WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulsating variable stars

  1. The Onset of Chaos in Pulsating Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, David G; Percy, J R; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed Abdel-Sabour

    2011-01-01

    Random changes in pulsation period occur in cool pulsating Mira variables, Type A, B, and C semiregular variables, RV Tauri variables, and in most classical Cepheids. The physical processes responsible for such fluctuations are uncertain, but presumably originate in temporal modifications of the envelope convection in such stars. Such fluctuations are seemingly random over a few pulsation cycles of the stars, but are dominated by the regularity of the primary pulsation over the long term. The magnitude of stochasticity in pulsating stars appears to be linked directly to their dimensions, although not in simple fashion. It is relatively larger in M supergiants, for example, than in short-period Cepheids, but is common enough that it can be detected in visual observations for many types of pulsating stars. Although chaos was discovered in such stars 80 years ago, detection of its general presence in the group has only been possible in recent studies.

  2. Pulsating variable stars and large spectroscopic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cat, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the past decade, the research of pulsating variable stars has taken a giant leap forward thanks to the photometric measurements provided by space missions like Most, CoRoT, Kepler/K2, and Brite. These missions have provided quasi uninterrupted photometric time-series with an ultra-high quality and a total length that is not achievable from Earth. However, many of the success stories could not have been told without ground-based spectroscopic follow-up observations. Indeed, spectroscopy has some important assets as it can provide (more) accurate information about stellar parameters (like the effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and abundances that are mandatory parameters for an in-depth asteroseismic study), the radial velocity (that is important for the detection of binaries and for the confirmation of cluster membership, if applicable), and the projected rotational velocity (that allows the study of the effects of rotation on pulsations). Fortunately, several large spectroscopic surveys are (becoming) available that can be used for these purposes. For some of these surveys, sub-projects have been initiated with the specific goal to complement space-based photometry. In this review, several spectroscopic surveys are introduced and compared with each other. We show that a large amount of spectroscopic data is (becoming) available for a large variety of objects.

  3. Period Changes and Evolution in Pulsating Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, H. R.; Percy, J. R.; Smith, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    We review ways in which observations of the changing periods of pulsating variable stars can be used to detect and directly measure their evolution. We briefly describe the two main techniques of analysis-(O-C) analysis and wavelet analysis - and results for pulsating variable star types which are reasonably periodic: type I and II Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, beta Cephei stars, and Mira stars. We comment briefly on delta Scuti stars and pulsating white dwarfs. For some of these variable star types, observations agree approximately with the predictions of evolutionary models, but there still exist significant areas of disagreement that challenge future models of stellar evolution. There may be a need, for instance, to include processes such as rotation, mass loss, and magnetic fields. There may also be non-evolutionary processes which are contributing to the period changes.

  4. Period Changes and Evolution in Pulsating Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neilson, Hilding R; Smith, Horace A

    2016-01-01

    We review ways in which observations of the changing periods of pulsating variable stars can be used to detect and directly measure their evolution. We briefly describe the two main techniques of analysis -- (O-C) analysis and wavelet analysis -- and results for pulsating variable star types which are reasonably periodic: type I and II Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, beta Cephei stars, and Mira stars. We comment briefly on delta Scuti stars and pulsating white dwarfs. For some of these variable star types, observations agree approximately with the predictions of evolutionary models, but there still exist significant areas of disagreement that challenge future models of stellar evolution. There may be a need, for instance, to include processes such as rotation, mass loss, and magnetic fields. There may also be non-evolutionary processes which are contributing to the period changes.

  5. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  6. Hybrid Pulsators -- Pulsating Stars with Multiple Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, A -Y

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a statistic survey on the pulsating variable stars with multiple identities. These stars were identified to exhibit two types of pulsation or multiple light variability types in the literature, and are usually called hybrid pulsators. We extracted the hybrid information based on the Simbad database. Actually, all the variables with multiple identities are retrieved. The survey covers various pulsating stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We aim at giving a clue in selecting interesting targets for further observation. Hybrid pulsators are excellent targets for asteroseismology. An important implication of such stars is their potential in advancing the theories of both stellar evolution and pulsation. By presenting the statistics, we address the open questions and prospects regarding current status of hybrid pulsation studies.

  7. Variability and pulsations in the Be star 66 Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floquet, M.; Neiner, C.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Hubert, A. M.; Jankov, S.; Zorec, J.; Briot, D.; Chauville, J.; Leister, N. V.; Percy, J. R.; Ballereau, D.; Bakos, A. G.

    2002-10-01

    66 Oph is a Be star seen under a moderate inclination angle that shows strong variability from UV to IR wavelengths. A concise review of long-term variability history is given. High resolution, high S/N spectroscopic observations obtained in 1997, 1998 and 2001 and spectropolarimetric observations obtained in 2000 are presented. These observations occurred during a long-term decrease of Hα intensity. Fundamental parameters of the star have been revisited from Barbier-Chalonge-Divan (BCD) calibrations. New V sin i values are obtained using Fourier transforms applied to observed helium lines and a rotational frequency f_rot = 1.29 c d-1 is determined. Time series analysis and Fourier Doppler Imaging (FDI) of He I lines (4713, 4921, 5876 and 6678 Å) lead for the first time to the detection of multi-periodicity in 66 Oph. The two main frequencies found are f = 2.22 c d-1 and f = 4.05 c d-1 . They are attributed to non-radial pulsations and can be associated with mode degree l = 2 and l = 3, respectively. Inspection of Stokes V profiles suggests the presence of a weak Zeeman signature but further observations are needed to confirm the detection of a magnetic field in 66 Oph. Based on observations taken at OHP and Pic du Midi Observatory (France), at MBT/LNA (Brazil) and on Brazilian observing time at La Silla (ESO, Chile).

  8. Variable stars in the Fornax dSph Galaxy. II. Pulsating stars below the horizontal branch

    CERN Document Server

    Poretti, Ennio; Held, Enrico V; Greco, Claudia; Mateo, Mario; Dell'Arciprete, Luca; Rizzi, Luca; Gullieuszik, Marco; Maio, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out an intensive survey of the northern region of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy with the aim of detecting the galaxy's short--period pulsating stars (P<0.25 days). Observations collected over three consecutive nights with the Wide Field Imager of the 2.2m MPI telescope at ESO allowed us to detect 85 high-amplitude (0.20-1.00 mag in B-light) variable stars with periods in the range from 0.046 to 0.126 days, similar to SX Phoenicis stars in Galactic metal-poor stellar populations. The plots of the observed periods vs. the B and V magnitudes show a dispersion largely exceeding the observational errors. To disentangle the matter, we separated the first-overtone from the fundamental-mode pulsators and tentatively identified a group of subluminous variables, about 0.35 mag fainter than the others. Their nature as either metal-poor intermediate-age stars or stars formed by the merging of close binary systems is discussed. The rich sample of the Fornax variables also led us to reconstruct the ...

  9. Four New Delta Scuti Pulsators from a Variability Survey of 131 Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sokoloski, J L; Chornock, R; Filippenko, A V; Bildsten, Lars; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2002-01-01

    In a photometric variability survey of 131 stars with B < 14 mag, we have found four new Delta Scuti stars. We were sensitive to oscillation amplitudes as low as a few mmag. The detection rate of short-period (P < 0.1 d) pulsating variable stars, which may be relevant for planned large variability surveys such as GAIA, POI, and even the LSST, was therefore 3%. All four new variable stars have low pulsation amplitude (tens of mmag), and one has a very short period (0.0198 d). This star is one of the fastest known Delta Scuti pulsators. The short period of this variable star makes it observationally tractable, and it may therefore be a particularly good candidate for asteroseismological studies. All four new variable stars will add to the cadre of low-amplitude and relatively short-period Delta Scuti stars that are potentially useful for learning about the structure of stars on or near the main sequence, slightly more massive than the Sun.

  10. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  11. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  12. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  13. The puzzling new class of variable stars in NGC 3766 : old friend pulsators?

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, S J A J; Reese, D R; Dupret, M -A; Eggenberger, P

    2014-01-01

    The recent variability survey of the NGC 3766 cluster revealed a considerable number of periodic variable stars in a region of the H-R diagram where no pulsation is expected. This region lies between the instability strips of the delta Scuti and SPB stars. Moreover the periods of the new phenomenon, P~0.1-0.7 d, do not allow to associate it a priori to either of these two types of pulsations. Stars in the NGC 3766 cluster are known as fast rotators with rotational velocities typically larger than half of their critical velocity. Rotation can affect both the geometrical properties and period domain of pulsations. It also alters the apparent stellar luminosity through gravity darkening, effect seldom taken considered in theoretical studies of the rotation-pulsation interaction. We explore if both of these effects are able to deliver a consistent interpretation for the observed properties of the "new variables" in NGC 3766: explaining their presence outside the known instability strips and their variability peri...

  14. The Nainital-Cape Survey-III : A Search for Pulsational Variability in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Chakradhari, N K; Tiwari, S K; Billaud, C

    2009-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated research programme to search and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar stars in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the survey is to search such chemically peculiar stars which are pulsationally unstable. The observations of the sample stars were carried out in high-speed photometric mode using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope at ARIES. The new photometric observations confirmed that the pulsational period of star HD25515 is 2.78-hrs. The repeated time-series observations of HD113878 and HD118660 revealed that previously known frequencies are indeed present in the new data sets. We have estimated the distances, absolute magnitudes, effective temperatures and luminosities of these stars. Their positions in the H-R diagram indicate that HD25515 and HD118660 lie near the main-sequence while HD113878 is an evolved star. We also present a catalogue of 61 stars classified as null results, along with the corresponding...

  15. Mode selection in pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smolec, R

    2013-01-01

    In this review we focus on non-linear phenomena in pulsating stars the mode selection and amplitude limitation. Of many linearly excited modes only a fraction is detected in pulsating stars. Which of them and why (the problem of mode selection) and to what amplitude (the problem of amplitude limitation) are intrinsically non-linear and still unsolved problems. Tools for studying these problems are briefly discussed and our understanding of mode selection and amplitude limitation in selected groups of self-excited pulsators is presented. Focus is put on classical pulsators (Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars) and main sequence variables (delta Scuti and beta Cephei stars). Directions of future studies are briefly discussed.

  16. Asteroseismology of Pulsating Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Joshi; Yogesh C. Joshi

    2015-03-01

    The success of helioseismology is due to its capability of measuring -mode oscillations in the Sun. This allows us to extract information on the internal structure and rotation of the Sun from the surface to the core. Similarly, asteroseismology is the study of the internal structure of the stars as derived from stellar oscillations. In this review we highlight the progress in the observational asteroseismology, including some basic theoretical aspects. In particular, we discuss our contributions to asteroseismology through the study of chemically peculiar stars under the 'Nainital-Cape Survey' project being conducted at ARIES, Nainital, since 1999. This survey aims to detect new rapidly-pulsating Ap (roAp) stars in the northern hemisphere. We also discuss the contribution of ARIES towards the asteroseismic study of the compact pulsating variables. We comment on the future prospects of our project in the light of the new optical 3.6-m telescope to be installed at Devasthal (ARIES). Finally, we present a preliminary optical design of the high-speed imaging photometers for this telescope.

  17. Multicolor CCD Photometry and Period Analysis of Three Pulsating Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Multicolor CCD photometry of three pulsating variable stars, RR Leo, TYC 790-1124-1, and V337 Ori has lead to period solutions using Fourier methods on light curves acquired at UnderOak Observatory (UO). New photometric data from RR Leo largely corroborate findings previously reported for this well studied RRab variable. An O-C diagram period analysis using a rich historical record of time-of-maximum light data produced an updated quadratic ephemeris for RR Leo. Although not compelling, underlying sinusoidal variability in the quadratic residuals suggest that this intrinsic variable may also have a gravitationally bound cohort. Light curves from the poorly studied HADS variable TYC 790-1124-1 were remarkably symmetrical; this behavior was observed during a single campaign in 2011 which lasted only one month. Fortunately, starting nearly a decade ago photometric data were also captured by the ASAS survey between 2002 and 2009; the combined results reveal that the fundamental period and light curve shape for TYC 790-1124-1 has substantively remained unchanged. V337 Ori has only been studied by two other investigative groups within the past three years; their results and the two most prominent pulsation frequencies at 4.96877 and 6.72 c/d detected in the UO light curves are in good agreement. Notably this HADS exhibits significant cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability which may be related to these and other pulsation modes not detected in the present study.

  18. Pulsation models for the 0.26M_sun star mimicking RR Lyrae pulsator. Model survey for the new class of variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smolec, R; Graczyk, D; Pilecki, B; Gieren, W; Thompson, I; Stepien, K; Karczmarek, P; Konorski, P; Gorski, M; Suchomska, K; Bono, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Nardetto, N

    2012-01-01

    We present non-linear hydrodynamic pulsation models for OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792 - a 0.26M_sun pulsator, component of the eclipsing binary system, analysed recently by Pietrzynski et al. The star's light and radial velocity curves mimic that of classical RR Lyrae stars, except for the bump in the middle of the ascending branch of the radial velocity curve. We show that the bump is caused by the 2:1 resonance between the fundamental mode and the second overtone - the same mechanism that causes the Hertzsprung bump progression in classical Cepheids. The models allow to constrain the parameters of the star, in particular to estimate its absolute luminosity (approx 33L_sun) and effective temperature (approx 6970K, close to the blue edge of the instability strip). We conduct a model survey for the new class of low mass pulsators similar to OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792 - products of evolution in the binary systems. We compute a grid of models with masses corresponding to half (and less) of the typical mass of RR Lyrae variable...

  19. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  20. Little Bear's pulsating stars: Variable star census of UMi dSph Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinemuchi, K.; Jeffery, E.; Kuehn, C.; Grabowski, K.; Nemec, J.

    2017-09-01

    Recent observations and a photometric search for variable stars in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (UMi dSph) are presented. Our observations were taken at Apache Point Observatory in 2014 and 2016 using the 0.5m ARCSAT telescope and the West Mountain Observatory (WMO) 0.9m telescope of Brigham Young University in 2016. Previously known RR Lyrae stars in our field of view of the UMi dSph are identified, and we also catalog new variable star candidates. Tentative classifications are given for some of the new variable stars. We have conducted period searches with the data collected with the WMO telescope. Our ultimate goal is to create an updated catalog of variable stars in the UMi dSph and to compare the RR Lyrae stellar characteristics to other RR Lyrae stars found in the Local Group dSph galaxies.

  1. Little Bear’s pulsating stars: Variable star census of UMi dSph Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinemuchi K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and a photometric search for variable stars in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (UMi dSph are presented. Our observations were taken at Apache Point Observatory in 2014 and 2016 using the 0.5m ARCSAT telescope and the West Mountain Observatory (WMO 0.9m telescope of Brigham Young University in 2016. Previously known RR Lyrae stars in our field of view of the UMi dSph are identified, and we also catalog new variable star candidates. Tentative classifications are given for some of the new variable stars. We have conducted period searches with the data collected with the WMO telescope. Our ultimate goal is to create an updated catalog of variable stars in the UMi dSph and to compare the RR Lyrae stellar characteristics to other RR Lyrae stars found in the Local Group dSph galaxies.

  2. A temporal study of oxygen-rich pulsating variable AGB star, T Cep: Investigation on dust formation and dust properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niyogi, Suklima Guha; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Pulsation is believed to be the leading cause of dusty mass loss from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. We present a temporal study of T Cep, a long-period Mira variable, using seven ISO SWS spectra, covering a 16-month period over a single pulsation cycle. The observed spectral dust features change over the pulsation cycle of this Mira. In general, the overall apparent changes in spectral features can be attributed to changes in the dust temperature, resulting from the intrinsic pulsation cycle of the central star. However, not all feature changes are so easily explained. Based on direct comparison with laboratory spectra of several potential minerals, the dust is best explained by crystalline iron-rich silicates. These findings contradict the currently favored dust formation hypotheses.

  3. Stellar variability in open clusters. II. Discovery of a new period-luminosity relation in a class of fast-rotating pulsating stars in NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Semaan, T; Eggenberger, P; Barblan, F; Eyer, L; Ekström, S; Georgy, C

    2016-01-01

    $Context.$ Pulsating stars are windows to the physics of stars enabling us to see glimpses of their interior. Not all stars pulsate, however. On the main sequence, pulsating stars form an almost continuous sequence in brightness, except for a magnitude range between $\\delta$ Scuti and slowly pulsating B stars. Against all expectations, 36 periodic variables were discovered in 2013 in this luminosity range in the open cluster NGC 3766, the origins of which was a mystery. $Aims.$ We investigate the properties of those new variability class candidates in relation to their stellar rotation rates and stellar multiplicity. $Methods.$ We took multi-epoch spectra over three consecutive nights using ESO's Very Large Telescope. $Results.$ We find that the majority of the new variability class candidates are fast-rotating pulsators that obey a new period-luminosity relation. We argue that the new relation discovered here has a different physical origin to the period-luminosity relations observed for Cepheids. $Conclusio...

  4. Pulsating star research and the Gaia revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyer Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present an overview of the ESA Gaia mission and of the unprecedented impact that Gaia will have on the field of variable star research. We summarise the contents and impact of the first Gaia data release on the description of variability phenomena, with particular emphasis on pulsating star research. The Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution, although limited to 2.1 million stars, has been used in many studies related to pulsating stars. Furthermore a set of 3,194 Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with their times series have been released. Finally we present the plans for the ongoing study of variable phenomena with Gaia and highlight some of the possible impacts of the second data release on variable, and specifically, pulsating stars.

  5. Pulsating star research and the Gaia revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Laurent; Clementini, Gisella; Guy, Leanne P.; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Glass, Florian; Audard, Marc; Holl, Berry; Charnas, Jonathan; Cuypers, Jan; Ridder, Joris De; Evans, Dafydd W.; de Fombelle, Gregory Jevardat; Lanzafame, Alessandro; Lecoeur-Taibi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Riello, Marco; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Sarro, Luis; Süveges, Maria

    2017-09-01

    In this article we present an overview of the ESA Gaia mission and of the unprecedented impact that Gaia will have on the field of variable star research. We summarise the contents and impact of the first Gaia data release on the description of variability phenomena, with particular emphasis on pulsating star research. The Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution, although limited to 2.1 million stars, has been used in many studies related to pulsating stars. Furthermore a set of 3,194 Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with their times series have been released. Finally we present the plans for the ongoing study of variable phenomena with Gaia and highlight some of the possible impacts of the second data release on variable, and specifically, pulsating stars.

  6. A Photometric Study of the Pulsating Variable Star TYC 0075 01143 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khruslov, A. V.; Kusakin, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of our new observations of TYC 0075 01143 1, a recently discovered double-mode delta Scuti variable. We improved the frequencies f0 and f1 and pulsation amplitudes, detected the interaction frequencies f1+f0, f1-f0, and a possible nonradial frequency fN.

  7. Stellar variability in open clusters . II. Discovery of a new period-luminosity relation in a class of fast-rotating pulsating stars in NGC 3766

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, N.; Saesen, S.; Semaan, T.; Eggenberger, P.; Barblan, F.; Eyer, L.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Pulsating stars are windows to the physics of stars enabling us to see glimpses of their interior. Not all stars pulsate, however. On the main sequence, pulsating stars form an almost continuous sequence in brightness, except for a magnitude range between δ Scuti and slowly pulsating B stars. Against all expectations, 36 periodic variables were discovered in 2013 in this luminosity range in the open cluster NGC 3766, the origins of which was a mystery. Aims: We investigate the properties of those new variability class candidates in relation to their stellar rotation rates and stellar multiplicity. Methods: We took multi-epoch spectra over three consecutive nights using ESO's Very Large Telescope. Results: We find that the majority of the new variability class candidates are fast-rotating pulsators that obey a new period-luminosity relation. We argue that the new relation discovered here has a different physical origin to the period-luminosity relations observed for Cepheids. Conclusions: We anticipate that our discovery will boost the relatively new field of stellar pulsation in fast-rotating stars, will open new doors for asteroseismology, and will potentially offer a new tool to estimate stellar ages or cosmic distances. Based on observations made with the FLAMES instruments on the VLT/UT2 telescope at the Paranal Observatory, Chile, under the program ID 69.A-0123(A).

  8. To Pulsate or to Eclipse? Status of KIC 9832227 Variable Star

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The variable star known as NSVS 5597754 was identified as a short period RRc field star from ground-based photometry. This star happens to fall in the Kepler field of view and has been observed for 3 years with the Kepler spacecraft. Renamed KIC 9832227, this star was reidentified as an eclipsing binary with a periodicity of 0.457970 days. The NSVS ground based photometry yielded a period solution of 0.229 days. The Kepler photometry, which sampled the light cycle every 30 minutes, shows a pe...

  9. Fourier decomposition and frequency analysis of the pulsating stars with P < 1day in the OGLE database. II. Multiperiodic RR Lyrae variables in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalik, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for multiperiodic pulsators among the Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae stars of the OGLE-1 sample. We identify one "canonical" double-mode variable (RRd star) pulsating in two radial modes. In 38 stars we detect secondary periodicities very close to the primary pulsation frequency. This type of multiperiodic variables constitute ~23% of RRab and ~5% of RRc population of the Bulge. With the observed period ratios of 0.95-1.02 the secondary periods must correspond to nonradial modes of oscillation. Their beating with the primary (radial) pulsation leads to a long-term amplitude and phase modulation, known as the Blazhko effect. The Blazhko RRab variables occur more frequently in the Galactic Bulge than in the LMC. The opposite tendency is seen in case of the RRd stars. The differences of incidence rates are most likely caused by different metallicity of the two populations. We discuss pulsation properties of the OGLE-1 Blazhko stars and compare them with predictions of theor...

  10. CoRoT's view on variable B8/9 stars: spots versus pulsations: Evidence for differential rotation in HD 174648

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, P; Samadi, R; Aerts, C; Kurtz, D W; Noels, A; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Bloemen, S; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Auvergne, M

    2011-01-01

    Context. There exist few variability studies of stars in the region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between the A and B-star pulsational instability strips. With the aid of the high precision continuous measurements of the CoRoT space satellite, low amplitudes are more easily detected, making a study of this neglected region worthwhile. Aims. We collected a small sample of B stars observed by CoRoT to determine the origin of the different types of variability observed. Methods. We combine literature photometry and spectroscopy to measure the fundamental parameters of the stars in the sample, and compare asteroseismic modelling of the light curves with (differentially rotating) spotted star models. Results. We found strong evidence for the existence of spots and differential rotation in HD 174648, and formulated hypotheses for their origin. We show that the distinction between pulsations and rotational modulation is difficult to make solely based on the light curve, especially in slowly rotating stars.

  11. Long Period Variables: questioning the pulsation paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Berlioz-Arthaud, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Long period variables, among them Miras, are thought to be pulsating. Under this approach the whole star inflates and deflates along a period that can vary from 100 to 900 days; that pulsation is assumed to produce shock waves on the outer layers of the star that propagate into the atmosphere and could account for the increase in luminosity and the presence of emission lines in the spectra of these stars. However, this paradigm can seriously be questioned from a theoretical point of view. First, in order to maintain a radial pulsation, the spherical symmetry of the star must be preserved: how can it be reconciled with the large convective cells present in these stars? or when close companions are detected? Secondly, how different radial and non-radial pulsation modes of a sphere could be all damped except one radial mode? These problems have no solution and significantly weigh on the pulsation paradigm. Acknowledging this inconsistency, we show that a close companion around these stars could account for the s...

  12. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  13. Why do hot subdwarf stars pulsate?

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S

    2015-01-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are the stripped cores of red giants located at the bluest extension of the horizontal branch. Several different kinds of pulsators are found among those stars. The mechanism that drives those pulsations is well known and the theoretically predicted instability regions for both the short-period p-mode and the long-period g-mode pulsators match the observed distributions fairly well. However, it remains unclear why only a fraction of the sdB stars pulsate, while stars with otherwise very similar parameters do not show pulsations. From an observers perspective I review possible candidates for the missing parameter that makes sdB stars pulsate or not.

  14. Pulsation and Long-Term Variability of the High-Amplitude δ Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pongsak Khokhuntod; Jian-Ning Fu; Chayan Boonyarak; Kanokwan Marak; Li Chen; Shi-Yang Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Time-series photometry was made for the large-amplitude δ Scuti star AD CMi in 2005 and 2006.High-quality photometric data provided in the literature were used to analyze the pulsation of the star,with the derived multiple frequencies fitted to our new data.Besides the dominant frequency and its harmonics,one low frequency(2.27402 cd-1)is discovered,which provides a reasonable interpretation for the long-noticed luminosity variation at the maximum and minimum light.Combining the nine new times of light maxima determined from the new data with the 64 times collected from the literature.we analyzed the long-term variability of AD CMi with the O-C technique.The results provide the updated value of period of 0.122974478 days.and seem to be in favor of the model of combination of the evolutionary effect and light-time effect of a binary system.of which some parameters are hereby deduced.

  15. Pulsation and Long-Term Variability of the High-Amplitude δ Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhuntod, Pongsak; Fu, Jian-Ning; Boonyarak, Chayan; Marak, Kanokwan; Chen, Li; Jiang, Shi-Yang

    2007-06-01

    Time-series photometry was made for the large-amplitude δ Scuti star AD CMi in 2005 and 2006. High-quality photometric data provided in the literature were used to analyze the pulsation of the star, with the derived multiple frequencies fitted to our new data. Besides the dominant frequency and its harmonics, one low frequency (2.27402 c d-1) is discovered, which provides a reasonable interpretation for the long-noticed luminosity variation at the maximum and minimum light. Combining the nine new times of light maxima determined from the new data with the 64 times collected from the literature, we analyzed the long-term variability of AD CMi with the O-C technique. The results provide the updated value of period of 0.122974478 days, and seem to be in favor of the model of combination of the evolutionary effect and light-time effect of a binary system, of which some parameters are hereby deduced.

  16. The Effects of Element Diffusion on the Pulsational Properties of Variable DA White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Althaus, L G; Serenelli, A M

    2002-01-01

    We explore the effects of element diffusion due to gravitational settling and thermal and chemical diffusion on the pulsational properties of DA white dwarfs. To this end, we employ an updated evolutionary code coupled with a pulsational, finite difference code for computing the linear, non-radial g-modes in the adiabatic approximation. We follow the evolution of a 0.55 \\msun white dwarf model in a self-consistent way with the evolution of chemical abundance distribution as given by time dependent diffusion processes. Results are compared with the standard treatment of diffusive equilibrium in the trace element approximation. Appreciable differences are found between the two employed treatments. We conclude that time dependent element diffusion plays an important role in determining the whole oscillation pattern and the temporal derivative of the periods in DAV white dwarfs. In addition, we discuss the plausibility of the standard description employed in accounting for diffusion in most of white dwarf asteros...

  17. Secular Evolution in Mira Variable Pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Templeton, M R; Willson, L A

    2005-01-01

    Stellar evolution theory predicts that asymptotic giant branch stars undergo a series of short thermal pulses that significantly change their luminosity and mass on timescales of hundreds to thousands of years. Secular changes in these stars resulting from thermal pulses can be detected as measurable changes in period if the star is undergoing Mira pulsations. The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) International Database currently contains visual data for over 1500 Mira variables. Light curves for these stars span nearly a century in some cases, making it possible to study the secular evolution of the pulsation behavior on these timescales. In this paper, we present the results of our study of period change in 547 Mira variables using data from the AAVSO. We find non-zero rates of period change, dlnP/dt, at the 2-sigma significance level in 57 of the 547 stars, at the 3-sigma level in 21 stars, and at the level of 6-sigma or greater in eight of the 547. The latter eight stars have been pr...

  18. Learning from Pulsating Stars: Progress over the Last Century (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Scarcely more than a century has elapsed since it began to be widely accepted that pulsation plays an important role in the variability of stars. During that century pulsating stars have been used as tools to explore a variety of astrophysical questions, including the determination of distances to other galaxies, the testing of timescales of evolution through the HR diagram, and the identification of the ages and star formation histories of stellar populations. Among the significant early milestones along this investigative path are Henrietta Leavitt's discovery of a relation between the periods and luminosities of Cepheids, Harlow Shapley's proposal that all Cepheids are pulsating stars, and Arthur Stanley Eddington's use of the observed period change of d Cephei to constrain its power source. Today our explorations of pulsating stars are bolstered by long observational histories of brighter variables, surveys involving unprecedentedly large numbers of stars, and improved theoretical analyses. This talk will review aspects of the history and our current understanding of pulsating stars, paying particular attention to RR Lyrae, d Scuti, and Cepheid variables. Observations by AAVSO members have provided insight into several questions regarding the behavior of these stars.

  19. Pulsating star research from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadid, Merieme

    2017-09-01

    This invited talk discusses the pulsating star research from the heart of Antarctica and the scientific polar challenges in the extreme environment of Antarctica, and how the new polar technology could cope with unresolved stellar pulsation enigmas and evolutionary properties challenges towards an understanding of the mysteries of the Universe. PAIX, the first robotic photometer Antarctica program, has been successfully launched during the polar night 2007. This ongoing program gives a new insight to cope with unresolved stellar enigmas and stellar oscillation challenges with a great opportunity to benefit from an access to the best astronomical site on Earth, Dome C. PAIX achieves astrophysical measurement time-series of stellar fields, challenging photometry from space. A continuous and an uninterrupted series of multi-color photometric observations has been collected each polar night - 150 days - without regular interruption, Earth's rotation effect. PAIX shows the first light curve from Antarctica and first step for the astronomy in Antarctica giving new insights in remote polar observing runs and robotic instruments towards a new technology.

  20. High-Precision Spectroscopy of Pulsating Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, C; Desmet, M; Carrier, F; Zima, W; Briquet, M; De Ridder, J

    2007-01-01

    We review methodologies currently available to interprete time series of high-resolution high-S/N spectroscopic data of pulsating stars in terms of the kind of (non-radial) modes that are excited. We illustrate the drastic improvement of the detection treshold of line-profile variability thanks to the advancement of the instrumentation over the past two decades. This has led to the opportunity to interprete line-profile variations with amplitudes of order m/s, which is a factor 1000 lower than the earliest line-profile time series studies allowed for.

  1. Stochastic Processes in Yellow and Red Pulsating Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, David G; Colivas, T; Berdnikov, Leonid N; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed Abdel-Sabour

    2009-01-01

    Random changes in pulsation period are well established in cool pulsating stars, in particular the red giant variables: Miras, semi-regulars of types A and B, and RV Tau variables. Such effects are also observed in a handful of Cepheids, the SX Phe variable XX Cyg, and, most recently, the red supergiant variable, BC Cyg, a type C semi-regular. The nature of such fluctuations is seemingly random over a few pulsation cycles of the stars, yet the regularity of the primary pulsation mechanism dominates over the long term. The degree of stochasticity is linked to the dimensions of the stars, the randomness parameter 'e' appearing to correlate closely with mean stellar radius through the period 'P', with an average value of e/P = 0.0136+-0.0005. The physical processes responsible for such fluctuations are uncertain, but presumably originate in temporal modifications of envelope convection in such stars.

  2. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  3. A Pulsation Mechanism for GW Virginis Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Arthur N.

    2003-03-01

    The mechanism that produces pulsations in the hottest pre-white dwarfs has been uncertain since the early work indicated that helium is a poison that smooths opacity bumps in the opacity-temperature plane caused by the ionizations of the large observed amounts of carbon and oxygen. Very little helium seemed to be needed to prevent the kappa effect pulsation driving, but helium amounts of almost half of the mass in the surface composition are observed in the pulsating PG 1159-035 stars called the GW Virginis variables. Rather little change in the C and O surface abundances is observed from the hottest (RX J2117.1+3412 at 170,000 K) to the coolest (PG 0122+200 at 80,000 K) GW Vir variables. Actually the shortest observed periods (300-400 s) of these variables are generally predicted to be unstable in all models, but the longest observed periods (up to 1000 s) are difficult to excite. Three recent investigations differ in their conclusions, with two finding that helium and even a slight amount of hydrogen does not prevent the kappa effect of C and O ionizations. A more detailed study reported here confirms the poisoning effect of helium. However, the ionization K- and L-edge opacity of the original iron, whose global abundance is unaffected by all previous evolution, especially if enhanced by radiation absorption levitation, can give different, previously unexplored, opacity driving that can explain the observed pulsations. But even this iron ionization driving can be somewhat poisoned by bump smoothing if the C and O abundances are large. Nonvariable GW Vir stars in the observed instability strip could be the result of small composition variations in the pulsation driving layers.

  4. Is $\\lambda$ Cep a pulsating star?

    CERN Document Server

    Uuh-Sonda, J M; Rauw, G

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that the variability seen in absorption lines of the O6Ief star $\\lambda$ Cep is periodical and due to non-radial pulsations (NRP). We have obtained new spectra during six campaigns lasting between five and nine nights. In some datasets we find recurrent spectral variations which move redward in the absorption line profile, consistent with perturbations on the stellar surface of a rotating star. However the periods found are not stable between datasets, at odds with the NRP hypothesis. Moreover, even when no redward trend is found in a full dataset of an observing campaign, it can be present in a subset, suggesting that the phenomenon is short-lived, of the order of a few days, and possibly linked to transient magnetic loops.

  5. Heartbeat Stars and the Ringing of Tidal Pulsations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambleton Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of high precision photometry from satellites such as Kepler and CoRoT, a whole new layer of interesting and astounding astronomical objects has been revealed: heartbeat stars are an example of such objects. Heartbeat stars are eccentric ellipsoidal variables that undergo strong tidal interactions when the stars are almost in contact at the time of closest approach. These interactions deform of the stars and cause a notable light curve variation in the form of a tidal pulse. A subset of these objects (~20% show prominent tidally induced pulsations: pulsations forced by the binary orbit. We now have a fully functional code that models binary star features (using PHOEBE and stellar pulsations simultaneously, enabling a complete and accurate heartbeat star model to be determined. In this paper we show the results of our new code, which uses emcee, a variant of mcmc, to generate a full set of stellar parameters. We further highlight the interesting features of KIC 8164262, including its tidally induced pulsations and resonantly locked pulsations.

  6. Asteroseismology of hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus pulsating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Arias, J. P.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus pulsating stars show acoustic (p) oscillation modes typical of δ Scuti variable stars, and gravity (g) pulsation modes characteristic of γ Doradus variable stars simultaneously excited. Observations from space missions such as MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler have revealed a large number of hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus pulsators, thus paving the way for an exciting new channel of asteroseismic studies. Aims: We perform detailed asteroseismological modelling of five hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus stars. Methods: A grid-based modeling approach was employed to sound the internal structure of the target stars using stellar models ranging from the zero-age main sequence to the terminal-age main sequence, varying parameters such as stellar mass, effective temperature, metallicity and core overshooting. Their adiabatic radial (ℓ = 0) and non-radial (ℓ = 1,2,3) p and g mode periods were computed. Two model-fitting procedures were used to search for asteroseismological models that best reproduce the observed pulsation spectra of each target star. Results: We derive the fundamental parameters and the evolutionary status of five hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus variable stars recently observed by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions: CoRoT 105733033, CoRoT 100866999, KIC 11145123, KIC 9244992, and HD 49434. The asteroseismological model for each star results from different criteria of model selection, in which we take full advantage of the richness of periods that characterises the pulsation spectra for this kind of star.

  7. Gaia and Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A; Skowron, D M; Skowron, J; Pietrukowicz, P; Mróz, P; Poleski, R; Szymański, M K; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparison of the Gaia DR1 samples of pulsating variable stars - Cepheids and RR Lyrae type - with the OGLE Collection of Variable Stars aiming at the characterization of the Gaia mission performance in the stellar variability domain. Out of 575 Cepheids and 2322 RR Lyrae candidates from the Gaia DR1 samples located in the OGLE footprint in the sky, 559 Cepheids and 2302 RR Lyrae stars are genuine pulsators of these types. The number of misclassified stars is low indicating reliable performance of the Gaia data pipeline. The completeness of the Gaia DR1 samples of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars is at the level of 60-75% as compared to the OGLE Collection dataset. This level of completeness is moderate and may limit the applicability of the Gaia data in many projects.

  8. Asteroseismology of hybrid $\\delta$ Scuti--$\\gamma$ Doradus pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, J P Sánchez; Althaus, L G

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid $\\delta$ Scuti-$\\gamma$ Doradus pulsating stars show acoustic ($p$) oscillation modes typical of $\\delta$ Scuti variable stars, and gravity ($g$) pulsation modes characteristic of $\\gamma$ Doradus variable stars simultaneously excited. Observations from space missions like MOST, CoRoT, and \\emph{Kepler} have revealed a large number of hybrid $\\delta$ Scuti-$\\gamma$ Doradus pulsators, thus paving the way for a exciting new channel for asteroseismic studies. We perform a detailed asteroseismological modeling of five hybrid $\\delta$ Scuti-$\\gamma$ Doradus stars. We employ a grid-based modeling approach to sound the internal structure of the target stars by employing a huge grid of stellar models from the zero-age main sequence to the terminal-age main sequence, varying parameters like stellar mass, effective temperature, metallicity and core overshooting. We compute their adiabatic radial ($\\ell= 0$) and non-radial ($\\ell= 1, 2, 3$) $p$ and $g$ mode periods. We employ two model-fitting procedures to searc...

  9. The first evidence for multiple pulsation axes: a new rapidly oscillating Ap star in the Kepler field, KIC 10195926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Cunha, Margarida S.; Saio, H.;

    2011-01-01

    model that these two modes cannot have the same axis of pulsation. This is the first time for any pulsating star that evidence has been found for separate pulsation axes for different modes. The two modes are separated in frequency by 55 μHz, which we model as the large separation. The star is an α2 CVn...... to these values that reproduces the rotational variations of the two obliquely pulsating modes with different pulsation axes. The star shows overabundances of the rare earth elements, but these are not as extreme as most other roAp stars. The spectrum is variable with rotation, indicating surface abundance...

  10. Pulsations and outbursts in Be stars: Small differences - big impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Baade, D; Pigulski, A; Carciofi, A; Handler, G; Kuschnig, R; Martayan, Ch; Mehner, A; Moffat, A F J; Pablo, H; Popowicz, A; Rucinski, S M; Wade, G A; Weiss, W W; Zwintz, K

    2016-01-01

    New high-cadence observations with BRITE covering many months confirm that coupled pairs of nonradial pulsation modes are widespread among early-type Be stars. With the difference frequency between the parental variations they may form a roughly sinusoidal variability or the amplitude may cyclicly vary. A first - amplified - beat pattern is also found. In all three cases the amplitudes of difference frequencies can exceed the amplitude sum of the base frequencies, and modulations of the star-to-circumstellar-disk mass-transfer rate may be associated with these slow variations. This suggests more strongly than any earlier observations that significant dissipation of pulsational energy in the atmosphere may be a cause of mass ejections from Be stars. A unifying interpretative concept is presented.

