. During the design study, we optimized these key components: three centrifugal compressors, a modular high-capacity plate-fin recuperator, and a single-stage turboalternator. The optimization of the compressors and turboalternator were supported by component testing. The optimized cryocooler has an overall flight mass of 88 kg and a specific power of 61 W/W. The coefficient of performance of the cryocooler is 23% of the Carnot cycle. This is significantly better performance than any 20 K space cryocooler existing or under development.

  16. Extended range of the Lockheed Martin coax Micro cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.; Champagne, P.; Will, E.; Kaldas, G.; Sanders, L.; Roth, E.; Olson, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the higher cooling capability of the Lockheed Martin coax Micro cryocooler thermal mechanical unit. The design of the previously qualified TRL6 Micro (Nast et al., 2014) [1] was modified to accommodate over twice the input power, greatly increasing the cooling capability. These Micro units are in a split configuration with the cold head separated from the compressor. This unit was optimized for cooling at 105 K and provides cooling over a wide range of temperatures. With a weight below 450 g, this small unit is ideal for compact instruments. Load lines were obtained over a range of powers, cold tip temperatures and rejection temperatures. This testing raised the Technology Readiness Level to six.

  17. Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

    2011-06-06

    A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

  18. Application of cryocoolers to a vintage dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Richard L.; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; Beaty, Jim

    2012-06-01

    A dilution refrigerator is required for 50 mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80 K and at 4 K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

  19. A heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching below liquid hydrogen temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU JianYing; LUO ErCang; DAI Wei; Zhou Yuan

    2007-01-01

    A "double-gas acoustic amplifier" is introduced to couple a thermoacoustic heat engine and a two-stage pulse tube cooler in this paper. Compared with previous acoustic amplifiers, this new acoustic amplifier maintains the function of amplification for pressure amplitude. In particular, the novel acoustic amplifier with a reservoir makes it possible to install an acoustic transparent but gas blocking elastic membrane between the engine and the cooler. Thus, the engine can use nitrogen as the working gas to work at low frequency; and meanwhile, the cooler can still use helium as the working gas to maintain its high performance. With this new amplifier, the cooling temperature of a two-stage pulse tube cooler driven by an energy-focused thermoacoustic engine reached 18.7 K.

  20. Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.

    2009-12-01

    The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi

  1. The Ricor K508 cryocooler operational experience on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Lysek, Mark J.; Morookian, John Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity) landed successfully on Mars on August 5, 2012, eight months after launch. The chosen landing site of Gale Crater, located at 4.5 degrees south latitude, 137.4 degrees east longitude, has provided a much more benign environment than was originally planned for during the critical design and integration phases of the MSL Project when all possible landing sites were still being considered. The expected near-surface atmospheric temperatures at the Gale Crater landing site during Curiosity's primary mission (1 Martian year or 687 Earth days) are from −90°C to 0°C. However, enclosed within Curiosity's thermal control fluid loops the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument is maintained at approximately +20°C. The CheMin instrument uses X-ray diffraction spectroscopy to make precise measurements of mineral constituents of Mars rocks and soil. The instrument incorporated the commercially available Ricor K508 Stirling cycle cryocooler to cool the CCD detector. After several months of brushing itself off, stretching and testing out its subsystems, Curiosity began the exploration of the Mars surface in October 2012. The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) received its first soil sample from Curiosity on October 24, and successfully analyzed its first soil sample. After a brief review of the rigorous Ricor K508 cooler qualification tests and life tests based on the original MSL environmental requirements this paper presents final pre-launch instrument integration and testing results, and details the operational data of the CheMin cryocooler, providing a snapshot of the resulting CheMin instrument analytical data.

  2. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  3. A magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy system using a microfluidically cryo-cooled planar coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Chiwan; Godley, Richard F; Park, Jaewon; McDougall, Mary P; Wright, Steven M; Han, Arum

    2011-07-07

    We present the development of a microfluidically cryo-cooled planar coil for magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. Cryogenically cooling radiofrequency (RF) coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the experiment. Conventional cryostats typically use a vacuum gap to keep samples to be imaged, especially biological samples, at or near room temperature during cryo-cooling. This limits how close a cryo-cooled coil can be placed to the sample. At the same time, a small coil-to-sample distance significantly improves the MR imaging capability due to the limited imaging depth of planar MR microcoils. These two conflicting requirements pose challenges to the use of cryo-cooling in MR microcoils. The use of a microfluidic based cryostat for localized cryo-cooling of MR microcoils is a step towards eliminating these constraints. The system presented here consists of planar receive-only coils with integrated cryo-cooling microfluidic channels underneath, and an imaging surface on top of the planar coils separated by a thin nitrogen gas gap. Polymer microfluidic channel structures fabricated through soft lithography processes were used to flow liquid nitrogen under the coils in order to cryo-cool the planar coils to liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 °C). Two unique features of the cryo-cooling system minimize the distance between the coil and the sample: (1) the small dimension of the polymer microfluidic channel enables localized cooling of the planar coils, while minimizing thermal effects on the nearby imaging surface. (2) The imaging surface is separated from the cryo-cooled planar coil by a thin gap through which nitrogen gas flows to thermally insulate the imaging surface, keeping it above 0 °C and preventing potential damage to biological samples. The localized cooling effect was validated by simulations, bench testing, and MR imaging experiments. Using this cryo-cooled planar coil system inside a 4.7 Tesla MR system

  4. RICOR Cryocoolers for HOT IR detectors from development to optimization for industrialized production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eli; Katz, Amiram; Bar Haim, Zvi; Nachman, Ilan; Riabzev, Sergey; Gover, Dan; Segal, Victor; Filis, Avishai

    2017-05-01

    The modern needs of the electro-optical market for small low-power and light-weight IR systems are impelling research and development of High Operating Temperature (HOT) IR detectors, requiring development of dedicated "HOT" cryocoolers. The development of cryocoolers with emphasis on the "SWAP3" configuration means small size, low weight, improved performance, low power consumption and low price, in order to optimize IDDCA for future hand held thermal sights. This paper will present the development and the progress made with the new "HOT" cryocooler, including customer data after the evaluation process, performances achieved using a common cold finger, test results update on a large series of production coolers, life and qualification test update and acoustic noise reduction. All the above mentioned information relates to the FPA temperature range of 130 - 200K for various cryocooler models based on rotary and linear design concepts. The paper will also review the progress with the latest development activities implemented in the cryocoolers and the electronic control modules in order to improve reliability and minimize regulated power consumption.

  5. Cryocooled superconducting magnets for high magnetic fields at the HFLSM and future collaboration with the TML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Koyama, K.; Takahashi, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Kiyoshi, T.

    2006-11-01

    A hybrid magnet needs a large amount of liquid helium for operation. In order to make an easy-to-operate hybrid magnet system, we constructed a cryocooled 28 T hybrid magnet, consisting of an outer cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet and an inner traditional water-cooled 19 T resistive magnet. As a performance test, the cryocooled hybrid magnet generated 27.5 T in a 32 mm room temperature experimental bore. As long as Nb3Sn superconducting wires are employed, the expected maximum high field generation in the cryocooled superconducting magnet will be 17 T at 5 K. We adopted the high temperature superconducting insert coil, employing Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10superconducting tape. In combination with the low temperature 16.5 T back-up coil with a 174 mm cold bore, the cryocooled high temperature superconducting magnet successfully generated the total central field of 18.1 T in a 52 mm room temperature bore. As a next step, we start the collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science for the new developmental works of a 30 T high temperature superconducting magnet and a 50 T-class hybrid magnet.

  6. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1∼3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  7. Progress Towards a 6-10 K Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, M. V.; Cragin, K. J.; Breedlove, J. J.; Davis, T. M.