  11. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  12. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, D. E.; Kepler, S. O.

    2008-09-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  13. SuperWASP observations of pulsating Am stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Fossati, L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Butters, O W; Cameron, A Collier; Christian, D J; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Southworth, J; Street, R A; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L

    2011-01-01

    We have studied over 1600 Am stars at a photometric precision of 1 mmag with SuperWASP photometric data. Contrary to previous belief, we find that around 200 Am stars are pulsating delta Sct and gamma Dor stars, with low amplitudes that have been missed in previous, less extensive studies. While the amplitudes are generally low, the presence of pulsation in Am stars places a strong constraint on atmospheric convection, and may require the pulsation to be laminar. While some pulsating Am stars have been previously found to be delta Sct stars, the vast majority of Am stars known to pulsate are presented in this paper. They will form the basis of future statistical studies of pulsation in the presence of atomic diffusion.

  14. Pulsations in Subdwarf B Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. Simon Jeffery

    2005-06-01

    Subdwarf B stars play a significant role in close binary evolution and in the hot star content of old stellar populations, in particular in giant elliptical galaxies. While the question of their origin poses several problems for stellar evolution theory, one of their most fascinating properties is the presence of multi-periodic 2–3 minute oscillations. Interpreting these oscillations optimally requires the correct identification of the modes. Partial identifications can be obtained using high-speed observations of radial velocity and colour variations. We review some of the several attempts to make such observations, most recently with the Multi-Site Spectroscopic Telescope campaign and with ULTRACAM.

  15. Of Variability, or its Absence, in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Current models and observations of variability in HgMn stars disagree. We present here the models that argue for pulsating HgMn stars with properties similar to those of Slowly Pulsating B Stars. The lack of observed variable HgMn stars suggests that some physical process is missing from the models. Some possibilities are discussed.

  16. Discovery of the magnetic field in the pulsating B star β Cephei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; de Jong, J.A.; Verdugo, E.; Schnerr, R.S.; Neiner, C.; Donati, J.-F.; Catala, C.; Shorlin, S.L.S.; Wade, G.A.; Veen, P.M.; Nichols, J.S.; Damen, E.M.F.; Talavera, A.; Hill, G.M.; Kaper, L.; Tijani, A.M.; Geers, V.C.; Wiersema, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Rygl, K.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Although the star itself is not helium enriched, the periodicity and the variability in the UV wind lines of the pulsating B1 IV star β Cephei are similar to what is observed in magnetic helium-peculiar B stars, suggesting that β Cep is magnetic. Aims. We searched for a magnetic field using

  17. Discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Fraga, L.

    2013-03-01

    Using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope (SOAR) Optical Imager at the SOAR 4.1 m telescope, we report on the discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars. Our results represent an increase of about 20 per cent in the number of massive pulsators. We have detected both short and long periods, low and high amplitude pulsation modes, covering the whole range of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. In this paper, we present a first seismological study of the new massive pulsators based on the few frequencies detected. Our analysis indicates that these stars have masses higher than average, in agreement with the spectroscopic determinations. In addition, we study for the first time the ensemble properties of the pulsating white dwarf stars with masses above 0.8 M⊙. We found a bimodal distribution of the main pulsation period with the effective temperature for the massive DAVs, which indicates mode selection mechanisms.

  18. A survey for pulsations in A-type stars using SuperWASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    "It is sound judgement to hope that in the not too distant future we shall be competent to understand so simple a thing as a star." - Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, The Internal Constitution of Stars, 1926 A survey of A-type stars is conducted with the SuperWASP archive in the search for pulsationally variable stars. Over 1.5 million stars are selected based on their (J-H) colour. Periodograms are calculated for light curves which have been extracted from the archive and cleaned of spurious points. Peaks which have amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude are identified in the periodograms. In total, 202 656 stars are identified to show variability in the range 5-300 c/d. Spectroscopic follow-up was obtained for 38 stars which showed high-frequency pulsations between 60 and 235 c/d, and a further object with variability at 636 c/d. In this sample, 13 were identified to be normal A-type δ Sct stars, 14 to be pulsating metallic-lined Am stars, 11 to be rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, and one to be a subdwarf B variable star. The spectra were used not only to classify the stars, but to determine an effective temperature through Balmer line fitting. Hybrid stars have been identified in this study, which show pulsations in both the high- and low-overtone domains; an observation not predicted by theory. These stars are prime targets to perform follow-up observations, as a confirmed detection of this phenomenon will have significant impact on the theory of pulsations in A-type stars. The detected number of roAp stars has expanded the known number of this pulsator class by 22 per cent. Within these results both the hottest and coolest roAp star have been identified. Further to this, one object, KIC 7582608, was observed by the Kepler telescope for 4 yr, enabling a detailed frequency analysis. This analysis has identified significant frequency variations in this star, leading to the hypothesis that this is the first close binary star of its type. The observational

  19. A search for low-metallicity pulsating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Chris; Kgoadi, Refilwe; Frescura, Fabio

    2017-09-01

    We report on some recent results from a long-term UBVI survey of various fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which is aimed at identifying and classifying pulsating B stars in the selected LMC fields. Difference Imaging Analysis shows a clear advantage over conventional PSF fitting. Tentative indications have been found of a varying incidence of pulsation amplitudes (and, by inference, of metal content of the pulsators) across the LMC bar.

  20. New magnetic field measurements of beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; De Cat, P; Schöller, M; Morel, T; Ilyin, I

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the continuation of our magnetic survey with FORS1 at the VLT of a sample of B-type stars consisting of confirmed or candidate beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars. Roughly one third of the studied beta Cephei stars have detected magnetic fields. The fraction of magnetic Slowly Pulsating B and candidate Slowly Pulsating B stars is found to be higher, up to 50%. We find that the domains of magnetic and non-magnetic pulsating stars in the H-R diagram largely overlap, and no clear picture emerges as to the possible evolution of the magnetic field across the main sequence.

  1. First magnetic field models for recently discovered magnetic beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Schoeller, M; Briquet, M; Morel, T; De Cat, P

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent detections of magnetic fields in a number of beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, their impact on stellar rotation, pulsations, and element diffusion is not sufficiently studied yet. The reason for this is the lack of knowledge of rotation periods, the magnetic field strength distribution and temporal variability, and the field geometry. New longitudinal field measurements of four beta Cephei and candidate beta Cephei stars, and two SPB stars were acquired with FORS2 at the VLT. These measurements allowed us to carry out a search for rotation periods and to constrain the magnetic field geometry for four stars in our sample.

  2. Diffusion and pulsations in slowly rotating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion in cool B stars of the main sequence has been shown to strongly affect opacities and convection in cool B stars of the main sequence. We show here that diffusion in B stars maintains or enhances the excitation of pulsations in these stars. This result conflicts with observations as cool B stars that show evidence of diffusion, the HgMn stars, are stable to the current detection level. We discuss possible implications of this discrepancy for the models.

  3. PULSATION PERIOD VARIATIONS IN THE RRc LYRAE STAR KIC 5520878

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippke, Michael [Institute for Data Analysis, Luiter Str. 21b, D-47506 Neukirchen-Vluyn (Germany); Learned, John G. [High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Manoa 327 Watanabe Hall, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Zee, A. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Edmondson, William H. [School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lindner, John F. [Physics Department, The College of Wooster, Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Kia, Behnam; Ditto, William L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stevens, Ian R., E-mail: hippke@ifda.eu, E-mail: jgl@phys.hawaii.edu, E-mail: zee@kitp.ucsb.edu, E-mail: w.h.edmondson@bham.ac.uk, E-mail: jlindner@wooster.edu, E-mail: wditto@hawaii.edu, E-mail: behnam@hawaii.edu, E-mail: irs@star.sr.bham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Learned et al. proposed that a sufficiently advanced extra-terrestrial civilization may tickle Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars with a neutrino beam at the right time, thus causing them to trigger early and jogging the otherwise very regular phase of their expansion and contraction. This would turn these stars into beacons to transmit information throughout the galaxy and beyond. The idea is to search for signs of phase modulation (in the regime of short pulse duration) and patterns, which could be indicative of intentional, omnidirectional signaling. We have performed such a search among variable stars using photometric data from the Kepler space telescope. In the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878, we have found two such regimes of long and short pulse durations. The sequence of period lengths, expressed as time series data, is strongly autocorrelated, with correlation coefficients of prime numbers being significantly higher (p = 99.8%). Our analysis of this candidate star shows that the prime number oddity originates from two simultaneous pulsation periods and is likely of natural origin. Simple physical models elucidate the frequency content and asymmetries of the KIC 5520878 light curve. Despite this SETI null result, we encourage testing of other archival and future time-series photometry for signs of modulated stars. This can be done as a by-product to the standard analysis, and can even be partly automated.

  4. The evolved pulsating CEMP star HD112869

    CERN Document Server

    Začs, L; Grankina, A; Deveikis, V; Kaminskyi, B; Pavlenko, Y; Musaev, F

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements, $BVR_C$ photometry, and high-resolution spectroscopy in the wavelength region from blue to near infrared are employed in order to clarify the evolutionary status of the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star HD112869 with unique ratio of carbon isotopes in the atmosphere. An LTE abundance analysis was carried out using the method of spectral synthesis and new self consistent 1D atmospheric models. The radial velocity monitoring confirmed semiregular variations with a peak-to-peak amplitude of about 10 km $s^{-1}$ and a dominating period of about 115 days. The light, color and radial velocity variations are typical of the evolved pulsating stars. The atmosphere of HD112869 appears to be less metal-poor than reported before, [Fe/H] = -2.3 $\\pm$0.2 dex. Carbon to oxygen and carbon isotope ratios are found to be extremely high, C/O $\\simeq$ 12.6 and $^{12}C/^{13}C \\gtrsim$ 1500, respectively. The s-process elements yttrium and barium are not enhanced, but neodymium appears to be overabundan...

  5. The Classificiation of Kepler B star Variables

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, Bernard J; McKeever, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The light curves of 252 B-star candidates in the Kepler data base are analyzed in a similar fashion to that done by Balona et al. (2011) to further characterize B star variability, increase the sample of variable B stars for future study, and to identify stars whose power spectra include particularly interesting features such as frequency groupings. Stars are classified as either constant light emitters, $\\beta$ Cep stars, slowly pulsating B stars, hybrid pulsators, binaries or stars whose light curves are dominated by rotation (Bin/Rot), hot subdwarfs, or white dwarfs. One-hundred stars in our sample were found to be either light contants or to be variable at a level of less than 0.02 mmag. We increase the number of candidate B-star variables found in the Kepler data base by Balona et al. (2011) in the following fashion: $\\beta$ Cep stars from 0 to 10, slowly pulsating B stars from 8 to 54, hybrid pulsators from 7 to 21, and Bin/Rot stars from 23 to 82. For comparison purposes, approximately 51 SPBs and 6 hy...

  6. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: A summary update on the scientific potential for pulsating star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide hundreds of deep images of the southern sky over its 10 year duration, enabling variability studies for an unprecedentedly large and unbiased population of objects. In this proceeding paper I will cover the aspects of the LSST's survey and data products that are most relevant to the study of stellar pulsations (Sect. 1), and provide a directory of pertinent materials for further information. I will also summarize the anticipated variable star sample sizes from the LSST, and highlight recent research from several members of the scientific community which evaluates the scientific potential of the LSST's data products with respect to pulsating stars (Sect. 2).

  7. Non-radial Pulsations in RR Lyrae Stars from the OGLE Collection

    CERN Document Server

    Netzel, H

    2016-01-01

    RR Lyrae stars are classical pulsating stars. They pulsate mostly in the radial fundamental mode (RRab stars), in the radial first overtone mode (RRc stars), or in both modes simultaneously (RRd stars). Collection of variable stars from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) contains more than 38 000 RR Lyrae stars from the Galactic bulge. We analysed these data for RRc and RRd stars. We have found new members of radial-non-radial double-mode RR Lyrae stars, with characteristic period ratio of the two modes around 0.61. We increased the number of known RR Lyrae stars of this type by a factor of 8. We have also discovered another group of double-mode RR Lyrae stars. They pulsate in the first overtone and in another, unidentified mode, which has period longer than period of the undetected fundamental mode. The period ratios tightly cluster around 0.686. These proceedings are focused on this puzzling group. In particular, we report eight new members of the group.

  8. The impact of large-scale, long-term optical surveys on pulsating star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyński, Igor

    2017-09-01

    The era of large-scale photometric variability surveys began a quarter of a century ago, when three microlensing projects - EROS, MACHO, and OGLE - started their operation. These surveys initiated a revolution in the field of variable stars and in the next years they inspired many new observational projects. Large-scale optical surveys multiplied the number of variable stars known in the Universe. The huge, homogeneous and complete catalogs of pulsating stars, such as Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, or long-period variables, offer an unprecedented opportunity to calibrate and test the accuracy of various distance indicators, to trace the three-dimensional structure of the Milky Way and other galaxies, to discover exotic types of intrinsically variable stars, or to study previously unknown features and behaviors of pulsators. We present historical and recent findings on various types of pulsating stars obtained from the optical large-scale surveys, with particular emphasis on the OGLE project which currently offers the largest photometric database among surveys for stellar variability.

  9. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  10. OH/IR stars near the Galactic Center: Pulsation periods, luminosities, and polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Mcgregor, Peter J.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Lawrence, Geoffrey F.

    1994-01-01

    17 stars in the direction of the Galactic Center, 15 of which are OH/IR stars, have been monitored at infrared wavelengths over a period of nearly eight years. Pulsation periods, bolometric luminosities, and light curves for 14 OH/IR stars are presented. The Galactic Center OH/IR stars range in luminosity between M(sub Bol) = -4.5 to M(sub Bol) = -6, implying main sequence progenitors with masses less than 3 solar mass. When compared to optically visible long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with similar bolometric luminosities, the Galactic Center OH/IR stars have pulsation periods on average 30% longer. This shift to longer periods is consistent with the current picture of late asymptotic giant branch evolution, placing the OH/IR stars in a phase immediately following the optically visible Mira variable phase during which the star dramatically increases its mass loss rate, becoming invisible at optical wavelength. Infrared polarimetry of 11 of the stars is also presented. The polarization for all of the stars is consistent with purely interstellar polarization, with little evidence for a significant intrinsic component. When compared to OH/IR stars in the galactic plane, the Galactic Center OH/IR stars appear similar in photometric characteristics, except none of the Galactic Center OH/IR stars shows the extremely thick dust shells or very high intrinsic polarization found in the more extreme galactic plane OH/IR stars.

  11. Latitude distribution of nonradial pulsations in rapidly rotating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankov, S.; Mathias, P.; Domiciano de Souza, A., Jr.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Aerts, C.

    2004-05-01

    We present a method for the analysis of latitude distribution associated with temperature and/or velocity perturbations of the stellar surface due to non-radial pulsation (NRP) modes in rapidly rotating B stars. The technique is applied together with Fourier Doppler Imaging (FDI) to high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of ɛ Per. The main advantage of this approach is that it decomposed complex multi-periodic line profile variations into single components, allowing the detailed analysis of each mode seperately. We study the 10.6-d-1 frequency that is particularly important for modal analysis of non-radial pulsations in the star.

  12. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  13. Asteroseismology of the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani: photometric observations and pulsational frequency analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G; Jerzykiewicz, M; Krisciunas, K; Tshenye, T; Rodríguez, E; Costa, V; Zhou, A Y; Medupe, R; Phorah, W M; Garrido, R; Amado, P J; Paparo, M; Zsuffa, D; Ramokgali, L; Crowe, R; Purves, N; Avila, R; Knight, R; Brassfield, E; Kilmartin, P M; Cottrell, P L

    2004-01-01

    We undertook a multisite photometric campaign for the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani. More than 600 hours of differential photoelectric uvyV photometry were obtained with 11 telescopes during 148 clear nights. The frequency analysis of our measurements shows that the variability of Nu Eri can be decomposed into 23 sinusoidal components, eight of which correspond to independent pulsation frequencies between 5 - 8 c/d. Some of these are arranged in multiplets, which suggests rotational m-mode splitting of nonradial pulsation modes as the cause. If so, the rotation period of the star must be between 30 - 60 d. One of the signals in the light curves of Nu Eri has a very low frequency of 0.432 c/d. It can be a high-order combination frequency or, more likely, an independent pulsation mode. In the latter case Nu Eri would be both a Beta Cephei star and a slowly pulsating B (SPB) star. The photometric amplitudes of the individual pulsation modes of Nu Eri appear to have increased by about 20 per cent over the last 40 y...

  14. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phenix stars?*

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, M A; Córsico, A H; Kepler, S O; Althaus, L G; Koester, D; Arias, J P Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity for probing their interiors and to determine their evolution, by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims. We aim to analyze high-speed photometry of SDSSJ145847.02$+$070754.46 and SDSSJ173001.94$+$070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the $T_{\\rm eff} - \\log g$ diagram we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods. To carry out this study, we used the photometric data obtained by us for these stars with the 2.15m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analyzed their light curves and we apply the Discrete Fourier Transform to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the $T_{\\rm eff} - \\log g$ diagram, with known two pre-white dwarfs, seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, $\\delta$ Scuti and SX Phe stars. Results. We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSSJ145847.02$+$070754.46 and SDSSJ173001.9...

  15. The Music of the Stars : Spectroscopy of Pulsations in gamma Doradus Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsden, Emily

    2013-05-01

    p>The mysteries of the interior structures of stars are being tackled with asteroseismology. The observable parameters of the surface pulsations of stars inform us of the interior characteristics of numerous classes of stars. The main-sequence gamma Doradus stars, just a little hotter than the Sun, offer the potential of determining stellar structure right down to the core. To determine the structural profile of a star, the observed frequencies and a full geometric description must be determined. This is only possible with long-term spectroscopic monitoring and careful analysis of the pulsation signature in spectral lines. This work seeks to identify the pulsational geometry of several gamma Doradus stars and to identify areas of improvement for current observation, analysis and modelling techniques. More than 4500 spectra were gathered on five stars for this purpose. For three stars a successful multi-frequency and mode identification solution was determined and significant progress has been made towards the understanding of a binary system involving a gamma Doradus star. A hybrid gamma Doradus/nbsp;delta Scuti pulsator was also intensely monitored and results from this work raise important questions about the classification of this type of star. Current analysis techniques were found to be fit-for-purpose for pure gamma Doradus stars, but stars with complexities such as hybrid pulsations and/or fast rotation require future development of the current models./p>

  16. EXOTIME: searching for planets around pulsating subdwarf B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, Sonja; Lutz, Ronny; Loeptien, Bjoern; Green, Elizabeth M; Ostensen, Roy H; Leccia, Silvio; Kim, Seung-Lee; Fontaine, Gilles; Charpinet, Stephane; Francoeur, Myriam; Randall, Suzanna; Rodriguez-Lopez, Cristina; van Grootel, Valerie; Odell, Andrew P; Paparo, Margit; Bognar, Zsofia; Papics, Peter; Nagel, Thorsten; Beeck, Benjamin; Hundertmark, Markus; Stahn, Thorsten; Dreizler, Stefan; Hessman, Frederic V; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Mancini, Dario; Cortecchia, Fausto; Benatti, Serena; Claudi, Riccardo; Janulis, Rimvydas; 10.1007/s10509-010-0356-4

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, a companion with planetary mass was found around the pulsating subdwarf B star V391 Pegasi with the timing method, indicating that a previously undiscovered population of substellar companions to apparently single subdwarf B stars might exist. Following this serendipitous discovery, the EXOTIME (http://www.na.astro.it/~silvotti/exotime/) monitoring program has been set up to follow the pulsations of a number of selected rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars on time-scales of several years with two immediate observational goals: 1) determine Pdot of the pulsational periods P 2) search for signatures of substellar companions in O-C residuals due to periodic light travel time variations, which would be tracking the central star's companion-induced wobble around the center of mass. These sets of data should therefore at the same time: on the one hand be useful to provide extra constraints for classical asteroseismological exercises from the Pdot (comparison with "local" evolutionary models), and on the othe...

  17. The Effect of Diffusion on Pulsations of Stars on the Upper Main Sequence. $\\delta$ Scuti and Metallic A Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Michaud, G; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent dramatic improvements in the modeling of abundance evolution due to diffusion in A stars have been achieved with the help of monochromatic opacity tables from the OPAL group. An important result in the context of stellar pulsations is the substantial helium abundance shown to be left over in the driving region of delta Scuti-type pulsations in chemically peculiar Am stars. An accurate opacity profile in the entire stellar envelope including the full effect of heavy elements is also now available for the first time. Pulsations are shown to be excluded for young Am stars but occur naturally when these stars evolve off the ZAMS. The predicted variable metallic A stars all lie towards the red edge of the instability strip, in qualitative agreement with the observed variable delta Delphini and mild Am stars. Results show little direct excitation from iron-peak elements in A-type stars. The main abundance effect is due to the settling of helium, along with a marginal effect due to the enhancement of hydrogen...

  18. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  19. CoRoT's view of newly discovered B-star pulsators: results for 358 candidate B pulsators from the initial run's exoplanet field data

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, P; Ollivier, M; Miglio, A; Debosscher, J; Cuypers, J; Briquet, M; Montalban, J; Thoul, A; Noels, A; De Cat, P; Balaguer-Nuñez, L; Maceroni, C; Ribas, I; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Deleuil, M; Weiss, W; Jorda, L; Baudin, F; Samadi, R

    2009-01-01

    We search for new variable B-type pulsators in the CoRoT data assembled primarily for planet detection, as part of CoRoT's Additional Programme. We aim to explore the properties of newly discovered B-type pulsators from the uninterrupted CoRoT space-based photometry and to compare them with known members of the Beta Cep and slowly pulsating B star (SPB) classes. We developed automated data analysis tools that include algorithms for jump correction, light-curve detrending, frequency detection, frequency combination search, and for frequency and period spacing searches. Besides numerous new, classical, slowly pulsating B stars, we find evidence for a new class of low-amplitude B-type pulsators between the SPB and Delta Sct instability strips, with a very broad range of frequencies and low amplitudes, as well as several slowly pulsating B stars with residual excess power at frequencies typically a factor three above their expected g-mode frequencies. The frequency data we obtained for numerous new B-type pulsato...

  20. The first evidence for multiple pulsation axes: a new roAp star in the Kepler field, KIC 10195926

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, D W; Saio, H; Bigot, L; Balona, L A; Elkin, V G; Shibahashi, H; Brandao, I M; Uytterhoeven, K; Frandsen, S; Frimann, S; Hatzes, A; Lueftinger, T; Gruberbauer, M; Kjeldsen, H; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kawaler, S D

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered a new rapidly oscillating Ap star among the Kepler Mission target stars, KIC 10195926. This star shows two pulsation modes with periods that are amongst the longest known for roAp stars at 17.1 min and 18.1 min, indicating that the star is near the terminal age main sequence. The principal pulsation mode is an oblique dipole mode that shows a rotationally split frequency septuplet that provides information on the geometry of the mode. The secondary mode also appears to be a dipole mode with a rotationally split triplet, but we are able to show within the improved oblique pulsator model that these two modes cannot have the same axis of pulsation. This is the first time for any pulsating star that evidence has been found for separate pulsation axes for different modes. The two modes are separated in frequency by 55 microHz, which we model as the large separation. The star is an alpha^2 CVn spotted magnetic variable that shows a complex rotational light variation with a period of Prot = 5.6845...

  1. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; De Cat, P; Aerts, C; North, P; Scholler, M; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066940

    2009-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods. We carry out a comparative study between samples of confirmed and well-studied SPB stars and a sample of well-studied Bp stars with known periods and magnetic field strengths. We determine their evolutionary state using accurate HIPPARCOS parallaxes and Geneva photometry. We discuss the occurrence and strengths of magnetic fields as well as the occurrence of stellar pulsation among both groups. Further, we make a comparison of Geneva photometric variability for both kinds of stars. Results. The group of Bp stars is significantly younger than the group of SPB stars. Longitudinal magnetic fields in SPB stars are weaker than those of Bp stars, suggesting that the magnetic field strength is an important factor for B type stars to become chemically pec...

  2. The pulsations of the Sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rozelot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This volume of lecture notes brings together the knowledge on pulsations of the Sun and the stars, with a particular emphasis on recent observations and modelling, and on the influence of pulsations of other physical processes. The book begins with an extensive introduction to helioseismology. The solar cycle and gravity modes are discussed before the focus is widened from helioseismology to asteroseismology which is detailed in a series of specific chapters. Based on courses given at a graduate school, these tutorial lecture notes will be of interest and useful to a rather broad audience of scientists and students.

  3. Axions and the pulsation periods of variable white dwarfs revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Althaus, L G; Córsico, A H

    2010-01-01

    Axions are the natural consequence of the introduction of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry to solve the strong CP problem. All the efforts to detect such elusive particles have failed up to now. Nevertheless, it has been recently shown that the luminosity function of white dwarfs is best fitted if axions with a mass of a few meV are included in the evolutionary calculations. Our aim is to show that variable white dwarfs can provide additional and independent evidence about the existence of axions. The evolution of a white dwarf is a slow cooling process that translates into a secular increase of the pulsation periods of some variable white dwarfs, the so-called DAV and DBV types. Since axions can freely escape from such stars, their existence would increase the cooling rate and, consequently, the rate of change of the periods as compared with the standard ones. The present values of the rate of change of the pulsation period of G117-B15A are compatible with the existence of axions with the masses suggested by the lu...

  4. Multidimensional modelling of classical pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Muthsam, Herbert J

    2016-01-01

    After an overview of general aspects of modelling the pulsation- convection interaction we present reasons why such simulations (in multidimensions) are needed but, at the same time, pose a considerable challenge. We then discuss, for several topics, what insights multidimensional simulations have either already provided or can be expected to yield in the future. We finally discuss properties of our ANTARES code. Many of these features can be expected to be characteristic of other codes which may possibly be applied to these physical questions in the foreseeable future.

  5. Study of the Thermal Pulsation of AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Halabi, Ghina M

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation on the third dredge up in a 3M$_{\\odot}$, solar metallicity AGB star will be presented. The model evolves from the main sequence up to the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Intermediate mass stars are important because they contribute significantly via the slow neutron capture nucleosynthesis. The aim of this work is to gain insight on the behaviour of the AGB star during thermal pulsation. This investigation is based on an extended numerical simulation of the evolutionary phases and full, consistent AGB model calculations. In particular, the convective structure during pulsation will be studied, giving particular emphasis to the analysis of the stability of the Schwarzschild boundary that will eventually determine the occurrence of Third Dredge Up (hereafter referred to as TDUP). We provide a brief description of our updated evolutionary code and focus primarily on the obtaining the TDUP after 14 thermal pulses. We elaborate on the non-standard treatment of convection known as "oversh...

  6. Pulsational variability in proto-planetary nebulae and other post-AGB objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Light and velocity curves of several classes of pulsating stars have been successfully modeled to determine physical properties of the stars. In this observational study, we review briefly the pulsational variability of the main classes of post-AGB stars. Our attention is focused in particular on proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe), those in the short-lived phase from AGB stars to the planetary nebulae. New light curves and period analyses have been used to determine the following general properties of the PPNe variability: (a) periods range from 35 to 160 days for those of F—G spectral types, with much shorter periods (day) found for those of early-B spectral type; (b) there is a correlation between the pulsation period, maximum amplitude, and temperature of the star, with cooler stars pulsating with longer periods and larger amplitudes; (c) similar correlations are found for carbon-rich, oxygen-rich, and lower-metalicity PPNe; and (d) multiple periods are found for all of them, with P2/P1 = 1.0±0.1. New models are needed to exploit these results.

  7. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - VII. Pulsating subdwarf B stars detected in the second half of the survey phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, A. S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Reed, M. D.; Quint, A. C.; O'Toole, S. J.; Østensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.; Silvotti, R.; Charpinet, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Still, M.; Hall, J. R.; Uddin, K.

    2011-07-01

    We present five new pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) stars discovered by the Kepler spacecraft during the asteroseismology survey phase. We perform time series analysis on the nearly continuous month-long Kepler data sets of these five objects; these data sets provide nearly alias-free time series photometry at unprecedented precision. Following an iterative pre-whitening process, we derive the pulsational frequency spectra of these stars, separating out artefacts of known instrumental origin. We find that these new pulsating sdB stars are multiperiodic long-period pulsators of the V1093 Her type, with the number of periodicities ranging from eight (KIC 8302197) to 53 (KIC 11558725). The frequencies and amplitudes are typical of g-mode pulsators of this type. We do not find any evidence for binarity in the five stars from their observed pulsation frequencies. As these are g-mode pulsators, we briefly looked for period spacings for mode identification and found average spacings of about 260 and 145 s. This may indicate l= 1 and 2 patterns. Some modes may show evidence of rotational splitting. These discoveries complete the list of compact pulsators found in the survey phase. Of the 13 compact pulsators, only one star was identified as a short-period (p-mode) V361 Hya pulsator, while all other new pulsators turned out to be V1093 Her class objects. Among the latter objects, two of them seemed to be pure V1093 Her while the others show additional low-amplitude peaks in the p-mode frequency range, suggesting their hybrid nature. Authenticity of these peaks will be tested with longer runs currently under analysis.

  8. A Comprehensive, Wide-Field Study of Pulsating Stars in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Mateo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dSph galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids which are mostly located ~2.5 magnitudes below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (

  9. A Search for Rapidly Pulsating Hot Subdwarf Stars in the GALEX Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Thomas M.; Barlow, Brad N.; Fleming, Scott W.; Vasquez Soto, Alan; Million, Chase; Reichart, Dan E.; Haislip, Josh B.; Linder, Tyler R.; Moore, Justin P.

    2017-08-01

    NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provided near- and far-UV observations for approximately 77% of the sky over a 10-year period; however, the data reduction pipeline initially only released single NUV and FUV images to the community. The recently released Python module gPhoton changes this, allowing calibrated time-series aperture photometry to be extracted easily from the raw GALEX data set. Here we use gPhoton to generate light curves for all hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars that were observed by GALEX, with the intention of identifying short-period, p-mode pulsations. We find that the spacecraft’s short visit durations, uneven gaps between visits, and dither pattern make the detection of hot subdwarf pulsations difficult. Nonetheless, we detect UV variations in four previously known pulsating targets and report their UV pulsation amplitudes and frequencies. Additionally, we find that several other sdB targets not previously known to vary show promising signals in their periodograms. Using optical follow-up photometry with the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network, we confirm p-mode pulsations in one of these targets, LAMOST J082517.99+113106.3, and report it as the most recent addition to the sdBV r class of variable stars.

  10. Type C Semiregulars and Irregulars: the Forgotten Pulsating Luminous Stars (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable M supergiants, comprising the SRC and LC classes of semiregular and irregular variables, represent late stages of evolution for stars of about 20-25 solar masses, and the likely progenitors for many core collapse supernovae. Most have escaped dedicated study, either long-term photometry or detailed spectroscopy, primarily because of lengthy pulsation periods of 100-1000 days. Yet they appear to share many of the characteristics of classical Cepheids, and their high luminosities make them just as valuable, if not more so, for calibrating the extragalactic distance scale. Many are double-mode, and possibly triple-mode, pulsators, much like Cepheids, which complicates estimates for their periods of variability. Demonstrated here are some of the techniques used for studying such stars, and what has been learned so far about their characteristics. AAVSO observers have a wonderful opportunity to contribute to the field through observations of the forthcoming 2016 maximum of m Cephei.

  11. Searching for Variable Stars in and around Open Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We present a snapshot of our recent results of a variable star survey in1 degree fields around three open clusters: NGC 188, NGC 7789 and M67. A totalnumber of 39 variable stars are newly discovered, including 22 W UMa stars, 10EA (Algol) type binaries, one RR-lyr and one RRd pulsator, and five unclassifiedvariables.

  12. Pulsations of rapidly rotating stars: I. The ACOR numerical code

    CERN Document Server

    Ouazzani, Rhita-Maria; Reese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Very high precision seismic space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler provide the means of testing the modeling of transport processes in stellar interiors. For some stars, such as solar-like and red giant stars, a rotational splitting is measured. However, in order to fully exploit these splittings and constrain the rotation profile, one needs to be able to calculate them accurately. For some other stars, such as $\\delta$ Scuti and Be stars, for instance, the observed pulsation spectra are modified by rotation to such an extent that a perturbative treatment of the effects of rotation is no longer valid. We present here a new two-dimensional non-perturbative code, called ACOR (\\textit{Adiabatic Code of Oscillation including Rotation}) which allows us to compute adiabatic non-radial pulsations of rotating stars, without making any assumptions on the sphericity of the star, the fluid properties (i.e. baroclinicity) or the rotation profile. The 2D non-perturbative calculations fully take into account the centrifug...

  13. A pulsation analysis of K2 observations of the subdwarf B star PG 1142-037 during Campaign 1: A subsynchronously rotating ellipsoidal variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Østensen, R. H.;

    2016-01-01

    of the pulsations with low-degree, ℓ ≤ 2 modes. Follow-up spectroscopy of PG 1142 has revealed it to be in a binary with a period of 0.54 d. Phase-folding the K2 photometry reveals a two-component variation including both Doppler boosting and ellipsoidal deformation. Perhaps the most surprising and interesting...

  14. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - V. Slowly pulsating subdwarf B stars in short-period binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaler, Stephen D.; Reed, Michael D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    The survey phase of the Kepler Mission includes a number of hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars to search for non-radial pulsations. We present our analysis of two sdB stars that are found to be g-mode pulsators of the V1093 Her class. These two stars also display the distinct irradiation effect typical...... of sdB stars with a close M-dwarf companion with orbital periods of less than half a day. Because the orbital period is so short, the stars should be in synchronous rotation, and if so, the rotation period should imprint itself on the multiplet structure of the pulsations. However, we do not find clear...... evidence for such rotational splitting. Though the stars do show some frequency spacings that are consistent with synchronous rotation, they also display multiplets with splittings that are much smaller. Longer-duration time series photometry will be needed to determine if those small splittings...

  15. On X-ray pulsations in β Cephei-type variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Todt, H.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Hubrig, S.; Ignace, R.; Hamann, W.-R.; Balona, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. β Cep-type variables are early B-type stars that are characterized by oscillations observable in their optical light curves. At least one β Cep-variable also shows periodic variability in X-rays. Aims: Here we study the X-ray light curves in a sample of β Cep-variables to investigate how common X-ray pulsations are for this type of stars. Methods: We searched the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray archives and selected stars that were observed by these telescopes for at least three optical pulsational periods. We retrieved and analyzed the X-ray data for κ Sco, β Cru, and α Vir. The X-ray light curves of these objects were studied to test for their variability and periodicity. Results: While there is a weak indication for X-ray variability in β Cru, we find no statistically significant evidence of X-ray pulsations in any of our sample stars. This might be due either to the insufficient data quality or to the physical lack of modulations. New, more sensitive observations should settle this question. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, data obtained from the Chandra and XMM-Newton Data Archives, and observations made by the Chandra and XMM-Newton and published previously in cited articles.

  16. Pulsation versus metallicism in Am stars as revealed by LAMOST and WASP

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Holdsworth, D L; Kurtz, D W; Murphy, S J; De Cat, P; Anderson, D R; Catanzaro, G; Cameron, A Collier; Hellier, C; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Pollacco, D; Ripepi, V; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a large sample of A and Am stars with spectral types from LAMOST and light curves from WASP. We find that, unlike normal A stars, $\\delta$ Sct pulsations in Am stars are mostly confined to the effective temperature range 6900 $<$ $T_{\\rm eff}$ $<$ 7600 K. We find evidence that the incidence of pulsations in Am stars decreases with increasing metallicism (degree of chemical peculiarity). The maximum amplitude of the pulsations in Am stars does not appear to vary significantly with metallicism. The amplitude distributions of the principal pulsation frequencies for both A and Am stars appear very similar and agree with results obtained from Kepler photometry. We present evidence that suggests turbulent pressure is the main driving mechanism in pulsating Am stars, rather than the $\\kappa$-mechanism, which is expected to be suppressed by gravitational settling in these stars.

  17. On the pulsation and evolutionary properties of helium burning radially pulsating variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, G.; Pietrinferni, A.; Marconi, M.; Braga, V. F.; Fiorentino, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Buonanno, R.; Castellani, M.; Dall'Ora, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Giuffrida, G.; Iannicola, G.; Marengo, M.; Magurno, D.; Martinez-Vazquez, C. E.; Matsunaga, N.; Monelli, M.; Neeley, J.; Rastello, S.; Salaris, M.; Short, L.; Stellingwerf, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss pulsation and evolutionary properties of low- (RR Lyrae, Type II Cepheids) and intermediate-mass (Anomalous Cepheids) radial variables. We focus our attention on the topology of the instability strip and the distribution of the quoted variables in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We discuss their evolutionary status and the dependence on the metallicity. Moreover, we address the diagnostics (period derivative, difference in luminosity, stellar mass) that can provide solid constraints on their progenitors and on the role that binarity and environment have in shaping their current pulsation characteristics. Finally, we briefly outline their use as standard candles.

  18. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - III. Subdwarf B stars with V1093 Her and hybrid (DW Lyn) type pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M.D.; Kawaler, Stephen D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    1093 Her (PG 1716) class or a hybrid star with both short and long periods. The apparently non-binary long-period and hybrid pulsators are described here. The V1093 Her periods range from 1 to 4.5 h and are associated with g-mode pulsations. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p......We present the discovery of non-radial pulsations in five hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars based on 27 d of nearly continuous time series photometry using the Kepler spacecraft. We find that every sdB star cooler than ≈27 500 K that Kepler has observed (seven so far) is a long-period pulsator of the V......-modes with periods of 2-5 min and in addition, these stars exhibit periodicities between both classes from 15 to 45 min. We detect the coolest and longest-period V1093 Her-type pulsator to date, KIC010670103 (Teff≈ 20 900 K, Pmax≈ 4.5 h) as well as a suspected hybrid pulsator, KIC002697388, which is extremely cool...

  19. Indirect imaging of nonradial pulsations in a rapidly oscillating Ap star

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O P

    2004-01-01

    Many types of stars show periodic variations of radius and brightness, which are commonly referred to as `stellar pulsations'. Observed pulsational characteristics are determined by fundamental stellar parameters. Consequently, investigations of stellar pulsations provide a unique opportunity to verify and refine our understanding of the evolution and internal structure of stars. However, a key boundary condition for this analysis -- precise information about the geometry of pulsations in the outer stellar envelopes -- has been notoriously difficult to secure. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to solve this problem by constructing an `image' of the pulsation velocity field from time series observations of stellar spectra. This technique is applied to study the geometry of nonradial pulsations in a prototype magnetic oscillating (roAp) star HR 3831. Our velocity map directly demonstrates an alignment of pulsations with the axis of the global magnetic field and reveals a significant magnetically induced d...

  20. Making a Be star: the role of rotation and pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, C

    2013-01-01

    The Be phenomenon, i.e. the ejection of matter from Be stars into a circumstellar disk, has been a long lasting mystery. In the last few years, the CoRoT satellite brought clear evidence that Be outbursts are directly correlated to pulsations and rapid rotation. In particular the stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial modes, such as those detected by CoRoT in the hot Be star HD 51452, is enhanced thanks to rapid rotation. These waves increase the transport of angular momentum and help to bring the already rapid stellar rotation to its critical value at the surface, allowing the star to eject material. Below we summarize the recent observational and theoretical findings and describe the new picture of the Be phenomenon which arose from these results.

  1. Making a Be star: the role of rotation and pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Coralie; Mathis, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    The Be phenomenon, i.e. the ejection of matter from Be stars into a circumstellar disk, has been a long lasting mystery. In the last few years, the CoRoT satellite brought clear evidence that Be outbursts are directly correlated to pulsations and rapid rotation. In particular the stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial modes, such as those detected by CoRoT in the hot Be star HD 51452, is enhanced thanks to rapid rotation. These waves increase the transport of angular momentum and help to bring the already rapid stellar rotation to its critical value at the surface, allowing the star to eject material. Below we summarize the recent observational and theoretical findings and describe the new picture of the Be phenomenon which arose from these results.

  2. Variability survey of brightest stars in selected OB associations

    CERN Document Server

    Laur, Jaan; Eenmäe, Tõnis; Tuvikene, Taavi; Leedjärv, Laurits

    2016-01-01

    The stellar evolution theory of massive stars remains uncalibrated with high-precision photometric observational data mainly due to a small number of luminous stars that are monitored from space. Automated all-sky surveys have revealed numerous variable stars but most of the luminous stars are often overexposed. Targeted campaigns can improve the time base of photometric data for those objects. The aim of this investigation is to study the variability of luminous stars at different timescales in young open clusters and OB associations. We monitored 22 open clusters and associations from 2011 to 2013 using a 0.25-m telescope. Variable stars were detected by comparing the overall light-curve scatter with measurement uncertainties. Variability was analysed by the light curve feature extraction tool FATS. Periods of pulsating stars were determined using the discrete Fourier transform code SigSpec. We then classified the variable stars based on their pulsation periods and available spectral information. We obtaine...

  3. Spectrophotometry of pulsating stars at Oukaimeden Observatory in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhida, Abdelmjid; sefyani, Fouad; de France, Thibault; Elashab, Sana; Zohra Belharcha, fatim; Gillet, Denis; Mathias, phillipe; Daassou, Ahmed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-08-01

    Location of modern observatories requires high sky quality: good weather, isolated site to avoid any pollution, high altitude for a better transparency and to reduce temperature gradients, the main source of atmospheric turbulence. With an altitude of 2750m, the region of Oukaimeden in Morocco (longitude: 7°52'052" West, latitude: 3°112032" North) meets most of these criteriaWith its 10'' and 14'' dedicated telescopes operating in remote control modes that combines high precision photometry and high resolution spectroscopy (spectrograph Eshell of R~12000 resolution over a wide spectral range), the universitary observatory of Oukaimeden (code J43) aims to develop new thematics in addition to present science. In particular, through this instrumentation, we aim to develop the field of pulsating stars, especially the atmospheric dynamics of high amplitude pulsators such as RR Lyrae and RV Tauri star, in order to establish new models of the mechanical and thermal behaviour of their atmospheres (shock waves, relaxation time, energy loss...).In this work we will first describe our measuring instruments, and then analyze spectra and photometric curves of RR Lyrae star obtained during the maximum of the Blazhko effect.

  4. Asteroseismology and forced oscillations of HD 209295, the first member of two classes of pulsating star

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G; Shobbrook, R R; Koen, C; Bruch, A; Romero-Colmenero, E; Pamyatnykh, A A; Willems, B; Eyer, L; James, D J; Maas, T; Crause, L A

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of both intermediate-order gravity mode and low-order pressure mode pulsation in the same star, HD 209295. It is therefore both a gamma Doradus and a delta Scuti star, which makes it the first confirmed member of two classes of pulsating star. This object is located in a close binary system with an unknown, but likely degenerate companion in an eccentric orbit, and some of the gamma Doradus pulsation frequencies are exact integer multiples of the orbital frequency. We suggest that these pulsations are tidally excited. HD 209295 may be the progenitor of an intermediate-mass X-Ray binary.

  5. Discovery of the magnetic field in the pulsating B star β Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, H. F.; de Jong, J. A.; Verdugo, E.; Schnerr, R. S.; Neiner, C.; Donati, J.-F.; Catala, C.; Shorlin, S. L. S.; Wade, G. A.; Veen, P. M.; Nichols, J. S.; Damen, E. M. F.; Talavera, A.; Hill, G. M.; Kaper, L.; Tijani, A. M.; Geers, V. C.; Wiersema, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Although the star itself is not helium enriched, the periodicity and the variability in the UV wind lines of the pulsating B1 IV star β Cephei are similar to what is observed in magnetic helium-peculiar B stars, suggesting that β Cep is magnetic. Aims: We searched for a magnetic field using high-resolution spectropolarimetry. From UV spectroscopy, we analysed the wind variability and investigated the correlation with the magnetic data. Methods: We used 130 time-resolved circular polarisation spectra that were obtained from 1998 (when β Cep was discovered to be magnetic) to 2005, with the MuSiCoS échelle spectropolarimeter at the 2 m Télescope Bernard Lyot. We applied the least-square deconvolution method on the Stokes V spectra and derived the longitudinal component of the integrated magnetic field over the visible hemisphere of the star. We performed a period analysis on the magnetic data and on equivalent-width measurements of UV wind lines obtained over 17 years. We also analysed the short- and long-term radial velocity variations, which are due to the pulsations and the 90-year binary motion, respectively. Results: β Cep hosts a sinusoidally varying magnetic field with an amplitude 97 ± 4 G and an average value - 6 ± 3 G. From the UV wind line variability, we derive a period of 12.00075(11) days, which is the rotation period of the star, and is compatible with the observed magnetic modulation. Phases of maximum and minimum field match those of maximum emission in the UV wind lines, strongly supporting an oblique magnetic-rotator model. We discuss the magnetic behaviour as a function of pulsation behaviour and UV line variability. Conclusions: This paper presents the analysis of the first confirmed detection of a dipolar magnetic field in an upper main-sequence pulsating star. Maximum wind absorption originates in the magnetic equatorial plane. Maximum emission occurs when the magnetic north pole points to the Earth. Radial velocities agree with

  6. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briquet, M.; Hubrig, S.; Cat, P. de; Aerts, C.; North, P.; Schöller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods: We carry out a comparative study

  7. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K. [Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory and Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Paxton, B. [Kavli Insitute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  8. Searching for X-ray Pulsations from Neutron Stars Using NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Bogdanov, Slavko; Bult, Peter; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) presents an exciting new capability for discovering new modulation properties of X-ray emitting neutron stars, including large area, low background, extremely precise absolute time stamps, superb low-energy response and flexible scheduling. The Pulsation Searches and Multiwavelength Coordination working group has designed a 2.5 Ms observing program to search for pulsations and characterize the modulation properties of about 30 known or suspected neutron star sources across a number of source categories. A key early goal will be to search for pulsations from millisecond pulsars that might exhibit thermal pulsations from the surface suitable for pulse profile modeling to constrain the neutron star equation of state. In addition, we will search for pulsations from transitional millisecond pulsars, isolated neutron stars, LMXBs, accretion-powered millisecond pulsars, central compact objects and other sources. We will present our science plan and initial results from the first months of the NICER mission.

  9. New magnetic field measurements of beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; De Cat, P; Schöller, M; Morel, T; Ilyin, I

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the continuation of our magnetic survey with FORS1 at the VLT of a sample of B-type stars consisting of confirmed or candidate beta Cephei stars and Slowly Pulsating B (hereafter SPB) stars, along with a small number of normal B-type stars. A weak mean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss was detected in three beta Cephei stars and two stars suspected to be beta Cephei stars, in five SPB stars and eight stars suspected to be SPB stars. Additionally, a longitudinal magnetic field at a level larger than 3sigma has been diagnosed in two normal B-type stars, the nitrogen-rich early B-type star HD52089 and in the B5 IV star HD153716. Roughly one third of beta Cephei stars have detected magnetic fields: Out of 13 beta Cephei stars studied to date with FORS1, four stars possess weak magnetic fields, and out of the sample of six suspected beta Cephei stars two show a weak magnetic field. The fraction of magnetic SPBs and candidate SPBs is found to be higher: roughl...

  10. Variable stars with the Kepler space telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, László; Plachy, Emese

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionised our knowledge about exoplanets and stars and is continuing to do so in the K2 mission. The exquisite photometric precision, together with the long, uninterrupted observations opened up a new way to investigate the structure and evolution of stars. Asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, allowed us to investigate solar-like stars and to peer into the insides of red giants and massive stars. But many discoveries have been made about classical variable stars too, ranging from pulsators like Cepheids and RR Lyraes to eclipsing binary stars and cataclysmic variables, and even supernovae. In this review, which is far from an exhaustive summary of all results obtained with Kepler, we collected some of the most interesting discoveries, and ponder on the role for amateur observers in this golden era of stellar astrophysics.

  11. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - II. KIC 010139564, a new pulsating subdwarf B (V361 Hya) star with an additional low-frequency mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaler, Stephen; Reed, M.D.; Quint, A.C.;

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of non-radial pulsations in a hot subdwarf B star based on 30.5 d of nearly continuous time series photometry using the Kepler spacecraft. KIC 010139564 is found to be a short-period pulsator of the V361 Hya (EC 14026) class with more than 10 independent pulsation modes...

  12. Discovery of the magnetic field in the pulsating B star beta Cephei

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichs, H F; Verdugo, E; Schnerr, R S; Neiner, C; Donati, J -F; Catala, C; Shorlin, S L S; Wade, G A; Veen, P M; Nichols, J S; Damen, E M F; Talavera, A; Hill, G M; Kaper, L; Tijani, A M; Geers, V C; Wiersema, K; Plaggenborg, B; Rygl, K L J

    2013-01-01

    Although the star itself is not He enriched, the periodicity and the variability in the UV wind lines of the pulsating B1 IV star beta Cep are similar to what is observed in magnetic He-peculiar B stars, suggesting that beta Cep is magnetic. We searched for a magnetic field using spectropolarimetry. From UV spectroscopy, we analysed the wind variability and investigated the correlation with the magnetic data. Using 130 time-resolved circular polarisation spectra, obtained with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter at the 2m TBL from 1998 until 2005, we applied the least-squares deconvolution method on the Stokes V spectra and derived the longitudinal component of the integrated magnetic field over the visible hemisphere of the star. We performed a period analysis on the magnetic data and on EW measurements of UV wind lines obtained over 17 years. We also analysed the short- and long-term radial velocity variations, which are due to the pulsations and the 90-year binary motion. beta Cep hosts a sinusoidally varying m...

  13. CoRoT's view of newly discovered B-star pulsators: results for 358 candidate B pulsators from the initial run's exoplanet field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Ollivier, M.; Miglio, A.; Debosscher, J.; Cuypers, J.; Briquet, M.; Montalbán, J.; Thoul, A.; Noels, A.; De Cat, P.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Maceroni, C.; Ribas, I.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Deleuil, M.; Weiss, W. W.; Jorda, L.; Baudin, F.; Samadi, R.

    2009-10-01

    Context: We search for new variable B-type pulsators in the CoRoT data assembled primarily for planet detection, as part of CoRoT's additional programme. Aims: We aim to explore the properties of newly discovered B-type pulsators from the uninterrupted CoRoT space-based photometry and to compare them with known members of the β Cep and slowly pulsating B star (SPB) classes. Methods: We developed automated data analysis tools that include algorithms for jump correction, light-curve detrending, frequency detection, frequency combination search, and for frequency and period spacing searches. Results: Besides numerous new, classical, slowly pulsating B stars, we find evidence for a new class of low-amplitude B-type pulsators between the SPB and δ Sct instability strips, with a very broad range of frequencies and low amplitudes, as well as several slowly pulsating B stars with residual excess power at frequencies typically a factor three above their expected g-mode frequencies. Conclusions: The frequency data we obtained for numerous new B-type pulsators represent an appropriate starting point for further theoretical analyses of these stars, once their effective temperature, gravity, rotation velocity, and abundances will be derived spectroscopically in the framework of an ongoing FLAMES survey at the VLT. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. All frequency tables, including the identification of combination frequencies, are only available as online material. Frequency Tables are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/506/471 Bâtiment 121, 91405, Orsay Cedex, France. Postdoctoral Researcher, Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique - FNRS, Belgium. Postdoctoral Fellow of the Fund for Scientific Research

  14. A pulsation search among young brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A., E-mail: amc@ipac.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla and Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters σ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  15. Pulsation models for the roAp star HD 134214

    CERN Document Server

    Saio, H; Weiss, W W; Matthews, J M; Ryabchikova, T

    2011-01-01

    Precise time-series photometry with the MOST satellite has led to identification of 10 pulsation frequencies in the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star HD 134214. We have fitted the observed frequencies with theoretical frequencies of axisymmetric modes in a grid of stellar models with dipole magnetic fields. We find that, among models with a standard composition of $(X,Z) = (0.70,0.02)$ and with suppressed convection, eigenfrequencies of a $1.65\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ model with $\\log T_{\\rm eff} = 3.858$ and a polar magnetic field strength of 4.1kG agree best with the observed frequencies. We identify the observed pulsation frequency with the largest amplitude as a deformed dipole ($\\ell = 1$) mode, and the four next-largest-amplitude frequencies as deformed $\\ell = 2$ modes. These modes have a radial quasi-node in the outermost atmospheric layers ($\\tau \\sim 10^{-3}$). Although the model frequencies agree roughly with observed ones, they are all above the acoustic cut-off frequency for the model atmosphere and hen...

  16. A remark concerning Chandrasekhar's derivation of the pulsation equation for relativistic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsen, Henning; Pedersen, Janne [Stavanger University, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2007-01-15

    It is shown that Chandrasekhar gives some misleading comments concerning his method to derive the pulsation equation for relativistic stars. Strictly following his procedure and approximations, we find that this equation should contain an extra term which destroys the beauty and simplicity of the pulsation equation. However, using a better approximation, we find that just this extra term cancels, and the nice original version of the pulsation equation is correct after all.

  17. Ultracam Photometry of Pulsating Subdwarf B Stars rf B Binaries in the Edinburgh-Cape Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Aerts, C.C.; Dhillon, V.S.; Marsh, T.R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Maxted, P.F.L.; Kilkenny, D.; O'Donoghue, D.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed multicolor photometry with ultracam promises to revolutionize the study of pulsating subdwarf B stars. As well as providing high S/N light curves with excellent temporal resolution, color amplitude ratios may be used to discriminate between different pulsation modes. In this paper we revi

  18. $\\gamma$ Doradus Pulsations in the Eclipsing Binary Star KIC 6048106

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-01-01

    We present the ${\\it Kepler}$ photometry of KIC 6048106 exhibiting O'Connell effect and multiperiodic pulsations. Including a starspot on either of the components, light-curve synthesis indicates that this system is a semi-detached Algol with a mass ratio of 0.211, an orbital inclination of 73.9 deg, and a large temperature difference of 2,534 K. To examine in detail both spot variations and pulsations, we separately analyzed the {\\it Kepler} time-series data at the interval of an orbital period by an iterative way. The results reveal that the variable asymmetries of the light maxima can be interpreted as the changes of a magnetic cool spot on the secondary component with time. Multiple frequency analyses were performed in the outside-eclipse light residuals after removal of the binarity effects from the observed {\\it Kepler} data. We detected 30 frequencies with signal to noise amplitude ratios larger than 4.0, of which six ($f_2$--$f_6$ and $f_{10}$) can be identified as high-order (17 $\\le n \\le$ 25) low-d...

  19. Discovery of magnetic fields in the beta Cephei star xi^1 CMa and in several Slowly Pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Schöller, M; De Cat, P; Mathys, G; Aerts, C

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a magnetic survey of a sample of eight beta Cephei stars and 26 Slowly Pulsating B stars with FORS1 at the VLT. A weak mean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss is detected in the beta Cephei star xi^1 CMa and in 13 SPB stars. The star xi^1 CMa becomes the third magnetic star among the beta Cephei stars. Before our study, the star zeta Cas was the only known magnetic SPB star. All magnetic SPB stars for which we gathered several magnetic field measurements show a field that varies in time. We do not find a relation between the evolution of the magnetic field with stellar age in our small sample. Our observations imply that beta Cephei stars and SPBs can no longer be considered as classes of non-magnetic pulsators, but the effect of the fields on the oscillation properties remains to be studied.

  20. A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

  1. Non-radial pulsations in the γ Doradus star HD 195068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankov, S.; Mathias, P.; Chapellier, E.; Le Contel, J.-M.; Sareyan, J.-P.

    2006-07-01

    We present high resolution spectroscopic observations of the γ Doradus star HD 195068. About 230 spectra were collected over 2 years. Time series analysis performed on radial velocity data shows a main peak at 1.61 d-1 , a frequency not yet detected in photometry. The Hipparcos photometric 1.25 d-1 frequency is easily recovered as is 1.30 d-1 while the third photometric frequency, 0.97 d-1 , is only marginally present. The good quality of our data, which includes 196 spectra collected over seven consecutive nights, shows that both the 1.61 d-1 and intermediate 1.27 d-1 (mixture of 1.25 and 1.30 d-1 ) frequencies are present in the line profile variations. Using the Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI) method, the variability associated with 1.61 d-1 can be successfully modeled by a non-radial pulsation mode ℓ=5± 1, |m|=4± 1. For the intermediate frequency 1.27 d-1 we deduce ℓ=4± 1, |m|=3± 1. Evidence that the star is not pulsating in the radial mode (ℓ=0) rules out a previous classification as an RR Lyrae type star. We investigate the time variability of FDI power spectra concluding that the observed temporal variability of modes can be explained by a beating phenomenon between closely spaced frequencies of two non-radial modes. The distribution of the oscillation power within the line profile indicates that there is a significant tangential velocity component of oscillations characteristic of high radial order gravity modes which are predicted to be observed in γ Doradus type stars.

  2. Kepler observations of rapidly oscillating Ap, δ Scuti and γ Doradus pulsations in Ap stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, Luis A.; Cunha, Margarida S.; Kurtz, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the A5p star KIC 8677585 obtained during the Kepler 10-d commissioning run with 1-min time resolution show that it is a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star with several frequencies with periods near 10 min. In addition, a low frequency at 3.142 d−1 is also clearly present....... Multiperiodic γ Doradus (γ Dor) and δ Scuti (δ Sct) pulsations, never before seen in any Ap star, are present in Kepler observations of at least three other Ap stars. Since γ Dor pulsations are seen in Ap stars, it is likely that the low frequency in KIC 8677585 is also a γ Dor pulsation. The simultaneous...... presence of both γ Dor and roAp pulsations and the unexpected detection of δ Sct and γ Dor pulsations in Ap stars present new opportunities and challenges for the interpretation of these stars. Since it is easy to confuse Am and Ap stars at classification dispersions, the nature of these Ap stars...

  3. Post-AGB stars with hot circumstellar dust: binarity of the low-amplitude pulsators

    CERN Document Server

    Van Winckel, Hans; Briquet, Maryline; De Cat, Peter; Degroote, Pieter; De Meester, Wim; De Ridder, Joris; Deroo, Pieter; Desmet, Maarten; Drummond, Rachel; Eyer, Laurent; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Kolenberg, Katrien; Kilkenny, David; Ladjal, Djazia; Lefever, Karolien; Maas, Thomas; Marang, Fred; Martinez, Peter; Østensen, Roy H; Raskin, Gert; Reyniers, Maarten; Royer, Pierre; Saesen, Sophie; Uytterhoeven, Katrien; Vanautgaerden, Jan; Vandenbussche, Bart; van Wyk, Francois; Vučković, Maja; Waelkens, Christoffel; Zima, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    While the first binary post-AGB stars were serendipitously discovered, the distinct characteristics of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) allowed us to launch a more systematic search for binaries. We selected post-AGB objects which show a broad dust excess often starting already at H or K, pointing to the presence of a gravitationally bound dusty disc in the system. We started a very extensive multi-wavelength study of those systems and here we report on our radial velocity and photometric monitoring results for six stars of early F type, which are pulsators of small amplitude. To determine the radial velocity of low signal-to-noise time-series, we constructed dedicated auto-correlation masks. The radial velocity variations were subjected to detailed analysis to differentiate between pulsational variability and variability due to orbital motion. Finally orbital minimalisation was performed to constrain the orbital elements. All of the six objects are binaries, with orbital periods ranging from 120 to 1...

  4. Variability survey of brightest stars in selected OB associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Jaan; Kolka, Indrek; Eenmäe, Tõnis; Tuvikene, Taavi; Leedjärv, Laurits

    2017-02-01

    Context. The stellar evolution theory of massive stars remains uncalibrated with high-precision photometric observational data mainly due to a small number of luminous stars that are monitored from space. Automated all-sky surveys have revealed numerous variable stars but most of the luminous stars are often overexposed. Targeted campaigns can improve the time base of photometric data for those objects. Aims: The aim of this investigation is to study the variability of luminous stars at different timescales in young open clusters and OB associations. Methods: We monitored 22 open clusters and associations from 2011 to 2013 using a 0.25-m telescope. Variable stars were detected by comparing the overall light-curve scatter with measurement uncertainties. Variability was analysed by the light curve feature extraction tool FATS. Periods of pulsating stars were determined using the discrete Fourier transform code SigSpec. We then classified the variable stars based on their pulsation periods and available spectral information. Results: We obtained light curves for more than 20 000 sources of which 354 were found to be variable. Amongst them we find 80 eclipsing binaries, 31 α Cyg, 13 β Cep, 62 Be, 16 slowly pulsating B, 7 Cepheid, 1 γ Doradus, 3 Wolf-Rayet and 63 late-type variable stars. Up to 55% of these stars are potential new discoveries as they are not present in the Variable Star Index (VSX) database. We find the cluster membership fraction for variable stars to be 13% with an upper limit of 35%. Variable star catalogue (Tables A.1-A.10) and light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A108

  5. On the new late B- and early A-type periodic variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, Nami; Barblan, Fabio; Eyer, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the properties of the new periodic, small amplitude, variable stars recently discovered in the open cluster NGC 3766. They are located in the region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between \\delta\\ Sct and slowly pulsating B stars, a region where no sustained pulsation is predicted by standard models. The origin of their periodic variability is currently unknown. We also discuss how the Gaia mission, to be launched at the end of 2013, can contribute to our knowledge of those stars.

  6. Nonradial modes in RR Lyrae stars from the OGLE Collection of Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Netzel, Henryka; Moskalik, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) is a great source of top-quality photometry of classical pulsators. Collection of variable stars from the fourth part of the project contains more than 38 000 RR Lyrae stars. These stars pulsate mostly in the radial fundamental mode (RRab), in radial first overtone (RRc) or in both modes simultaneously (RRd). Analysis of the OGLE data allowed to detect additional non-radial modes in RRc and in RRd stars. We have found more than 260 double-mode stars with characteristic period ratio of the additional (shorter) period to first overtone period around 0.61, increasing the number of known stars of this type by factor of 10. Stars from the OGLE sample form three nearly parallel sequences in the Petersen diagram. Some stars show more than one non-radial mode simultaneously. These modes belong to different sequences.

  7. New Pulsating DB White Dwarf Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, A; Krzesínski, J; Kepler, S O; Metcalfe, T S; Mukadam, Anjum S; Mullally, Fergal; Nather, R E; Sullivan, Denis J; Thompson, Susan E; Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    We are searching for new He atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DBVs) based on the newly found white dwarf stars from the spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. DBVs pulsate at hotter temperature ranges than their better known cousins, the H atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars). Since the evolution of white dwarf stars is characterized by cooling, asteroseismological studies of DBVs give us opportunities to study white dwarf structure at a different evolutionary stage than the DAVs. The hottest DBVs are thought to have neutrino luminosities exceeding their photon luminosities (Winget et al. 2004), a quantity measurable through asteroseismology. Therefore, they can also be used to study neutrino physics in the stellar interior. So far we have discovered nine new DBVs, doubling the number of previously known DBVs. Here we report the new pulsators' lightcurves and power spectra.

  8. Detection of pulsations in three subdwarf B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østensen, R.; Solheim, J.-E.; Heber, U.; Silvotti, R.; Dreizler, S.; Edelmann, H.

    2001-03-01

    We report the detection of short period oscillations in the sdB stars HS 0815+4243, HS 2149+0847 and HS 2201+2610 from time-series photometry made at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) from a sample of 31 candidates. Hence these three hot subdwarfs are new members of the EC 14026 class of pulsating sdB stars. One short period is detected for HS 0815+4243 (P ~ 126 s; A ~ 7 mma) and two short periods are seen for HS 2149+0847 (P ~ 142, 159 s; A ~ 11, 7 mma), whereas the single oscillation detected for HS 2201+2610 has a considerably longer period (P ~ 350 s; A ~ 11 mma). Our NLTE model atmosphere analysis of the time-averaged optical spectra indicate that HS 0815+4243 has Teff = 33 700 K and log g=5.95, HS 2149+0847 has Teff = 35 600 K and log g = 5.9, and HS 2201+2610 has Teff = 29 300 K and log g= 5.4. This places the former two at the hot end and the latter at the cool end of the theoretical sdBV instability strip. Based on observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank-Institute für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  9. The occurrence of binary evolution pulsators in classical instability strip of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek, P.; Wiktorowicz, G.; Iłkiewicz, K.; Smolec, R.; Stępień, K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Belczynski, K.

    2017-04-01

    Single star evolution does not allow extremely low-mass stars to cross the classical instability strip (IS) during the Hubble time. However, within binary evolution framework low-mass stars can appear inside the IS once the mass transfer (MT) is taken into account. Triggered by a discovery of low-mass (0.26 M⊙) RR Lyrae-like variable in a binary system, OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792, we investigate the occurrence of similar binary components in the IS, which set up a new class of low-mass pulsators. They are referred to as binary evolution pulsators (BEPs) to underline the interaction between components, which is crucial for substantial mass-loss prior to the IS entrance. We simulate a population of 500 000 metal-rich binaries and report that 28 143 components of binary systems experience severe MT (losing up to 90 per cent of mass), followed by at least one IS crossing in luminosity range of RR Lyrae (RRL) or Cepheid variables. A half of these systems enter the IS before the age of 4 Gyr. BEPs display a variety of physical and orbital parameters, with the most important being the BEP mass in range 0.2-0.8 M⊙, and the orbital period in range 10-2 500 d. Based on the light curve only, BEPs can be misclassified as genuine classical pulsators, and as such they would contaminate genuine RRL and classical Cepheid variables at levels of 0.8 and 5 per cent, respectively. We state that the majority of BEPs will remain undetected and we discuss relevant detection limitations.

  10. Pulsation period variations in the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878

    CERN Document Server

    Hippke, Michael; Zee, A; Edmondson, William H; Steven, Ian R; Lindner, John F; Kia, Benham; Ditto, William L

    2014-01-01

    Learned et. al. proposed that a sufficiently advanced extra-terrestrial civilization may tickle Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars with a neutrino beam at the right time, thus causing them to trigger early and jogging the otherwise very regular phase of their expansion and contraction. This would turn these stars into beacons to transmit information throughout the galaxy and beyond. The idea is to search for signs of phase modulation (in the regime of short pulse duration) and patterns, which could be indicative of intentional, omnidirectional signaling. We have performed such a search among variable stars using photometric data from the Kepler space telescope. In the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878, we have found two such regimes of long and short pulse durations. The sequence of period lengths, expressed as time series data, is strongly auto correlated, with correlation coefficients of prime numbers being significantly higher ($p=99.8$\\%). Our analysis of this candidate star shows that the prime number oddity o...

  11. ENIGMATIC RECURRENT PULSATIONAL VARIABILITY OF THE ACCRETING WHITE DWARF EQ LYN (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Townsley, D. M.; Brockett, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Gaensicke, B. T.; Parsons, S. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Harrold, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Tovmassian, G.; Zharikov, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional SPM, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Drake, A. J. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Advanced Computing Research, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Henden, A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 25 Birch Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rodriguez-Gil, P. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, E-38204 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Sion, E. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Zola, S.; Szymanski, T. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, PL-30-244 Krakow (Poland); Pavlenko, E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); and others

    2013-09-15

    Photometric observations of the cataclysmic variable EQ Lyn (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6), acquired from 2005 October to 2006 January, revealed high-amplitude variability in the range 1166-1290 s. This accreting white dwarf underwent an outburst in 2006 October, during which its brightness increased by at least five magnitudes, and it started exhibiting superhumps in its light curve. Upon cooling to quiescence, the superhumps disappeared and it displayed the same periods in 2010 February as prior to the outburst within the uncertainties of a couple of seconds. This behavior suggests that the observed variability is likely due to nonradial pulsations in the white dwarf star, whose core structure has not been significantly affected by the outburst. The enigmatic observations begin with an absence of pulsational variability during a multi-site campaign conducted in 2011 January-February without any evidence of a new outburst; the light curve is instead dominated by superhumps with periods in the range of 83-87 minutes. Ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope time-series spectroscopy acquired in 2011 March reveals an effective temperature of 15,400 K, placing EQ Lyn within the broad instability strip of 10,500-16,000 K for accreting pulsators. The ultraviolet light curve with 90% flux from the white dwarf shows no evidence of any pulsations. Optical photometry acquired during 2011 and Spring 2012 continues to reflect the presence of superhumps and an absence of pulsations. Subsequent observations acquired in 2012 December and 2013 January finally indicate the disappearance of superhumps and the return of pulsational variability with similar periods as previous data. However, our most recent data from 2013 March to May reveal superhumps yet again with no sign of pulsations. We speculate that this enigmatic post-outburst behavior of the frequent disappearance of pulsational variability in EQ Lyn is caused either by heating the white dwarf beyond the instability strip due to an

  12. Modeling KIC10684673 and KIC12216817 as Single Pulsating Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The raw light curves of both KIC 10684673 and KIC 12216817 show variability. Both are listed in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (hereafter KEBC), however both are flagged as uncertain in nature. In the present study we show their light curves can be modeled by considering each target as a single, multi-modal delta Scuti pulsator. While this does not exclude the possibility of eclipsing systems, we argue, while spectroscopy on the systems is still lacking, the delta Scuti model is a simpler explanation and therefore more probable.

  13. Pulsations as a mass-loss trigger in evolved hot stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michaela; Haucke, Maximiliano; Cidale, Lydia; Venero, Roberto; Fernandes, Marcelo Borges; Tomic, Sanja; Cure, Michel

    2013-01-01

    During the post-main sequence evolution massive stars pass through several short-lived phases, in which they experience enhanced mass loss in the form of clumped winds and mass ejection events of unclear origin. The discovery that stars populating the blue, luminous part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram can pulsate hence suggests that stellar pulsations might influence or trigger enhanced mass loss and eruptions. We present recent results for two objects in different phases: a B[e] star at the end of the main sequence and a B-type supergiant.

  14. The challenge of measuring magnetic fields in strongly pulsating stars: the case of HD 96446

    CERN Document Server

    Järvinen, S P; Ilyin, I; Schöller, M; Briquet, M

    2016-01-01

    Among the early B-type stars, He-rich Bp stars exhibit the strongest large-scale organized magnetic fields with a predominant dipole contribution. The presence of $\\beta$ Cep-like pulsations in the typical magnetic early Bp-type star HD 96446 was announced a few years ago, but the analysis of the magnetic field geometry was hampered by the absence of a reliable rotation period and a sophisticated procedure for accounting for the impact of pulsations on the magnetic field measurements. Using new spectropolarimetric observations and a recently determined rotation period based on an extensive spectroscopic time series, we investigate the magnetic field model parameters of this star under more detailed considerations of the pulsation behaviour of the line profiles.

  15. Discovery of non-radial pulsations in the spectroscopic binary Herbig Ae star RS Cha

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, T; Catala, C; Alecian, E; Pollard, K; Wright, D

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a first discovery of non radial pulsations in both components of the Herbig Ae spectroscopic binary star RS Cha. The binary was monitored in quasi-continuous observations during 14 observing nights (Jan 2006) at the 1m Mt John (New Zealand) telescope with the Hercules high-resolution echelle spectrograph. The cumulated exposure time on the star was 44 hrs, corresponding to 255 individual high-resolution echelle spectra with $R = 45000$. Least square deconvolved spectra (LSD) were obtained for each spectrum representing the effective photospheric absorption profile modified by pulsations. Difference spectra were calculated by subtracting rotationally broadened artificial profiles; these residual spectra were analysed and non-radial pulsations were detected. A subsequent analysis with two complementary methods, namely Fourier Parameter Fit (FPF) and Fourier 2D (F2D) has been performed and first constraints on the pulsation modes have been derived. In fact, both components of the spect...

  16. Pulsating pre-main sequence stars in IC 4996 and NGC 6530

    CERN Document Server

    Zwintz, K; Zwintz, Konstanze; Weiss, Werner W.

    2006-01-01

    Asteroseismology of pulsating pre-main sequence (PMS) stars has the potential of testing the validity of current models of PMS structure and evolution. As a first step, a sufficiently large sample of pulsating PMS stars has to be established, which allows to select candidates optimally suited for a detailed asteroseismological analysis based on photometry from space or ground based network data. A search for pulsating PMS members in the young open clusters IC 4996 and NGC 6530 has been performed to improve the sample of known PMS pulsators. As both clusters are younger than 10 million years, all members with spectral types later than A0 have not reached the zero-age main sequence yet. Hence, IC 4996 and NGC 6530 are most suitable to search for PMS pulsation among their A- and F-type cluster stars. CCD time series photometry in Johnson B and V filters has been obtained for IC 4996 and NGC 6530. The resulting light curves for 113 stars in IC 4996 and 194 stars in NGC 6530 have been subject to detailed frequency...

  17. Kepler photometry of RRc stars: peculiar double-mode pulsations and period doubling

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalik, P; Kolenberg, K; Molnár, L; Kurtz, D W; Szabó, R; Benkő, J M; Nemec, J M; Chadid, M; Guggenberger, E; Ngeow, C -C; Jeon, Y -B; Kopacki, G; Kanbur, S M

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of four first overtone RR Lyrae stars observed with the Kepler space telescope, based on data obtained over nearly 2.5yr. All four stars are found to be multiperiodic. The strongest secondary mode with frequency f_2 has an amplitude of a few mmag, 20 - 45 times lower than the main radial mode with frequency f_1. The two oscillations have a period ratio of P_2/P_1 = 0.612 - 0.632 that cannot be reproduced by any two radial modes. Thus, the secondary mode is nonradial. Modes yielding similar period ratios have also recently been discovered in other variables of the RRc and RRd types. These objects form a homogenous group and constitute a new class of multimode RR Lyrae pulsators, analogous to a similar class of multimode classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds. Because a secondary mode with P_2/P_1 ~ 0.61 is found in almost every RRc and RRd star observed from space, this form of multiperiodicity must be common. In all four Kepler RRc stars studied, we find subharmonics of f_2 at ~1/...

  18. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants. II. Lower-Luminosity Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Percy, John R

    2016-01-01

    We have used AAVSO visual and photoelectric V data, and the AAVSO time-series package VSTAR and the Lomb-Scargle time-series algorithm to determine improved pulsation periods, "long secondary periods" (LSPs). and their amplitudes in 51 shorter-period pulsating red giants in the AAVSO photoelectric photometry program, and the AAVSO LPV (long period variable) binocular program. As is well known, radial pulsation becomes detectable in red giants at about spectral type M0, with periods of about 20 days. We find that the LSP phenomenon is also first detectable at about M0. Pulsation and LSP amplitudes increase from near zero to about 0.1 at pulsation periods of about 100 days. At longer periods, the pulsation amplitudes continue to increase, but the LSP amplitudes are generally between 0.1 and 0.2 on average. The ratios of LSP to pulsation period cluster around 5 and 10, presumably depending on whether the pulsation period is the fundamental or first overtone. The pulsation and LSP phase curves are generally close...

  19. Spectroscopic analyses of subluminous B stars: observational constraints for the theory of stellar evolution, pulsation, and diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Heinz

    2003-06-01

    This thesis deals with quantitative spectroscopic analyses of large samples of subluminous B stars in order to find constraints the theory of stellar evolution, pulsation, and diffusion. Subluminous B stars, also known as subdwarf B (sdB) stars, are very important in several respects: They dominate the population of faint blue stars in high galactic latitudes, and are found both in the field and in globular clusters. Therefore, sdB stars are important to understand the structure and evolution of our galaxy. From the cosmological point of view, they are candidate progenitors of supernovae of type Ia due to their membership in close binary systems. In the context of stellar astrophysics, subdwarf B stars play an important role because several of them are discovered to show non-radial pulsations, which allows to probe their interior by asteroseismology. Last but not least, sdB stars show very peculiar element abundance patterns, probably caused by diffusion processes. Subluminous B stars are generally considered to be core helium-burning stars with extremely thin hydrogen envelopes (clarified. Recently, several sdB stars have been found to show non-radial pulsations. We initiated a collaboration with two groups in Norway and Italy in 1999 to search for pulsating sdB stars in our sample. About one pulsator within ten observed sdB stars were found. With this discovery we enhanced the number of known pulsating sdB stars by about 50%. The surface metal abundance patterns of 16 sdB stars have been determined from high resolution, high S/N, optical spectra using equivalent widths measurements. This analysis almost quadruples the number of detailed metal abundance analyses of sdB stars. As typical for early B type stars, the metal lines are few and very weak. Three peculiar sdB stars have been found which show in addition to the absorption lines common in sdB stars many lines due to iron group elements (calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, and nickel) which have

  20. IRAS 11472-0800: an extremely depleted pulsating binary post-AGB star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winckel, H.; Hrivnak, B. J.; Gorlova, N.; Gielen, C.; Lu, W.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We focus here on one particular and poorly studied object, IRAS 11472-0800. It is a highly evolved post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star of spectral type F, with a large infrared excess produced by thermal emission of circumstellar dust. Methods: We deployed a multi-wavelength study that includes the analyses of optical and IR spectra as well as a variability study based on photometric and spectroscopic time-series. Results: The spectral energy distribution (SED) properties as well as the highly processed silicate N-band emission show that the dust in IRAS 11472-0800 is likely trapped in a stable disc. The energetics of the SED and the colour variability show that our viewing angle is close to edge-on and that the optical flux is dominated by scattered light. With photospheric abundances of [Fe/H] = -2.7 and [Sc/H] = -4.2, we discovered that IRAS 11472-0800 is one of the most chemically-depleted objects known to date. Moreover, IRAS 11472-0800 is a pulsating star with a period of 31.16 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.6 mag in V. The radial velocity variability is strongly influenced by the pulsations, but the significant cycle-to-cycle variability is systematic on a longer time scale, which we interpret as evidence for binary motion. Conclusions: We conclude that IRAS 11472-0800 is a pulsating binary star surrounded by a circumbinary disc. The line-of-sight towards the object lies close to the orbital plane, therefore the optical light is dominated by scattered light. IRAS 11472-0800 is one of the most chemically-depleted objects known so far and links the dusty RV Tauri stars to the non-pulsating class of strongly depleted objects. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile. Programme ID: 65.L-0615(A), on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos and on observations obtained with the HERMES

  1. Pulsation-triggered mass loss from AGB stars: the 60-day critical period

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalogue. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately co-incides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increases at this point, by a factor of ~10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust...