    2006-04-01

    Turbomachine-based Brayton (turbo-Brayton) cryocoolers are an ideal option for long-duration space missions. Key attributes inherent to the technology are high reliability, extremely low vibration emittance, and flexible packaging and integration with instruments and spacecraft systems. The first space implementation of the technology was the NICMOS Cryocooler, which is a single-stage unit that was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in March 2002. This cryocooler provides 7 W of cooling at 70 K and has been operating for 3.3 years (July 2005) without degradation in performance. New developments at Creare are focused on two-stage configurations with load temperatures as low as 6 K. The lower temperatures and loads have required advances in component technologies to meet aggressive targets for cryocooler mass, size and performance. The development of the electronics, compressors and intermediate turboalternator for a 6-10 K cryocooler are complete. This paper summarizes our accomplishments on the completed components, and reviews our progress towards the development of the remaining critical components, a lightweight recuperator and a high performance low temperature turboalternator.

  8. Development of miniature Stirling cryocooler technology for Infrared Focal Plane array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A reliable miniature cryocooler is one of the basic and foremost requirements for successful operation of high performance cooled infrared focal plane array (IRFPA used for defence applications. Technological complexity and requirement of long duration fail-safe operation of the cryocooler demands robust design, fabrication and assembly with tolerances and, perfection of an array of sub-technologies. The paper presents the progress of the development activities in Stirling cryocooler technology at SSPL, which evolved through essential milestones like the development of single and dual piston linear motor driven split coolers to the state-of-the-art integral Brushless DC (BLDC motor crank-driven type highly miniaturized coolers of capacities ranging from 0.25 to 0.5W at 80K. The theoretical investigations in the design of Stirling cycle cryocooler have been reported and the issues related to the design aspects are discussed in sufficient details. Experimental results of cryocooler performance tests are also presented. The paper also focuses on regenerator design optimization. The results of optimizations have been shown at the end considering a sample data.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.571-580, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5756

  9. Development of 1 kW Stirling cryocooler using a linear compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Kim, H.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H.; In, S.; Park, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic cooling systems for HTS electric power devices require a reliable and efficient high-capacity cryocooler. A Striling cryocooler with a linear compressor can be a good candidate. It has advantages of low vibration and long maintenance cycle compared with a kinematic-driven Stirling cryocooler. In this study, we developed a dual-opposed linear compressor of 12 kW electric input power with two 6 kW linear motors. Electrical performance of the fabricated linear compressor is verified by experimental measurement of thrust constant. The developed Stirling cryocooler has a gamma-type configuration. The piston and displacer are supported with a flexure spring. A slit-type heat exchanger is adopted for the cold and warm-end, and the generated heat is rejected by cooling water. In the cooling performance test, waveforms of voltage, current, displacement and pressure are obtained and their amplitude and phase difference are analysed. The developed cryocooler reaches 47.8 K within 23.4 min. with no-load. Heat load tests shows a cooling capacity of 440 W at 78.1 K with 6.45 kW of electric input power and 19.4 of % Carnot COP.

  10. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality...... a multilayered sense of time and space that is central to the sensory experience of Pulse Room as a whole. Pulse Room is, at the very same time, an anthropomorfized archive of a past intimacy and an all-encompassing immersive environment modulating continuously in real space-time....

  11. Fast Response Temperature Measurements in Stirling Cycle Cryocooler Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, K.; Dadd, M. W.; Bailey, P. B.; Stone, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    One reason that heat transfer processes are not well understood is the difficulty of obtaining reliable temperature measurements when gas temperatures vary rapidly. In the work described here gas temperatures have been measured using a fine wire resistance thermometer with a 3.8 micron active sensor. The equipment represented the basic elements of a cryocooler: a clearance seal linear compressor and a wire mesh regenerator. Both were operated close to ambient temperature, with gas temperatures being measured close to the regenerator. The test rig was run at different volume ratios, frequencies (8-50 Hz), gases and filling pressures (1-26 bar). The waveforms of the gas temperature were found to vary dramatically for differing flow regimes. The results suggested that the thermometer was measuring the temperatures of two distinct volumes of gas, and that the gas must remain stratified in the compression space. A flow transition was identified from the cycle-by-cycle variations in temperature. The critical Reynolds number was determined to be 9.6-11. At the critical condition, the temperature was so unstable that fluctuations up to 250 Hz were observed. A series of validation tests have confirmed that the observed temperatures were not artifacts.

  12. Vibrational stability of a cryocooled horizontal double-crystal monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Paw; Johansson, Ulf; Ursby, Thomas; Jensen, Brian Norsk

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational stability of a horizontally deflecting double-crystal monochromator (HDCM) is investigated. Inherently a HDCM will preserve the vertical beam stability better than a ‘normal’ vertical double-crystal monochromator as the vibrations of a HDCM will almost exclusively affect the horizontal stability. Here both the relative pitch vibration between the first and second crystal and the absolute pitch vibration of the second crystal are measured. All reported measurements are obtained under active cooling by means of flowing liquid nitrogen (LN2). It is found that it is favorable to circulate the LN2 at high pressures and low flow rates (up to 5.9 bar and down to 3 l min−1 is tested) to attain low vibrations. An absolute pitch stability of the second crystal of 18 nrad RMS, 2–2500 Hz, and a relative pitch stability between the two crystals of 25 nrad RMS, 1–2500 Hz, is obtained under cryocooling conditions that allow for 1516 W to be adsorbed by the LN2 before it vaporizes. PMID:27577758

  13. Hydrodynamic parameters of mesh fillers relevant to miniature regenerative cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, E. C.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, Carl S.

    2010-06-01

    Directional hydrodynamic parameters of two fine-mesh porous materials that are suitable for miniature regenerative cryocoolers were studied under steady and oscillating flows of helium. These materials included stacked discs of #635 stainless steel (wire diameter of 20.3 μm) and #325 phosphor bronze (wire diameter of 35.6 μm) wire mesh screens, which are among the commercially available fillers for use in small-scale regenerators and heat exchangers, respectively. Experiments were performed in test sections in which pressure variations across these fillers, in the axial and lateral (radial) directions, were measured under steady and oscillatory flows. The directional permeability and Forchheimer's inertial coefficient were then obtained by using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-assisted method. The oscillatory flow experiments covered a frequency range of 50-200 Hz. The results confirmed the importance of anisotropy in the mesh screen fillers, and indicated differences between the directional hydrodynamic resistance parameters for steady and oscillating flow regimes.

  14. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recovery room, sometimes called the "post-op" (post-operative) room or PACU (post-anesthesia care unit), and ... site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site ...

  15. Numerical simulation on impingement cooling characteristics of pulsed detonation tube%脉冲爆震燃烧室管壁冲击冷却效果的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杏涛; 张靖周; 谭晓茗

    2011-01-01

    According to axial wall temperature distributions on pulsed detonation chamber wall measured from experiment,the quasi-steady state heat flux along the detonation tube with ladder distribution was deduced under a specific frequency.Based on the quasi-steady thermal load,a series of computations were conducted to analyze the cooling effects with array jet impingement.The results show that:the jet velocity from rear rows is bigger than that from the front rows due to end wall effects,the cooling action is stronger near the pulsed detonation tube edge,and the impingement cooling effect is worse in the middle part because the impinging jet is weakened by cross-flow forming from the front rows.Under the same cooling flow Reynolds number at circular passage inlet,the array jet holes are reasonably arranged at middle area of pulsed detonation chamber.When the ratio of the impinging space to diameter is 1.5,the cooling effect seems to be best with uniform axial temperature distribution and lowest peak temperature.And smaller diameter of the cooling holes is also beneficial to improving the cooling effects.%根据实验测量的脉冲爆震燃烧室壁温沿程分布,推算出符合脉冲爆震燃烧室特定频率下的准稳态热流阶梯分布;在此基础上,针对叉排阵列射流冲击冷却的脉冲爆震燃烧室壁面温度分布进行了数值计算.研究表明,由于冷却气流通道端壁效应的影响,靠近爆震燃烧室尾部的射流孔的冲击射流速度较大,热流最大的燃烧室尾部管壁的温度可以得到有效的降低,而燃烧室中部的射流由于受到前排射流形成的横流影响,对管壁的冲击冷却效果较弱,使得壁面温度的峰值向中部转移.在相同的环形冷却通道进口雷诺数下,阵列射流孔宜布置在脉冲爆震燃烧室中部,射流冲击间距比Zn/d=1.5时,管壁的峰值温度最低而且整体的平均温度最小,较小的冲击孔直径对应的冲击冷却效果较好.

  16. INVESTIGATION ON THE FONCTION OF THE TWO-STAGE G-M PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLER WITH THE TEMPERATURE REGION OF LIQUID HELIUM OF SEPARATE GAS CIRCUITS%具有独立气路的液氦温区G-M型二级脉管制冷机性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宁; 陈国邦; U.Lindemann; G.Thummes

    2004-01-01

    研究了一台具有独立气体回路的液氦温区G-M型二级脉管制冷机的制冷性能.目前的实验装置由两套独立的单级双向进气型脉管系统构成,第一级冷头对第二级进气的预冷通过安装在第二级回热器中部的换热器与一级冷头之间的热联接来实现.研究表明,该制冷机采用4He为工质,分别以Leybold CP4000和RW2氦压缩机来驱动第一级和第二级,可以获得2.18 K的最低无负荷制冷温度,4.2 K提供的最大制冷量为595 mW.

  17. The development of a range of small mechanical cryocoolers for space and avionic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Barry

    1990-10-01

    The design features of a mechanical cryocooler, including a compressor, displacer, connecting pipe, and electronic controller are described. The complete system is filled with helium gas to a pressure of 10 bar. Long life, low exported vibration, and good refrigeration within the defined temperature range are emphasized as the main requirements. A number of improvements with regard to the reliability required for long-life space coolers are outlined, and emphasis is placed on the improved sealing for the helium gas and the outgassing properties of all components. Scaling up of the cryocooler design for increased refrigeration is reviewed as well as a space-system interface. Testing of space-rated cryocooler systems producing nominal 0.5 W and 1 W cooling at 65 K from a single system is discussed.

  18. New application of plate-fin heat exchanger with regenerative cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    A design idea is newly proposed and investigated for the application of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHX) with regenerative cryocoolers. The role of this heat exchanger is to effectively absorb heat from the stream of coolant and deliver it to the cold-head of a cryocooler. While various types of tubular HX's have been developed so far, a small PFHX could be more useful for this purpose by taking advantage of compactness and design flexibility. In order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness, a prototype of aluminum-brazed PFHX is designed, fabricated, and tested with a single-stage GM cryocooler in experiments for subcooling liquid nitrogen from 78 K to 65-70 K. The results show that the PFHX is 30-50% more effective in cooling rate than the tubular HX's. Several potential applications of PFHX are presented and discussed with specific design concepts.

  19. Mixed-refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR JT) mini-cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabar, Nir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in our ongoing research on Mixed-Refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers. The research begun by exploring different MRs and testing various compressors: oil-lubricated and oil-free, reciprocating and linear, custom-made and commercial. Closed-cycle JT cryocoolers benefit from the fact that the compressor might be located far from the cold-end and thus there are no moving parts, no vibrations, and no heat emission near the cold-end. As a consequence, the compressor may be located where there are no severe size limitations, its heat can be conveniently removed, and it can be easily maintained. However, in some applications there is still a demand for a small compressor to drive a JT cryocooler although it is located far from the cooled device. Recently, we have developed a miniature oil-free compressor for MR JT cryocoolers that weighs about 700 g and its volume equals about 300 cc. The cryocooler operates with a MR that contains Ne, N2, and Hydrocarbons. This MR has been widely investigated with different compressors and varying operating conditions and proved to be stable. The current research investigates the performances of MR JT mini-cryocooler operating with the MR mentioned above, driven with our miniature compressor, and a cold-finger prototype. A Dewar with heat load of about 230 mW is cooled to about 80 K at ambient temperatures between 0°C and 40°C. The experimental results obtained are stable and demonstrate the ability to control the cooling temperature by changing the rotation speed of the compressor.

  20. A method of firing a gas filled switching tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryukhanevich G.I.; Kolesov, G.V.; Lebedev, V.B.; Prokhorenko, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    A method is proposed for firing a gas filled switching tube which involves injecting a laser pulse of picosecond duration with an energy level higher than the firing threshold of the switching tube to the spark gap of the tube to be fired. In order to improve the operational stability of the tube, after a time period equal to delta T (with respect to the point where the first laser pulse is fed to the spark gap), a primary supplementary pulse is fed to the gap; the power level of this pulse is selected to be at least half the power level of the first, and the time interval delta T is selected depending on the value of the experimentally determined minimum delay time (t3 min) of the tube during firing by a separately selected primary pulse in a ratio of .5t3 min is less than delta T is less than or equal to t3 min.

  1. Performance of the SITP 35K two-stage Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyu; Li, Ao; Li, Shanshan; Wu, Yinong

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the design, development, optimization experiment and performance of the SITP two-stage Stirling cryocooler. The geometry size of the cooler, especially the diameter and length of the regenerator were analyzed. Operating parameters by experiments were optimized to maximize the second stage cooling performance. In the test the cooler was operated at various drive frequency, phase shift between displacer and piston, fill pressure. The experimental results indicate that the cryocooler has a higher efficiency with a performance of 0.85W at 35K with a compressor input power of 56W at a phase shift of 65°, an operating frequency of 40Hz, 1MPa fill pressure.

  2. ELISA: a cryocooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10-15 frequency stability

    CERN Document Server

    Grop, S; Bazin, N; Kersale, Y; Rubiola, E; Langham, C; Oxborrow, M; Clapton, D; Walker, S; De Vicente, J; Giordano, V

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the design, the breadboarding and the validation of an ultra-stable Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator operated in an autonomous cryocooler. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a frequency stability of 3x10-15 between 1 s and 1,000 s for the European Space Agency deep space stations. This represents the lowest fractional frequency instability ever achieved with cryocoolers. The preliminary results presented in this paper validate the design we adopted for the sapphire resonator, the cold source and the oscillator loop.

  3. ELISA: a cryocooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10(-15) frequency stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grop, S; Bourgeois, P Y; Bazin, N; Kersalé, Y; Rubiola, E; Langham, C; Oxborrow, M; Clapton, D; Walker, S; De Vicente, J; Giordano, V

    2010-02-01

    This article reports the design, the breadboarding, and the validation of an ultrastable cryogenic sapphire oscillator operated in an autonomous cryocooler. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a frequency stability of 3x10(-15) between 1 and 1000 s for the European Space Agency deep space stations. This represents the lowest fractional frequency instability ever achieved with cryocoolers. The preliminary results presented in this paper validate the design we adopted for the sapphire resonator, the cold source, and the oscillator loop.

  4. Influence of regenerator matrix and working fluid on optimisation of design parameters of Stirling cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrey, M. D.; Bapat, S. L.; Narayankhedkar, K. G.

    The performance of Stirling cryocooler is governed by principal designparameters. The optimum combination of these design parameters gives maximum refrigeration effect and minimum desired efforts. The performance of the cryocooler depends significantly on the regenerator functioning and the working fluids. The mesh size of the regenerator affects dead space, pressure drop, regenerator effectiveness, etc. The working fluids differ in their thermal properties and therefore affect the performance significantly, The present paper aims to study the influence of regenerator matrix and working fluids on these design parameters. The matrix material considered is Phosphor Bronze while the working fluids considered are Helium and Hydrogen.