  2. Mode identification from combination frequency amplitudes in pulsating white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Celeste Marie

    The lightcurves of variable DA and DB white dwarf stars are usually multi- periodic and non-sinusoidal, so that their Fourier transforms show peaks at eigenfrequencies of the pulsation modes and at sums and differences of these frequencies. These combination frequencies provide extra information about the pulsations, both physical and geometrical, that is lost unless they are analyzed. Several theories provide a context for this analysis by predicting combination frequency amplitudes. In these theories, the combination frequencies arise from nonlineax mixing of oscillation modes in the outer layers of the white dwarf, so their analysis cannot yield direct information on the global structure of the star as eigenmodes provide. However, their sensitivity to mode geometry does make them a useful tool for identifying the spherical degree of the modes that mix to produce them. In this dissertation, we analyze data from eight hot, low-amplitude DAV white dwarfs and measure the amplitudes of combination frequencies present. By comparing these amplitudes to the predictions of the theory of Goldreich and Wu, we have verified that the theory is crudely consistent with the measurements. We have also investigated to what extent the combination frequencies can be used to measure the spherical degree ([cursive l]) of the modes that produce them. We find that modes with [cursive l] > 2 are easily identifiable as high [cursive l] based on their combination frequencies alone. Distinguishing between [cursive l] = 1 and 2 is also possible using harmonics. These results will be useful for conducting seismological analyses of large ensembles of ZZ Ceti stars, such as those being discovered using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Because this method relies only on photometry at optical wavelengths, it can be applied to faint stars using 4 m class telescopes. We present new data from the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope for the ZZ Ceti star L19-2. We use these data to determine

  3. Are the stars of a new class of variability detected in NGC 3766 fast rotating SPB stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, S. J. A. J.; Montalbán, J.; Reese, D. R.; Dupret, M.-A.; Eggenberger, P.

    2015-01-01

    A recent photometric survey in the NGC 3766 cluster led to the detection of stars presenting an unexpected variability. They lie in a region of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram where no pulsation are theoretically expected, in between the δ Scuti and slowly pulsating B (SPB) star instability domains. Their variability periods, between ~0.1-0.7 d, are outside the expected domains of these well-known pulsators. The NCG 3766 cluster is known to host fast rotating stars. Rotation can significantly affect the pulsation properties of stars and alter their apparent luminosity through gravity darkening. Therefore we inspect if the new variable stars could correspond to fast rotating SPB stars. We carry out instability and visibility analysis of SPB pulsation modes within the frame of the traditional approximation. The effects of gravity darkening on typical SPB models are next studied. We find that at the red border of the SPB instability strip, prograde sectoral (PS) modes are preferentially excited, with periods shifted in the 0.2-0.5 d range due to the Coriolis effect. These modes are best seen when the star is seen equator-on. For such inclinations, low-mass SPB models can appear fainter due to gravity darkening and as if they were located between the δ Scuti and SPB instability strips.

  4. Whole Earth Telescope observations of the pulsating subdwarf B star PG 0014+067

    CERN Document Server

    Vuckovic, M; O'Toole, S; Csubry, Z; Baran, A; Zola, S; Moskalik, P; Klumpe, E W; Riddle, R; O'Brien, M S; Mullally, F; Wood, M A; Wilkat, V; Zhou, A Y; Reed, M D; Terndrup, D M; Sullivan, D J; Kim, S L; Chen, W P; Chen, C W; Hsiao, W S; Sanchawala, K; Lee, H T; Jiang, X J; Janulis, R; Siwak, M; Ogloza, W; Paparo, M; Bognár, Z; Sodor, A; Handler, G; Lorenz, D; Steininger, B; Silvotti, R; Vauclair, G; Oreiro, R; Ostensen, R; Bronowska, A; Castanheira, B G; Kepler, S O; Fraga, L; Shipman, H L; Provencal, J L; Childers, D

    2006-01-01

    PG 0014+067 is one of the most promising pulsating subdwarf B stars for seismic analysis, as it has a rich pulsation spectrum. The richness of its pulsations, however, poses a fundamental challenge to understanding the pulsations of these stars, as the mode density is too complex to be explained only with radial and nonradial low degree (l < 3) p-modes without rotational splittings. One proposed solution, for the case of PG 0014+067 in particular, assigns some modes with high degree (l=3). On the other hand, theoretical models of sdB stars suggest that they may retain rapidly rotating cores, and so the high mode density may result from the presence of a few rotationally-split triplet (l=1), quintuplet (l=2) modes, along with radial (l=0) p-modes. To examine alternative theoretical models for these stars, we need better frequency resolution and denser longitude coverage. Therefore, we observed this star with the Whole Earth Telescope for two weeks in October 2004. In this paper we report the results of Whol...

  5. A Comprehensive, Wide-Field Study of Pulsating Stars in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dSph galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids which are mostly located ~2.5 magnitudes below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (<0.1 days) typical of their class and consistent with their location on the upper part of the extended main sequence of the younger populations of the galaxy. Several extra-tidal dwarf cepheids were found in our survey up to a distance of ~1 degree from the center of Carina. Our sample also includes RR Lyrae stars and anomalous Cepheids some of which were found outside the galaxy's tidal radius as well. This supports past works that suggests Carina is undergoing tidal disruption. We use the period-luminosity relationship for dwarf Cepheids to estimate a dist...

  6. Non-linear axisymmetric pulsations of rotating relativistic stars in the conformal flatness approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Dimmelmeier, H; Font, J A; Dimmelmeier, Harald; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Font, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    We study non-linear axisymmetric pulsations of rotating relativistic stars using a general relativistic hydrodynamics code under the assumption of a conformal flatness. We compare our results to previous simulations where the spacetime dynamics was neglected. The pulsations are studied along various sequences of both uniformly and differentially rotating relativistic polytropes with index N = 1. We identify several modes, including the lowest-order l = 0, 2, and 4 axisymmetric modes, as well as several axisymmetric inertial modes. Differential rotation significantly lowers mode frequencies, increasing prospects for detection by current gravitational wave interferometers. We observe an extended avoided crossing between the l = 0 and l = 4 first overtones, which is important for correctly identifying mode frequencies in case of detection. For uniformly rotating stars near the mass-shedding limit, we confirm the existence of the mass-shedding-induced damping of pulsations, though the effect is not as strong as i...

  7. Analysis of MERCATOR data Part I: variable B stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Cat, P; Aerts, C; Goossens, K; Saesen, S; Cuypers, J; Yakut, K; Scuflaire, R; Dupret, M A; observers,; observers, many

    2005-01-01

    We re-classified 31 variable B stars which were observed more than 50 times in the Geneva photometric system with the P7 photometer attached to the MERCATOR telescope (La Palma) during its first 3 years of scientific observations. HD89688 is a possible beta Cephei/slowly pulsating B star hybrid and the main mode of the COROT target HD180642 shows non-linear effects. The Maia candidates are re-classified as either ellipsoidal variables or spotted stars. Although the mode identification is still ongoing, all the well-identified modes so far have a degree l = 0, 1 or 2.

  8. Are the stars of a new class of variability detected in NGC~3766 fast rotating SPB stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, S J A J; Reese, D R; Dupret, M -A; Eggenberger, P

    2014-01-01

    A recent photometric survey in the NGC~3766 cluster led to the detection of stars presenting an unexpected variability. They lie in a region of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram where no pulsation are theoretically expected, in between the $\\delta$ Scuti and slowly pulsating B (SPB) star instability domains. Their variability periods, between $\\sim$0.1--0.7~d, are outside the expected domains of these well-known pulsators. The NCG~3766 cluster is known to host fast rotating stars. Rotation can significantly affect the pulsation properties of stars and alter their apparent luminosity through gravity darkening. Therefore we inspect if the new variable stars could correspond to fast rotating SPB stars. We carry out instability and visibility analysis of SPB pulsation modes within the frame of the traditional approximation. The effects of gravity darkening on typical SPB models are next studied. We find that at the red border of the SPB instability strip, prograde sectoral (PS) modes are preferentially excited...

  9. The Araucaria Project : the Baade-Wesselink projection factor of pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nardetto, N; Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; Poretti, E

    2013-01-01

    The projection factor used in the Baade-Wesselink methods of determining the distance of Cepheids makes the link between the stellar physics and the cosmological distance scale. A coherent picture of this physical quantity is now provided based on several approaches. We present the lastest news on the expected projection factor for different kinds of pulsating stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  10. Mass ejection by pulsational pair-instability in very massive stars and implications for luminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Ishii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars having a CO core of $\\sim 40 - 60$ M$_\\odot$ experience pulsational pair-instability (PPI) after carbon-burning. This instability induces strong pulsations of the whole star and a part of outer envelope is ejected. We investigate the evolution and mass ejection of metal-poor very massive stars which experience PPI. We use stellar models with initial masses of 140, 200, and 250 M$_\\odot$ and the metallicity Z=0.004. Their masses decrease to 54.09, 58.65, and 61.03 M$_\\odot$ before the neon-burning owing to mass loss and He mass fraction at the surface becomes about 20%. During the PPI period of $\\sim 1 - 2000$ years, they experience six, four, and three pulsations, respectively. The larger CO-core model has the longer PPI period and ejects the larger amount of mass. Since almost all surface He has been lost by the pulsations, these stars become type Ic supernovae if they explode. Light curves during the PPI stage and supernovae are investigated and are implicated in luminous supernovae. The lumin...

  11. Rotation and oblique pulsation in Kepler observations of the roAp star KIC 10483436

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Cunha, M. S.; Gruberbauer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Photometry of KIC 10483436 was obtained continuously with 1-min exposures over a 27-d period from the Kepler satellite. The light curve shows rotational variations from surface spots with a period of 4.303 ± 0.002 d, an amplitude of about 6 mmag and eight pulsation frequencies typical of roAp stars...

  12. The rate of cooling of the pulsating white dwarf star G117$-$B15A: a new asteroseismological inference of the axion mass

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Romero, Alejandra D; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S O

    2012-01-01

    We employ a state-of-the-art asteroseismological model of G117-B15A, the archetype of the H-rich atmosphere (DA) white dwarf pulsators (also known as DAV or ZZ Ceti variables), and use the most recently measured value of the rate of period change for the dominant mode of this pulsating star to derive a new constraint on the mass of axion, the still conjectural non-barionic particle considered as candidate for dark matter of the Universe. Assuming that G117-B15A is truly represented by our asteroseismological model, and in particular, that the period of the dominant mode is associated to a pulsation g-mode trapped in the H envelope, we find strong indications of the existence of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass m_a \\cos^2 \\beta = 17.4^{+2.3}_{-2.7} meV.

  13. Infrared Survey of Pulsating Giant Stars in the Spiral Galaxy M33: Dust Production, Star Formation History, and Galactic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a near-IR monitoring campaign of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33, carried out with the UK IR Telescope (UKIRT). The pulsating giant stars are identified and their distributions are used to derive the star formation rate as a function of age. We here present the star formation history for the central square kiloparsec. These stars are also important dust factories; we measure their dust production rates from a combination of our data with Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR photometry.

  14. Determination of Pulsation Periods and Other Parameters of 2875 Stars Classified as MIRA in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Contreras-Quijada, A.; Fuentes-Morales, I.; Vogt-Geisse, S.; Arcos, C.; Abarca, C.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Caviedes, M.; DaSilva, H.; Flores, J.; Gotta, V.; Peñaloza, F.; Rojas, K.; Villaseñor, J. I.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an interactive PYTHON code and derived crucial ephemeris data of 99.4% of all stars classified as “Mira” in the ASAS database, referring to pulsation periods, mean maximum magnitudes, and whenever possible, the amplitudes among others. We present a statistical comparison between our results and those given by the International Variable Star Index (VSX) of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, as well as those determined with the machine learning automatic procedure of Richards et al. Our periods are in good agreement with those of the VSX in more than 95% of the stars. However, when comparing our periods with those of Richards et al., the coincidence rate is only 76% and most of the remaining cases refer to aliases. We conclude that automatic codes still require more refinements in order to provide reliable period values. Period distributions of the target stars show three local maxima around 215, 275, and 330 days, apparently of universal validity; their relative strength seems to depend on galactic longitude. Our visual amplitude distribution turns out to be bimodal, however, 1/3 of the targets have rather small amplitudes (A < 2.5 m ) and could refer to semiregular variables (SR). We estimate that about 20% of our targets belong to the SR class. We also provide a list of 63 candidates for period variations and a sample of 35 multiperiodic stars that seem to confirm the universal validity of typical sequences in the double period and in the Petersen diagrams.

  15. Kepler observations of the variability in B-type stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, Luis A.; Pigulski, A.; De Cat, P.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies, characteristic of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be cons...

  16. Radial velocity measurements of the pulsating zirconium star: LS IV -14 116

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffery, C Simon; Neelamkodan, Naslim; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The helium-rich hot subdwarf LS IV -14 116 shows remarkably high surface abundances of zirconium, yttrium, strontium, and germanium, indicative of strong chemical stratification in the photosphere. It also shows photometric behaviour indicative of non-radial g-mode pulsations, despite having surface properties inconsistent with any known pulsational instability zone. We have conducted a search for radial velocity variability. This has demonstrated that at least one photometric period is observable in several absorption lines as a radial velocity variation with a semi-amplitude in excess of 5 km s$^{-1}$. A correlation between line strength and pulsation amplitude provides evidence that the photosphere pulsates differentially. The ratio of light to velocity amplitude is too small to permit the largest amplitude oscillation to be radial.

  17. On the interpretation of new late B- and early A-type periodic variable stars in NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Barblan, F; Eyer, L

    2013-01-01

    We investigate possible interpretations of the new periodic B- and A-type variable stars discovered in NGC 3766. They lie in the region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between slowly pulsating B and delta Sct stars, a region where no pulsation is predicted by standard models of pulsating stars. We show that the two other possible causes of periodic light curve variations, rotational modulation and binarity, cannot provide a satisfactory explanation for all the properties observed in those stars either. The question of their origin is thus currently an open issue.

  18. HD 114839 - An Am star showing both δ Scuti and γ Dor pulsations discovered through MOST photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H.; Matthews, J. M.; Row, J. F.; Cameron, C.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Weiss, W. W.

    2006-12-01

    Using MOST1 (Microvariability and Oscillations of STars) satellite guide star photometry, we have discovered a metallic A star showing hybrid p- and gmode pulsations. HD 114839 was observed nearly continuously for 10 days in March, 2005. We identify frequencies in three groups: the first centered near 2 cycles/day, in the γ Dor pulsation range, and two others near 8 and 20, both in the δ Scuti range. This is only the fourth known such hybrid pulsator, including another MOST discovery (Rowe et al. 2006).

  19. Periodicities of the RV Tau-type pulsating star DF Cygni: a combination of Kepler data with ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bódi, A; Kiss, L L

    2016-01-01

    The RV Tauri stars constitute a small group of classical pulsating stars with some dozen known members in the Milky Way. The light variation is caused predominantly by pulsations, but these alone do not explain the full complexity of the light curves. High quality photometry of RV Tau-type stars is very rare. DF Cygni is the only member of this class of stars in the original Kepler field, hence allowing the most accurate photometric investigation of an RV Tauri star to date. The main goal is to analyse the periodicities of the RV Tauri-type star DF Cygni by combining four years of high-quality Kepler photometry with almost half a century of visual data collected by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. Kepler quarters of data have been stitched together to minimize the systematic effects of the space data. The mean levels have been matched with the AAVSO visual data. Both datasets have been submitted to Fourier and wavelet analyses, while the stability of the main pulsations has been studied wi...

  20. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency Identification and Mode Determination of {\\gamma} Doradus Star HD 12901

    CERN Document Server

    Brunsden, E; Cottrell, P L; Wright, D J; De Cat, P

    2012-01-01

    Using multi-site spectroscopic data collected from three sites, the frequencies and pulsational modes of the {\\gamma} Doradus star HD 12901 were identified. A total of six frequencies in the range 1-2 c/d were observed, their identifications supported by multiple line-profile measurement techniques and previously-published photometry. Five frequencies were of sufficient signal-to-noise for mode identification and all five displayed similar three-bump standard deviation profiles which were fitted well with (l,m)=(1,1) modes. These fits had reduced chi-squared values of less than 18. We propose that this star is an excellent candidate to test models of non-radially pulsating {\\gamma} Doradus stars as a result of the presence of multiple (1,1) modes.

  1. Pulsational frequencies of the eclipsing delta-Scuti star HD 172189

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, J E S; Peña, J; Creevey, O; Li, Z P; Chevreton, M; Belmonte, J A; Alvarez, M; Machado, L Fox; Parrao, L; Hernendez, F Perez; Fernández, A; Fremy, J R; Pau, S; Alonso, R

    2007-01-01

    The eclipsing delta-Scuti star HD 172189 is a probable member of the open cluster IC 4756 and a promising candidate target for the CoRoT mission. The detection of pulsation modes is the first step in the asteroseismological study of the star. Further, the calculation of the orbital parameters of the binary system allows us to make a dynamical determination of the mass of the star, which works as an important constraint to test and calibrate the asteroseismological models. From a detailed frequency analysis of 210 hours of photometric data of HD 172189 obtained from the STEPHI XIII campaign we have identified six pulsation frequencies with a confidence level of 99% and a seventh with a 65% confidence level in the range between 100-300 uHz. In addiction, three eclipses were observed during the campaign, allowing us to improve the determination of the orbital period of the system.

  2. Pulsations of massive ZZ Ceti stars with carbon/oxygen and oxygen/neon cores

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

    2004-01-01

    We explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of massive white dwarf stars with hydrogen-rich envelopes and oxygen/neon and carbon/oxygen cores. To this end, we compute the cooling of massive white dwarf models for both core compositions taking into account the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars and the chemical evolution caused by time-dependent element diffusion. In particular, for the oxygen/neon models, we adopt the chemical profile resulting from repeated carbon-burning shell flashes expected in very massive white dwarf progenitors. For carbon/oxygen white dwarfs we consider the chemical profiles resulting from phase separation upon crystallization. For both compositions we also take into account the effects of crystallization on the oscillation eigenmodes. We find that the pulsational properties of oxygen/neon white dwarfs are notably different from those made of carbon/oxygen, thus making asteroseismological techniques a promising way to distinguish between both types of stars and, hence, t...

  3. HD314884: A Slowly Pulsating B star in a Close Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christopher B; Maccarone, T; Britt, C T; Davis, H; Jonker, P G; Torres, M A P; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Nelemans, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of HD314884, a slowly pulsating B star (SPB) in a binary system with detected soft X-ray emission. We spectrally classify the B star as a B5V-B6V star with T$_{eff}$ = 15,490 $\\pm$ 310 K, log $g$ = 3.75 $\\pm$ 0.25 dex, and a photometric period of P$_{0}$ = 0.889521(12) days. A spectroscopic period search reveals an orbital period for the system of P$_{orb}$ = 1.3654(11) days. The discrepancy in the two periods and the identification of a second and third distinct frequency in the photometric fourier transform at P$_1$ = 3.1347(56) and P$_2$ = 1.517(28) days provides evidence that HD314884 is a slowly pulsating B star (SPB) with at least three oscillation frequencies. These frequencies appear to originate from higher-order, non-linear tidal pulsations. Using the dynamical parameters obtained from the radial velocity curve, we find the most probable companion mass to be M$_1$ = $\\sim$0.8 M$_{\\odot}$ assuming a typical mass for the B star and mos...

  4. The null result of a search for pulsational variations of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star gamma Equulei

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O P; Landstreet, J D; Weiss, W W

    2004-01-01

    We describe an analysis of the time-resolved measurements of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star gamma Equ. We have obtained a high-resolution and high S/N spectroscopic time-series, and the magnetic field was determined using Zeeman resolved profiles of the Fe II 6149.25 A and Fe I 6173.34 A lines. Contrary to recent reports we do not find any evidence of magnetic variability with pulsation phase, and derive an upper limit of 5-10 G for pulsational modulation of the surface magnetic field in gamma Equ.

  5. The potential of space observations for pulsating pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zwintz, Konstanze

    2016-01-01

    The first asteroseismic studies of pre-main sequence (pre-MS) pulsators have been conducted based on data from the space telescopes MOST and CoRoT with typical time bases of less than 40 days. With these data, a relation between the pulsational properties of pre-MS delta Scuti stars and their relative evolutionary phase on their way from the birthline to the zero-age main sequence was revealed. But it is evident from comparison with the more evolved pulsators in their main sequence or post-main sequence stages observed by the main Kepler mission, that many more questions could be addressed with significantly longer time bases and ultra-high precision. Here, I will discuss the observational status of pre-MS asteroseismology and the potential of future space observations for this research field.

  6. Square root two period ratios in Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hippke, Michael; Zee, A

    2014-01-01

    We document the presence of nine Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars with previously unrecognized characteristics. These stars exhibit the statistically unlikely property of a period ratio of main pulsation divided by secondary pulsation (P1/P2) very close to sqrt(2). Other stars of these types have period ratios which show clustering not with a close association with a single remarkable and nonharmonic number. In the way of explanation, we suggest that this indicates a previously unknown resonance of pulsations. Close examination reveals a deviation of multiples of a few times 0.06% for these stars. This deviation seems to be present in discrete steps on the order of about 0.000388(5), indicating the possible presence of a sort of fine structure in this oscillation. Physical explanation of the source of these regularities remains for 3D simulations of variable stars, and we only claim to make note of the regularities which are suggestive of physical principles.

  7. GD1212: Probing deep into the interior of a pulsating white dwarf star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giammichele N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first self-consistent seismic analysis of a white dwarf star, GD 1212, in the Kepler2 field. We precisely establish the fundamental parameters of the star using the forward method based on physically sound models. We unravel the internal structure as well as the rotation profile of GD1212 deeper than in any other ZZCeti stars studied so far. This opens up interesting prospects for future analyses of the white dwarf pulsators monitored in the Kepler and Kepler2 fields.

  8. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of the subdwarf B star KPD 1930+2752: A rich, short period pulsator in a close binary

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, M D; Poindexter, S; Zhou, A -Y; Eggen, J R; Morris, M A; Quint, A C; McDaniel, S; Baran, A; Dolez, N; Kawaler, S D; Kurtz, D W; Moskalik, P; Riddle, R; Zola, S; Ostensen, R H; Solheim, J -E; Kepler, S O; daCosta, A; Provencal, J L; Mullally, F; Winget, D W; Vuckovic, M; Crowe, R; Terry, D; Avila, R; Berkey, B; Stewart, S; Bodnarik, J; Bolton, D; Binder, P -M; Sekiguchi, K; Sullivan, D J; Kim, S -L; Chen, W -P; Chen, C -W; Lin, H -C; Jian, X -J; Wu, H; Gou, J -P; Liu, Z; Leibowitz, E; Lipkin, Y; Akan, C; Janulis, R; Pretorius, R; Ogloza, W; Stachowski, G; Paparo, M; Szabo, R; Csubry, Z; Zsuffa, D; Silvotti, R; Marinoni, S; Bruni, I; Vauclair, G; Chevreton, M; Matthews, J M; Cameron, C; Pablo, H

    2010-01-01

    KPD 1930+2752 is a short-period pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) star. It is also an ellipsoidal variable with a known binary period just over two hours. The companion is most likely a white dwarf and the total mass of the system is close to the Chandresakhar limit. In this paper we report the results of Whole Earth Telescope (WET) photometric observations during 2003 and a smaller multisite campaign from 2002. From 355 hours of WET data, we detect 68 pulsation frequencies and suggest an additional 13 frequencies within a crowded and complex temporal spectrum between 3065 and 6343 $\\mu$Hz (periods between 326 and 157 s). We examine pulsation properties including phase and amplitude stability in an attempt to understand the nature of the pulsation mechanism. We examine a stochastic mechanism by comparing amplitude variations with simulated stochastic data. We also use the binary nature of KPD 1930+2752 for identifying pulsation modes via multiplet structure and a tidally-induced pulsation geometry. Our results indic...

  9. Stellar variability in open clusters. I. A new class of variable stars in NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Saesen, S; Eyer, L

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We analyze the population of periodic variable stars in the open cluster NGC 3766 based on a 7-year multi-band monitoring campaign conducted on the 1.2 m Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla, Chili. Methods. The data reduction, light curve cleaning and period search procedures, combined with the long observation time line, allow us to detect variability amplitudes down to the milli-magnitude level. The variability properties are complemented with the positions in the color-magnitude and color-color diagrams to classify periodic variable stars into distinct variability types. Results. We find a large population (36 stars) of new variable stars between the red edge of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars and the blue edge of delta Sct stars, a region in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram where no pulsation is predicted to occur based on standard stellar models. The bulk of their periods ranges from 0.1 to 0.7 d, with amplitudes between 1 and 4 mmag for the majority of them. About 20% of stars in that region of t...

  10. Impact of Pulsation Activity on the Light Curves of Symbiotic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Marsakova, Vladyslava I; Chinarova, Lidia L; Chyzhyk, Maksim S; Andrych, Kateryna D

    2015-01-01

    We used long-term visual amateur observations of several symbiotic variables for detection of periods that may be caused by pulsation. The examples of multiple periodicities are discussed individually in each case.

  11. Nine New Variable Stars in Cygnus and Variability Type Determination of [Wm2007] 1176

    CERN Document Server

    Furgoni, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    I report the discovery of nine new variable stars in Cygnus: five pulsating (VSX J192319.8+280832, VSX J192405.8+280352, VSX J192220.7+275518, VSX J192304.4+280231, VSX J192255.1+274744) and four eclipsing (VSX J192252.4+280217, VSX J192251.4+280456, VSX J192226.0+281019, VSX J192524.9+275342). The variability type of the variable star [WM2007] 1176, that was considered in literature a possible RRC, was found to be a W UMa variable with an obvious O'Connell effect.

  12. EU Del: exploring the onset of pulsation-driven winds in giant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; Johnson, C. I.; Uttenthaler, S.; Jones, O. C.; Smith, C. L.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the wind-driving mechanism of giant stars through the nearby (117 pc), intermediate-luminosity (L ≈ 1600 L⊙) star EU Del (HIP 101810, HD 196610). Atacama Pathfinder Experiment observations of the CO (3-2) and (2-1) transitions are used to derive a wind velocity of 9.51 ± 0.02 km s-1, a 12C/13C ratio of 14^{+9}_{-4} and a mass-loss rate of a few × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1. Analysis of published spectra show the star has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.27 ± ˜0.30 dex. The star's dusty envelope lacks a clear 10-μm silicate feature, despite the star's oxygen-rich nature. Radiative transfer modelling cannot fit a wind acceleration model which relies solely on radiation pressure on condensing dust. We compare our results to VY Leo (HIP 53449), a star with similar temperature and luminosity, but different pulsation properties. We suggest the much stronger mass-loss from EU Del may be driven by long-period stellar pulsations, due to its potentially lower mass. We explore the implications for the mass-loss rate and wind velocities of other stars.

  13. A search for non-pulsating, chemically normal stars in the δ Scuti instability strip using Kepler data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Niemczura, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    that they actually lie outside the strip once the uncertainties are taken into account. We investigated the possibility that the non-pulsators inside the instability strip could be unresolved binary systems, having components that both lie outside the instability strip. If misinterpreted as single stars, we found...... that such binaries could generate temperature discrepancies of similar to 300 K - larger than the spectroscopic uncertainties, and fully consistent with the observations. After these considerations, there remains one chemically normal non-pulsator that lies in the middle of the instability strip. This star...... is a challenge to pulsation theory. However, its existence as the only known star of its kind indicates that such stars are rare. We conclude that the delta Sct instability strip is pure, unless pulsation is shut down by diffusion or another mechanism, which could be interaction with a binary companion....

  14. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi; a-Berro, Enrique Garcí

    2010-01-01

    Abridged. White dwarf stars are the final evolutionary stage of the vast majority of stars, including our Sun. The study of white dwarfs has potential applications to different fields of astrophysics. In particular, they can be used as independent reliable cosmic clocks, and can also provide valuable information about the fundamental parameters of a wide variety of stellar populations, like our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. In addition, the high densities and temperatures characterizing white dwarfs allow to use these stars as cosmic laboratories for studying physical processes under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved in terrestrial laboratories. They can be used to constrain fundamental properties of elementary particles such as axions and neutrinos, and to study problems related to the variation of fundamental constants. In this work, we review the essentials of the physics of white dwarf stars. Special emphasis is placed on the physical processes that lead to the formation of white dwarfs ...

  15. Pulsation of Pre-Main Sequence Stars in Young Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwintz, Konstanze; Weiss, Werner W.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this proposal is to determine observationally the parameter space of the pre-main sequence instability strip. For that purpose we intend to obtain photometric timeseries with high time resolution and low noise level of the stars in young open clusters (IC 4996, NGC 6910 and NGC 6383) and to identify pre-main sequence pulsators. Several cluster members have the spectral types of interest (A-F) and lie between the birthline and the zero-age main sequence. Up to now the number of pre-main sequence pulsators is absolutely inadequate to determine reliably the hot and cool border of the according instability region. Its definition is indispensable for a better understanding of the internal structure and evolution of such stars.

  16. Detection of 75+ pulsation frequencies in the Delta Scuti star FG Vir

    CERN Document Server

    Breger, M; Antoci, V; Guggenberger, E; Shobbrook, R R; Handler, G; Ngwato, B; Rodler, F; Rodríguez, E; De Coca, P L; Rolland, A; Costa, V

    2005-01-01

    Extensive photometric multisite campaigns of the Delta Scuti variable FG Vir are presented. For the years 2003 and 2004, 926 hours of photometry at the millimag precision level were obtained. The combinations with earlier campaigns lead to excellent frequency resolution and high signal/noise. A multifrequency analysis yields 79 frequencies. This represents a new record for this type of star. The modes discovered earlier were confirmed. Pulsation occurs over a wide frequency band from 5.7 to 44.3 c/d with amplitudes of 0.2 mmag or larger. Within this wide band the frequencies are not distributed at random, but tend to cluster in groups. A similar feature is seen in the power spectrum of the residuals after 79 frequencies are prewhitened. This indicates that many additional modes are excited. The interpretation is supported by a histogram of the photometric amplitudes, which shows an increase of modes with small amplitudes. The old question of the 'missing modes' may be answered now: the large number of detecte...

  17. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency Identification and Mode Determination of {\\gamma} Doradus Star HD 12901

    OpenAIRE

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K.R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D J; De Cat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using multi-site spectroscopic data collected from three sites, the frequencies and pulsational modes of the {\\gamma} Doradus star HD 12901 were identified. A total of six frequencies in the range 1-2 c/d were observed, their identifications supported by multiple line-profile measurement techniques and previously-published photometry. Five frequencies were of sufficient signal-to-noise for mode identification and all five displayed similar three-bump standard deviation profiles which were fit...

  18. Rapid Rotation and Nonradial Pulsations $\\kappa$-Mechanism Excitation of G-Modes in B Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ushomirsky, G; Ushomirsky, Greg; Bildsten, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Several classes of stars (most notably O and B main-sequence stars, as well as accreting white dwarfs and neutron stars) rotate quite rapidly, at spin frequencies greater than the typical g-mode frequencies. We discuss how rapid rotation modifies the $\\kappa$-mechanism excitation and observability of g-mode oscillations. We find that, by affecting the timescale match between the mode period and the thermal time at the driving zone, rapid rotation stabilizes some of the g-modes that are excited in a non-rotating star, and, conversely, excites g-modes that are damped in absence of rotation. The fluid velocities and temperature perturbations are strongly concentrated near the equator for most g-modes in rapidly rotating stars, which means that a favorable viewing angle may be required to observe the pulsations. Moreover, the stability of modes of the same $l$ but different $m$ is affected differently by rotation. We illustrate this by considering g-modes in Slowly Pulsating B-type stars as a function of the rota...

  19. Asteroseismology of the Beta Cephei star 12 (DD) Lacertae: photometric observations, pulsational frequency analysis and mode identification

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G; Rodríguez, E; Uytterhoeven, K; Amado, P J; Dorokhova, T N; Dorokhov, N I; Poretti, E; Sareyan, J P; Parrao, L; Lorenz, D; Zsuffa, D; Drummond, R; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J; Verhoelst, T; De Ridder, J; Acke, B; Bourge, P O; Movchan, A I; Garrido, R; Paparo, M; Sahin, T; Antoci, V; Udovichenko, S N; Csorba, K; Crowe, R; Berkey, B; Stewart, S; Terry, D; Mkrtichian, D E; Aerts, C

    2006-01-01

    We report a multisite photometric campaign for the Beta Cephei star 12 Lacertae. 750 hours of high-quality differential photoelectric Stromgren, Johnson and Geneva time-series photometry were obtained with 9 telescopes during 190 nights. Our frequency analysis results in the detection of 23 sinusoidal signals in the light curves. Eleven of those correspond to independent pulsation modes, and the remainder are combination frequencies. We find some slow aperiodic variability such as that seemingly present in several Beta Cephei stars. We perform mode identification from our colour photometry, derive the spherical degree l for the five strongest modes unambiguously and provide constraints on l for the weaker modes. We find a mixture of modes of 0 <= l <= 4. In particular, we prove that the previously suspected rotationally split triplet within the modes of 12 Lac consists of modes of different l; their equal frequency splitting must thus be accidental. One of the periodic signals we detected in the light c...

  20. First axion bounds from a pulsating helium-rich white dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battich, T.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism proposed to solve the CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics has as consequence the existence of axions, hypothetical weakly interacting particles whose mass is constrained to be on the sub-eV range. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, becoming an important energy sink for the star. Due to their well known physics, white dwarfs are good laboratories to study the properties of fundamental particles such as the axions. We study the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of helium-rich white dwarfs and on their pulsational properties. To this aim, we calculate evolutionary helium-rich white dwarf models with axion emission, and assess the pulsational properties of this models. Our results indicate that the rates of change of pulsation periods are significantly affected by the existence of axions. We are able for the first time to independently constrain the mass of the axion from the study of pulsating helium-rich white dwarfs. To do this, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the pulsating white dwarf PG 1351+489 corresponding to the dominant pulsation period. From an asteroseismological model of PG 1351+489 we obtain gae < 3.3 × 10-13 for the axion-electron coupling constant, or macos2β lesssim 11.5 meV for the axion mass. This constraint is relaxed to gae < 5.5 × 10-13 (macos2β lesssim 19.5 meV), when no detailed asteroseismological model is adopted for the comparison with observations.

  1. Variable Star Status of Two Stars: V204 and I-I-39 in M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The star I-I-42 (=vZ1390), a cluster member in M3, located near the red edge of the instability strip of the horizontal branch, was discovered by Roberts and Sandage as a low amplitude variable, it was designated as V204 in the "second catalogue of variable stars in globular clusters", but its coordinates given in all versions of this catalogue are wrong since 1955. We argue that V204 is indeed a low amplitude HB variable star, located near to the red edge of the instability strip, with a period of 0.74785d and an amplitude of about 0.04 mag in V. We also find that the red cluster member star I-I-39 is a low amplitude variable with a period of 1.16d and amplitude of about 0.03 mag in V which might be pulsating at the second overtone.

  2. The impact of enhanced iron opacity on massive star pulsations: updated instability strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravveji, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Bailey et al. made a direct measurement of the iron opacity at the physical conditions of the solar tachocline. They found that the wavelength-integrated iron opacity is roughly 75 per cent higher than what the Opacity Project (OP) and OPAL models predict. Here, we compute new opacity tables with enhanced iron and nickel contributions to the Rosseland mean opacity by 75 per cent each, and compute three dense MESA grids of evolutionary models for Galactic O- and B-type stars covering from 2.5 to 25 M⊙ from zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) until Teff = 10 000 K after the core hydrogen exhaustion. We carry out non-adiabatic mode stability analysis with GYRE, and update the extension of the instability strips of heat-driven p- and g-mode pulsators, and the hybrid slowly pulsating B (SPB) - β Cep stars. We compare the position of two confirmed late O-type β Cep and eight confirmed hybrid B-type pulsators with the new instability domains, and justify that ˜75 per cent enhancement, only in iron opacity, is sufficient to consistently reproduce the observed position of these stars on the log Teff versus log g plane. We propose that this improvement in opacities be incorporated in the input physics of new stellar models.

  3. Time-series surveys and pulsating stars: The near-infrared perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and problems of nearinfrared surveys in observing pulsating stars in the Milky Way. One of the advantages of near-infrared surveys, when compared to optical counterparts, is that the interstellar extinction is significantly smaller. As we see in this review, a significant volume of the Galactic disk can be reached by infrared surveys but not by optical ones. Towards highly obscured regions in the Galactic mid-plane, however, the interstellar extinction causes serious problems even with near-infrared data in understanding the observational results. After a review on previous and current near-infrared surveys, we discuss the effects of the interstellar extinction in optical (including Gaia) to near-infrared broad bands based on a simple calculation using synthetic spectral energy distribution. We then review the recent results on classical Cepheids towards the Galactic center and the bulge, as a case study, to see the impact of the uncertainty in the extinction law. The extinction law, i.e. the wavelength dependency of the extinction, is not fully characterized, and its uncertainty makes it hard to make the correction. Its characterization is an urgent task in order to exploit the outcomes of ongoing large-scale surveys of pulsating stars, e.g. for drawing a map of pulsating stars across the Galactic disk.

  4. Discovery of magnetic fields in three He variable Bp stars with He and Si spots

    CERN Document Server

    Briquet, M; Schöller, M; De Cat, P

    2006-01-01

    It is essential for the understanding of stellar structure models of high mass stars to explain why constant stars, non-pulsating chemically peculiar hot Bp stars and pulsating stars co-exist in the slowly pulsating B stars and beta Cephei instability strips. We have conducted a search for magnetic fields in the four Bp stars HD55522, HD105382, HD131120, and HD138769 which previously have been wrongly identified as slowly pulsating B stars. A recent study of these stars using the Doppler Imaging technique revealed that the elements He and Si are inhomogeneously distributed on the stellar surface, causing the periodic variability. Using FORS1 in spectropolarimetric mode at the VLT, we have acquired circular polarisation spectra to test the presence of a magnetic field in these stars. A variable magnetic field is clearly detected in HD55522 and HD105382, but no evidence for the existence of a magnetic field was found in HD131120. The presence of a magnetic field in HD138769 is suggested by one measurement at 3 ...