  5. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  6. Stimulation and experimental research on a 20K single stage Stirling-type pulse tube cooler%20K温区单级斯特林型脉管制冷机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海敏; 戴巍; 王晓涛; 罗二仓

    2013-01-01

    为进一步研究降低20 K温区单级斯特林型脉管制冷机关键部件中损失的方法,提高整机性能,采用计算软件Sage对制冷机进行模拟.通过实验结果与Sage计算的对比对模拟程序的有效性进行了考察,并从调相系统结构及水冷器结构方面寻找优化途径.结果表明,在单纯使用惯性管气库调相时,计算最低制冷温度比实验值低9K左右;当采用双向进气与惯性管调相组合时,计算同实验结果基本一致.最后引入虚拟的振子阻尼调相机构对制冷机的最佳性能进行研究,计算表明在这种调相结构下,制冷机的无负荷制冷温度及30 K时的制冷量均可以得到比双向进气加惯性管组合调相更优的结果.%A 20 K Stirling-type pulse tube cooler system was developed, whose lowest cold head temperature was 22.7 K. To optimize the system performance further more, Sage software was used to do the simulation and introduce the results. This passage shows the effectiveness of Sage by comparing experimental and results computation. Results show that with inertance-reservoir as the phase shifter, the computational result is 9 K lower than that of the experiment. In case of using double-inlet, all results match well. Finally, a virtual phase shifter was introduced to optimize the system. Computation indicates that under this mode of phase shifter, both the no-load cryogenic temperature and cryogenic power at 30 K can get better performance than when the cooler is under inertance tube and double inlet phase shifters.

  7. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality......“Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... of the visitor’s beating heart to the blink of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the blinking light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant...

  8. Solid cartridge for a pulse weld forming electrode and method of joining tubular members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnen, John Joseph Francis; Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Mamutov, Alexander; Maison, Lloyd Douglas; Dawson, Scott Alwyn; deVries, James

    2016-02-23

    A cartridge assembly is disclosed for a pulse welding a first tube supported on a mandrel to a second tube. An outer tool is assembled over the second tube and a stored charge is discharged in the cartridge assembly. The cartridge comprises an annular conductor and a solid casing enveloping the conductor. The stored charge is electrically connected to the conductor and discharged through the conductor to compress the second tube and pulse weld the second tube to the first tube.

  9. Effect of Spacing between Coils in Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current Testing for Ferromagnetic Tube%铁磁性管道脉冲远场涡流检测中线圈间距影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻星星; 付跃文; 蔚道祥; 徐进军; 江茫

    2015-01-01

    依据分析检测原理,对铁磁性管道脉冲远场涡流检测时激励线圈与接收线圈之间的间距对缺陷检测结果的影响进行试验研究. 给出了试验所得的检测线圈衰减曲线、检测灵敏度曲线以及感应电压剖面曲线. 对材质为J55,尺寸为?73. 8 mm × 5. 7 mm的油管进行检测试验,结果显示当线圈间距由60 mm逐步增加到210 mm时,检测线圈感应电压衰减曲线发生明显变化,缺陷检测灵敏度|Δu|/u由0. 35逐步增加到143,最高灵敏度对应的接收时间点前移2 511μs;但线圈间距增加到240 mm时,灵敏度|Δu|/u降为73. 试验结果表明:线圈间距为210 mm时,其检测灵敏度最佳. 该研究对脉冲远场涡流检测探头的设计具有参考价值.%Based on analysis of the principle, experiments are designed and performed to study the effect of the spacing between exciting coil and receiving coil on the detection sensitivity in pulsed remote field eddy current testing for ferromagnetic tube. Voltage decay curves of the receiving coil, sensitivity-time curves and time slices of voltage are given in the experiments. J55 oil well tube sample with a gauge of ?73. 8 mm × 5. 7 mm is inspected and the experimental results show that the increase of the spacing between the exciting coil and the receiving coil will cause several changes. When the spacing varies from 60 mm to 210 mm, voltage descending curves of the receiving coil have significant changes, detection sensitivity |Δu|/u varies from 0. 35 to 143 and the peak of detection sensitivity moves forward 2 511 μs, but detection sensitivity |Δu|/u falls to 73 when coil spacing increases to 240 mm. The experimental results show that the detection sensitivity is best when the distance reaches 210 mm. The results are of help to the design of pulsed remote field eddy current probe.

  10. High-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein using the high-pressure cryocooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiura, Akifumi, E-mail: hgsur-a@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohta, Kazunori; Masaki, Mika; Sato, Masaru [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Inaka, Koji [Maruwa Foods and Biosciences Inc., Nara 639-1123 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroaki [Confocal Science Inc., Tokyo 101-0032 (Japan); Nakagawa, Atsushi [Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. This is the first ultra-high-resolution structure obtained from a high-pressure cryocooled crystal. Recently, many technical improvements in macromolecular X-ray crystallography have increased the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and improved the resolution limit of protein structures. Almost all high-resolution structures have been determined using a synchrotron radiation source in conjunction with cryocooling techniques, which are required in order to minimize radiation damage. However, optimization of cryoprotectant conditions is a time-consuming and difficult step. To overcome this problem, the high-pressure cryocooling method was developed (Kim et al., 2005 ▶) and successfully applied to many protein-structure analyses. In this report, using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. Structural comparisons between high- and ambient-pressure cryocooled crystals at ultra-high resolution illustrate the versatility of this technique. This is the first ultra-high-resolution X-ray structure obtained using the high-pressure cryocooling method.

  11. All-metal, compact heat exchanger for space cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Walter L.; Valenzuela, Javier; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the development of a high performance, all metal compact heat exchanger. The device is designed for use in a reverse Brayton cryogenic cooler which provides five watts of refrigeration at 70 K. The heat exchanger consists of a stainless steel tube concentrically assembled within a second stainless steel tube. Approximately 300 pairs of slotted copper disks and matching annular slotted copper plates are positioned along the centerline axis of the concentric tubes. Each of the disks and plates has approximately 1200 precise slots machined by means of a special electric discharge process. Positioning of the disk and plate pairs is accomplished by means of dimples in the surface of the tubes. Mechanical and thermal connections between the tubes and plate/disk pairs are made by solder joints. The heat exchanger assembly is 9 cm in diameter by 50 cm in length and has a mass of 10 kg. The predicted thermal effectiveness is greater than 0.985 at design conditions. Pressure loss at design conditions is less than 5 kPa in both fluid passages. Tests were performed on a subassembly of plates integrally soldered to two end headers. The measured thermal effectiveness of the test article exceeded predicted levels. Pressure losses were negligibly higher than predictions.

  12. Study on a high capacity two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler working around 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Dai, Wei; Li, Ke; Pang, Xiaomin; Yu, Guoyao; Luo, Ercang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a two-stage high-capacity free-piston Stirling cryocooler driven by a linear compressor to meet the requirement of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor applications. The cryocooler system comprises a single piston linear compressor, a two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler and a passive oscillator. A single stepped displacer configuration was adopted. A numerical model based on the thermoacoustic theory was used to optimize the system operating and structure parameters. Distributions of pressure wave, phase differences between the pressure wave and the volume flow rate and different energy flows are presented for a better understanding of the system. Some characterizing experimental results are presented. Thus far, the cryocooler has reached a lowest cold-head temperature of 27.6 K and achieved a cooling power of 78 W at 40 K with an input electric power of 3.2 kW, which indicates a relative Carnot efficiency of 14.8%. When the cold-head temperature increased to 77 K, the cooling power reached 284 W with a relative Carnot efficiency of 25.9%. The influences of different parameters such as mean pressure, input electric power and cold-head temperature are also investigated.

  13. Construction and test of a cryocooler-cooled low-Tc SQUID gradiometer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Lefevere, M.W.; Leeuwen, van E.P.; Holland, H.J.; Haken, ten B.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A cryocooler-cooled low-Tc SQUID gradiometer system was designed and constructed. It is based on a 4 K GM-cooler that is positioned several meters from the measuring head containing the SQUID sensors. The cooling power is transported by means of a circulating helium flow. Thus, there are three main

  14. A 1 T, 0.33 m bore superconducting magnet operating with cryocoolers at 12 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Klundert, van de L.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of small cryocoolers to cooling a superconducting magnet at 12 K has important advantages, especially for small and medium-size magnets. Simple construction and a helium-free magnet system were obtained. The demonstration magnet developed is a six-coil system with a volume of 75 L an

  15. Adaptive periodic disturbance cancellation in a set-up of two cryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Verberne, J.F.C.; Wtbreuk, E.H.R.; Bruins, P.C.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The work presented describes adaptive periodic disturbance cancellation as applied to the vibration of two cryocoolers. The coolers are driven by linear motors. The periodic input signal necessary to reduce the disturbance is calculated by vibration measurements using the systems frequency response.

  16. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Kirsch TD, Sax J. Tube thoracostomy. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts and ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 10.

  17. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  18. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, M., E-mail: Mas_Ishizuka@shi.co.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Research and Development Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima-chou, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Hamajima, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Itou, T. [Ehime Works, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 5-2 Soubiraki-cho, Niihama, Ehime 792-8588 (Japan); Sakuraba, J. [Research and Development Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima-chou, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb{sub 3}Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x {partial_derivative}Bz/{partial_derivative}z) of 4500 T{sup 2}/m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb{sub 3}Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb{sub 3}Sn wires.

  19. VIRTIS on board Rosetta: cryocoolers usage analysis in support of Comet phases observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuppi, Stefano; Politi, Romolo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Piccioni, Giuseppe; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Erard, Stéphane; Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico

    Rosetta is a planetary cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is devoted to the study of minor bodies of our solar system and it will be the first mission ever to land on a comet (the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko). VIRTIS-M is a sophisticated imaging spectrometer that combines two data channels in one compact instrument, respectively for the visible and the infrared range (0.25-5.0 μm). VIRTIS-H is devoted to infrared spectroscopy (2.5-5.0 μm) with high spectral resolution. Since the satellite will be inside the tail of the comet during one of the most important phases of the mission, it would not be appropriate to use a passive cooling system, due to the high flux of contaminants on the radiator. Therefore the IR sensors are cooled by two Stirling cycle cryocoolers. This paper focuses on the usage of VIRTIS cryocoolers from the beginning of the Rosetta mission till spacecraft hibernation in order to optimize their usage. After a description of the cryocooler used in the mission, a detailed information about time usage and power consumption is provided. On the basis of previous experiences with this kind of cryocoolers it has been made an estimation of the remaining working life of the VIRTIS coolers operating in Rosetta mission. Moreover an estimation of the minimum time between a cryocooler switch off and on again has been carried out in order to preserve the coolers working life.

  20. Effect of operating frequency and phase angle on performance of Alpha Stirling cryocooler driven by a novel compact mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, K. D.; Bapat, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Amongst the mechanical cryocoolers in use, Stirling cycle cryocoolers exhibit the desirable features such as high efficiency, low specific power consumption, small size and mass and large mean time before failure. Stirling cycle cryocooler of Alpha configuration exhibits better theoretical performance as compared to Gamma. However, the theory could not be put into practice due to unavailability of compatible drive mechanism for Alpha cryocooler providing large stroke to diameter ratio. The concept of novel compact drive mechanism can be made functional to operate miniature Alpha Stirling cryocoolers. It allows the use of multicylinder system while converting rotary motion to reciprocating. This permits the drive mechanism to be employed for driving different configurations of Stirling cryocooler simultaneously. This drive is capable of providing large stroke to diameter ratio compared to other drive mechanisms generally in use for the purpose. A stroke to diameter ratio of three is chosen in the present work and the drive dimensions are calculated for four piston-cylinder arrangements with 90° phase difference between adjacent arrangements providing two Alpha Stirling cryocoolers working simultaneously. It has to be noted that the coolers operate at half the frequency of the motor used. As the two coolers operate at phase difference of 180°, during compression stroke of one unit, the suction stroke occurs for the other unit. Due to power output of second unit, the combined peak torque requirement falls by 26.81% below the peak torque needed when one unit is operated separately. This allows for use of a comparatively lower torque motor. The practicability of the drive ensuring smooth operation of the system is decided based on comparison between torque availability from the motor and torque requirement of the complete unit. The second order method of cyclic (or thermodynamic) analysis provides a simple computational procedure useful for the design of Stirling

  1. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  2. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  3. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  4. Study on High-Efficiency Miniature JT Cryocooler Regulated by Shape Memory Alloy%记忆合金自调节式高效微型节流制冷器机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马跃学; 王娟; 梁惊涛; 杜冰雁

    2015-01-01

    为设计高效记忆合金自调节式节流制冷器,介绍了自调节式节流制冷器的工作原理,给出利用记忆合金驱动阀针进行流量调节的机理。对记忆合金通过控制节流阀针的位移调节制冷工质流量过程进行计算分析,模拟了在不同初始高压和节流孔径的条件下,节流制冷器流量随调节阀针位移的变化关系。为实现螺旋翅片管换热器高效换热,对其进行了系统的强化换热分析,分别对内管管径、芯管管径以及翅片尺寸等影响其换热效率的多参数进行优化,得出提高制冷器效率的有效途径。%For the purpose of designing a new high-efficiency miniature cryocooler regulated by shape memory alloy (SMA), the regulating mechanism is analyzed and demonstrated in this paper.The flux of the cryocooler is determined by the needle valve which is controlled by the SMA.The flux changes regu-larly as the needle vale moves, and the flux at different initial conditions are demonstrated.Besides, the optimization analysis of the heat exchanger is carried out to improve the efficiency of the cryocooler.The effects of the structure parameters, both inner and outer side of the tube, on heat transfer are analyzed and discussed in detail, and the effective way to improve the efficiency of JT cryocooler is obtained.

  5. Thermodynamic design of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, C. W.; Yang, H. S.; Sohn, Song Ho; Lim, Ji Hyun; Oh, S. R.; Hwang, Si Dole

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic design of Brayton cryocooler is presented as part of an ongoing governmental project in Korea, aiming at 1 km HTS power cable in the transmission grid. The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling liquid nitrogen from 72 K to 65 K. An ideal Brayton cycle for this application is first investigated to examine the fundamental features. Then a practical cycle for a Brayton cryocooler is designed, taking into account the performance of compressor, expander, and heat exchangers. Commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) is used for simulating the refrigeration cycle with real fluid properties of refrigerant. Helium is selected as a refrigerant, as it is superior to neon in thermodynamic efficiency. The operating pressure and flow rate of refrigerant are decided with a constraint to avoid the freezing of liquid nitrogen

  6. Design of a Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator for the Cassini Ka-Band Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. J.; Wang, R. T.

    1998-04-01

    We present design aspects of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator that is being developed for ultra-high short-term stability and low phase noise in support of the Cassini Ka-band (32-GHz) radio science experiment. With cooling provided by a commercial cryocooler instead of liquid helium, this standard is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3 x 10^(-15) (1 second ≤ τ ≤ 100 seconds) and a phase noise of -73 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz measured at 34 GHz. Test results are reported for several subsystems, including the cryocooler, vibration isolation system, and ruby compensating element.

  7. Testing of a Helium Loop Heat Pipe for Large Area Cryocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA space telescopes and exploration missions require cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks. One device that can potentially be used to provide closed-loop cryocooling is the cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP). A CLHP has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A helium CLHP has been tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryocooler as the heat sink to characterize its transient and steady performance and verify its ability to cool large areas or components in the 3K temperature range. A copper plate with attached electrical heaters was used to simulate the heat source, and heat was collected by the CLHP evaporator and transferred to the cryocooler for ultimate heat rejection. The helium CLHP thermal performance test included cool-down from the ambient temperature, startup, capillary limit, heat removal capability, rapid power changes, and long duration steady state operation. The helium CLHP demonstrated robust operation under steady state and transient conditions. The loop could be cooled from the ambient temperature to subcritical temperatures very effectively, and could start successfully without pre-conditioning by simply applying power to both the capillary pump and the evaporator plate. It could adapt to rapid changes in the heat load, and reach a new steady state very quickly. Heat removal between 10mW and 140mW was demonstrated, yielding a power turn down ratio of 14. When the CLHP capillary limit was exceeded, the loop could resume its normal function by reducing the power to the capillary pump. Steady state operations up to 17 hours at several heat loads were demonstrated. The ability of the helium CLHP to cool large areas was therefore successfully verified.