  5. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency and Mode Determination of the $\\gamma$ Doradus Star HD 189631

    OpenAIRE

    Davie, Matthew W.; Pollard, Karen R.; Cottrell, Peter L.; Brunsden, Emily; Wright, Duncan J.; De Cat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present improvement and confirmation of identified frequencies and pulsation modes for the $\\gamma$ Doradus star HD 189631. This work improves upon previous studies by incorporating a significant number of additional spectra and precise determination of frequencies. Four frequencies were identified for this star: $1.6774 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$, $1.4174 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$, $0.0714 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$, and $1.8228 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$ which were identified with the modes ($l$,$m$) = ($1,+1$...

  6. The triple-mode pulsating variable V823 Cassiopeiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcsik, J.; Szeidl, B.; Váradi, M.; Henden, A.; Hurta, Zs.; Lakatos, B.; Posztobányi, K.; Klagyivik, P.; Sódor, Á.

    2006-01-01

    Using extended multicolour CCD photometry of the triple-mode radial pulsator V823 Cas we studied the properties of the coupling frequencies invoked by nonlinear processes. Our results support that a resonance connection affects the mode coupling behaviour. The P1/P0 period ratio of V823 Cas has an “out of range” value if compared with the period ratios of the known double mode pulsators, while the P2/P1 period ratio is normal. The periods and period ratios cannot be consistently interpreted without conflict with pulsation and/or evolution models. We describe this failure with the suggestion that at present, the periods of V823 Cas are in a transient, resonance affected state, thus do not reflect the true parameters of the object. The anomalous period change behaviour of the fundamental and second overtone modes supports this idea. We have also raised the possibility that a f0 +f2 = 2f1 resonance may act in triple mode pulsators.

  7. The triple-mode pulsating variable V823 Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Jurcsik, J; Varadi, M; Henden, A; Hurta, Z; Lakatos, B; Posztobanyi, K; Klagyivik, P; Sodor, A; Hurta, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Based on extended multicolour CCD photometry of the triple-mode radial pulsator V823 Cas we studied the properties of the coupling frequencies invoked by nonlinear processes. Our results support that a resonance connection as suggested by Antonello & Aikawa (1998) affects the mode coupling behaviour. The P1/P0 period ratio of V823 Cas has an "out of range" value if compared with the period ratios of the known double mode pulsators, while the P2/P1 period ratio is normal. The periods and period ratios cannot be consistently interpret without conflict with pulsation and/or evolution models. We attempt to interpret this failure by the suggestion that at present, the periods of V823 Cas are in a transient, resonance affected state, thus do not reflect the true parameters of the object. The anomalous period change behaviour of the fundamental and second overtone modes supports this idea. We have also raised the possibility that a f0 + f2 = 2f1 resonance may act in triple mode pulsators.

  8. A pulsation zoo in the hot subdwarf B star KIC 10139564 observed by Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, A S; Stello, D; Ostensen, R H; Telting, J H; Pakstiene, E; O'Toole, S J; Silvotti, R; Degroote, P; Bloemen, S; Hu, H; Van Grootel, V; Clarke, B D; Van Cleve, J; Thompson, S E; Kawaler, S D

    2012-01-01

    We present our analyses of 15 months of Kepler data on KIC 10139564. We detected 57 periodicities with a variety of properties not previously observed all together in one pulsating subdwarf B star. Ten of the periodicities were found in the low-frequency region, and we associate them with nonradial g-modes. The other periodicities were found in the high-frequency region, which are likely p-modes. We discovered that most of the periodicities are components of multiplets with a common spacing. Assuming that multiplets are caused by rotation, we derive a rotation period of 25.6(1.8) days. The multiplets also allow us to identify the pulsations to an unprecedented extent for this class of pulsator. We also detect l<=2 multiplets, which are sensitive to the pulsation inclination and can constrain limb darkening via geometric cancellation factors. While most periodicities are stable, we detected several regions that show complex patterns. Detailed analyses showed these regions are complicated by several factors....

  9. The Kepler characterization of the variability amongst A- and F-type stars. I. General overview

    CERN Document Server

    Uytterhoeven, K; Grigahcene, A; Guzik, J A; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Smalley, B; Handler, G; Balona, L A; Niemczura, E; Machado, L Fox; Benatti, S; Chapellier, E; Tkachenko, A; Szabo, R; Suarez, J C; Ripepi, V; Pascual, J; Mathias, P; Martin-Ruiz, S; Lehmann, H; Jackiewicz, J; Hekker, S; Gruberbauer, M; Garcia, R A; Dumusque, X; Diaz-Fraile, D; Bradley, P; Antoci, V; Roth, M; Leroy, B; Murphy, S J; De Cat, P; Cuypers, J; Kjeldsen, H; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Breger, M; Pigulski, A; Kiss, L L; Still, M; Thompson, S E; Van Cleve, J

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft is providing time series of photometric data with micromagnitude precision for hundreds of A-F type stars. We present a first general characterization of the pulsational behaviour of A-F type stars as observed in the Kepler light curves of a sample of 750 candidate A-F type stars. We propose three main groups to describe the observed variety in pulsating A-F type stars: gamma Dor, delta Sct, and hybrid stars. We assign 63% of our sample to one of the three groups, and identify the remaining part as rotationally modulated/active stars, binaries, stars of different spectral type, or stars that show no clear periodic variability. 23% of the stars (171 stars) are hybrid stars, which is a much larger fraction than what has been observed before. We characterize for the first time a large number of A-F type stars (475 stars) in terms of number of detected frequencies, frequency range, and typical pulsation amplitudes. The majority of hybrid stars show frequencies with all kinds of periodicities...

  10. The Nainital-Cape Survey -- II:Report for pulsation in five chemically peculiar A-type stars and presentation of 140 null results

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martínez, P; Kurtz, D W; Girish, V; Seetha, S; Sagar, R; Ashoka, B N; Joshi, Santosh; Martinez, Peter; Sagar, Ram

    2006-01-01

    To search photometric variability in chemically peculiar A type stars in the northern hemisphere. High-speed photometric observations of Ap and Am star candidates have been carried out from ARIES (Manora Peak, Nainital) using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the ARIES 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope. This paper presents three new variables: HD 113878, HD 118660 and HD 207561. During the time span of the survey (1999 December to 2004 January) pulsations of the $\\delta$ Sct type were also found for the two evolved Am stars HD 102480 and HD 98851, as reported in Joshi et al. (2002, 2003). Additionally, we present 140 null results of the survey for this time span. The star HD 113878 pulsates with a period of 2.31 hr, which is typical of $\\delta$ Sct stars. HD 118660 exhibits multi-periodic variability with a prominent period of nearly 1 hr. These periods need to be investigated and make HD 118660 a particularly interesting target for further observations. For HD 207561, a star classified as Am, a probabl...

  11. Dark Stars: Improved Models and First Pulsation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Freese, Katherine; Winget, Donald E; Paxton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars. Dark stars (DSs), which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the Universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10^6 M_sun. While previous calculations were limited to polytropic interiors, our current calculations use MESA, a modern stellar evolution code to solve the equations of stellar structure. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with the basic results of previous models. There are some differences, however, in the details, with positive implications for observability of DSs. We found that, in the mass range of 10^4 - 10^5 M_sun, using MESA, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al.(2010), are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of 3...

  12. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - I. Survey target selection and the first pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østensen, R. H.; Silvotti, R.; Charpinet, S.; Oreiro, R.; Handler, G.; Green, E. M.; Bloemen, S.; Heber, U.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Kurtz, D. W.; Telting, J. H.; Reed, M. D.; Kawaler, S. D.; Aerts, C.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Vučković, M.; Ottosen, T. A.; Liimets, T.; Quint, A. C.; Van Grootel, V.; Randall, S. K.; Gilliland, R. L.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Quintana, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from the first two quarters of a survey to search for pulsations in compact stellar objects with the Kepler spacecraft. The survey sample and the various methods applied in its compilation are described, and spectroscopic observations are presented to separate the objects into accurate classes. From the Kepler photometry we clearly identify nine compact pulsators and a number of interesting binary stars. Of the pulsators, one shows the strong, rapid pulsations typical of a V361 Hya-type sdB variable (sdBV); seven show long-period pulsation characteristics of V1093 Her-type sdBVs; and one shows low-amplitude pulsations with both short and long periods. We derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for all the subdwarf B stars in the sample and demonstrate that below the boundary region where hybrid sdB pulsators are found, all our targets are pulsating. For the stars hotter than this boundary temperature a low fraction of strong pulsators (region, and several of the V1093 Her pulsators show low-amplitude modes in the short-period region, indicating that hybrid behaviour may be common in these stars, also outside the boundary temperature region where hybrid pulsators have hitherto been found.

  13. Araucaria Project: Pulsating stars in binary systems and as distance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Bogumił; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Smolec, Radosław

    2017-09-01

    Pulsating stars, like Cepheids or RR Lyrae stars, are ones of the most important distance indicators. They are also key objects for testing the predictions of stellar evolution and stellar pulsation theory. In the Araucaria Project we have studied these objects since 2002, measuring distances to the galaxies in the Local Group and beyond. In 2010 we have for the first time confirmed spectroscopically the existence of a classical Cepheid in an eclipsing binary system. This has opened an opportunity to study in great details and with high accuracy (better than 1%) the physical parameters of these very important objects. First dynamical mass determination (Mcep = 4.16 ± 0.03 M⊙) let us solve the long-standing mass discrepancy problem. Since then we have measured masses for 6 classical Cepheids in binary systems and determined projection factors for three of them. One of the analyzed systems was confirmed to consist of two first-overtone Cepheids. Type II Cepheids are recently becoming more important as distance indicators and astrophysics laboratory, although our knowledge of these stars is quite limited. Their evolutionary status is also not well understood and observational constraints are needed to confirm the current theories. We are presenting here our first results of the spectroscopic analysis of 4 of these systems. The masses of type II Cepheids seem consistent with the expected 0.5 - 0.6 M⊙. We also present first results of the fully modeled pulsator originally classified as peculiar W Vir star. The mass of this star is 1.51 ± 0.09 M⊙ and the p-factor 1.3 ± 0.03. It was eventually found not to belong to any typical Cepheid group.

  14. Automated Searches for Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Noord, Daniel M; Steenwyk, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    With recent developments in imaging and computer technology the amount of available astronomical data has increased dramatically. Although most of these data sets are not dedicated to the study of variable stars much of it can, with the application of proper software tools, be recycled for the discovery of new variable stars. Fits Viewer and Data Retrieval System is a new software package that takes advantage of modern computer advances to search astronomical data for new variable stars. More than 200 new variable stars have been found in a data set taken with the Calvin College Rehoboth Robotic telescope using FVDRS. One particularly interesting example is a very fast subdwarf B with a 95 minute orbital period, the fastest currently known of the HW Vir type.

  15. The Impact of Enhanced Iron Opacity on Massive Star Pulsations: Updated Instability Strips

    CERN Document Server

    Moravveji, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Bailey et al. (2015) made a direct measurement of the Iron opacity at the physical conditions of the solar tachocline. They found that the wavelength-integrated Iron opacity is roughly 75% higher that what the OP and OPAL models predict. Here, we compute new opacity tables with enhanced Iron and Nickel contributions to the Rosseland mean opacity by 75% each, and compute three dense MESA grids of evolutionary models for Galactic O- and B-type stars covering from 2.5 to 25 M$_\\odot$ from ZAMS until $T_{\\rm eff}=10\\,000$ K after the core hydrogen exhaustion. We carry out non-adiabatic mode stability analysis with GYRE, and update the extension of the instability strips of heat-driven p- and g-mode pulsators, and the hybrid pulsating SPB - $\\beta$ Cep stars. We compare the position of two confirmed late O-type $\\beta$ Cep and eight confirmed hybrid B-type pulsators with the new instability domains, and justify that $\\sim$75% enhancement, only in Iron opacity, is sufficient to consistently reproduce the ...

  16. Variable stars in the classroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F [Departamento de Electronica e IngenierIa Electromecanica, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vaquero, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-05-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research.

  17. Main-sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    OpenAIRE

    Lata, Sneh; Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A.K.(Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India); Richichi, Andrea; Eswaraiah, C.; Kumar, Brajesh; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present time series photometry of 104 variable stars in the cluster region NGC 1893. The association of the present variable candidates to the cluster NGC 1893 has been determined by using $(U-B)/(B-V)$ and $(J-H)/(H-K)$ two colour diagrams, and $V/(V-I)$ colour magnitude diagram. Forty five stars are found to be main-sequence variables and these could be B-type variable stars associated with the cluster. We classified these objects as $\\beta$ Cep, slowly pulsating B stars an...

  18. Pulsating B-type stars in the open cluster NGC 884: frequencies, mode identification and asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Aerts, C; Miglio, A; Carrier, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field beta Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physics in the stellar structure and evolution models of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismology study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884. We describe a thorough investigation of the pulsational properties of all B-type stars in the cluster. Overall, our detailed frequency analysis resulted in 115 detected frequencies in 65 stars. We found 36 mono-periodic, 16 bi-periodic, 10 tri-periodic, and 2 quadru-periodic stars and one star with 9 independent frequencies. We also derived the amplitudes and phases of all detected frequencies in the U, B, V and I filter, if available. We achieved unambiguous identifications of the mode degree for twelve of the de...

  19. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Romero, Alejandra D.; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S. O.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Sullivan, Denis J.; Chote, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive (Mstar ~ 0.75 Msolar) and hot (Teff ~ 12 100 K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes (Π ~ 113 s and Π ~ 192 s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass ma cos2β lesssim 25 meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of gae lesssim 7 × 10-13.

  20. The Self-Regulated Winds of Long Period Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Struck, C; Willson, L A; Turner, G; Bowen, G H; Struck, Curtis; Smith, Daniel C.; Willson, Lee Anne; Turner, Gary; Bowen, George H.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical models of the extended atmospheres of long period variable or Mira stars have shown that their winds have a very simple, power law structure when averaged over the pulsation cycle. This structure is stable and robust despite the pulsational wave disturbances, and appears to be strongly self-regulated. Observational studies support these conclusions. The models also show that dust-free winds are nearly adiabatic, with little heating or cooling. The classical, steady, adiabatic wind solution to the hydrodynamic equations fails to account for an extensive region of nearly constant outflow velocity. We investigate analytic solutions which include the effects of wave pressure, heating, and the resulting entropy changes. Wave pressure is represented by a term like that in the Reynolds turbulence equation for the mean velocity. Although the pressure from individual waves is modest, the waves are likely the primary agent of self-regulation of dust-free winds. In models of dusty winds, the gas variables also...

  1. Signatures of nonlinear mode interactions in the pulsating hot B subdwarf star KIC 10139564

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The unprecedented photometric quality and time coverage offered by the Kepler spacecraft has opened up new opportunities to search for signatures of nonlinear effects that affect oscillation modes in pulsating stars. Aims: The data accumulated on the pulsating hot B subdwarf KIC 10139564 are used to explore in detail the stability of its oscillation modes, focusing in particular on evidences of nonlinear behaviors. Methods: We analyzed 38 months of contiguous short-cadence data, concentrating on mode multiplets induced by the star rotation and on frequencies forming linear combinations that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. Results: We find clear signatures that point toward nonlinear effects predicted by resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings can induce various mode behaviors for the components of multiplets and for frequencies related by linear relationships. We find that a triplet at 5760 μHz, a quintuplet at 5287 μHz and a (ℓ > 2) multiplet at 5412 μHz, all induced by rotation, show clear frequency and amplitude modulations which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of a resonance between the components. One triplet at 316 μHz and a doublet at 394 μHz show modulated amplitude and constant frequency which can be associated with a narrow transitory regime of the resonance. Another triplet at 519 μHz appears to be in a frequency-locked regime where both frequency and amplitude are constant. Additionally, three linear combinations of frequencies near 6076 μHz also show amplitude and frequency modulations, which are likely related to a three-mode direct resonance of the type ν0 ~ ν1 + ν2. Conclusions: The identified frequency and amplitude modulations are the first clear-cut signatures of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in pulsating hot B subdwarf stars. However, the observed behaviors suggest that the resonances occurring in these stars usually follow more complicated patterns than

  2. Optical spectroscopy of RU Cam, a pulsating carbon star

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu

    2007-01-01

    We analysed the high resolution spectra of a RU Cam, classified as W Vir type star. The atmospheric parameters of RU Cam were estimated Teff=5250K and log g=1.0. The hydrogen deficiency of RU Cam was not confirmed. The iron abundance, [Fe/H]=-0.37, is close to the solar one. Abundances of most other elements are also close to normal. We found considerable excesses of carbon and nitrogen: [C/Fe]=+0.98, [N/Fe]=+0.60. The carbon to oxygen ratio is C/O$\\ge$1. The carbon isotopic abundance ratio is equal to C^12/C^13=4.5. For sodium a moderate overabundance Na/Fe=+0.55 was obtained. For two moments of observations we found close heliocentric velocity values, Vr=-21.7+/-0.8 and -23.1+/-1.0 km/s. Both spectra contain a peculiar feature - an emission component of NaI doublet which location agrees with the radial velocity from the bulk of metallic lines. For our two observing moments we found no dependence of radial velocities on the formation depth or on excitation energy for metallic lines.

  3. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency and Mode Determination of the $\\gamma$ Doradus Star HD 189631

    CERN Document Server

    Davie, Matthew W; Cottrell, Peter L; Brunsden, Emily; Wright, Duncan J; De Cat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present improvement and confirmation of identified frequencies and pulsation modes for the $\\gamma$ Doradus star HD 189631. This work improves upon previous studies by incorporating a significant number of additional spectra and precise determination of frequencies. Four frequencies were identified for this star: $1.6774 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$, $1.4174 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$, $0.0714 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$, and $1.8228 \\pm 0.0002$ d$^{-1}$ which were identified with the modes ($l$,$m$) = ($1,+1$), ($1,+1$), ($2,-2$), and ($1,+1$) respectively. These findings are in agreement with the most recent literature. The prevalence of ($l$,$m$) = ($1,+1$) modes in $\\gamma$ Doradus stars is starting to become apparent and we discuss this result.

  4. Pulsating red giant stars in eccentric binary systems discovered from Kepler space-based photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; Vos, J; Kallinger, T; Bloemen, S; Tkachenko, A; García, R A; Østensen, R H; Aerts, C; Kurtz, D W; De Ridder, J; Hekker, S; Pavlovski, K; Mathur, S; De Smedt, K; Derekas, A; Corsaro, E; Mosser, B; Van Winckel, H; Huber, D; Degroote, P; Davies, G R; Prša, A; Debosscher, J; Elsworth, Y; Nemeth, P; Siess, L; Schmid, V S; Pápics, P I; de Vries, B L; van Marle, A J; Marcos-Arenal, P; Lobel, A

    2013-01-01

    The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA's Kepler space telescope led to an improved understanding of red giant stars and binary stars. Seismology allows us to constrain the properties of red giants. In addition to eclipsing binaries, eccentric non-eclipsing binaries, exhibiting ellipsoidal modulations, have been detected with Kepler. We aim to study the properties of eccentric binary systems containing a red giant star and derive the parameters of the primary giant component. We apply asteroseismic techniques to determine masses and radii of the primary component of each system. For a selected target, light and radial velocity curve modelling techniques are applied to extract the parameters of the system. The effects of stellar on the binary system are studied. The paper presents the asteroseismic analysis of 18 pulsating red giants in eccentric binary systems, for which masses and radii were constrained. The orbital periods of these systems range from 20 to 440days. From radial velocity measuremen...

  5. Asteroseismic fingerprints of rotation and mixing in the slowly pulsating B8 V star KIC 7760680

    CERN Document Server

    Pápics, P I; Aerts, C; Van Reeth, T; De Smedt, K; Hillen, M; Oestensen, R; Moravveji, E

    2015-01-01

    We present the first detection of a rotationally affected series consisting of 36 consecutive high-order sectoral dipole gravity modes in a slowly pulsating B (SPB) star. The results are based on the analysis of four years of virtually uninterrupted photometric data assembled with the Kepler Mission, and high-resolution spectra acquired using the HERMES spectrograph at the 1.2 meter Mercator Telescope. The spectroscopic measurements place KIC7760680 inside the SPB instability strip, near the cool edge. The photometric analysis reveals the longest unambiguous series of gravity modes of the same degree l with consecutive radial order n, that carries clear signatures of chemical mixing and rotation. With such exceptional observational constraints, this star should be considered as the Rosetta Stone of SPBs for future modelling, and bring us a step closer to the much needed seismic calibration of stellar structure models of massive stars.

  6. HD 41641: a classical $\\delta$ Sct-type pulsator with chemical signatures of an Ap star

    CERN Document Server

    Escorza, A; Tkachenko, A; Van Reeth, T; Ryabchikova, T; Neiner, C; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Michel, E; Baglin, A; Aerts, C

    2016-01-01

    Among the known groups of pulsating stars, $\\delta$ Sct stars are one of the least understood. The theoretical models do not predict the oscillation frequencies that observations reveal. Complete asteroseismic studies are necessary to improve these models and better understand the internal structure of these targets. In this paper, we study the $\\delta$ Sct star HD 41641 with the ultimate goal of understanding its oscillation pattern. The target has been simultaneously observed by the CoRoT space telescope and the HARPS high-resolution spectrograph. The photometric data set was analyzed with the software package PERIOD04, while FAMIAS was used to analyze the line profile variations. The method of spectrum synthesis was used for spectroscopically determining the fundamental atmospheric parameters and the individual chemical abundances. A total of 90 different frequencies was identified and analyzed. An unambiguous identification of the azimuthal order of the surface geometry could be provided for the dominant ...

  7. Determination of pulsation periods and other parameters of 2875 stars classified as MIRA in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, N; Fuentes-Morales, I; Vogt-Geisse, S; Arcos, C; Abarca, C; Agurto-Gangas, C; Caviedes, M; DaSilva, H; Flores, J; Gotta, V; Peñaloza, F; Rojas, K; Villaseñor, J I

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an interactive PYTHON code and derived crucial ephemeris data of 99.4% of all stars classified as 'Mira' in the ASAS data base, referring to pulsation periods, mean maximum magnitudes and, whenever possible, the amplitudes among others. We present a statistical comparison between our results and those given by the AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), as well as those determined with the machine learning automatic procedure of Richards et al. 2012. Our periods are in good agreement with those of the VSX in more than 95% of the stars. However, when comparing our periods with those of Richards et al, the coincidence rate is only 76% and most of the remaining cases refer to aliases. We conclude that automatic codes require still more refinements in order to provide reliable period values. Period distributions of the target stars show three local maxima around 215, 275 and 330 d, apparently of universal validity, their relative strength seems to depend on galactic longitude. Our visual ...

  8. K2 Variable Catalogue I: A Catalogue of Variable Stars from K2 Field 0

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, D J; Brown, D J A; Kirk, J; Lam, K W F; Pollacco, D L; Spake, J; Walker, S R

    2014-01-01

    We have searched the K2 campaign 0 data for lightcurve variations associated with stellar variability. The results of this search are presented as a catalogue, giving the identifiers of nearly 2500 variable stars in the dataset. We list the detected range of the variation, periodicity if relevant and semi-amplitude. Lightcurves are classified into strictly periodic, quasi-periodic and aperiodic groups. We do not attempt to identify the source of variability, which may arise from pulsation or stellar activity. However, we cross match the objects against variable star related guest observer proposals, specifying the variable type in many cases. At present eclipsing binary stars are not included. Future releases will address each K2 field as it is made available, and may be improved to include more detailed catalogue information and to provide detrended object lightcurves.

  9. Discovery of 13 New Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster NGC 2168 (M35)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juei-Hwa Hu; Wing-Huen Ip; Xiao-Bin Zhang; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jun Ma; Xu Zhou

    2005-01-01

    A wide-field time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 2168 was carried out using the BATC Schmidt telescope. In total 13 new variable stars are discovered with three W UMa systems,one EA type and two EB type eclipsing binaries (one of them could be a W UMa system), and seven pulsating stars including three candidates of δ Scuti stars.

  10. Searching for Line Profile Variability in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S; Knoglinger, P

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of four non-magnetic chemically peculiar late B type stars (HgMn) stars are analysed to detect periodic spectral line variations (LPVs). A procedure developed to study LPVs in Slowly Pulsating B stars has been adopted as pulsational properties of HgMn stars should be expected to be similar. In the preliminary results discussed here no conclusive evidence for periodic LPVs was uncovered. A more sensitive re-analysis of the data is under way.

  11. Can pulsating PG1159 stars place constraints on the occurrence of core overshooting?

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H

    2005-01-01

    The present letter is aimed at exploring the influence of overshooting during the central helium burning in pre-white dwarf progenitors on the pulsational properties of PG1159 stars. To this end we follow the complete evolution an intermediate-mass white dwarf progenitor from the zero age main sequence through the thermally pulsing and born-again phases to the domain of the PG1159 stars. Our results suggest that the presence of mode-trapping features in the period spacings of these hot pulsating stars could result from structure in the carbon-oxygen core. We find in particular that in order to get enough core structure consistent with observational demands, the occurrence of overshoot episodes during the central helium burning is needed. This conclusion is valid for thick helium envelopes like those predicted by our detailed evolutionary calculations. If the envelope thickness were substantially smaller, then the occurrence of core overshooting would be more difficult to disentangle from the effects related t...

  12. HD 24355 observed by the Kepler K2 mission: A rapidly oscillating Ap star pulsating in a distorted quadrupole mode

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, Daniel L; Smalley, Barry; Saio, Hideyuki; Handler, Gerald; Murphy, Simon J; Lehmann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the first Kepler K2 mission observations of a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star, HD 24355 ($V=9.65$). The star was discovered in SuperWASP broadband photometry with a frequency of 224.31 d$^{-1}$, (2596.18 $\\mu$Hz; $P = 6.4$ min) and an amplitude of 1.51 mmag, with later spectroscopic analysis of low-resolution spectra showing HD 24355 to be an A5 Vp SrEu star. The high precision K2 data allow us to identify 13 rotationally split sidelobes to the main pulsation frequency of HD 24355. This number of sidelobes combined with an unusual rotational phase variation show this star to be the most distorted quadrupole roAp pulsator yet observed. In modelling this star, we are able to reproduce well the amplitude modulation of the pulsation, and find a close match to the unusual phase variations. We show this star to have a pulsation frequency higher than the critical cut-off frequency. This is currently the only roAp star observed with the Kepler spacecraft in Short Cadence mode that has a p...

  13. Measuring amplitudes of harmonics and combination frequencies in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, E. P.; Wysocki, D.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    Discoveries of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variable stars with multiple modes of pulsation have increased tremendously in recent years. The Fourier spectra of these stars can be quite complicated due to the large number of combination frequencies that can exist between their modes. As a result, light- curve fits to these stars often suffer from undesirable ringing effects that arise from noisy observations and poor phase coverage. These non-physical overfitting artifacts also occur when fitting the harmonics of single-mode stars. Here we present a new method for fitting light curves that is much more robust against these effects. We prove that the amplitude measurement problem is very difficult (NP-hard) and provide a heuristic algorithm for solving it quickly and accurately.

  14. Measuring amplitudes of harmonics and combination frequencies in variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bellinger, Earl P; Kanbur, Shashi M

    2015-01-01

    Discoveries of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variable stars with multiple modes of pulsation have increased tremendously in recent years. The Fourier spectra of these stars can be quite complicated due to the large number of combination frequencies that can exist between their modes. As a result, light-curve fits to these stars often suffer from undesirable ringing effects that arise from noisy observations and poor phase coverage. These non-physical overfitting artifacts also occur when fitting the harmonics of single-mode stars as well. Here we present a new method for fitting light curves that is much more robust against these effects. We prove that the amplitude measurement problem is very difficult (NP-hard) and provide a heuristic algorithm for solving it quickly and accurately.

  15. Monitoring of persistent accreting pulsating neutron stars observed during the INTEGRAL Core Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidoli, L.; Wilms, J.; Paizis, A.; Larsson, S.; Burki, G.; Bourban, G.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T.; Di Cocco, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mereghetti, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Santangelo, A.; Segreto, A.; Staubert, R.; Westergaard, N.J

    2004-06-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite is performing regular scans of the Galactic plane (GPS) every 12 days together with a deep exposure of the Galactic Center region (GCDE). Our collaboration is processing the data from this survey on a regular basis in order to monitor the evolution of the spectral and timing properties of the pulsating persistent neutron star sources observed. We present here an overview over the whole monitoring program and the status of the project and we report on the preliminary results of the analysis of the few scans already performed.

  16. First axion bounds from a pulsating helium-rich white dwarf star

    CERN Document Server

    Battich, Tiara; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel Miller

    2016-01-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism proposed to solve the CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics has as consequence the existence of axions, hypothetical weakly interacting particles whose mass is constrained to be on the sub-eV range. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, becoming an important energy sink for the star. Due to their well known physics, white dwarfs are good laboratories to study the properties of fundamental particles such as the axions. We study the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of helium-rich white dwarfs and on their pulsational properties. To this aim, we calculate evolutionary helium-rich white dwarf models with axion emission, and asses the pulsational properties of this models. Our results indicate that the rates of change of pulsation periods are significantly affected by the existence of axions. We are able for the first time to independently constrain the mass of the axion from the study of pulsa...

  17. Amplitude Variability in gamma Dor and delta Scuti stars observed by the Kepler Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Joyce A; Bradley, Paul A; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Kepler spacecraft data revealed a large number of multimode nonradially pulsating gamma Dor and delta Sct variable star candidates. The high precision long time-series photometry makes it possible to study amplitude variations of the frequencies. We summarize recent literature on amplitude and frequency variations in pulsating variables. We are searching for amplitude variability in several dozen faint gamma Doradus or delta Scuti variable-star candidates observed as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program. We apply several methods, including a Matlab-script wavelet analysis developed by J. Jackiewicz, and the wavelet technique of the VSTAR software (http://www.aavso.org/vstar-overview). Here we show results for two stars, KIC 2167444 and KIC 2301163. We discuss the magnitude and timescale of the amplitude variations, and the presence or absence of correlations between amplitude variations for different frequencies of a given star. Amplitude variations may be detectable using Kepler data even for s...

  18. Variable rotational line broadening in the Be star Achernar

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Th; Townsend, R H D; Carciofi, A C; Štefl, S

    2013-01-01

    The main theoretical problem for the formation of a Keplerian disk around Be stars is how to supply angular momentum from the star to the disk, even more so since Be stars probably rotate somewhat sub-critically. For instance, nonradial pulsation may transport angular momentum to the stellar surface until (part of) this excess supports the disk formation/replenishment. The nearby Be star Achernar is presently building a new disk and offers an excellent opportunity to observe this process from relatively close-up. Spectra from various sources and epochs are scrutinized to identify the salient stellar parameters characterizing the disk life cycle as defined by H\\alpha emission. Variable strength of the non-radial pulsation is confirmed, but does not affect the further results. For the first time it is demonstrated that the photospheric line width does vary in a Be star, by as much as \\Delta v sin i \\lesssim 35kms^{-1}. However, contrary to assumptions in which a photospheric spin-up accumulates during the diskl...

  19. Variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Fang Liu; Zhen-Yu Wu; Xiao-Bin Zhang; Jiang-Hua Wu; Jun Ma; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jian-Sheng Chen; Xu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126. In about a one square degree field covering the cluster, a total of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binary systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or δ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined. By a method based on fitting observed spectral energy distributions of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined as: metallicity to be 0.008 Z , age log(t)=8.95, distance modulus (m - M)0 = 10.34 and reddening value E(B -V) = 0.55 mag.

  20. A Deep Search for Pulsations from the Nearby Isolated Neutron Star RX J1856.5-3754

    CERN Document Server

    Ransom, S M; Slane, P O; Ransom, Scott M.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Slane, Patrick O.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a deep search for pulsations from the nearby isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754 using the 450 ks Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) Chandra LETG/HRC-S observation completed on 2001 Oct 15. No pulsations were detected. We find a 99% confidence upper limit on the pulsed fraction of ~4.4% for worst-case sinusoidal pulsations with frequency <~50 Hz and frequency derivatives -5x10^-10 <= f-dot <= 0 Hz/s. This lack of detection is consistent with a neutron star with R ~ 6 km and M ~ 1Msun at a distance ~60 pc, as determined by Pons et al., 2002. The strong gravitational field of such a star sufficiently deflects X-ray emission from the emitting regions so as to prevent significant modulation of the signal.

  1. Mt. Suhora M dwarf survey - Detection of eight short-period variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, L Fox; Winiarski, M; Krzesiński, J; Dróżdz, M

    2011-01-01

    The Mt. Suhora M\\,dwarf survey searching for pulsations in low mass main sequence stars has acquired CCD photometry of 46 M\\,dwarf stars during the first year of the project (Baran et al 2011). As a by-product of this search hundreds field stars have been checked for variability. This paper presents our initial result of a search for periodic variables in field stars observed in the course of the survey. On the basis of the periodicity and the shape of the light curves, eight new variables has been detected, among which five are $\\delta$ Scuti stars and three likely RR Lyrae stars. Although variation in one of the stars has been previously detected, it was classified incorrectly. To support our classification, in August 2010, we performed spectroscopic observations to derive spectral types and luminosity classes for all eight variable stars.

  2. On the use of the Fourier Transform to determine the projected rotational velocity of line-profile variable B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, C; Groot, P J; Degroote, P

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier Transform method is a popular tool to derive the rotational velocities of stars from their spectral line profiles. However, its domain of validity does not include line-profile variables with time-dependent profiles. We investigate the performance of the method for such cases, by interpreting the line-profile variations of spotted B stars, and of pulsating B tars, as if their spectral lines were caused by uniform surface rotation along with macroturbulence. We perform time-series analysis and harmonic least-squares fitting of various line diagnostics and of the outcome of several implementations of the Fourier Transform method. We find that the projected rotational velocities derived from the Fourier Transform vary appreciably during the pulsation cycle whenever the pulsational and rotational velocity fields are of similar magnitude. The macroturbulent velocities derived while ignoring the pulsations can vary with tens of km/s during the pulsation cycle. The temporal behaviour of the deduced rotat...

  3. The Bizarre Spectral Variability of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, Orsola; Bond, Howard E; Harmer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    A radial velocity (RV) survey to detect central stars in binary systems was carried out between 2002 and 2004. De Marco et al. (2004) reported that 10 out of 11 monitored stars exhibited strong RV variability, but periods were not detected. Since other mechanisms, such as wind variability, can cause apparent RV variations, we monitored 4 of the 10 RV-variable stars at echelle resolutions to determine the origin of the variability. Although RV changes are confirmed for all four stars, none of them can be ascribed to binarity at this time. However, only for IC4593 is wind variability able to explain most (though not all) spectral variability. For BD+332642, no wind and no pulsations appear to be the origin of the RV changes. Finally, M1-77 and M2-54, both known to be irregular photometric variables, exhibit dramatic RV and line shape variability of the hydrogen and HeI absorption lines, as well as large RV variability of weaker lines, which do not change in shape. There is no satisfactory explanation of this va...

  4. The slowly pulsating B-star 18 Peg: A testbed for upper main sequence stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Irrgang, Andreas; Moehler, Sabine; Mugrauer, Markus; Janousch, David

    2016-01-01

    The predicted width of the upper main sequence in stellar evolution models depends on the empirical calibration of the convective overshooting parameter. Despite decades of discussions, its precise value is still unknown and further observational constraints are required to gauge it. Based on a photometric and preliminary asteroseismic analysis, we show that the mid B-type giant 18 Peg is one of the most evolved members of the rare class of slowly pulsating B-stars and, thus, bears tremendous potential to derive a tight lower limit for the width of the upper main sequence. In addition, 18 Peg turns out to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic binary system with an eccentric orbit that is greater than 6 years. Further spectroscopic and photometric monitoring and a sophisticated asteroseismic investigation are required to exploit the full potential of this star as a benchmark object for stellar evolution theory.

  5. Simulating the photometric study of pulsating white dwarf stars in the physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Chote, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a realistic simulation of astronomical observing using a relatively low-cost commercial CCD camera and a microcontroller-based circuit that drives LEDs inside a light-tight box with time-varying intensities. As part of a laboratory experiment, students can acquire sequences of images using the camera, and then perform data analysis using a language such as MATLAB or Python to: (a) extract the intensity of the imaged LEDs, (b) perform basic calibrations on the time-series data, and (c) convert their data into the frequency domain where they can then identify the frequency structure. The primary focus is on studying light curves produced by the pulsating white dwarf stars. The exercise provides an introduction to CCD observing, a framework for teaching concepts in numerical data analysis and Fourier techniques, and connections with the physics of white dwarf stars.

  6. Signatures of internal rotation discovered in the Kepler data of five slowly pulsating B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pápics, P I; Van Reeth, T; Aerts, C; Moravveji, E; Van de Sande, M; De Smedt, K; Bloemen, S; Southworth, J; Debosscher, J; Niemczura, E; Gameiro, J F

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars are important building blocks of the Universe, and their stellar structure and evolution models are fundamental cornerstones of various fields in modern astrophysics. The precision of these models is limited by our lack of understanding of various internal mixing processes that significantly influence the lifetime of these objects (e.g. core overshoot, chemical mixing, or the internal differential rotation). Our goal is to calibrate models by extending the sample of available seismic studies of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, providing input for theoretical modelling efforts that will deliver precise constraints on the parameters describing the internal mixing processes in these objects. We used spectral synthesis and disentangling techniques to derive fundamental parameters and to determine precise orbital parameters from high-resolution spectra. We employed custom masks to construct light curves from the Kepler pixel data and used standard time-series analysis tools to construct a set of signi...

  7. Amplitude Variability in gamma Dor and delta Sct Stars Observed by Kepler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kosak, Mary Katherine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackiewicz, Jason [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM

    2015-08-17

    The NASA Kepler spacecraft data revealed a large number of new multimode nonradially pulsating gamma Dor and delta Sct variable stars. The Kepler high-precision long time-series photometry makes it possible to study amplitude variations of the frequencies, and recent literature on amplitude and frequency variations in nonradially pulsating variables is summarized. Several methods are applied to study amplitude variability in about a dozen gamma Doradus or delta Scuti candidate variable stars observed for several quarters as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program. The magnitude and timescale of the amplitude variations are discussed, along with the presence or absence of correlations between amplitude variations for different frequencies of a given star. Proposed causes of amplitude spectrum variability that will require further investigation are also discussed.