  8. Simulation of Thermal Processes in Superconducting Pancake Coils Cooled by GM Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebioda, M.; Rymaszewski, J.; Korzeniewska, E.

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the thermal model of a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system with the closed cycle helium cryocooler. The authors propose the use of contact-cooled coils with maintaining the possibility of the system reconfiguring. The model assumes the use of the second generation superconducting tapes to make the windings in the form of flat discs (pancakes). The paper presents results for a field model of the single pancake coil and the winding system consisting of several coils.

  9. A self-circulation helium liquefaction system with five 4 K G-M cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Gong, Linghui; Li, Laifeng; Xu, Xiangdong; Xie, Zuqi; Zhao, Hongwei; Guo, Xiaohong

    2011-06-01

    A self-circulation helium liquefaction system (SCHLS) with five 4 K G-M cryocoolers is developed to supply liquid helium (LHe) for SECRAL (a superconducting ECR ion source used in Lanzhou city, China). LHe is vaporized in SECRAL and warmed up to room temperature. SCHLS will re-liquefy the helium gas at a rate of 83.2 L/day under normal atmosphere pressure. With SCHLS, SECRAL system can run online without any interruption of refilling LHe.

  10. A model of a subcritical Joule-Thomson cryocooler with condensation inside the recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusser, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Maytal, B.-Z.; Grossman, G.

    2009-08-01

    To develop a tool for predicting of heat and mass transfer in Joule-Thomson cryocoolers working at subcritical pressures, we study a counter flow heat exchanger with condensation by employing the integral method. The effects of inlet pressure and working fluid are predicted. We also show that there is an optimal value of the enthalpy difference along the heat exchanger for which its length is minimal.

  11. A model of a subcritical Joule-Thomson cryocooler with condensation inside the recuperator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shusser, M.; Grossman, G. [Technion, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Haifa (Israel); Ben-Zvi, I.; Maytal, B.Z. [Rafael Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    2009-08-15

    To develop a tool for predicting of heat and mass transfer in Joule-Thomson cryocoolers working at subcritical pressures, we study a counter flow heat exchanger with condensation by employing the integral method. The effects of inlet pressure and working fluid are predicted. We also show that there is an optimal value of the enthalpy difference along the heat exchanger for which its length is minimal. (orig.)

  12. Operation of A Sunpower M87 Cryocooler In A Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, S. R.; Shirey, K. A.; Banks, I. S.; Warner, B. A.; Boyle, R. F.; Mustafi, S.; Krebs,Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) is an experiment that will be flown as an attached payload on the International Space Station to detect dark matter and antimatter. It uses large superconducting magnets cooled with superfluid helium to bend the path of cosmic particles through a series of detectors, which then measure the mass, speed, charge, and direction of the particles. Four Sunpower M87N Stirling-cycle cryocoolers are used to extend the mission life by cooling the outer vapor-cooled shield of the dewar. The main magnet coils are separated by a distance of approximately 1 m and the coolers are located approximately 1.5 m from the center line of the magnet, where the field is as high as 925 gauss perpendicular to the cryocooler axis and 400 gauss along the cryocooler axis. Interactions between the applied magnetic field and the linear motor may result in additional forces and torques on the compressor piston. Motion of the compressor arid displacer pistons through the magnetic field spatial gradients will generate eddy currents. Additional eddy currents are created during magnet charge, discharge, and quench by the time-varying magnetic field. The results of tests to determine the magnitude of the forces, torques, and heating effects, as well as the need for additional magnetic shielding, are presented.

  13. Reduction of temperature fluctuation within low temperature region using a cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daiki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Murata, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Hiroya; Tsunemi, Fumiaki; Komine, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Modeling and experiments are performed to decrease temperature fluctuation generated by the periodic motion of the displacer in a Gifford-McMahon (GM) type cryocooler within the low-temperature region. The one-dimensional heat equation allows us to show that thermal diffusivity is an essential factor to achieve much smaller temperature fluctuation, and fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) with low thermal diffusivity makes it possible to reduce the temperature fluctuation dramatically. Based on the model, experiments are performed to vary the thickness of two FRP dampers, on the cryohead of the cryocooler and on the sample stage. As a result, the FRP dampers enable us to achieve the temperature fluctuations of only 0.7 mK, corresponding to a standard deviation of 0.25 mK, when the sample stage is maintained at 4.2000 K, even if a GM cryocooler is utilized for cooling the temperature, which introduces an initial temperature fluctuation of 282 mK at the cryohead.

  14. Experimental investigation and optimization of small-scale helium liquefaction with multi-cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Gong, Linghui; Li, Laifeng; Xu, Xiangdong; Liu, Huiming; Huang, Rongjin

    2015-07-01

    Small-scale helium liquefiers using regenerative cryocoolers with cooling power up to 1.5 W at 4.2 K could be used to re-liquefy evaporated helium gas of small- and medium-sized cryogenic devices such as MEG and PPMS. A serial-parallel-path helium liquefier with a liquefaction rate of 83 Litres per day (L/d) using five 4 K G-M cryocoolers is developed, and has been applied to the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC) in China. Different from parallel-path helium liquefier, the helium gas is effectively, stepwise precooled by heat exchangers on multi-cold flanges, and thus the additional purifier and precooling coil heat exchangers on the thinner part of the cold head cylinder containing the 2nd stage displacer could be removed to simplify the construction. Through theoretical calculation and conclusive analysis, an optimum configuration is proposed and makes a reference to the design of serial-parallel-path helium liquefier with multi-cryocoolers.

  15. Compact high-efficiency linear cryocooler in single-piston moving magnet design for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Rosenhagen, C.; Withopf, A.; Zehner, S.

    2012-06-01

    State of the art Mid Wave IR-technology has the potential to rise the FPA temperature from 77K to 130-150K (High Operation Temperature, HOT). Using a HOT FPA will significantly lower SWaP and keep those parameters finally dominated by the employed cryocooler. Therefore, compact high performance cryocoolers are mandatory. AIM has developed the SX040 cooler, optimized for FPA temperatures of about 95K (presented at SPIE 2010). The SX040 cooler incorporates a high efficient dual piston driving mechanism resulting in a very compact compressor of less than 100mm length. Higher compactness - especially shorter compressors - can be achieved by change from dual to single piston design. The new SX030 compressor has such a single piston Moving Magnet driving mechanism resulting in a compressor length of about 60mm. Common for SX040 and SX030 family is a Moving Magnet driving mechanism with coils placed outside the helium vessel. In combination with high performance plastics for the piston surfaces this design enables lifetimes in excess of 20,000h MTTF. Because of the higher FPA temperature and a higher operating frequency also a new displacer needs to be developed. Based on the existing 1/4" coldfinger interface AIM developed a new displacer optimized for an FPA temperature of 140K and above. This paper gives an overview on the development of this new compact single piston cryocooler. Technical details and performance data will be shown.

  16. Joule-Thomson cryocooler with neon and nitrogen mixture using commercial air-conditioning compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisung; Oh, Haejin; Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    A 2-stage mixed refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler was designed for cooling high temperature superconducting cable below 70 K. The low temperature cycle was to operate with neon-nitrogen mixture, and the required compression ratio was approximately 24 when the suction pressure was 100 kPa. The high compression ratio of 24, the low pressure of 100 kPa at compressor suction, and the working fluid with high heat of compression were challenging issues to existing typical compression systems. We developed an innovative compression system with commercial oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressors. They were 2-stage rotary compressors originally designed for R410Aand connected in series. The compressors were modified to accommodate effective intercooling at every stage to alleviate compressor overheating problem. Additionally, fine-grade three-stage oil filters, an adsorber, and driers were installed at the discharge line to avoid a potential clogging problem from oil mist and moisture at low temperature sections. The present compression system was specifically demonstrated with a neon-nitrogen MR JT cryocooler. The operating pressure ratio was able to meet the designed specifications, and the recorded no-load mini mum temperature was 63.5 K . Commercial air-conditioning compressors were successfully applied to the high-c ompression ratio MR JT cryocooler with adequate modification using off-the-shelf components.