  8. Pulsations in the atmosphere of the roAp star HD 24712 II. Theoretical models

    CERN Document Server

    Saio, Hideyuki; Sachkov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    We discuss pulsations of the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star HD 24712 (HR 1217) based on nonadiabatic analyses taking into account the effect of dipole magnetic fields. We have found that all the pulsation modes appropriate for HD 24712 are damped; i.e., the kappa-mechanism excitation in the hydrogen ionization layers is not strong enough to excite high-order p-modes with periods consistent with observed ones, all of which are found to be above the acoustic cut-off frequencies of our models. The main (2.721 mHz) and the highest (2.806 mHz) frequencies are matched with modified $l=2$ and $l=3$ modes, respectively. The large frequency separation ($\\approx 68 \\mu$Hz) is reproduced by models which lay within the error box of HD 24712 on the HR diagram. The nearly equally spaced frequencies of HD 24712 indicate the small frequency separation to be as small as $\\approx 0.5\\mu$Hz. However, the small separation derived from theoretical $l=1$ and 2 modes are found to be larger than $\\sim 3\\mu$Hz. The problem of equ...

  9. Pulsational and evolutionary analysis of the double-mode RR Lyrae star BS Com

    CERN Document Server

    Dekany, I; Jurcsik, J; Szabó, R; Varadi, M; Sodor, A; Posztobanyi, K; Hurta, Zs; Vida, K; Vityi, N; Szing, A

    2008-01-01

    We derive the basic physical parameters of the field double-mode RR Lyrae star BS Com from its observed periods and the requirement of consistency between the pulsational and evolutionary constraints. By using the current solar-scaled horizontal branch evolutionary models of Pietrinferni et al. (2004) and our linear non-adiabatic purely radiative pulsational models, we get M/M(Sun) = 0.698 +/- 0.004, log(L/L(Sun)) = 1.712 +/- 0.005, T(eff) = 6840 +/- 14 K, [Fe/H] = -1.67 +/- 0.01, where the errors are standard deviations assuming uniform age distribution along the full range of uncertainty in age. The last two parameters are in a good agreement with the ones derived from the observed BVIc colours and the updated ATLAS9 stellar atmosphere models. We get T(eff) = 6842 +/- 10 K, [Fe/H] = -1.58 +/- 0.11, where the errors are purely statistical ones. It is remarkable that the derived parameters are nearly independent of stellar age at early evolutionary stages. Later stages, corresponding to the evolution toward t...

  10. Short-term variability and mass loss in Be stars. II. Physical taxonomy of photometric variability observed by the Kepler spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivinius, Th.; Baade, D.; Carciofi, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Classical Be stars have been established as pulsating stars. Space-based photometric monitoring missions contributed significantly to that result. However, whether Be stars are just rapidly rotating SPB or β Cep stars, or whether they have to be understood differently, remains debated in the view of their highly complex power spectra. Aims: Kepler data of three known Be stars are re-visited to establish their pulsational nature and assess the properties of additional, non-pulsational variations. The three program stars turned out to be one inactive Be star, one active, continuously outbursting Be star, and one Be star transiting from a non-outbursting into an outbursting phase, thus forming an excellent sample to distill properties of Be stars in the various phases of their life-cycle. Methods: The Kepler data was first cleaned from any long-term variability with Lomb-Scargle based pre-whitening. Then a Lomb-Scargle analysis of the remaining short-term variations was compared to a wavelet analysis of the cleaned data. This offers a new view on the variability, as it enables us to see the temporal evolution of the variability and phase relations between supposed beating phenomena, which are typically not visualized in a Lomb-Scargle analysis. Results: The short-term photometric variability of Be stars must be disentangled into a stellar and a circumstellar part. The stellar part is on the whole not different from what is seen in non-Be stars. However, some of the observed phenomena might be to be due to resonant mode coupling, a mechanism not typically considered for B-type stars. Short-term circumstellar variability comes in the form of either a group of relatively well-defined, short-lived frequencies during outbursts, which are called Štefl frequencies, and broad bumps in the power spectra, indicating aperiodic variability on a time scale similar to typical low-order g-mode pulsation frequencies, rather than true periodicity. Conclusions: From a

  11. Pulsations in close binaries: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maceroni C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler provided a precious by-product: a number of eclipsing binaries containing variable stars and, among these, non-radial pulsators. This providential occurrence allows combining independent information from two different phenomena whose synergy yields scientific results well beyond those from the single sources. In particular, the analysis of pulsations in eclipsing binary components throws light on the internal structure of the pulsating star, on the system evolution, and on the role of tidal forces in exciting the oscillations. The case study of the Kepler target KIC 3858884 is illustrative of the difficulties of analysis and of the achievements in this rapidly developing field.

  12. Spectroscopic monitoring of the Herbig Ae star HD 104237. II. Non-radial pulsations, mode analysis and fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Fumel, Aurelie

    2011-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars showing signs of intense activity and strong stellar winds, whose origin is not yet understood in the frame of current theoretical models of stellar evolution for young stars. The evolutionary tracks of the earlier Herbig Ae stars cross a recently discovered PMS instability strip. Many of these stars exhibit pulsations of delta Scuti type. HD 104237 is a well-known pulsating Herbig Ae star. In this article, we reinvestigated an extensive high-resolution quasi-continuous spectroscopic data set in order to search for very faint indications of non-radial pulsations in the line profile. To do this, we worked on dynamical spectra of equivalent photospheric (LSD) profiles of HD 104237. A 2D Fourier analysis (F2D) was performed of the entire profile and the temporal variation of the central depth of the line was studied with the time-series analysis tools Period04 and SigSpec. We present a mode identification corresponding to the detected dominan...

  13. A search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, T; Auvergne, M; Alecian, G; Ghazaryan, S; Niemczura, E; Fossati, L; Lehmann, H; Hubrig, S; Ulusoy, C; Damerdji, Y; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Borsa, F; Scardia, M; Schmid, V S; Van Winckel, H; De Smedt, K; Papics, P I; Gameiro, J F; Waelkens, C; Fagas, M; Kaminski, K; Dimitrov, W; Baglin, A; Michel, E; Dumortier, L; Fremat, Y; Hensberge, H; Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S

    2013-01-01

    The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provides evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 c/d and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in other HgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are...

  14. Cepheid distances from the SpectroPhoto-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars (SPIPS) - Application to the prototypes delta Cep and eta Aql

    CERN Document Server

    Merand, Antoine; Breitfelder, Joanne; Gallenne, Alexandre; Foresto, Vincent Coude du; Brummelaar, Theo A ten; McAlister, Harold A; Ridgway, Stephen; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H

    2015-01-01

    The parallax of pulsation, and its implementations such as the Baade-Wesselink method and the infrared surface bright- ness technique, is an elegant method to determine distances of pulsating stars in a quasi-geometrical way. However, these classical implementations in general only use a subset of the available observational data. Freedman & Madore (2010) suggested a more physical approach in the implementation of the parallax of pulsation in order to treat all available data. We present a global and model-based parallax-of-pulsation method that enables including any type of observational data in a consistent model fit, the SpectroPhoto-Interferometric modeling of Pulsating Stars (SPIPS). We implemented a simple model consisting of a pulsating sphere with a varying effective temperature and a combina- tion of atmospheric model grids to globally fit radial velocities, spectroscopic data, and interferometric angular diameters. We also parametrized (and adjusted) the reddening and the contribution of the cir...

  15. Photometry of Variable Stars from Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingzhi; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C B; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W V; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2011-01-01

    Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth thanks to the excellent atmospheric conditions present at the site during the long polar winter night. We present high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 10,000 stars with i<14.5 mag located in a 23 square-degree region centered on the south celestial pole. The photometry was obtained with one of the CSTAR telescopes during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter. We used this photometric data set to derive site statistics for Dome A and to search for variable stars. Thanks to the nearly-uninterrupted synoptic coverage, we find 6 times as many variables as previous surveys with similar magnitude limits. We detected 157 variable stars, of which 55% are unclassified, 27% are likely binaries and 17% are likely pulsating stars. The latter category includes delta Scuti, gamma Doradus and RR Lyrae variables. One variable may be a transiting exoplanet.

  16. Improved determination of the atmospheric parameters of the pulsating sdB star Feige 48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayer P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of Feige 48 as an sdB pulsator, we sought to obtain the best possible estimates of its spectroscopic parameters with a grid of NLTE metal-blanketed model atmospheres constructed especially for that star. This small grid of 150 models includes 8 metallic elements whose abundances have been determined previously and reported in the literature. Our fitting procedure found the following parameters for Feige 48: Teff = 29 504 K, log g = 5.41 and log N(He/N(H = −2.90. These results are in very good agreement with previous spectroscopic estimates (which generally ignore either NLTE effects or metal blanketing, thus indicating that metal line-blanketing in NLTE – modeled for the first time here – is not a dominant factor in the atmosphere of Feige 48.

  17. Pulsation analysis of the high amplitude δ Scuti star CW Serpentis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jia-Shu; Fu, Jian-Ning; Zong, Wei-Kai

    2013-10-01

    Time-series photometric observations were made for the high amplitude δ Scuti star CW Ser between 2011 and 2012 at the Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. After performing the frequency analysis of the light curves, we confirmed the fundamental frequency of f = 5.28677 c d-1, together with seven harmonics of the fundamental frequency, which are newly detected. No additional frequencies were detected. The O — C diagram, produced with the 21 newly determined times of maximum light combined with those provided in the literature, helps to obtain a new ephemeris formula of the times of maximum light with the pulsation period of 0.189150355 ± 0.000000003 d.

  18. The Multiperiodic Pulsating Star Y Cam A as a Musical Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Ulas, Burak

    2015-01-01

    In this study we generate musical chords from the oscillation frequencies of the primary component of oscillating eclipsing Algol system Y Cam. The parameters and the procedure of the musical chord generation process from the stellar oscillations are described in detail. A musical piece is also composed in appropriate scale for Y Cam A by using the generated chords from the results of the asteroseismic analysis of the stellar data. The music scores and the digital sound files are provided for both the generated chords and the musical composition. Our study shows that the further orchestral compositions can be made from the frequency analysis results of several pulsating stars by using the procedure stated in present study.

  19. Analysis of the variability in the sdB star KIC 10670103: DFA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebende, Gilney F.; Fernandez, Basilio F.; Pereira, Marildo G.

    2017-01-01

    The brightness variation of the stars is an object of study in astronomy and astrophysics for representing the rich inherent source of physical information. Launched in 2009, the Kepler spacecraft with the primary mission of identifying equivalent to the Earth by the Sun transits also gave birth to thousands of light curves of targets of scientific interest. KIC 10670103, the richest pulsating sub-dwarf B (sdB) star, is one of the many stars identified by the mission. With 3.72 yr of Kepler spacecraft observations, we analysed in this paper the light curve of this sdB star, by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The behaviour of this pulsating star reveals self-affinity at specific time-scales, with changes in DFA exponent, αDFA. This fact suggests some light variability in KIC 10670103, as for example, from a non-periodic to a periodic case, among others. Therefore, we propose to connect the pulsation pattern of the KIC 10670103 star, which presents trends and non-stationarity, with the αDFA exponent. In this sense, we obtain five values of αDFA related to the light variability properties of KIC 10670103. A pictorial figure will describe the relationship between these variables.

  20. Spectral analysis of four multi mode pulsating sdB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, U; Werner, K

    1999-01-01

    Four members of the new class of pulsating sdB stars are analysed from Keck HIRES spectra using NLTE and LTE model atmospheres. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, log(He/H)), metal abundances and rotational velocities are determined. Balmer line fitting is found to be consistent with the helium ionization equilibrium for PG1605+072 but not so for PG1219+534 indicating that systematic errors in the model atmosphere analysis of the latter have been underestimated previously. All stars are found to be helium deficient probably due to diffusion. The metals are also depleted with the notable exception of iron which is solar to within error limits in all four stars, confirming predictions from diffusion calculations of Charpinet et al. (1997). While three of them are slow rotator's (vsini < 10km/s), PG1605+072 displays considerable rotation (vsini = 39km/s, P<8.7h) and is predicted to evolve into an unusually fast rotating white dwarf. This nicely confirms a prediction by Kawaler (1999) who deduced a rotati...

  1. K2 observations of the pulsating subdwarf B star EQ Piscium: an sdB+dM binary

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffery, C S

    2014-01-01

    K2, the two-wheel mission of the Kepler space telescope, observed the pulsating subdwarf B star EQ Psc during engineering tests in 2014 February. In addition to a rich spectrum of g-mode pulsation frequencies, the observations demonstrate a light variation with a period of 19.2 h and a full amplitude of 2%. We suggest that this is due to reflection from a cool companion, making EQ\\,Psc the longest-period member of some 30 binaries comprising a hot subdwarf and a cool dwarf companion (sdB+dM), and hence useful for exploring the common-envelope ejection mechanism in low-mass binaries.

  2. Deep census of variable stars in a VLT/VIMOS field in Carina

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Fernández, J M; Pietrzynski, G; Ruiz, M T; Gieren, W; Diaz, R F; Zoccali, M; Hempel, M

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for variable stars in deep V-band images of a field towards the Galactic plane in Carina. The images were taken with VIMOS instrument at ESO VLT during 4 contiguous nights in April 2005. We detected 348 variables among 50897 stars in the magnitude range between V=15.4 and V=24.5 mag. Upon detection, we classified the variables by direct eye inspection of their light curves. All variable objects but 9 OGLE transits in the field are new discoveries. We provide a complete catalog of all variables which includes eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries, miscellaneous pulsators (mostly delta Scuti-type variables), stars with flares and other (irregular and likely long-period) variables. Only two of the stars in our sample are known to host planets. Our result give some implications for future large variability surveys.

  3. USNO-B1.0 1171-0309158: An RR Lyrae Star that Switched from a Double- to Single-mode Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Khruslov, A V; Reva, I V

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new case of an RR Lyrae star that experienced a switching of its pulsation mode. We detected USNO-B1.0 1171-0309158 as a double-mode RR Lyrae star from observations of the Catalina surveys (CSS) that showed additional scattering on the light curve. Our analysis of the time-series of CSS data showed gradual increase in scattering and in the amplitude of fundamental pulsation mode. Our CCD observations carried out in 2015 reveal that this object is now a fundamental-mode RRab star, with no sign of the first-overtone pulsation.

  4. Radial Velocity Fiber-Fed Spectrographs Towards the Discovery of Compact Planets and Pulsations on M Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiñas, Zaira M.

    2016-11-01

    This thesis is developed in the framework of the paradigm that seeks for the discovery of an Earth analog. Nowadays, low mass stars, and in particular M dwarf stars, are key targets towards achieving this goal. In this thesis, I focus on the study of the short-time domain of M dwarf stars with the aim of searching for short period planets, but also for the first detection of stellar pulsations on this spectral type. Both science goals are the primary objectives of the “Cool Tiny Beats” (CTB) survey, which has produced most of the data used in this thesis. CTB data consist in high resolution and high-cadence spectroscopic Doppler measurements taken either with HARPS or HARPS-N spectrographs. First of all, a thorough understanding of the spectrographs response in the short time domain was performed to characterize the sources of noise in our range of study. Our first approach to the goals of this thesis consisted in the design of an observational experiment to delve into the HARPS-N sub-night performance. Results unveiled variability of the spectra continuum correlated with instabilities of the spectrograph illumination associated to the airmass. Such distortions, which are wavelength and time dependent, are also present in at least one of the data-products given by the HARPS-N reduction software: the width of the mean-line profiles (i.e. the so-called FWHM index), an index commonly used as a proxy of the stellar activity. As a consequence, we searched for an alternative approach to measure the width index. In particular, we calculated the mean-line profile of the spectrum with a least-squares-deconvolution technique and we obtained the profile indices as the moments of the profile distribution. As part of this study, we also corroborated that the radial velocities calculated with our template matching algorithm TERRA are not affected by the illumination stability. This work unveiled a possible failure of the HARPS-N atmospheric dispersion corrector (or ADC) and

  5. The role of turbulent pressure as a coherent pulsational driving mechanism: the case of the δ Scuti star HD 187547

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoci, V.; Houdek, G.; Kjeldsen, H.; Trampedach, R.; Arentoft, T. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Cunha, M. [Centro de Astrofísca e Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas 4150-762 (Portugal); Handler, G. [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Lüftinger, T. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Murphy, S., E-mail: antoci@phys.au.dk [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    HD 187547 was the first candidate that led to the suggestion that solar-like oscillations are present in δ Scuti stars. Longer observations, however, show that the modes interpreted as solar-like oscillations have either very long mode lifetimes, longer than 960 days, or are coherent. These results are incompatible with the nature of 'pure' stochastic excitation as observed in solar-like stars. Nonetheless, one point is certain: the opacity mechanism alone cannot explain the oscillation spectrum of HD 187547. Here we present new theoretical investigations showing that convection dynamics can intrinsically excite coherent pulsations in the chemically peculiar δ Scuti star HD 187547. More precisely, it is the perturbations of the mean Reynold stresses (turbulent pressure) that drives the pulsations and the excitation takes place predominantly in the hydrogen ionization zone.

  6. CURious Variables Experiment (CURVE). CCD Photometry and Variable Stars in the field of open cluster NGC 637

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Wisniewski, M; Kedzierski, P; Mularczyk, K; Zloczewski, K; Starczewski, S; Szaruga, K

    2006-01-01

    We present VI photometry for the open cluster NGC 637 which is located in the Cassiopeia region. Morphology of cluster color-magnitude diagram indicates that it is a young object with age of a few million years. The apparent distance modulus of the cluster is 13.9<(m-M)_V<14.3, while reddening is 0.69variable stars in NGC 637. One of the variables is a non-radial pulsating beta Cep-type star. Other one is a likely ellipsoidal variable, however its pulsating nature can not be excluded.

  7. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; McNamara, B.J.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C.; Peterson, B.A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Sutherland, W.; Templeton, M.R.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.L.

    1999-11-16

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and lightcurve structure similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars, using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles d{sup -1}) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes.

  8. High-resolution Spectroscopy and Spectropolarimetry of Selected δ-Sct Pulsating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Santosh; Semenko, Eugene; Moiseeva, A.; Sharma, Kaushal; Joshi, Y. C.; Sachkov, M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Kumar, Yerra Bharat

    2017-01-01

    The combination of photometry, spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of the chemically peculiar stars often aims to study the complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, chemical inhomogeneity, magnetic field and their interplay with stellar atmosphere and circumstellar environment. The prime objective of the present study is to determine the atmospheric parameters of a set of Am stars to understand their evolutionary status. Atmospheric abundances and basic parameters are determined using full spectrum fitting technique by comparing the high-resolution spectra to the synthetic spectra. To know the evolutionary status we derive the effective temperature and luminosity from different methods and compare them with the literature. The location of these stars in the H-R diagram demonstrate that all the sample stars are evolved from the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence towards Terminal-Age-Main-Sequence and occupy the region of δ Sct instability strip. The abundance analysis shows that the light elements e.g. Ca and Sc are underabundant while iron peak elements such as Ba, Ce etc. are overabundant and these chemical properties are typical for Am stars. The results obtained from the spectropolarimetric analysis shows that the longitudinal magnetic fields in all the studied stars are negligible that gives further support their Am class of peculiarity.

  9. High-resolution Spectroscopy and Spectropolarimetry of Selected δ-Sct Pulsating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Santosh; Semenko, Eugene; Moiseeva, A.; Sharma, Kaushal; Joshi, Y. C.; Sachkov, M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Yerra, Bharat Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The combination of photometry, spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of the chemically peculiar stars often aims to study the complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, chemical inhomogeneity, magnetic field and their interplay with stellar atmosphere and circumstellar environment. The prime objective of this study is to determine the atmospheric parameters of a set of Am stars to understand their evolutionary status. Atmospheric abundances and basic parameters are determined using full spectrum fitting technique by comparing the high-resolution spectra to the synthetic spectra. To know the evolutionary status, we derive the effective temperature and luminosity from different methods and compare them with the literature. The location of these stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram demonstrates that all the sample stars are evolved from the zero-age main sequence towards terminal-age main sequence and occupy the region of δ Sct instability strip. The abundance analysis shows that the light elements e.g. Ca and Sc are underabundant while iron peak elements such as Ba, Ce, etc. are overabundant and these chemical properties are typical for Am stars. The results obtained from the spectropolarimetric analysis of our studied stars show that the longitudinal magnetic field is negligible in all of them, which further support to their Am class of peculiarity.

  10. Rapid variability of OB-stars: nature and diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, D.

    In the past decade, rapid photospheric variability has been recognized as the non-standard property that perhaps is the most common one among early-type stars. These proceedings offer an unusually complete overview of the existing observations. They are equally complete in their reflectance of the presently considered models. Because the simple definition 'on a rotational time scale' of the qualifier 'rapid' used in the title is very adequate for many stars, modulation is a strong contender also as a general model. The model that can be made to formally reproduce the widest range of observations is nonradial pulsation which, therefore, has earned itself the somewhat ambiguous reputation as a model for everything. An attraction of this model is that it would give the possibility to infer also structural and evolutionary quantities. It was the second purpose of the workshop to offer at least a glimpse of this potential.

  11. Variable Stars in the Fornax dSph Galaxy. III. The Globular Cluster Fornax 5

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Claudia; Catelan, Marcio; Held, Enrico V; Poretti, Ennio; Gullieuszik, Marco; Maio, Marcella; Rest, Armin; De Lee, Nathan; Smith, Horace A; Pritzl, Barton J

    2009-01-01

    We present a new study of the variable star population in globular cluster 5 of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, based on B and V time series photometry obtained with the MagIC camera of the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope and complementary HST archive data. Light curves and accurate periodicities were obtained for 30 RR Lyrae stars and 1 SX Phoenicis variable. The RR Lyrae sample includes 15 fundamental-mode pulsators, 13 first-overtone pulsators, 1 candidate double-mode pulsator and one RR Lyrae star with uncertain type classification. The average and minimum periods of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, =0.590 days, P(ab,min)=0.53297 days, and the position in the horizontal branch type--metallicity plane, indicate that the cluster has Oosterhoff-intermediate properties, basically confirming previous indications by Mackey & Gilmore (2003b), although with some differences both in the period and type classification of individual variables. The average apparent magnitude of the Fornax 5 RR Lyrae stars is =21.35 ...

  12. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H; Althaus, Leandro G; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S O; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Sullivan, Denis J; Chote, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive ($M_{\\star} \\sim 0.75 M_{\\sun}$) and hot ($T_{\\rm eff} \\sim 12\\,100$ K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes ($\\Pi \\sim 113$ s and $\\Pi \\sim 192$ s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass $m_{\\rm a} \\cos^2 \\beta \\lesssim 25$ meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of $g_{\\rm ae} \\lesssim 7 \\times 10^{-13}$.

  13. A search for pulsations in the HgMn star HD 45975 with CoRoT photometry and ground-based spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, T.; Briquet, M.; Auvergne, M.; Alecian, G.; Ghazaryan, S.; Niemczura, E.; Fossati, L.; Lehmann, H.; Hubrig, S.; Ulusoy, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Borsa, F.; Scardia, M.; Schmid, V. S.; Van Winckel, H.; De Smedt, K.; Pápics, P. I.; Gameiro, J. F.; Waelkens, C.; Fagas, M.; Kamiński, K.; Dimitrov, W.; Baglin, A.; Michel, E.; Dumortier, L.; Frémat, Y.; Hensberge, H.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of pulsations in HgMn stars is still being debated. To provide the first unambiguous observational detection of pulsations in this class of chemically peculiar objects, the bright star HD 45975 was monitored for nearly two months by the CoRoT satellite. Independent analyses of the light curve provide evidence of monoperiodic variations with a frequency of 0.7572 d-1 and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~2800 ppm. Multisite, ground-based spectroscopic observations overlapping the CoRoT observations show the star to be a long-period, single-lined binary. Furthermore, with the notable exception of mercury, they reveal the same periodicity as in photometry in the line moments of chemical species exhibiting strong overabundances (e.g., Mn and Y). In contrast, lines of other elements do not show significant variations. As found in otherHgMn stars, the pattern of variability consists in an absorption bump moving redwards across the line profiles. We argue that the photometric and spectroscopic changes are more consistent with an interpretation in terms of rotational modulation of spots at the stellar surface. In this framework, the existence of pulsations producing photometric variations above the ~50 ppm level is unlikely in HD 45975. This provides strong constraints on the excitation/damping of pulsation modes in this HgMn star. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. This work is based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatories, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs at the 3.6-m and very large telescopes, under programmes LP185.D-0056 and 287.D-5066. It is also based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

  14. Resolving asymmetries along the pulsation cycle of the Mira star X Hya

    CERN Document Server

    Haubois, X; Perrin, G; Kervella, P; Mérand, A; Thiébaut, E; Ridgway, S T; Ireland, M; Scholz, M

    2015-01-01

    The mass-loss process in Mira stars probably occurs in an asymmetric way where dust can form in inhomogeneous circumstellar molecular clumps. Following asymmetries along the pulsation cycle can give us clues about these mass-loss processes. We imaged the Mira star X Hya and its environnement at different epochs to follow the evolution of the morphology in the continuum and in the molecular bands. We observed X Hya with AMBER in J-H-K at low resolution at two epochs. We modelled squared visibilities with geometrical and physical models. We also present imaging reconstruction results obtained with MiRA and based on the physical a priori images. We report on the angular scale change of X Hya between the two epochs. 1D CODEX profiles allowed us to understand and model the spectral variation of squared visibilities and constrain the stellar parameters. Reconstructed model-dependent images enabled us to reproduce closure phase signals and the azimuthal dependence of squared visibilities. They show evidence for mate...

  15. Identifying modes in KIC 5807616, a Pulsating sdB Star from Kepler Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzesinski J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KIC 5807616 is a pulsating B-type hot subdwarf, reported to harbor planets. Its Kepler spacecraft Q 2 and Q 5 -Q 8 light curves as well as spectroscopic data were already analyzed and parameters characterizing the star were derived. Since then, Kepler had collected 2 years of additional data (Q 9 -Q 16 and half of Q 17. One might think new data could improve previously derived parameters, but it doesn’t seem to be that easy. It appears that the Fourier transform amplitude spectra of the KIC 5807616 data do not show ”clear” multiplets. Therefore, in this work we performed the mode identification based mainly on the period spacing of g-modes, while the analysis of multiplet splitting relied on two p-modes with stable multiplet components. We also derived the rotational period of the star and analyzed the low frequency region of the FT, where signatures of two planets were found in the past, but we had difficulties confirming their existence.

  16. Asteroseismology of RXJ 2117+3412, the hottest pulsating PG 1159 star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, G.; Moskalik, P.; Pfeiffer, B.; Chevreton, M.; Dolez, N.; Serre, B.; Kleinman, S. J.; Barstow, M.; Sansom, A. E.; Solheim, J.-E.; Belmonte, J. A.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Kanaan, A.; Giovannini, O.; Winget, D. E.; Watson, T. K.; Nather, R. E.; Clemens, J. C.; Provencal, J.; Dixson, J. S.; Yanagida, K.; Nitta Kleinman, A.; Montgomery, M.; Klumpe, E. W.; Bruvold, A.; O'Brien, M. S.; Hansen, C. J.; Grauer, A. D.; Bradley, P. A.; Wood, M. A.; Achilleos, N.; Jiang, S. Y.; Fu, J. N.; Marar, T. M. K.; Ashoka, B. N.; Meĭstas, E. G.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Mazeh, T.; Leibowitz, E.; Hemar, S.; Krzesiński, J.; Pajdosz, G.; Zoła, S.

    2002-01-01

    The pulsating PG 1159 planetary nebula central star RXJ 2117+3412 has been observed over three successive seasons of a multisite photometric campaign. The asteroseismological analysis of the data, based on the 37 identified l=1 modes among the 48 independent pulsation frequencies detected in the power spectrum, leads to the derivation of the rotational splitting, the period spacing and the mode trapping cycle and amplitude, from which a number of fundamental parameters can be deduced. The average rotation period is 1.16±0.05 days. The trend for the rotational splitting to decrease with increasing periods is incompatible with a solid body rotation. The total mass is 0.56+0.02-0.04 Msolar and the He-rich envelope mass fraction is in the range 0.013-0.078 M*. The luminosity derived from asteroseismology is log(L/Lsolar)= 4.05 +0.23-0.32 and the distance 760 +230-235 pc. At such a distance, the linear size of the planetary nebulae is 2.9±0.9 pc. The role of mass loss on the excitation mechanism and its consequence on the amplitude variations is discussed. Based on data obtained in observing time allocated by the Bernard Lyot Telescope, INSU/CNRS, France, the TCS at Teide Observatory, Tenerife, Spain, the INT and JKT Telescopes at Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain, the Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica/CNPq, Brazil, the McDonal Observatory, Texas, USA, the Steward Observatory, Arizona, USA, the Mauna Kea Observatory, University of Hawaii, USA, the Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, the Beijing Observatory, China, the Vainu Bappu Observatory, India, the Maidanak Observatory, Uzbekistan, the Wise Observatory, Israel, and the Suhora Observatory, Poland.

  17. Supervised Ensemble Classification of Kepler Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analyzing variable stars in the {\\em Kepler} field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150,000 stars observed by {\\em Kepler} are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  18. Uncovering the pulsating photospheres of Mira stars through near-IR interferometry: a case study on R Vir

    CERN Document Server

    Hillen, M; Acke, B; Degroote, P

    2010-01-01

    We present the methodology and some preliminary results of our study of the relationship between a Mira's pulsating photosphere and its surrounding molecular layer(s) throughout several pulsation cycles, based on spatially resolved data. Our dataset consists of archival narrow-band observations in the near-infrared H and K bands obtained with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer between 1999 and 2006, extended with a few nights of VLTI AMBER low spectral resolution data and near-infrared SAAO photometry. The fitted model is the geometric star + layer model proposed by Perrin et al. (2004), in which the physical parameters (diameter and temperature of star and layer; wavelength dependent optical depth of the layer) are given a sinusoidal time dependence.

  19. Radial pulsations and stability of anisotropic stars with quasi-local equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, Dubravko; Marunovic, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-local variables, i.e. quantities whose values can be derived from physics accessible within an arbitrarily small neighborhood of a spacetime point, are used to construct the equation of state for the anisotropic fluid in spherical symmetry. One parameter families of equilibrium solutions are obtained making it possible to assess stability properties by means of the standard M(R) method. Normal modes of radial pulsation are computed as well and are found to confirm the onset of instability as predicted by the M(R) method. As an example, a stable configuration with outwardly increasing energy density in the core is obtained with a simple quasi-local extension of the polytropic equation of state. It is also found that the loss of stability occurs at higher surface compactness when the anisotropy of pressures is present.

  20. High frequency A-type pulsators discovered using SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, Daniel L; Gillon, M; Clubb, K I; Southworth, J; Maxted, P F L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Jehin, E; Norton, A J; Pollacco, D; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known $\\delta$ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and in the low-frequency $\\delta$ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation.

  1. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  2. Iron abundance in the prototype PG1159 star, GW Vir pulsator PG1159-035, and related objects

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Klaus; Kruk, Jeff W; Kurucz, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG1159-035, which is the prototype of the PG1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG1520+525, PG1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG1159 star, PG1424+535, we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within Teff = 110,000 - 150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG1159 stars (Teff = 150,000 - 200,000 K) that exhibit Fe X lines. On the whole, we find that the PG1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  3. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  4. Signatures of internal rotation discovered in the Kepler data of five slowly pulsating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pápics, P. I.; Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Aerts, C.; Moravveji, E.; Van de Sande, M.; De Smedt, K.; Bloemen, S.; Southworth, J.; Debosscher, J.; Niemczura, E.; Gameiro, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Massive stars are important building blocks of the Universe, and their stellar structure and evolution models are fundamental cornerstones of various fields in modern astrophysics. The precision of these models is strongly limited by our lack of understanding of various internal mixing processes that significantly influence the lifetime of these objects, such as core overshoot, chemical mixing, or the internal differential rotation. Aims: Our goal is to calibrate models by extending the sample of available seismic studies of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, providing input for theoretical modelling efforts that will deliver precise constraints on the parameters describing the internal mixing processes in these objects. Methods: We used spectral synthesis and disentangling techniques to derive fundamental parameters and to determine precise orbital parameters from high-resolution spectra. We employed custom masks to construct light curves from the virtually uninterrupted four year long Kepler pixel data and used standard time-series analysis tools to construct a set of significant frequencies for each target. These sets were first filtered from combination frequencies, and then screened for period spacing patterns. Results: We detect gravity mode period series of modes, of the same degree ℓ with consecutive radial order n, in four new and one revisited SPB star. These series (covering typically 10 to 40 radial orders) are clearly influenced by moderate to fast rotation and carry signatures of chemical mixing processes. Furthermore, they are predominantly prograde dipole series. Our spectroscopic analysis, in addition to placing each object inside the SPB instability strip and identifying KIC 4930889 as an SB2 binary, reveals that KIC 11971405 is a fast rotator that shows very weak Be signatures. Together with the observed photometric outbursts this illustrates that this Be star is a fast rotating SPB star. We hypothesise that the outbursts might be

  5. Meta Classification for Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pichara, Karim; León, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The need for the development of automatic tools to explore astronomical databases has been recognized since the inception of CCDs and modern computers. Astronomers already have developed solutions to tackle several science problems, such as automatic classification of stellar objects, outlier detection, and globular clusters identification, among others. New science problems emerge and it is critical to be able to re-use the models learned before, without rebuilding everything from the beginning when the science problem changes. In this paper, we propose a new meta-model that automatically integrates existing classification models of variable stars. The proposed meta-model incorporates existing models that are trained in a different context, answering different questions and using different representations of data. Conventional mixture of experts algorithms in machine learning literature can not be used since each expert (model) uses different inputs. We also consider computational complexity of the model by ...

  6. Variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 7789

    CERN Document Server

    Mochejska, B J

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of our search for variable stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 7789. We have found 45 variable stars: 35 eclipsing binaries, five pulsating variables and five miscellaneous variables. Most of the eclipsing binaries show W UMa type of variability, with periods shorter than one day. Four systems exhibit unusual behavior: two, V4276 and V6698, are probably RS CVn stars, another, V3283, is a possible cataclysmic binary. The nature of the fourth binary, V2130, is unclear: the system exhibits assymetric maxima. Among the pulsating variables two, V3407C and V4805 are background RR Lyrae stars and one, V6736, is a delta Scuti variable which is a blue straggler belonging to the cluster. Some of the miscellaneous variables may have periods longer than the five day timespan of our observations. We also present a color-magnitude diagram for the NGC 7789 open cluster, fairly complete down to V ~ 20. The relatively large number of variables found in the comparison field (14 compared to 31 ...

  7. A Low-Resolution Spectroscopic Exploration of Puzzling OGLE Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Angeloni, R; di Mille, F; Soszynski, I; Udalski, A; Germana, C

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic follow-up of various puzzling variable objects detected in the OGLE-III Galactic disk and bulge fields. The sample includes mainly short-period multi-mode pulsating stars that could not have been unambiguously classified as either delta Sct or beta Cep type stars based on photometric data only, also stars with irregular fluctuations mimicking cataclysmic variables and stars with dusty shells, and periodic variables displaying brightenings in their light curves that last for more than half of the period. The obtained low-resolution spectra show that all observed short-period pulsators are of delta Sct type, the stars with irregular fluctuations are young stellar objects, and the objects with regular brightenings are A type stars or very likely Ap stars with strong magnetic field responsible for the presence of bright caps around magnetic poles on their surface. We also took spectra of objects designated OGLE-GD-DSCT-0058 and OGLE-GD-CEP-0013. An estimated effective tem...

  8. An XMM-Newton and NuSTAR Study of IGR J18214-1318: A Non-pulsating High-mass X-Ray Binary with a Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Bachetti, Matteo; Krivonos, Roman A.; Fürst, Felix; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn

    2017-05-01

    IGR J18214-1318, a Galactic source discovered by the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, is a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) with a supergiant O-type stellar donor. We report on the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations that were undertaken to determine the nature of the compact object in this system. This source exhibits high levels of aperiodic variability, but no periodic pulsations are detected with a 90% confidence upper limit of 2% fractional rms between 0.00003-88 Hz, a frequency range that includes the typical pulse periods of neutron stars (NSs) in HMXBs (0.1-103 s). Although the lack of pulsations prevents us from definitively identifying the compact object in IGR J18214-1318, the presence of an exponential cutoff with e-folding energy ≲ 30 {keV} in its 0.3-79 keV spectrum strongly suggests that the compact object is an NS. The X-ray spectrum also shows a Fe Kα emission line and a soft excess, which can be accounted for by either a partial-covering absorber with {N}{{H}}≈ {10}23 cm-2, which could be due to the inhomogeneous supergiant wind, or a blackbody component with {kT}={1.74}-0.05+0.04 keV and {R}{BB}≈ 0.3 km, which may originate from NS hot spots. Although neither explanation for the soft excess can be excluded, the former is more consistent with the properties observed in other supergiant HMXBs. We compare IGR J18214-1318 to other HMXBs that lack pulsations or have long pulsation periods beyond the range covered by our observations.

  9. Pulsations and Period Changes of the SX Phoenicis Star DY Pegasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. N.; Zha, Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Chen, L.; Poon, H.; Marak, K.; Boonyarak, C.; Khokhuntod, P.; Su, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, C.; Jiang, S. Y.

    2009-03-01

    We present 83 new times of maximum light of the SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) star DY Pegasi (DY Peg), based mainly on our new time-series photometric observations from the years 2004–2008. Together with the times of maximum light in the literature, a comprehensive study of the O - C diagram with the data spanning over seven decades leads to a new general ephemeris formula and the determination of a new value of the updated period 0.072926187( ± 3)d. The available times of maximum light can be well modeled with either a triple linear fit, or a fit concerning a continuously increasing period change combined with the light-time effect of an orbital motion. On the contrary, the decreasing period hypothesis suggested by some previous investigators appears to be rejected. The frequency analyses of the data collected in 2004 and 2006 provide the radial pulsation frequency 13.713 c d-1 and its four harmonics. However, although extra powers were present around the reported secondary frequency 17.8 c d-1 in the Fourier transformations of the new data sets, its signal-to-noise ratios were too low to detect this frequency. Based on data obtained at Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories, and Lijiang Station of Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  10. Discovery of Four Peculiar Variable Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bin Zhang; Rong-Xian Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Four stars, GSC 1258-0143, GSC 1986-1665, GSC 3045-0892 and GSC2983-1597 were found to be new variables during a campaign of CCD photometricmonitoring of short-period eclipsing binary stars. The variabilities of these newvariables are reported. The main characteristics and probable classifications of thevariables are discussed through a preliminary analysis on their light curves. Amongthese stars, GSC 1258-0143 is classified as a RR Lyr star of sub-type a. Its pulsationperiod is determined to be about 0.5206 days. The other three stars, are definitevariables, but their periods and types of light variations remain unknown.