  17. Linear-drive cryocoolers for the Department of Defense standard advanced dewar assembly (SADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Garin S.

    2005-05-01

    The Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA) is the critical module in the Department of Defense (DoD) standardization of scanning second-generation thermal imaging systems. The DoD has established a family of SADAs to fulfill a range of performance requirements for various platforms. The SADA consists of the Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), Dewar, Command & Control Electronics (C&CE), and the cryogenic cooler, and is used in platforms such as the Apache helicopter, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and the Javelin Command Launch Unit (CLU). In support of the family of SADAs, the DoD defined a complementary family of tactical linear drive cryocoolers. The Stirling cycle linear drive cryocoolers are utilized to cool the Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) in the SADAs. These coolers are required to have low input power, a quick cool-down time, low vibration output, low audible noise, and a higher reliability than currently fielded rotary coolers. These coolers must also operate in a military environment with its inherent high vibration level and temperature extremes. This paper will (1) outline the characteristics of each cryocooler, (2) present the status and results of qualification tests, (3) present the status of production efforts, and (4) present the status of efforts to increase linear drive cooler reliability.

  18. Performance of the helium dewar and cryocoolers of ASTRO-H SXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Takei, Yoh; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Koyama, Shu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Shunji; Hoshino, Akio; Sato, Kosuke; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Shinya; Seta, Hiromi; Ohashi, Takaya; Tamagawa, Toru; Noda, Hirofumi; Sawada, Makoto; Tashiro, Makoto; Yatsu, Yoichi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; DiPirro, Michael J.; Shirron, Peter J.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, F. Scott; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2016-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometer onboard the ASTRO-H satellite, that achieves energy resolution better than 7 eV at 6 keV, by operating the detector array at 50 mK using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The cooling chain from room temperature to the ADR heat sink is composed of 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers, a 4He Joule-Thomson cryocooler, and super uid liquid He, and is installed in a dewar. It is designed to achieve a helium lifetime of more than 3 years with a minimum of 30 liters. The satellite was launched on 2016 February 17, and the SXS worked perfectly in orbit, until March 26 when the satellite lost its function. It was demonstrated that the heat load on the He tank was about 0.7 mW, which would have satisfied the lifetime requirement. This paper describes the design, results of ground performance tests, prelaunch operations, and initial operation and performance in orbit of the flight dewar and cryocoolers.

  19. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  20. Experimental study of a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler using a commercial air-conditioning scroll compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisung; Lee, Kyungsoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2013-05-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers have been used to create cryogenic temperatures and are simple, efficient, cheap, and durable. However, compressors for MR J-T cryocoolers still require optimization. As the MR J-T cryocooler uses a commercial scroll compressor developed for air-conditioning systems, compressor overheating due to the use of less optimized refrigerants may not be negligible, and could cause compressor malfunction due to burn-out of scroll tip seals. Therefore, in the present study, the authors propose procedures to optimize compressor operation to avoid the overheating issue when the MR J-T cryocooler is used with a commercial oil lubricated scroll compressor, and the present experimental results obtained for a MR J-T cryocooler. A single stage 1.49 kW (2 HP) scroll compressor designed for R22 utilizing a mixture of nitrogen and hydrocarbons was used in the present study. As was expected, compressor overheating and irreversible high temperatures at a compressor discharge port were found at the beginning of compressor operation, which is critical, and hence, the authors used a water injection cooling system for the compressor to alleviate temperature overshooting. In addition, a portion of refrigerant in the high-pressure stream was by-passed into the compressor suction port. This allowed an adequate compression ratio, prevented excessive temperature increases at the compressor discharge, and eventually enabled the MR J-T cryocooler to operate stably at 121 K. The study shows that commercial oil lubricated scroll compressors can be used for MR J-T cryocooling systems if care is exercised to avoid compressor overheating.

  1. Tube-shape verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. N.; Christ, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive apparatus checks accuracy of bent tubes. Assortment of slotted angles and clamps is bolted down to flat aluminum plate outlining shape of standard tube bent to desired configuration. Newly bent tubes are then checked against this outline. Because parts are bolted down, tubes can be checked very rapidly without disturbing outline. One verifier per tube-bending machine can really speed up production in tube-bending shop.

  2. 脉冲涡流方法过油管检测套管横向裂缝研究%Research on Transverse Crack Detection in Casing through Tubing Using Pulsed Eddy Current Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付跃文; 喻星星

    2014-01-01

    Transverse cracks are great menace to casing safety due to their highprobability to cause fracture. Transverse crack detection in casing through tubing with transverse probe using pulsed eddy current method is studied by finite element simulations and experiments. Distributions and variations of the eddy currents and magnetic fields in pipes and voltages of the receiving coil in different detection setups are given in the simulations. Simulation results show that highest eddy current intensity in casing wall does not appear in the zone which the transverse probe directly faces against but the zone which the axis of the transverse probe is parallel to. The greatest disturbance in the eddy current distribution is caused when the crack is parallel to the axis of the transverse probe. The properties of the magnetic field in the pipe are similar to those of the eddy current field. Thus it is explained why higher detection sensitivity is obtained when the axis of the transverse probe is parallel to the transverse crack rather than perpendicular to the crack. The experimental results agree well with the simulations and show that the detection sensitivity of the transverse probe to transverse crack is much higher when the axis of the probe is parallel to the crack than perpendicular to the crack.%油井套管横向裂缝是可能导致套管断裂的严重危害性缺陷。通过有限元仿真与实际试验,研究利用脉冲涡流检测技术使用横向探头通过油管检测套管的横向裂缝缺陷的问题。仿真给出不同检测方式的管道涡流分布、磁场分布及其变化,以及接收线圈的电压。从仿真结果可观察出,套管壁涡流最强的区域并非横向探头正对的区域,而是平行于横向探头轴线的区域。横向裂缝平行于横向探头轴线时对涡流场的扰动最大。磁场的分布及其变化规律与涡流场情况类同。据此可解释为何横向探头轴线平行于横向裂缝时检测灵敏

  3. Design of water shock tube for testing shell materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hongjuan; Mustafa, Mohamad; Khawaja, Hassan Abbas; Ewan, Bruce C.; Moatamedi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents design considerations for a shock tube experimental rig used to investigate the dynamic failure mechanisms of shell geometries subjected to water shock impact loading. In such setup, it is desirable that the drive pressure used within the tube can provide a wide range of impulsive loads on the test structures and some flexibility can be achieved on the applied pulse durations. With this aim a review of various existing shock tube experimental setup is presented and choi...

  4. The design and fabrication of a reverse Brayton cycle cryocooler system for the high temperature superconductivity cable cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Kwon, Yong Ha; Kim, Young Soo

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature superconductivity cable must be cooled below the nitrogen liquefaction temperature to apply the cable to power generation and transmission systems under superconducting state. To maintain the superconducting state, a reliable cryocooler system is also required. The design and fabrication of a cryocooler system have been performed with a reverse Brayton cycle using neon gas as a refrigerant. The system consists of a compressor, a recuperator, a cold-box, and control valves. The design of the system is made to have 1 kW cooling capacity. The heat loss through multilayer insulators is calculated. Conduction heat loss is about 7 W through valves and access ports and radiation heat loss is about 18 W on the surface of a cryocooler. The design factors are discussed in detail.