  11. Stellar pulsation and rotation in NGC 6811

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E.; Ocando, S.; López-González, M. J.; Martín-Ruiz, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the frequency analysis for a selected sample of pulsating δ Sct- and γ Dor-type stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 6811, which have been observed in short-cadence (SC) mode by the Kepler satellite. In all cases, the resulting frequency spectra are very complex, especially when the dominant pulsation is that of the δ Sct type, that is, short-period pulsations corresponding to excited pressure (p) modes. In all cases, the δ Sct stars are shown to be essentially δ Sct/ γ Dor hybrid pulsators. However, the opposite seems not to be true. We also find that the δ Sct-type peaks commonly are not stable in amplitude. Many of the main peaks significantly change their amplitudes over relatively short time scales. For a large percentage of pulsators in our sample we also find that the variability shown in the light curves is not produced by a single cause, but a combination of various sources: δ Sct- and γ Dor-type pulsations together with rotational modulation produced by starspots in the surfaces of these stars. This is an indication of stellar activity in the surfaces of these relatively hot stars of spectral type A(-F). Sometimes, activity dominates the luminosity variations in various pulsating stars in our sample. Eclipsing binarity is also detected in a few cases. Flares are also detected in one of the δ Sct-type pulsators. This is an indication of unusual strong activity for this kind of hot stars.

  12. Variable stars in metal-rich globular clusters. IV. Long-period variables in NGC 6496

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohamad A. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Layden, Andrew C.; Guldenschuh, Katherine A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 (United States); Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.; LaCluyze, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Welch, Douglas L., E-mail: mabbas@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: laydena@bgsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8 S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    We present VI-band photometry for stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6496. Our time-series data were cadenced to search for long-period variables (LPVs) over a span of nearly two years, and our variability search yielded the discovery of 13 new variable stars, of which 6 are LPVs, 2 are suspected LPVs, and 5 are short-period eclipsing binaries. An additional star was found in the ASAS database, and we clarify its type and period. We argue that all of the eclipsing binaries are field stars, while five to six of the LPVs are members of NGC 6496. We compare the period–luminosity distribution of these LPVs with those of LPVs in the Large Magellanic Cloud and 47 Tucanae, and with theoretical pulsation models. We also present a VI color–magnitude diagram, display the evolutionary states of the variables, and match isochrones to determine a reddening of E(B−V)= 0.21±0.02 mag and apparent distance modulus of 15.60±0.15 mag.

  13. The slowly pulsating B-star 18 Pegasi: A testbed for upper main sequence stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, A.; Desphande, A.; Moehler, S.; Mugrauer, M.; Janousch, D.

    2016-06-01

    The predicted width of the upper main sequence in stellar evolution models depends on the empirical calibration of the convective overshooting parameter. Despite decades of discussions, its precise value is still unknown and further observational constraints are required to gauge it. Based on a photometric and preliminary asteroseismic analysis, we show that the mid B-type giant 18 Peg is one of the most evolved members of the rare class of slowly pulsating B-stars and, thus, bears tremendous potential to derive a tight lower limit for the width of the upper main sequence. In addition, 18 Peg turns out to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic binary system with an eccentric orbit that is greater than 6 years. Further spectroscopic and photometric monitoring and a sophisticated asteroseismic investigation are required to exploit the full potential of this star as a benchmark object for stellar evolution theory. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 265.C-5038(A), 069.C-0263(A), and 073.D-0024(A). Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), proposals H2005-2.2-016 and H2015-3.5-008. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, proposal W15BN015. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.

  14. Revealing the pulsational properties of the V777 Her star KUV 05134+2605 by its long-term monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bognár, Zs; Córsico, A H; Kepler, S O; Győrffy, Á

    2014-01-01

    Context: KUV 05134+2605 is one of the 21 pulsating DB white dwarfs (V777 Her or DBV variables) known so far. The detailed investigation of the short-period and low-amplitude pulsations of these relatively faint targets requires considerable observational efforts from the ground, long-term single-site or multisite observations. The observed amplitudes of excited modes undergo short-term variations in many cases, which makes the determination of pulsation modes difficult. Methods: We re-analysed the data already published, and collected new measurements. We compared the frequency content of the different datasets from the different epochs and performed various tests to check the reliability of the frequency determinations. The mean period spacings were investigated with linear fits to the observed periods, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Inverse Variance significance tests, and Fourier analysis of different period sets, including a Monte Carlo test simulating the effect of alias ambiguities. We employed fully evolutiona...

  15. A Planet Found by Pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Searching for planets around very hot stars is much more challenging than looking around cool stars. For this reason, the recent discovery of a planet around a main-sequence A star is an important find both because of its unique position near the stars habitable zone, and because of the way in which the planet was discovered.Challenges in VariabilityIn the past three decades, weve discovered thousands of exoplanets yet most of them have been found around cool stars (like M dwarfs) or moderate stars (like G stars like our Sun). Very few of the planets that weve found orbit hot stars; in fact, weve only discovered ~20 planets orbiting the very hot, main-sequence A stars.The instability strip, indicated on an H-R diagram. Stellar classification types are listed across the bottom of the diagram. Many main-sequence A stars reside in the instability strip. [Rursus]Why is this? We dont expect that main-sequence A stars host fewer planets than cooler stars. Instead, its primarily because the two main techniques that we use to find planets namely, transits and radial velocity cant be used as effectively on the main-sequence A stars that are most likely to host planets, because the luminosities of these stars are often variable.These stars can lie on whats known as the classical instability strip in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Such variable stars pulsate due to changes in the ionization state of atoms deep in their interiors, which causes the stars to puff up and then collapse back inward. For variable main-sequence A stars, the periods for these pulsations can be several to several tens of times per day.These very pulsations that make transits and radial-velocity measurements so difficult, however, can potentially be used to detect planets in a different way. Led by Simon Murphy (University of Sydney, Australia and Aarhus University, Denmark), a team of scientists has recently detected the first planet ever to be discovered around a main-sequence A star from the timing

  16. Study of variable stars in the MOA data base long-period red variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, S; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Dodd, R J; Hearnshaw, J B; Honda, M; Honma, M; Juga Ku Jun; Kabe, S; Kan-Ya, Y; Kato, Y; Kilmartin, P M; Matsubara, Y; Masuda, K; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, T; Nankivell, G R; Noguchi, C; Ohnishi, K; Reid, M; Rattenbury, N J; Saitô, T; Sato, H; Sekiguchi, M; Skuljan, J; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Watase, Y; Wilkinson, S; Yamada, R; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P C M; Yoshizawa, M; Saito, To.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty six long-period red variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from the three year MOA project database were analysed. A careful periodic analysis was performed on these stars and a catalogue of their magnitudes, colours, periods and amplitudes is presented. We convert our blue and red magnitudes to $K$ band values using 19 oxygen-rich stars. A group of red short-period stars separated from the Mira sequence has been found on a (log P, K) diagram. They are located at the short period side of the Mira sequence consistent with the work of Wood and Sebo (1996). There are two interpretations for such stars; a difference in pulsation mode or a difference in chemical composition. We investigated the properties of these stars together with their colour, amplitude and periodicity. We conclude that they have small amplitudes and less regular variability. They are likely to be higher mode pulsators. A large scatter has been also found on the long period side of the (log P, K) diagram. This...

  17. Search for Variable Stars and Their Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokumbaeva, R. I.; Zakhozhay, V. A.; Khruslov, A. V.

    We search for variable stars and study them using our CCD observations, observations available in the CSS, NSVS, ASAS-3 and Super-WASP online public archives.Our CCD observations were performed using the Zeiss- 1000 telescope of the V.G. Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute's Tien-Shan Astronomical Observatory. Earlier, as a result of our search using CCD images, we detected 27 new variable stars; using the NSVS and SuperWASP databases, we detected 12 new red semiregular and irregular variable stars.In this paper, we present our study of seven known variables based on the ASAS-3 and SuperWASP databases. All these stars remained poorly studied, their light elements were unknown, variability types were considered preliminary only. We studied two eclipsing variables (FY And and V2250 Sgr) and five Mira-stars (BZ Sco, CZ Sco, FK Sco, V880 Sco and V1818 Sgr).

  18. Magnetic B stars observed with BRITE: Spots, magnetospheres, binarity, and pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, G A; Fletcher, C; Handler, G; Huang, L; Krticka, J; Neiner, C; Niemczura, E; Pablo, H; Paunzen, E; Petit, V; Pigulski, A; Rivinius, Th; Rowe, J; Rybicka, M; Townsend, R; Shultz, M; Silvester, J; Sikora, J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic B-type stars exhibit photometric variability due to diverse causes, and consequently on a variety of timescales. In this paper we describe interpretation of BRITE photometry and related ground-based observations of 4 magnetic B-type systems: $\\epsilon$ Lupi, $\\tau$ Sco, a Cen and $\\epsilon$ CMa.

  19. Pulsations and period changes of the non-Blazhko RR lyrae variable Y oct observed from Dome A, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhihua, Huang; Jianning, Fu; Weikai, Zong; Lingzhi, Wang; Zonghong, Zhu [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); M, Macri Lucas; Lifan, Wang [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Ashley, Michael C. B.; S, Lawrence Jon; Daniel, Luong-Van [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW (Australia); Xiangqun, Cui; Long-Long, Feng; Xuefei, Gong; Qiang, Liu; Huigen, Yang; Xiangyan, Yuan; Xu, Zhou; Zhenxi, Zhu [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Nanjing (China); R, Pennypacker Carl [Center for Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); G, York Donald, E-mail: jnfu@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of the Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR) in Dome A of Antarctica in the years 2008, 2009, and 2010, large amounts of photometric data have been obtained for variable stars in the CSTAR field. We present here the study of one of six RR Lyrae variables, Y Oct, observed with CSTAR in Dome A, Antarctica. Photometric data in the i band were obtained in 2008 and 2010, with a duty cycle (defined as the fraction of time representing scientifically available data to CSTAR observation time) of about 44% and 52%, respectively. In 2009, photometric data in the g and r bands were gathered for this star, with a duty cycle of 65% and 60%, respectively. Fourier analysis of the data in the three bands only shows the fundamental frequency and its harmonics, which is characteristic of the non-Blazhko RR Lyrae variables. Values of the fundamental frequency and the amplitudes, as well as the total pulsation amplitude, are obtained from the data in the three bands separately. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency and the total pulsation amplitude in the g band are the largest, and those in the i band the smallest. Two-hundred fifty-one times of maximum are obtained from the three seasons of data, which are analyzed together with 38 maximum times provided in the GEOS RR Lyrae database. A period change rate of −0.96 ± 0.07 days Myr{sup −1} is then obtained, which is a surprisingly large negative value. Based on relations available in the literature, the following physical parameters are derived: [Fe/H] = −1.41 ± 0.14, M{sub V} = 0.696 ± 0.014 mag, V−K = 1.182 ± 0.028 mag, logT{sub eff} = 3.802 ± 0.003 K, logg = 2.705 ± 0.004, logL/L{sub ⊙} = 1.625 ± 0.013, and logM/M{sub ⊙} = −0.240 ± 0.019.

  20. Kepler observations of variability in B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; De Cat, P; Handler, G; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Engelbrecht, C A; Frescura, F; Briquet, M; Cuypers, J; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J; Degroote, P; Dukes, R J; Garcia, R A; Green, E M; Heber, U; Kawaler, S D; Ostensen, R; Pricopi, D; Roxburgh, I; Salmon, S; Smith, M A; Suarez, J C; Suran, M; Szabo, R; Uytterhoeven, K; Christensen-Dalsgaard,; Kjeldsen, H; Caldwell, D A; Girouard, F R; Sanderfer, D T

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the light curves of 48 B-type stars observed by Kepler is presented. Among these are 15 pulsating stars, all of which show low frequencies characteristic of SPB stars. Seven of these stars also show a few weak, isolated high frequencies and they could be considered as SPB/beta Cep hybrids. In all cases the frequency spectra are quite different from what is seen from ground-based observations. We suggest that this is because most of the low frequencies are modes of high degree which are predicted to be unstable in models of mid-B stars. We find that there are non-pulsating stars within the beta Cep and SPB instability strips. Apart from the pulsating stars, we can identify stars with frequency groupings similar to what is seen in Be stars but which are not Be stars. The origin of the groupings is not clear, but may be related to rotation. We find periodic variations in other stars which we attribute to proximity effects in binary systems or possibly rotational modulation. We find no evidence fo...

  1. Variable Star Astronomy Education & Public Outreach Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donna L.

    2008-05-01

    The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) published a comprehensive variable star curriculum, "Hands-On Astrophysics, Variable Stars in Science, Math, and Computer Education" in 1997. The curriculum, funded by the National Science Foundation, was developed for a comprehensive audience -- amateur astronomers, classroom educators, science fair projects, astronomy clubs, family learning, and anyone interested in learning about variable stars. Some of the activities from the Hands-On Astrophysics curriculum have been incorporated into the educational materials for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's Educational and Public Outreach (EPO) Office. On two occasions, in 2000 and 2001, triggered by alerts from amateur astronomers, Chandra observed the outburst of the dwarf nova SS Cygni. The cooperation of amateur variable star astronomers and Chandra X-Ray scientists provided proof that the collaboration of amateur and professional astronomers is a powerful tool to study cosmic phenomena. Once again, the Chandra and AAVSO have teamed up -- this time to promote variable star education. The Hands-On Astrophysics curriculum is being re-designed and updated from the original materials to a web-based format. The new version, re-named Variable Star Astronomy, will provide formal and informal educators, and especially amateur astronomers, educational materials to help promote interest in and knowledge of variable stars.

  2. Investigating the origin of cyclical wind variability in hot, massive stars - I. On the dipolar magnetic field hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. David-Uraz; G.A. Wade; V. Petit; A. ud-Doula; J.O. Sundqvist; J. Grunhut; M. Schultz; C. Neiner; E. Alecian; H.F. Henrichs; J.-C. Bouret

    2014-01-01

    OB stars exhibit various types of spectral variability associated with wind structures, including the apparently ubiquitous discrete absorption components (DACs). These are proposed to be caused by either magnetic fields or non-radial pulsations. In this paper, we evaluate the possible relation betw

  3. Photometry of Variable Stars from THU-NAOC Transient Survey I: The First 2 Years

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Tianmeng; Chen, Juncheng; Yuan, Wenlong; Mo, Jun; Li, Wenxiong; Jin, Zhiping; Wu, Xuefeng; Nie, JunDan; Zhou, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the detections of stellar variabilities from the first 2-year observations of sky area of about 1300 square degrees from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey (TNTS). A total of 1237 variable stars (including 299 new ones) were detected with brightness = 0.1 mag on a timescale from a few hours to few hundred days. Among such detections, we tentatively identified 661 RR Lyrae stars, 431 binaries, 72 Semiregular pulsators, 29 Mira stars, 11 slow irregular variables, 11 RS Canum Venaticorum stars, 7 Gamma Doradus stars, 5 long period variables, 3 W Virginis stars, 3 Delta Scuti stars, 2 Anomalous Cepheids, 1 Cepheid, and 1 nove-like star based on their time-series variability index Js and their phased diagrams. Moreover, we found that 14 RR Lyrae stars show the Blazhko effect and 67 contact eclipsing binaries exhibit the O'Connell effect. Since the period and amplitude of light variations of RR Lyrae variables depend on their chemical compositions, their photometric observations ...

  4. Photometry of pulsating stars in the Magellanic Clouds as observed in the MOA project

    CERN Document Server

    Hearnshaw, J B; Rattenbury, N J; Noda, S; Takeuti, M; Abe, F; Carter, B S; Dodd, R J; Honda, M; Juga Ku Jun; Kabe, S; Kilmartin, P M; Matsubara, Y; Masuda, K; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, T; Reid, M; Rumsey, N J; Saitô, T; Sato, H; Sekiguchi, M; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Watase, Y; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P C M; Yoshizawa, M; Koribalski, B S; Saito, To.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera. As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescop...

  5. Variable stars observed with the AST3-1 telescope from dome A of antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gang; Liu, Xuanming

    2015-01-01

    Dome A in the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best astronomical observing sites on Earth. The first one of three Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1), a 50/68 cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable telescope of China operating in Antarctica and the biggest telescope located in Antarctic inland. AST3-1 obtained huge amounts of data in 2012 and we processed the time-series parts. Here we present light curves of 29 variable stars identified from ten-day observations in 2012 with AST3-1, including 22 newly discovered variable stars. 23 of them are eclipsing binaries and the others are pulsating stars. We present the properties of the 29 variable stars, including the classifications, periods and magnitude ranges in i band. For the 17 eclipsing binaries, the phased light curves are presented with the orbital period values well determined.

  6. Deep MMT Transity Survey of the Open Cluster M37 II: Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, J D; Holman, M J; McLeod, B A; Stanek, K Z; Barranco, J A; Pinsonneault, M H; Singh-Kalirai, J

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted a deep (15 ~ 500) of these variables are most likely rapidly rotating young low mass stars that are members of the cluster. We identify and analyze five particularly interesting individual variables including a previously identified variable which we suggest is probably a hybrid gamma-Doradus/delta-Scuti pulsator, an enigmatic white dwarf or subdwarf B star that shows pulsation like variations with a period of 0.157728 +- 0.00001 days and an amplitude of 0.07 mag in r, a possible quiescent cataclysmic variable, a detached eclipsing binary (DEB) with at least one gamma-Doradus pulsating component (only the second such variable found in an eclipsing binary), and a low mass (M_{P} ~ M_{S} ~ 0.6 M_{\\odot}) DEB that is a possible cluster member. A preliminary determination of the physical parameters for the DEB+gamma-Doradus system yields M_{P} = 1.58 +- 0.04 M_{\\odot}, M_{S} = 1.58 +- 0.04 M_{\\odot}, R_{P} = 1.39 +- 0.07 R_{\\odot} and R_{S} = 1.38 +- 0.07 R_{\\odot}.

  7. Time-resolved multicolour photometry of bright B-type variable stars in Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2013-01-01

    The first two of a total of six nano-satellites that will constitute the BRITE-Constellation space photometry mission have recently been launched successfully. In preparation for this project, we carried out time-resolved colour photometry in a field that is an excellent candidate for BRITE measurements from space. We acquired 117 h of Stromgren uvy data during 19 nights. Our targets comprised the Beta Cephei stars Kappa and Lambda Sco, the eclipsing binary Mu 1 Sco, and the variable super/hypergiant Zeta 1 Sco. For Kappa Sco, a photometric mode identification in combination with results from the spectroscopic literature suggests a dominant (l, m) = (1, -1) Beta Cephei-type pulsation mode of the primary star. The longer period of the star may be a rotational variation or a g-mode pulsation. For Lambda Sco, we recover the known dominant Beta Cephei pulsation, a longer-period variation, and observed part of an eclipse. Lack of ultraviolet data precludes mode identification for this star. We noticed that the spe...

  8. The Variable Star Population of the Globular Cluster B514 in the Andromeda Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Clementini, Gisella; Federici, Luciana; Cacciari, Carla; Merighi, Roberto; Smith, Horace A; Catelan, Marcio; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Marconi, Marcella; Kinemuchi, Karen; Pritzl, Barton J

    2009-01-01

    A rich harvest of RR Lyrae stars has been identified for the first time in B514, a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = 1.95 +/- 0.10 dex) globular cluster of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and Advanced Camera for Surveys time-series observations. We have detected and derived periods for 89 RR Lyrae stars (82 fundamental-mode -RRab- and 7 first-overtone -RRc- pulsators, respectively) among 161 candidate variables identified in the cluster. The average period of the RR Lyrae variables ( = 0.58 days and = 0.35 days, for RRab and RRc pulsators, respectively) and the position in the period-amplitude diagram both suggest that B514 is likely an Oosterhoff type I cluster. This appears to be in disagreement with the general behaviour of the metal-poor globular clusters in the Milky Way, which show instead Oosterhoff type II pulsation properties. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars sets the mean level of the cluster horizontal branch at = 25.18 +/- 0.02 (si...

  9. Excitation of Stellar Pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houdek, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this review I present an overview of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the excitation of pulsations in stars with surface convection zones. These are typically cooler stars such as the δ Scuti stars, and stars supporting solar-like oscillations....

  10. Discovery of Peculiar Double-Mode Pulsations and Period Doubling in KEPLER RRc Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalik, P; Kolenberg, K; Nemec, J; Kunder, A; Chadid, M; Kopacki, G; Szabó, R; members, KEPLER WG#13

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the Long Cadence photometry of 4 first overtone RR Lyr-type stars (RRc stars) observed by the KEPLER telescope. All studied variables are multiperiodic. The strongest secondary peak appears for f_2/f_1 = 1.58-1.63, or P_2/P_1 = 0.61-0.63. In each star we detect at least one subharmonic of f_2, either at ~1/2 f_2 or at ~3/2 f_2. The presence of subharmonics is a characteristic signature of a period doubling.

  11. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  12. Short-term spectroscopic variability of Plaskett's star

    CERN Document Server

    Palate, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Context. Plaskett's star (HD47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies. Aims. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in spectroscopy and investigate their origin. Methods. To sample its short-term variability, HD47129 was intensively monitored during two spectroscopic campaigns of six nights each. The spectra were disentangled and Fourier analyses were performed to determine possible periodicities and to investigate the wavelength dependence of the phase constant and the amplitude of the periodicities. Results. Complex line profile variations are observed. Frequencies near 1.65, 0.82, and 0.37 d^-1 are detected consistently in the He i 4471, He ii 4542, and N iii 4510-4518 lines. These frequencies are consistent with those of the strongest signals detected in photometry. The possibilities that these variations stem from pulsations, a recently detected magnetic field...

  13. VX Her: Eclipsing Binary System or Single Variable Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kathleen; Castelaz, Michael; Henson, Gary; Boghozian, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    VX Her is a pulsating variable star with a period of .4556504 days. It is believed to be part of an eclipsing binary system (Fitch et al. 1966). This hypothesis originated from Fitch seeing VX Her's minimum point on its light curve reaching a 0.7 magnitude fainter than normal and remaining that way for nearly two hours. If VX Her were indeed a binary system, I would expect to see similar results with a fainter minimum and a broader, more horizontal dip. Having reduced and analyzed images from the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory in Chile and Kitt Peak, as well as images from a 0.15m reflector at East Tennessee State University, I found that VX Her has the standard light curve of the prototype variable star, RR Lyrae. Using photometry, I found no differing features in its light curve to suggest that it is indeed a binary system. However, more observations are needed in case VX Her is a wide binary.

  14. Short-term variability and mass loss in Be stars I. BRITE satellite photometry of $\\eta$ and $\\mu$ Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Baade, D; Pigulski, A; Carciofi, A C; Martayan, Ch; Moffat, A F J; Wade, G A; Weiss, W W; Grunhut, J; Handler, G; Kuschnig, R; Mehner, A; Pablo, H; Popowicz, A; Rucinski, S; Whittaker, G

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the involvement of nonradial pulsations (NRP's) in the mass loss from Be stars ranges from (i) a singular case (\\object{$\\mu$ Cen}) of repetitive mass ejections triggered by multi-mode beating to (ii) several photometric reports about enormous numbers of pulsation modes popping up during outbursts and on to (iii) effective single-mode pulsators. The BRITE Constellation of nanosatellites was used to obtain mmag photometry of the Be stars $\\eta$ and \\object{$\\mu$ Cen}. In the low-inclination star \\object{$\\mu$ Cen}, light pollution by variable amounts of near-stellar matter prevented any new insights into the variability and other properties of the central star. In the equator-on star \\object{$\\eta$ Cen}, BRITE photometry and {\\sc Heros} echelle spectroscopy from the 1990s reveal an intricate clockwork of star-disk interactions. The mass transfer is modulated with the frequency difference of two NRP modes and an amplitude three times as large as the amplitude sum of the two NRP modes. Thi...

  15. Variable stars in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Major I

    CERN Document Server

    Garofalo, Alessia; Clementini, Gisella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Moretti, Maria Ida; Coppola, Giuseppina; Musella, Ilaria; Marconi, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first study of the variable star population of Ursa Major I (UMa I), an ultra-faint dwarf satellite recently discovered around the Milky Way by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Combining time series observations in the B and V bands from four different telescopes, we have identified seven RR Lyrae stars in UMa I, of which five are fundamental-mode (RRab) and two are first-overtone pulsators (RRc). Our V, B-V color-magnitude diagram of UMa I reaches V~23 mag (at a signal-to-noise ratio of ~ 6) and shows features typical of a single old stellar population. The mean pulsation period of the RRab stars = 0.628, {\\sigma} = 0.071 days (or = 0.599, {\\sigma} = 0.032 days, if V4, the longest period and brightest variable, is discarded) and the position on the period-amplitude diagram suggest an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the galaxy. The RR Lyrae stars trace the galaxy horizontal branch at an average apparent magnitude of = 20.43 +/- 0.02 mag (average on 6 stars and discarding V4), ...

  16. Short-term variability and mass loss in Be stars II. Physical taxonomy of photometric variability observed by the Kepler spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Thomas; Carciofi, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Context: [abbreviated] Aims: Kepler data of three known Be stars are re-visited to establish their pulsational nature and assess the properties of additional, non-pulsational variations. The three program stars turned out to be one inactive Be star, one active, continuously outbursting Be star, and one Be star transiting from a non-outbursting into an outbursting phase, thus forming an excellent sample to distill properties of Be stars in the various phases of their life-cycle. Methods: [abbreviated] Results: The short-term photometric variability of Be stars must be disentangled into a stellar and a circumstellar part. The stellar part is on the whole not different from what is seen in non-Be stars. However, some of the observed phenomena might be to be due to resonant mode coupling, a mechanism not typically considered for B-type stars. Short-term circumstellar variability comes in the form of either a group of relatively well-defined, short-lived frequencies during outbursts, which are called \\v{S}tefl fre...

  17. Three New Variable Stars in Indus

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Alex; Virnina, Natalia; Santiago, Javier Lopez

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of three new variable stars in Indus: USNO-B1.0 0311-0760061, USNO-B1.0 0309-0771315, and USNO-B1.0 0315-0775167. Light curves of 3712 stars in a 87' x 58' field centered on the asynchronous polar CD Ind were obtained using a remotely controlled 150 mm telescope of Tzec Maun Observatory (Pingelly, Western Australia). The VaST software based on SExtractor package was used for semi-automatic search for variable stars. We suggest the following classification for the newly discovered variable stars: USNO-B1.0 0311-0760061 - RR Lyr-type, USNO-B1.0 0309-0771315 - W UMa-type, and USNO-B1.0 0315-0775167 - W UMa-type.

  18. Golden Ratio Sinusoidal Sequences and the Multimode Pulsation of the δ Sct Star V784 Cassiopeiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan García Escudero

    2004-01-01

    Non periodic ordered sequences obtained by production rules in formal grammars are applied to the analysis of the multi-periodicity of the δ-Scuti type variable star V784 Cas.An artificial light curve for V784 Cas is generated by a non deterministic derivation in a context-sensitive grammar by concatenation of two sinusoidal fragments following certain word sequences.The two basic building blocks represent temporal segments in a golden ratio and the number of long and short segments in a word are also in a golden ratio.

  19. The OmegaWhite survey for short-period variable stars - III: follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, S. A.; Woudt, P. A.; Groot, P. J.; Ramsay, G.; Toma, R.; Motsoaledi, M.; Crause, L. A.; Gilbank, D. G.; O'Donoghue, D.; Potter, S. B.; Sickafoose, A. A.; van Gend, C.; Worters, H. L.

    2017-02-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of short-period variables discovered in the OmegaWhite survey, a wide-field high-cadence g-band synoptic survey targeting the Galactic Plane. We have used fast photometry on the SAAO 1.0- and 1.9-m telescopes to obtain light curves of 27 variables, and use these results to validate the period and amplitude estimates from the OmegaWhite processing pipeline. Furthermore, 57 sources (44 unique, 13 with new light curves) were selected for spectroscopic follow-up using either the SAAO 1.9-m telescope or the Southern African Large Telescope. We find that many of these variables have spectra which are consistent with being δ Scuti-type pulsating stars. At higher amplitudes, we detect four possible pulsating white dwarf/subdwarf sources and an eclipsing cataclysmic variable. Due to their rarity, these targets are ideal candidates for detailed follow-up studies. From spectroscopy, we confirm the symbiotic binary star nature of two variables identified as such in the SIMBAD database. We also report what could possibly be the first detection of the `Bump Cepheid' phenomena in a δ Scuti star, with OW J175848.21-271653.7 showing a pronounced 22 per cent amplitude dip lasting 3 min during each pulsational cycle peak. However, the precise nature of this target is still uncertain as it exhibits the spectral features of a B-type star.

  20. Nuclear Equation of State, Yukawa-type Non-Newtonian Gravity and Pulsating Frequencies of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Weikang; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena and objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of ultra-strong gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, deviations of the neutron star (NS) mass-radius correlation predicted by various gravity theories are larger than its uncertainties due to the poorly known NS matter content and its EOS. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass-radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases with increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, the frequencies of the $f$, $p_1$, $p_2$, and $w_I$ pulsating modes are found to decrease with it, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the gravitational theory and the supranu...

  1. HE 0017+0055 : A probable pulsating CEMP-rs star and long-period binary

    CERN Document Server

    Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S; Andersen, J; Nordstroem, B; Siess, L; Torres, G; Masseron, T; Van Winckel, H

    2015-01-01

    A radial-velocity monitoring of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 0017+0055 over 8 years with the Nordic Optical Telescope and Mercator telescopes reveals variability with a period of 384 d and amplitude of 540$\\pm27$ m s$^{-1}$, superimposed on a nearly linear long-term decline of $\\sim$1 m s$^{-1}$ day$^{-1}$. High-resolution HERMES/Mercator and Keck/HIRES spectra have been used to derive elemental abundances using 1-D LTE MARCS models. A metallicity of [Fe/H] $\\sim -2.4$ is found, along with s-process overabundances on the order of 2 dex (with the exception of [Y/Fe] $\\sim+0.5$), and most notably overabundances of r-process elements like Sm, Eu, Dy, and Er in the range 0.9 - 2.0 dex. With [Ba/Fe] $ > 1.9$ dex and [Eu/Fe] = 2.3 dex, HE 0017+0055 is a CEMP-rs star. It appears to be a giant star below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). The s-process pollution must therefore originate from mass transfer from a companion formerly on the AGB, now a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD). If the 384 d vel...

  2. Pulsating star products from the Palomar Transient Factory: Ultra-long period Cepheids in M31 and RR Lyrae in Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong

    2017-09-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and its successor, the intermediate PTF (iPTF), are wide-field synoptic sky surveys aimed to detect transients. Even though the main science goal for PTF/iPTF is to detect various types of transients, the synoptic nature of the surveys can also be used for the study of variable stars. In this proceedings contribution, I will first give a brief introduction to PTF/iPTF, followed by the two pulsating stars studies using the PTF/iPTF data: the Ultra-Long Period Cepheids (ULPC) in M31 and the RR Lyrae in the Kepler field. For the formal study, we searched the M31's ULPC using PTF imaging data, and follow up the candidates with other telescopes. Our finding revealed that there are only two ULPC in M31. I will give a brief implication of our finding in distance scale studies. For the latter study, I will present our work on the derivation of metallicity-light curve relation in native PTF/iPTF R-band using the RRab stars in the Kepler field.

  3. New Calibrations of Pulsational Absolute Magnitudes of Field RR Lyrae Stars Using Revised Dependencies of Temperatures, Masses, and Periods on Metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, A

    2004-01-01

    The pulsational method to estimate the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars is updated with new data on field-star metallicities by Layden, a new calibration of the (B-V)_0-temperature correlation from recent atmospheric models by Bell and Tripicco, and new mass estimates by Bono et al. New linear and non-linear calibrations of M_V(RR)=f([Fe/H]) are derived that depend on the nature of the adopted envelope in a diagram of log period versus metallicity fitted to the shortest period field variables in each metallicity range, together with the stated assumptions on the colour of the stars at that envelope. These new cali- brations are compared with a recent non-linear calibration by Caputo et al. The theoretical luminosity zero points for each of the three new calibrations derived here agree with each other to within 0.1 mag over the metallicity range of -1.0>[Fe/H]>-2.0. Comparison with the empirical absolute magnitude calibra- tion of M_V(RR)=+0.52 at [Fe/H]=-1.5 by Clementini at al. from RR Lyraes in LMC als...

  4. Variable Stars Observed in the Galactic Disk by AST3-1 from Dome A, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingzhi; Ma, Bin; Li, Gang; Hu, Yi; Fu, Jianning; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Du, Fujia; Gong, Xuefei; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhengyang; Liu, Qiang; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Shang, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G.; Zhou, Jilin

    2017-03-01

    AST3-1 is the second-generation wide-field optical photometric telescope dedicated to time-domain astronomy at Dome A, Antarctica. Here, we present the results of an i-band images survey from AST3-1 toward one Galactic disk field. Based on time-series photometry of 92,583 stars, 560 variable stars were detected with i magnitude ≤16.5 mag during eight days of observations; 339 of these are previously unknown variables. We tentatively classify the 560 variables as 285 eclipsing binaries (EW, EB, and EA), 27 pulsating variable stars (δ Scuti, γ Doradus, δ Cephei variable, and RR Lyrae stars), and 248 other types of variables (unclassified periodic, multiperiodic, and aperiodic variable stars). Of the eclipsing binaries, 34 show O’Connell effects. One of the aperiodic variables shows a plateau light curve and another variable shows a secondary maximum after peak brightness. We also detected a complex binary system with an RS CVn-like light-curve morphology; this object is being followed-up spectroscopically using the Gemini South telescope.

  5. Finding binaries from phase modulation of pulsating stars with Kepler - IV. Detection limits and radial velocity verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Bedding, Timothy R.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the detection limits of the phase modulation (PM) method of finding binary systems among multiperiodic pulsating stars. The method is an attractive way of finding non-transiting planets in the habitable zones of intermediate-mass stars, whose rapid rotation inhibits detections via the radial velocity (RV) method. While oscillation amplitudes of a few mmag are required to find planets, many δ Scuti stars have these amplitudes. In suboptimal cases where the signal to noise of the oscillations is lower, low-mass brown dwarfs (˜13MJup) are detectable at orbital periods longer than about 1 yr, and the lowest mass main-sequence stars (0.1-0.2 M⊙) are detectable at all orbital periods where the PM method can be applied. We use purpose-written Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) software for the calculation of the PM orbits, which offers robust uncertainties for comparison with RV solutions. Using Kepler data and ground-based RVs, we verify that these two methods are in agreement, even at short orbital periods where the PM method undersamples the orbit. We develop new theory to account for the undersampling of the time delays, which is also necessary for the inclusion of RVs as observational data in the MCMC software. We show that combining RVs with time delays substantially refines the orbits because of the complementarity of working in both the spatial (PM) and velocity (RV) domains simultaneously. Software outputs were tested through an extensive hare-and-hounds exercise, covering a wide range of orbital configurations including binaries containing two pulsators.

  6. 2M1938+4603: A rich, multimode pulsating sdB star with an eclipsing dM companion observed with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Østensen, R H; Bloemen, S; Marsh, T R; Laird, J B; Morris, M; Moriyama, E; Oreiro, R; Reed, M D; Kawaler, S D; Aerts, C; Vuckovic, M; Degroote, P; Telting, J H; Kjeldsen, H; Gilliland, R L; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Borucki, W J; Koch, D

    2010-01-01

    2M1938+4603 (KIC 9472174) displays a spectacular light curve dominated by a strong reflection effect and rather shallow, grazing eclipses. The orbital period is 0.126 days, the second longest period yet found for an eclipsing sdB+dM, but still close to the minimum 0.1-d period among such systems. The phase-folded light curve was used to detrend the orbital effects from the dataset, and the resulting amplitude spectrum shows a rich collection of pulsation peaks spanning frequencies from ~50 to 4500 uHz. The presence of a complex pulsation spectrum in both the p-mode and the g-mode regions has never been seen before in a compact pulsator. Eclipsing sdB+dM stars are very rare, with only seven systems known and only one with a pulsating primary. Pulsating stars in eclipsing binaries are especially important since they permit masses derived from seismological model fits to be cross checked with orbital mass constraints. We present a first analysis of this star based on the Kepler 9.7-day commissioning light curve ...

  7. Machine learning techniques to select variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Varela, Alejandro; Pérez, Muriel; Sabogal, Beatriz; Quiroz, Adolfo

    2017-09-01

    In order to perform a supervised classification of variable stars, we propose and evaluate a set of six features extracted from the magnitude density of the light curves. They are used to train automatic classification systems using state-of-the-art classifiers implemented in the R statistical computing environment. We find that random forests is the most successful method to select variables.

  8. Period change and δ Scuti pulsations of eclipsing binary star RZ Cassiopiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naficy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RZ Cas is an Algol-type partial eclipsing binary, the secondary component of which has filled its Roche lobe. Its visual magnitude is 6.18 and its period is 1.195 days. The most important characteristics of RZ Cas are period change (due to mass transfer and anomalies in the primary minimum of its light curve (due to δ Scuti pulsations. In this paper, light curves of RZ Cas are obtained using the Johnson's U, B, V, and R filters at Isfahan University Observatory, and B and V filters at Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University. Continuous photometric measurements have also been made to detect δ Scuti type pulsations. A new ephemeris and period is obtained: Min.I =HJD2453620.5500 + 1d.1952639 E, and a mass transfer rate of 1.5×10 -7 M⊙ yr -1 is estimated. None of the observed primary minima is flat as found by some observers before. The residuals from the observed minus computed light curves of the system give the pulsation light curves of the primary component. The frequencies of δ Scuti pulsation are searched for using the Period04 program. It is found that the dominant frequency is 65.5-68.5 cycle/day, corresponding to a period of 21-22 min.

  9. Variable stars in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud: the photometric catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrizio, L D; Maio, M; Bragaglia, A; Carretta, E; Gratton, R; Montegriffo, P; Zoccali, M

    2004-01-01

    The catalogue of the Johnson-Cousins B,V and I light curves obtained for 162 variable stars (135 RR Lyrae, 4 candidate Anomalous Cepheids, 11 Classical Cepheids, 11 eclipsing binaries and 1 delta Scuti star) in two areas close to the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud is presented along with coordinates, finding charts, periods, epochs, amplitudes, and mean quantities (intensity- and magnitude-averaged luminosities) of the variables with full coverage of the light variations. A star by star comparison is made with MACHO and OGLE II photometries based on both variable and constant stars in common, and the transformation relationships to our photometry are provided. The pulsation properties of the RR Lyrae stars in the sample are discussed in detail. Parameters of the Fourier decomposition of the light curves are derived for the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars with complete and regular curves (29 stars). They are used to estimate metallicities, absolute magnitudes, intrinsic (B-V)o colours, and temperatures of t...