  5. Linear propagation of pulsatile waves in viscoelastic tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsten, J B; Van Steenhoven, A A; Van Dongen, M E

    1989-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical analysis is made of pulsatile wave propagation in deformable latex tubes as a model of the propagation of pressure pulses in arteries. A quasi one-dimensional linear model is used in which, in particular, attention is paid to the viscous phenomena in fluid and tube wall. The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is satisfactory. It appeared that the viscoelastic behaviour of the tube wall dominates the damping of the pressure pulse. Several linear models are used to describe the wall behaviour. No significant differences between the results of these models were found.

  6. Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ziepke, A; Engel, H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we can observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation. In addition, using the Fick-Jacobs approach for the highly diffusive limit we show that wave velocities within tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pul...

  7. Design of a 2 Slot VLPC Cryostat Cooled by a Cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, Russell A.; /Fermilab

    2004-04-22

    The conceptual design and preliminary engineering calculations have been completed for a two cassette cryostat. This report summarizes the design. A cryocooler is permanently mounted in the center of a stainless steel, 0.75 inch thick top lid. The cryocooler sits upon a spacer which raises the cooling stage elevations to favorably match the cassette heat intercept elevations. The top lid (32.0-inch outside diameter) mates to a 24-inch pipe size flange with o-ring. The 24-inch pipe size vacuum vessel with end plate has a minimum internal depth of 16-inch to give adequate clearance for the depth of the cryocooler and multilayer insulation blankets. Support stand legs elevate the container to a convenient height and allow for placement of the AFE power supply underneath. Two cassette slots are located on either side of the cryocooler. The slots are positioned parallel to each other, 10.5-inch center to center (6 standard cassette slot widths) so that the standard 8 slot AFE backplane can be used. The slot opening through the lid is approximately 1.422-inch x 16.782-inch. A 0.016-inch thick titanium (Ti-6AI-4V) envelope with sealing lip is inserted through lid and defines the gas helium boundary that the VLPC cassette resides. The internal dimensions of the titanium envelope are 1.390-inch x 16.75-inch x 10.531-inch deep. When the cassette is inserted the clearances will be 0.015-inch on the long side, 0.063-inch on the short side, and 0.032-inch at the bottom. The cassette gasket seals against the top lip of the titanium envelope. A soft gasket or thin vacuum sealant tape seals the underside of the titanium envelope to the top surface of the lid. A clamping hold down bar may be necessary to make this vacuum seal. Gas helium for the cassette space is supplied through a fitting and port that is added to the cassette bulkhead assembly. This is the only modification necessary the standard D-Zero cassette. Evacuation and backfilling and then stagnant positive pressure are

  8. High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler

    CERN Document Server

    Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We present high performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The best device showed a system detection efficiency (DE) of 74%, dark count rate of 100 c/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps under a bias current of 18.0 uA with a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system. We also introduced six detectors into the cryocooler and confirmed that the system DE of all detectors was higher than 63% at the dark count rate of 100 c/s.

  9. Development of 0.5-5 W, 10K Reverse Brayton Cycle Cryocoolers - Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, F. D.; Boman, A.; Arnold, S.; Spitzmesser, J. B.; Jones, D.; McCree, D.; Hacker, L. J.

    2001-10-15

    Miniature cryocoolers for the 8-30 K range are needed to provide 0.5-5 w of cooling to high sensitivity detectors (for long-wave-length IR, magnetism, mm-wave, X-ray, dark matter, and possibly y-ray detection) while maintaining low mass, ultra-low vibration, and good efficiency. This project presents a new approach to eliminating the problems normally encountered in efforts to build low-vibration, fieldable, miniature cryocoolers. Using the reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC), the approach applies and expands on existing spinner technology previously used only in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes.

  10. High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen

    2013-04-22

    We present high performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The best device showed a system detection efficiency (DE) of 74%, dark count rate of 100 c/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps under a bias current of 18.0 μA with a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system. We also introduced six detectors into the cryocooler and confirmed that the system DE of all detectors was higher than 67% at the dark count rate of 100 c/s.

  11. Thermal Vacuum Testing of a Helium Loop Heat Pipe for Large Area Cryocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA space telescopes and exploration missions require cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks. One device that can potentially be used to provide closed-loop cryocooling is the cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP). A CLHP has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A helium CLHP has been tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryocooler as the heat sink to characterize its transient and steady performance and to verify its ability to cool large areas or components in the 3 degrees Kelvin temperature range. The helium CLHP thermal performance test included cool-down from the ambient temperature, startup, capillary limit, heat removal capability, rapid power changes, and long duration steady state operation. The helium CLHP demonstrated robust operation under steady state and transient conditions. The loop could be cooled from the ambient temperature to subcritical temperatures very effectively, and could start successfully by simply applying power to both the capillary pump and the evaporator plate without pre-conditioning. It could adapt to a rapid heat load change and quickly reach a new steady state. Heat removal between 10 megawatts and 140 megawatts was demonstrated, yielding a power turn down ratio of 14. When the CLHP capillary limit was exceeded, the loop could resume its normal function by reducing the power to the capillary pump. Steady state operations up to 17 hours at several heat loads were demonstrated. The ability of the helium CLHP to cool large areas was therefore successfully verified.

  12. Impulse through-target x-ray tube spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitov, B. I.; Mukhachyov, Yu. S.

    2002-07-01

    At present x-ray compact tubes with pass-through anodes operating either in the pulse mode or in the direct voltage one are applied to the equipment for the shady microscopy, and the local XRF analysis. The report presents the calculated spectral intensity distributions of the bremsstrahlung versus the pass-through anode thickness. The spectral function of the bremsstrahlung Mo tube with the anode thickness over 100 microns is demosntrated to contract to the narrow energy interval lying near the characteristic anode radiation range. However under the same conditions the spectrum of the pulse Cu-anode tube tends to be dichromatic. The spectral distributions of the tube bremsstrahlung operating at the direct current and pulse voltage are compared.

  13. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D. [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  14. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, M. M.; Zhang, D. X.; Xu, D.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H2 from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H2 in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  15. Performance Study on ST/JT Hybrid Cryocoolers Working at Liquid Helium Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongli, Liu; Xuan, Tao; Xiao, Sun; Zhihua, Gan

    The ST/JT hybridcryocooler consists of a Stirling-typecryocooler and a J-T loop. The common process of steady-state operation is given. Pressure-Enthalpy map analysis and thermodynamic calculation showhow the precooling temperature, high pressure and recuperator effectiveness affect thecooling powerat liquid helium temperature. Applying the current performance level of the Stirling cooler,the overall COP of the hybrid cryocooleris roughly optimized. This performance study shows that the hybrid cryocooler can develop its performance potential with improved J-T compressors with larger pressure ratio and aprecooler working at lower temperature.

  16. Precooling of a superconducting magnet using a cryocooler and thermal switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J; Yanai, M

    1979-11-01

    A simple precooling system for a superconducting magnet is developed using a Cryomech GB02 cryocooler and gas filled thermal switches. A superconducting magnet (NbTi wire, 7 T of maximum field, 5.6 kg of weight) is precooled to 16 K in about 70 h without any manual control. Heat transfer rate of each thermal switch (H2 or N2 gas filled at 1.3 MPa at room temperature) is about 3x10(-1) W/K during the ON state, and 5x10(-3) W/K during the OFF state.

  17. Comparative study of oscillating flow characteristics of cryocooler regenerator at low temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglin JU; Qingqing SHEN

    2009-01-01

    A brief review is presented on previous experimental results and correlations on the friction factor of cryocooler regenerators operating at oscillating flow and pulsating pressure conditions, for different mesh sizes of packed woven screens, focusing on the effects of different operating frequencies ranging from 20 to 80 Hz, at room and cryogenic temperatures. A comparison of the friction factor data with those of other studies is presented to clarify the reason for the difference. Finally, a new oscillating flow correlation of regenerators, in terms of several non-dimensional parameters, is discussed and compared.

  18. Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziepke, A; Martens, S; Engel, H

    2016-09-07

    We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.

  19. Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziepke, A.; Martens, S.; Engel, H.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.

  20. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...