  10. The MACHO Project LMC Variable Star Inventory; 4, Multimode RR Lyrae Stars, Distance to the LMC and Age of the Oldest Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock, C B; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A C; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Guern, J A; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Minniti, D; Peterson, B A; Pratt, M R; Quinn, P J; Rodgers, A W; Sutherland, W; Welch, D L

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of 73 double-mode RR Lyrae (RRd) stars in fields near the bar of the LMC. The stars are detected among the MACHO database of short-period variables that currently contains about 7900 RR Lyrae stars. Fundamental periods (P_0) for these stars are found in the range 0.46-0.55 days and first overtone-to-fundamental period ratios are found to be in the range 0.742 < P_1/P_0 < 0.748. A significant fraction of our current sample have period ratios smaller than any previously discovered RRd variables. We present mean magnitudes, colors, and lightcurve properties for all LMC RRd stars detected to date. The range in period ratios is unexpectedly large. We present a determination of absolute magnitudes for these stars based primarily on pulsation theory and the assumption that all observed stars are at the fundamental blue edge (FBE) of the instability strip. Comparison of the calibrated MACHO V and R_KC photometry with these derived absolute magnitudes yields an absorption-corrected distan...

  11. The Nature of Strange Modes in Classical Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buchler, J R; Kollath, Z

    1997-01-01

    Strange modes have been found in the radial spectrum of many luminous stars, most recently in Cepheids and RR Lyrae. We show that there is nothing strange about these modes -- they must exist even in the adiabatic limit. With a change of variables and without approximation the adiabatic linear pulsation equation is reduced to a Schroedinger equation in which the radial coordinate is the local sound-traversal time. In this formulation, the narrow hydrogen partial ionization region is seen to act as a potential barrier, separating the star into two regions. Resonances between the two regions result in the strange modes, for which the ratio of interior to exterior amplitude is at a minimum. The relative location of the barrier changes with the stellar parameters, and this gives rise to avoided level-crossings along a sequence of models. 2 The appearance of strange modes and the associated level crossings are exhibited with an analytic toy-model with the potential barrier approximated by a delta function. This to...

  12. Annual parallax measurements of a Mira variable star, U Lyncis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Inoue, Kan-ichiro; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Nagayama, Takumi; Ueno, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    We have measured the annual parallax of the water maser around a Mira star, U Lyncis (U Lyn) with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The value of the parallax is 1.27 ± 0.06 mas, corresponding to a distance of 786^{+40}_{-36}pc. This is the first VLBI measurement of the parallax of U Lyn. We obtained the period and the apparent magnitude of U Lyn based on near-infrared observations with the Kagoshima University 1 m telescope. The period and the mean magnitude of the K' band are 437.9 day and +1.15 ± 0.09 mag, respectively. Using our measured parallax and period, we find that the location of U Lyn on the period-luminosity plane is consistent with its nature as a Mira variable fundamental mode pulsator. Also, we estimated the distance using the period-luminosity relationship, our period and apparent magnitude and this gave a difference of about 100 pc between our parallactic distance and the distance estimated by using the period-luminosity relationship. We estimated the luminosity, radius, and mass of U Lyn to be 10100 ± 420 L⊙, 391 ± 34 R⊙, and 1.9 ± 0.7 M⊙, respectively. We found 50 water maser spots with a distribution ˜ 13 au around the star and the motion implies the existence of an outflow.

  13. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  14. Photometric Variability of Four Coronally Active Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. C. Pandey; K. P. Singh; R. Sagar; S. A. Drake

    2002-03-01

    We present photometric observations of four stars that are optical counterparts of soft X-ray/EUV sources, namely 1ES 0829+15.9, 1ES0920-13.6, 2RE J110159+223509 and 1ES 1737+61.2. We have discovered periodic variability in two of the stars, viz., MCC 527 (1ES 0829+15.9; Period = 0.828 ± 0.0047) and HD 81032 (1ES 0920-13.6; Period = ∼ 57.02 ± 0.560 days). HD 95559 (2RE J110159+223509) is found to show a period of 3. HD 160934 (1ES1737+61.2) also shows photometric variability but needs to be monitored further for finding its period. These stars most likely belong to the class of chromospherically active stars.

  15. Photometric Variability of the Be Star Population

    CERN Document Server

    Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; McSwain, M Virginia; Bjorkman, J E; Bjorkman, K S; Lund, Michael B; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Stassun, Keivan G; Stevens, Daniel J; Gaudi, B Scott; James, David J; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Siverd, Robert J; Beatty, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Be stars have generally been characterized by the emission lines in their spectra, and especially the time variability of those spectroscopic features. They are known to also exhibit photometric variability at multiple timescales, but have not been broadly compared and analyzed by that behavior. We have taken advantage of the advent of wide-field, long-baseline, and high-cadence photometric surveys that search for transiting exoplanets to perform a comprehensive analysis of brightness variations among a large number of known Be stars. The photometric data comes from the KELT transit survey, with a typical cadence of 30 minutes, baseline of up to ten years, photometric precision of about 1%, and coverage of about 60% of the sky. We analyze KELT light curves of 610 known Be stars in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres in an effort to study their variability. Consistent with other studies of Be star variability, we find most of the stars to be photometrically variable. We derive lower limits on the fracti...

  16. Finding binaries from phase modulation of pulsating stars with Kepler. IV. Detection limits and radial velocity verification

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bedding, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    We explore the detection limits of the phase modulation (PM) method of finding binary systems among multi-periodic pulsating stars. The method is an attractive way of finding non-transiting planets in the habitable zones of intermediate mass stars, whose rapid rotation inhibits detections via the radial velocity (RV) method. While oscillation amplitudes of a few mmag are required to find planets, many $\\delta$ Scuti stars have these amplitudes. In sub-optimal cases where the signal-to-noise of the oscillations is lower, low-mass brown dwarfs ($\\sim$13 M$_{\\rm Jup}$) are detectable at orbital periods longer than about 1 yr, and the lowest mass main-sequence stars (0.1-0.2 M$_{\\odot}$) are detectable at all orbital periods where the PM method can be applied. We use purpose-written Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) software for the calculation of the PM orbits, which offers robust uncertainties for comparison with RV solutions. Using Kepler data and ground-based RVs, we verify that these two methods are in agreeme...

  17. Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster NGC 2126

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shun-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Zhou, Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 2126. In about one square degree field covering the cluster, a total number of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binaries systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or $\\delta$ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined in this paper. By a method based on fitting spectral energy distributions(SEDs) of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of the this cluster are determined as: the metallicity to be 0.008 $Z_\\odot$, the age $\\log(t)$=...

  18. Theoretical study of $\\gamma$ Doradus pulsations in pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bouabid, M -P; Miglio, A; Dupret, M -A; Grigahcène, A; Noels, A

    2010-01-01

    The question of the existence of pre-main sequence (PMS) $\\gamma$~Doradus ($\\gamma$~Dor) has been raised by the observations of young clusters such as NGC~884 hosting $\\gamma$~Dor members. We have explored the properties of $\\gamma$~Dor type pulsations in a grid of PMS models covering the mass range $1.2 M_\\odot < M_* < 2.5 M_\\odot$ and we derive the theoretical instability strip (IS) for the PMS $\\gamma$~Dor pulsators. We explore the possibility of distinguishing between PMS and MS $\\gamma$~Dor by the behaviour of the period spacing of their high order $gravity$-modes ($g$-modes).

  19. Cool carbon stars in the halo and in dwarf galaxies: Hα, colours, and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauron, N.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Berlioz-Arthaud, P.; Klotz, A.

    2014-02-01

    The population of cool carbon (C) stars located far from the galactic plane is probably made of debris of small galaxies such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), which are disrupted by the gravitational field of the Galaxy. We aim to know this population better through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colours, and variability data. When possible, we compared the halo results to C star populations in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, Sgr, and the solar neighbourhood. We first present a few new discoveries of C stars in the halo and in Fornax. The number of spectra of halo C stars is now 125. Forty percent show Hα in emission. The narrow location in the JHK diagram of the halo C stars is found to differ from that of similar C stars in the above galaxies. The light curves of the Catalina and LINEAR variability databases were exploited to derive the pulsation periods of 66 halo C stars. A few supplementary periods were obtained with the TAROT telescopes. We confirm that the period distribution of the halo strongly resembles that of Fornax, and we found that it is very different from the C stars in the solar neighbourhood. There is a larger proportion of short-period Mira/SRa variables in the halo than in Sgr, but the survey for C stars in this dwarf galaxy is not complete, and the study of their variability needs to be continued to investigate the link between Sgr and the cool halo C stars. Based on observations made with the NTT and 3.6 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; programs 084.D-0302 and 070.D-0203), with the TAROT telescopes at La Silla and at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France), and on the exploitation of the Catalina Sky Survey and the LINEAR variability databases.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. GW Librae: A unique laboratory for pulsations in an accreting white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Toloza, O; Hermes, J J; Townsley, D M; Schreiber, M R; Szkody, P; Pala, A; Beuermann, K; Bildsten, L; Breedt, E; Cook, M; Godon, P; Henden, A A; Hubeny, I; Knigge, C; Long, K S; Marsh, T R; de Martino, D; Mukadam, A S; Myers, G; Nelson, P; Oksanen, A; Patterson, J; Sion, E M; Zorotovic, M

    2016-01-01

    Non-radial pulsations have been identified in a number of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables. These stars offer insight into the excitation of pulsation modes in atmospheres with mixed compositions of hydrogen, helium, and metals, and the response of these modes to changes in the white dwarf temperature. Among all pulsating cataclysmic variable white dwarfs, GW Librae stands out by having a well-established observational record of three independent pulsation modes that disappeared when the white dwarf temperature rose dramatically following its 2007 accretion outburst. Our analysis of HST ultraviolet spectroscopy taken in 2002, 2010 and 2011, showed that pulsations produce variations in the white dwarf effective temperature as predicted by theory. Additionally in May~2013, we obtained new HST/COS ultraviolet observations that displayed unexpected behaviour: besides showing variability at ~275s, which is close to the post-outburst pulsations detected with HST in 2010 and 2011, the white dwarf exhi...

  1. Variable Stars in the Cetus dSph Galaxy: Population Gradients and Connections with the Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Monelli, M; Gallart, C; Fiorentino, G; Drozdovsky, I; Aparicio, A; Bono, G; Cassisi, S; Skillman, E D; Stetson, P B

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the variable star content of the isolated, Local Group, dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Cetus. Multi-epoch, wide-field images collected with the VLT/VIMOS camera allowed us to detect 638 variable stars (630 RR Lyrae stars and 8 Anomalous Cepheids), 475 of which are new detections. We present a full catalogue of periods, amplitudes, and mean magnitudes. Motivated by the recent discovery that the pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae stars in the Tucana dSph revealed the presence of a metallicity gradient within the oldest (>10 Gyr old) stellar populations, we investigated the possibility of an analogous effect in Cetus. We found that, despite the obvious radial gradient in the Horizontal Branch (HB) and Red Giant Branch (RGB) morphologies, both becoming bluer on average for increasing distance from the center of Cetus, the properties of the RR Lyrae stars are homogeneous within the investigated area (out to r~15'), with no significant evidence of a radial gradient. We discuss this in connection ...

  2. Variable stars identification in digitized photographic data

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovsky, K V; Zubareva, A M; Samus, N N; Antipin, S V

    2016-01-01

    We identify 339 known and 316 new variable stars of various types among 250000 lightcurves obtained by digitizing 167 30x30cm photographic plates of the Moscow collection. We use these data to conduct a comprehensive test of 18 statistical characteristics (variability indices) in search for the best general-purpose variability detection statistic. We find that the highest peak on the DFT periodogram, interquartile range, median absolute deviation, and Stetson's L index are the most efficient in recovering variable objects from the set of photographic lightcurves used in our test.

  3. KIC 8410637: a 408-day period eclipsing binary containing a pulsating giant star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Frandsen; H. Lehmann; S. Hekker; J. Southworth; J. Debosscher; P. Beck; M. Hartmann; A. Pigulski; G. Kopacki; Z. Kołaczkowski; M. Stȩślicki; A.O. Thygesen; K. Brogaard; Y. Elsworth

    2013-01-01

    Context. Detached eclipsing binaries (dEBs) are ideal targets for accurately measuring the masses and radii of their component stars. If at least one of the stars has evolved off the main sequence (MS), the masses and radii give a strict constraint on the age of the stars. Several dEBs containing a

  4. Mass Loss and Variability in Evolved Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Marengo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss and variability are two linked, fundamental properties of evolved stars. In this paper I review our current understanding of these processes, with a particular focus on how observations and models are used to constrain reliable mass loss prescriptions for stellar evolution and population synthesis models.

  5. Mass Loss and Variability in Evolved Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Marengo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss and variability are two linked, fundamental properties of evolved stars. In this paper I review our current understanding of these processes, with a particular focus on how observations and models are used to constrain reliable mass loss prescriptions for stellar evolution and population synthesis models.

  6. Machine learning techniques to select variable stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Varela Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a supervised classification of variable stars, we propose and evaluate a set of six features extracted from the magnitude density of the light curves. They are used to train automatic classification systems using state-of-the-art classifiers implemented in the R statistical computing environment. We find that random forests is the most successful method to select variables.

  7. SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF ROMANO'S STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maryeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinamos observaciones espectroscópicas de archivo de la estrella LBV V532 (conocida como Estrella de Romano con fotometría en la banda B. Los datos espectroscópicos cubren un intervalo de 15 años, desde 1992 hasta 2007. Mostramos que en máximo de brillo el objeto se comporta como una supergigante con líneas de emisión, mientras que en mínimo V532 se mueve a lo largo de la secuencia de las estrellas WN tardías. En este sentido, la estrella tiene un comportamiento similar al de las bien conocidas variables luminosas azules (LBV: luminous blue variables AG Car y R 127, pero es un poco más caliente en mínimo. Identificamos unas 100 líneas espectrales en el intervalo 3700¿7300 °A. Nuestra espectroscopía para este objeto es la más completa en la actualidad. Obtenemos la velocidad del viento usando las líneas del triplete de He I (300 ± 30 km s¿1. También estimamos los parámetros físicos de la nebulosidad que rodea a V532.

  8. Detection of a Degenerate Companion of the SX Phoenicis Star KZ Hydrae by Studying its Long-Term Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. N.; Khokhuntod, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Boonyarak, C.; Marak, K.; López-González, M. J.; Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Jiang, S. Y.

    2008-05-01

    We present 109 new times of maximum light of the SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) star KZ Hydrae (KZ Hya) based mainly on our extensive photometric observations for two decades, leading to determination of a general ephemeris combined with the data in the literature. The O - C diagram reveals a continuously increasing period change combined with the light traveling time effect of the orbital motion of KZ Hya in a binary system with an orbital period of 26.8 ± 0.2 years. The deduced mass of the companion cannot be smaller than 0.83 M sun. Since no sign of the companion has ever been observed spectroscopically and the observed color index b - y excludes the possibility of the companion being a late-type main-sequence or dwarf star, KZ Hya becomes the first SX Phe star for which a degenerate companion is detected. The pulsation properties are studied by analyzing the Fourier spectra of the observed light curves while the fundamental parameters are deduced with the simultaneous multicolor uvbyβ data, showing this star to be a strong low-metallicity high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable pulsating in the fundamental radial mode. No signs of multiperiodicity or significant long-term changes in amplitude are detected in the pulsation of this variable.

  9. An observational asteroseismic study of the pulsating B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Aerts, C; Miglio, A; Carrier, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field {\\beta} Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physical description in the stellar structure and evolution model computations of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismic study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884. Our study illustrates the current status of ensemble asteroseismology of a young open cluster.

  10. K2 Variable Catalogue II: Variable Stars and Eclipsing Binaries in K2 Fields 1 and 0

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, D J; Lam, K W F; McCormac, J; Walker, S R; Brown, D J A; Osborn, H P; Pollacco, D L; Spake, J

    2015-01-01

    We have created a catalogue of variable stars found from a search of the publicly available K2 mission data from Campaigns 1 and 0. This catalogue provides the identifiers of 8395 variable stars, including 199 candidate eclipsing binaries with periods up to 60d and 3871 periodic or quasi-periodic objects, with periods up to 20d for Field 1 and 15d for Field 0. Lightcurves are extracted and detrended from the available data. These are searched using a combination of algorithmic and human classification, leading to a classifier for each object as an eclipsing binary, sinusoidal periodic, quasi periodic, or aperiodic variable. The source of the variability is not identified, but could arise in the non-eclipsing binary cases from pulsation or stellar activity. Each object is cross-matched against variable star related guest observer proposals to the K2 mission, which specifies the variable type in some cases. The detrended lightcurves are also compared to lightcurves currently publicly available. The resulting ca...

  11. Extreme Variables in Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The notion that low- to intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) gain mass at a constant rate during the early stages of their evolution appears to be challenged by observations of YSOs suffering sudden increases of the rate at which they gain mass from their circumstellar discs. Also, this idea that stars spend most of their lifetime with a low accretion rate and gain most of their final mass during short-lived episodes of high accretion bursts, helps to solve some long-standing problems in stellar evolution. The original classification of eruptive variables divides them in two separate subclasses known as FU Orionis stars (FUors) and EX Lupi stars (EXors). In this classical view FUors are at an early evolutionary stage and are still gaining mass from their parent envelopes, whilst EXors are thought to be older objects only surrounded by an accretion disc. The problem with this classical view is that it excludes younger protostars which have higher accretion rates but are too deeply embedded in circumstellar matter to be observed at optical wavelengths. Optically invisible protostars have been observed to display large variability in the near-infrared. These and some recent discoveries of new eruptive variables, show characteristics that can be attributed to both of the optically-defined subclasses of eruptive variables. The new objects have been proposed to be part of a new class of eruptive variables. However, a more accepted scenario is that in fact the original classes only represent two extremes of the same phenomena. In this sense eruptive variability could be explained as arising from one physical mechanism, i.e. unsteady accretion, where a variation in the parameters of such mechanism can cause the different characteristics observed in the members of this class. With the aim of studying the incidence of episodic accretion among young stellar objects, and to characterize the nature of these eruptive variables we searched for high amplitude variability

  12. A photometric variability study of massive stars in Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Salas, J; Barbá, R H

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a 1.5 year-long variability study of the stars in the Cygnus OB2 association, the region in the northern hemisphere with the highest density of optically visible massive stars. The survey was conducted using four pointings in the Johnson $R$ and $I$ bands with a 35 cm Meade LX200-ACF telescope equipped with a 3.2 Mpixel SBIG ST10-XME CCD camera and includes 300+ epochs in each filter. A total of 1425 objects were observed with limiting magnitudes of 15 in $R$ and 14 in $I$. The photometry was calibrated using reference stars with existing $UBVJHK$ photometry. Bright stars have precisions better than 0.01 magnitudes, allowing us to detect 52 confirmed and 19 candidate variables, many of them massive stars without previous detections as variables. Variables are classified as eclipsing, pulsating, irregular/long period, and Be. We derive the phased light curves for the eclipsing binaries, with periods ranging from 1.3 to 8.5 days.

  13. A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of beta Cephei pulsations in bright stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telting, J.H.; Schrijvers, C.; Ilyin, I.V.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Ridder, J. de; Aerts, C.C.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B type near-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed a total of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA), William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coud�uxiliary Telescope (ESO). Our sample contains 7

  14. KIC 4552982: outbursts and pulsations in the longest-ever pseudo-continuous light curve of a ZZ Ceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KIC 4552982 was the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf identified to lie in the Kepler field, resulting in the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever obtained for this type of variable star. In addition to the pulsations, this light curve exhibits stochastic episodes of brightness enhancement unlike any previously studied white dwarf phenomenon. We briefly highlight the basic outburst and pulsation properties in these proceedings.

  15. Variable Stars in the LMC Globular Cluster NGC 2257 New: Results Based on 2007-08 B, V Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2009-09-01

    The variable star population in the Large Magellanic Cloud outer-halo globular cluster NGC 2257 has been reinvestigated using photometry (to ~20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9-m telescope on 14 nights in Dec'07 and Jan'08. The derived periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there were discrepancies these have been resolved. Accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters were computed for the B and V light curves. Six new variable stars were discovered (V45-V50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45). Examination of archival HST images and previously-published photometry shows that the excess brightness of two bright RR Lyrae stars (V48, V50) is due to contamination from close red giant branch stars. Among the previously known variable stars three double-mode (RRd) RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16 and V34) and several Blazhko variables were discovered. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko light-curve variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period ~0.36 day and period ratios P1/P0~0.7450, and the LPV located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison with similar stars in other environments shows that the RRd stars in NGC 2257 are most similar to those in IC 4499.

  16. Application of the Baade-Wesselink method to a pulsating cluster Herbig Ae star: H254 in IC348

    CERN Document Server

    Ripepi, V; Marconi, M; Catanzaro, G; Claudi, R; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J; Palla, F; Leccia, S; Bernabei, S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present new photometric and radial velocity data for the PMS $\\delta$ Sct star H254, member of the young cluster IC 348. Photometric V,R$_C$,I$_C$ light curves were obtained at the Loiano and Asiago telescopes. The radial velocity data was acquired by means of the SARG@TNG spectrograph. High-resolution spectroscopy allowed us to derive precise stellar parameters and the chemical composition of the star, obtaining: T$_{\\rm eff}$\\,=\\,6750\\,$\\pm$\\,150 K; $\\log g$\\,=\\,4.1\\,$\\pm$\\,0.4 dex; [Fe/H]=-0.07$\\pm$0.12 dex. Photometric and spectroscopic data were used to estimate the total absorption in the $V$ band A$_{\\rm V}$=2.06$\\pm$0.05 mag, in agreement with previous estimates. We adopted the technique of the difference in phase and amplitude between different photometric bands and radial velocities to verify that H254 is (definitely) pulsating in a radial mode. This occurrence allowed us to apply the CORS realization of the Baade--Wesselink method to obtain a value for the linear radius of H254 equ...

  17. Short-term variability and mass loss in Be stars. I. BRITE satellite photometry of η and μ Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, D.; Rivinius, Th.; Pigulski, A.; Carciofi, A. C.; Martayan, Ch.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Wade, G. A.; Weiss, W. W.; Grunhut, J.; Handler, G.; Kuschnig, R.; Mehner, A.; Pablo, H.; Popowicz, A.; Rucinski, S.; Whittaker, G.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Empirical evidence for the involvement of nonradial pulsations (NRPs) in the mass loss from Be stars ranges from (i) a singular case (μ Cen) of repetitive mass ejections triggered by multi-mode beating to (ii) several photometric reports about enormous numbers of pulsation modes that suddenly appear during outbursts and on to (iii) effective single-mode pulsators. Aims: The purpose of this study is to develop a more detailed empirical description of the star-to-disk mass transfer and to check the hypothesis that spates of transient nonradial pulsation modes accompany and even drive mass-loss episodes. Methods: The BRITE Constellation of nanosatellites was used to obtain mmag photometry of the Be stars η and μ Cen. Results: In the low-inclination star μ Cen, light pollution by variable amounts of near-stellar matter prevented any new insights into the variability and other properties of the central star. In the equator-on star η Cen, BRITE photometry and Heros echelle spectroscopy from the 1990s reveal an intricate clockwork of star-disk interactions. The mass transfer is modulated with the frequency difference of two NRP modes and an amplitude three times as large as the amplitude sum of the two NRP modes. This process feeds a high-amplitude circumstellar activity running with the incoherent and slightly lower so-called Štefl frequency. The mass-loss-modulation cycles are tightly coupled to variations in the value of the Štefl frequency and in its amplitude, albeit with strongly drifting phase differences. Conclusions: The observations are well described by the decomposition of the mass loss into a pulsation-related engine in the star and a viscosity-dominated engine in the circumstellar disk. Arguments are developed that large-scale gas-circulation flows occur at the interface. The propagation rates of these eddies manifest themselves as Štefl frequencies. Bursts in power spectra during mass-loss events can be understood as the noise inherent to

  18. Search for transiting exoplanets and variable stars in the open cluster NGC 7243

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Z; Hambálek, L; Errmann, R; Adam, Ch; Buder, S; Butterley, T; Dhillon, V S; Dincel, B; Gilbert, H; Ginski, Ch; Hardy, L K; Kellerer, A; Kitze, M; Kundra, E; Littlefair, S P; Mugrauer, M; Nedoroščík, J; Neuhäuser, R; Pannicke, A; Raetz, S; Schmidt, J G; Schmidt, T O B; Seeliger, M; Vaňko, M; Wilson, R W

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the first five observing campaigns for the open stellar cluster NGC 7243 in the frame of project Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI). The project focuses on the monitoring of young and nearby stellar clusters, with the aim to detect young transiting exoplanets, and to study other variability phenomena on time-scales from minutes to years. After five observing campaigns and additional observations during 2013 and 2014, a clear and repeating transit-like signal was detected in the light curve of J221550.6+495611. Furthermore, we detected and analysed 37 new eclipsing binary stars in the studied region. The best fit parameters and light curves of all systems are given. Finally, we detected and analysed 26 new, presumably pulsating variable stars in the studied region. The follow-up investigation of these objects, including spectroscopic measurements of the exoplanet candidate, is currently planned.

  19. OMC automatic variable star classifi cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López del Fresno, M.; Sarro Baro, L. M.; Solano Márquez, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC), on-board the ESA mission INTEGRAL, has stored more than 190.000 light curves for almost 10 years. Among the targets included in its input catalogue there is a relevant amount of variable stars. In many cases, OMC has gathered photometric information of sufficient quality to enable a stellar variability analysis of those stars. In this contribution we show the full pipeline of our classification system, from the period calculation to the final membership classification. We also include relevant points of the system such as the parameters used for filtering good quality light curves, specific optimizations applied to the classification algorithms and an overview of the results obtained.

  20. Kepler observations of the pulsating subdwarf B star KIC 2697388: the detection of converging frequency multiplets in the full data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J. W.; Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Østensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.

    2017-02-01

    The Kepler spacecraft observed ˜150 000 stars over the course of its four-year mission, of which 18 were discovered to be pulsating subdwarf B stars, including KIC 2697388. We analyse three years of Kepler spacecraft short-cadence data as well as 21 low-resolution spectra of the pulsating subdwarf B star KIC 2697388. Our spectra have a radial-velocity scatter of 9.5 km s-1, and while insufficient to completely rule out binarity, we rule out short-period, low-inclination orbits for KIC 2697388. From the short-cadence Kepler data, we detect 253 periodicities, most with periods from 1 to 2.5 h, which we associate with gravity-mode pulsations. Twenty-three periods were also detected in the short-period pressure-mode region. We applied standard seismic tools for mode identification, including asymptotic overtone period spacings and rotationally induced frequency multiplets. We classify 89 per cent of the periodicities with mode identifications; most of low degree (ℓ ≤ 2), but 42 are identified as ℓ ≥ 3. Frequency multiplets provide a rotation period for the star of ˜42 d. A unique feature is seen in KIC 2697388's data; in all ℓ ≥ 2 multiplets, the splittings decrease over the course of the observations. If the trend continues, ℓ ≥ 2 multiplets would become singlets within a decade.

  1. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal http://var.astro.cz.

  2. ULTRACAM photometry of eclipsing cataclysmic variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Feline, William James

    2008-01-01

    The accurate determination of the masses of cataclysmic variable stars is critical to our understanding of their origin, evolution and behaviour. Observations of cataclysmic variables also afford an excellent opportunity to constrain theoretical physical models of the accretion discs housed in these systems. In particular, the brightness distributions of the accretion discs of eclipsing systems can be mapped at a spatial resolution unachievable in any other astrophysical situation. This thesis addresses both of these important topics via the analysis of the light curves of six eclipsing dwarf novae, obtained using ULTRACAM, a novel high-speed imaging photometer.

  3. Variable Star Network: World Center for Transient Object Astronomy and Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taichi; Uemura, Makoto; Ishioka, Ryoko; Nogami, Daisaku; Kunjaya, Chatief; Baba, Hajime; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2004-03-01

    Variable Star Network (VSNET) is a global professional-amateur network of researchers in variable stars and related objects, particularly in transient objects, such as cataclysmic variables, black-hole binaries, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts. The VSNET has been playing a pioneering role in establishing the field of transient object astronomy, by effectively incorporating modern advances in observational astronomy and global electronic networks, as well as collaborative progress in theoretical astronomy and astronomical computing. The VSNET is now one of the best-featured global networks in this field of astronomy. We review the historical progress, design concept, associated technology, and a wealth of scientific achievements powered by VSNET.

  4. Temporal Variability of Stars and Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, T A; Brown, T M; Street, R A

    2009-01-01

    Although the Sun is our closest star by many orders of magnitude and despite having sunspot records stretching back to ancient China, our knowledge of the Sun's magnetic field is far from complete. Indeed, even now, after decades of study, the most obvious manifestations of magnetic fields in the Sun (e.g. sunspots, flares and the corona) are scarcely understood at all. These failures in spite of intense effort suggest that to improve our grasp of magnetic fields in stars and of astrophysical dynamos in general, we must broaden our base of examples beyond the Sun; we must study stars with a variety of ages, masses, rotation rates, and other properties, so we can test models against as broad a range of circumstances as possible. Over the next decade, an array of indirect techniques will be supplemented by rapidly maturing new capabilities such as gyrochronology, asteroseismology and precision photometry from space, which will transform our understanding of the temporal variability of stars and stellar systems....

  5. Mass-luminosity relation and pulsational properties of Wolf-Rayet stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyev, Yu A

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of Population I stars with initial masses from 70M_\\odot to 130M_\\odot is considered under various assumptions on the mass loss rate \\dot M. The mass-luminosity relation of W-R stars is shown to be most sensitive to the mass loss rate during the helium burning phase \\dot M_{3\\alpha}. Together with the mass-luminosity relation obtained for all evolutionary sequences several more exact relations are determined for the constant ratio f_{3\\alpha}=\\dot M/\\dot M_{3\\alpha} with 0.5 \\le f_{3\\alpha} \\le 3. Evolutionary models of W-R stars were used as initial conditions in hydrodynamic computations of radial nonlinear stellar oscillations. The oscillation amplitude is larger in W-R stars with smaller initial mass or with lower mass loss rate due to higher surface abundances of carbon and oxygen. In the evolving W-R star the oscillation amplitude decreases with decreasing stellar mass M and for M 10M_\\odot are shown to be also excited by the kappa-mechanism but the instability driving zone is at the bottom o...

  6. Variable central stars of young planetary nebulae. I. Photometric multisite observations of IC 418.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, G.; Mendez, R. H.; Medupe, R.; Costero, R.; Birch, P. V.; Alvarez, M.; Sullivan, D. J.; Kurtz, D. W.; Herrero, A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ciardullo, R.; Breger, M.

    1997-04-01

    We report the results of a photometric multisite campaign devoted to HD 35914, the variable central star of the Planetary Nebula IC 418. From the analysis of 120 hours of data acquired with a variety of techniques, we find that HD 35914 exhibits two distinct kinds of variability: irregular light modulation with a time scale of days, as well as cyclic variations with a time scale of 6.5 hours. The short-term variations are not strictly periodic, and cannot be reasonably explained by multiperiodicity; they appear to be semiregular. The star is generally redder when it is brighter; this behavior appears to be connected with the long-term variability. A re-analysis of most of the older data obtained for HD 35914 by various researchers suggests that the basic behavior of the star did not change during the last 15 years. We carefully discuss all the possible causes for the light variations of the star. Rotational modulation of surface features cannot explain the observations, and binarity is unlikely. Pulsations may be excited, but wind variability (or a combination of both) can also not be ruled out.

  7. K2 Variable Catalogue II: Machine Learning Classification of Variable Stars and Eclipsing Binaries in K2 Fields 0-4

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, D J; Lam, K W F; McCormac, J; Osborn, H P; Spake, J; Walker, S; Brown, D J A; Kristiansen, M H; Pollacco, D; West, R; Wheatley, P J

    2015-01-01

    We are entering an era of unprecedented quantities of data from current and planned survey telescopes. To maximise the potential of such surveys, automated data analysis techniques are required. Here we implement a new methodology for variable star classification, through the combination of Kohonen Self Organising Maps (SOM, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm) and the more common Random Forest (RF) supervised machine learning technique. We apply this method to data from the K2 mission fields 0-4, finding 154 ab-type RR Lyraes (15 newly discovered), 377 Delta Scuti pulsators, 133 Gamma Doradus pulsators, 183 detached eclipsing binaries, 290 semi-detached or contact eclipsing binaries and 9399 other periodic (mostly spot-modulated) sources, once class significance cuts are taken into account. We present lightcurve features for all K2 stellar targets, including their three strongest detected frequencies, which can be used to study stellar rotation periods where the observed variability arises from spot m...

  8. Massive pulsating stars observed by BRITE-Constellation. I. The triple system Beta Centauri (Agena)

    CERN Document Server

    Pigulski, A; Popowicz, A; Kuschnig, R; Moffat, A F J; Rucinski, S M; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Weiss, W W; Handler, G; Wade, G A; Koudelka, O; Matthews, J M; Mochnacki, St; Orleański, P; Pablo, H; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Whittaker, G; Zocłońska, E; Zwintz, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to precisely determine the masses and detect pulsation modes in the two massive components of Beta Cen with BRITE-Constellation photometry. In addition, seismic models for the components are considered and the effects of fast rotation are discussed. This is done to test the limitations of seismic modeling for this very difficult case. A simultaneous fit of visual and spectroscopic orbits is used to self-consistently derive the orbital parameters, and subsequently the masses, of the components. The derived masses are equal to 12.02 +/- 0.13 and 10.58 +/- 0.18 M_Sun. The parameters of the wider, A - B system, presently approaching periastron passage, are constrained. Analysis of the combined blue- and red-filter BRITE-Constellation photometric data of the system revealed the presence of 19 periodic terms, of which eight are likely g modes, nine are p modes, and the remaining two are combination terms. It cannot be excluded that one or two low-frequency terms are rotational frequencies. It is pos...

  9. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency Identification and Mode Determination of Gamma Doradus Star HD135825

    CERN Document Server

    Brunsden, E; Cottrell, P L; Wright, D J; De Cat, P; Kilmartin, P M

    2012-01-01

    We present the mode identification of frequencies found in spectroscopic observations of the Gamma Doradus star HD135825. Four frequencies were successfully identified: 1.3150 +/- 0.0003 1/d; 0.2902 +/- 0.0004 1/d; 1.4045 +/- 0.0005 1/d; and 1.8829 +/- 0.0005 1/d. These correspond to (l, m) modes of (1,1), (2,-2), (4,0) and (1,1) respectively. Additional frequencies were found but they were below the signal-to-noise limit of the Fourier spectrum and not suitable for mode identification. The rotational axis inclination and vsini of the star were determined to be 87 degrees (nearly edge-on) and 39.7 km/s (moderate for Gamma Doradus stars) respectively. A simultaneous fit of these four modes to the line profile variations in the data gives a reduced chi square of 12.7. We confirm, based on the frequencies found, that HD135825 is a bona fide Gamma Doradus star.

  10. Radial velocity variations in red giant stars : pulsations, spots and planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, Saskia

    2007-01-01

    Radial velocity variations in K giants are observed on long (order hundreds of days) and short (order hours) time scales. Short term variations are most likely caused by solar-like oscillations, stochastically excited in the turbulent atmosphere of the stars. Long term variations can be caused by e

  11. Radial pulsations of strange stars and the internal composition of pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G. (La Plata Univ., Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas); Horvath, J.E. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico)

    1991-06-15

    We present calculations of radial oscillations of homogeneous strange stars, showing that the particular form of the equation of state allows some simple and general scaling relations which may prove to be very useful for the search of these objects. (author).

  12. Variable stars in the newly discovered Milky Way satellite in Bootes

    CERN Document Server

    Dall'Ora, M; Kinemuchi, K; Ripepi, V; Marconi, M; Fabrizio, L D; Greco, C; Rodgers, C T; Kuehn, C; Smith, H A

    2006-01-01

    We present $V,I$ light curves for 12 variable stars identified in the newly discovered satellite of the Milky Way in the Bootes constellation (Belokurov et al. 2006).Our sample includes 11 RR Lyrae stars (5 first overtone, 5 fundamental mode and 1 double mode pulsator),and one long period variable close to the galaxy red giant branch tip. The RR Lyrae stars trace very well the average $V$ luminosity of the galaxy horizontal branch, leading to a true distance modulus for the galaxy of $\\mu_0$=19.11 $\\pm$ 0.08 mag for an assumed metal abundance of [Fe/H]=-2.5 (Monoz et al. 2006), and for $E(B-V)$=0.02 mag. Average periods are =0.69 d and =0.37 d for {\\it ab-} and {\\it c-} type RR Lyrae stars, respectively, making of Bootes the second pure Oosterhoff type II (OoII) dSph after Ursa Minor. The location of the double mode RR Lyrae (RRd) in the Petersen diagram is consistent with RRd stars in OoII clusters, and corresponds to an intrinsic luminosity of $log L/logL\\odot$=1.72 (for Z=10$^{-4}$ and M=0.80 M$\\odot$) acc...

  13. The temporal spectrum of the sdB pulsating star HS 2201+2610 at 2 ms resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvotti, R.; Janulis, R.; Schuh, S. L.; Charpinet, S.; Oswalt, T.; Silvestri, N.; Gonzalez Perez, J. M.; Kalytis, R.; Meištas, E.; Ališauskas, D.; Marinoni, S.; Jiang, X. J.; Reed, M. D.; Riddle, R. L.; Bernabei, S.; Heber, U.; Bärnbantner, O.; Cordes, O.; Dreizler, S.; Goehler, E.; Østensen, R.; Bochanski, J.; Carlson, G.

    2002-07-01

    In this article we present the results of more than 180 hours of time-series photometry on the low gravity (log g=5.4, Teff=29 300 K, log He/H=-3.0 by number) sdB pulsating star HS 2201+2610, obtained between September 2000 and August 2001. The temporal spectrum is resolved and shows 5 close frequencies: three main signals at 2860.94, 2824.10 and 2880.69 mu Hz, with amplitudes of about 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% respectively, are detected from single run observations; two further peaks with very low amplitude (Max-Plank-Institute für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy), SARA 0.9 m (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy, at Kitt Peak, Arizona), Tenerife 0.8 m (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias), NOT 2.6 m (operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias), Beijing 0.85 m (Beijing Astronomical Observatory), Fick 0.6 m (Iowa State University), Wendelstein 0.8 m (University of Munich).

  14. Catalogue of variable stars in Milky Way globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Globular cluster variable stars have been studied for more than a century. In the early investigations, more than 90% of the known variables were of the RR Lyrae type. However, in the interim, technological advances have facilitated the discovery of other types of variables. As a result, although RR Lyrae stars still dominate, they now constitute less than 70% of the known variables.

  15. Oscillation modes in the rapidly rotating Slowly Pulsating B-type star $\\bmu$ Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J; Jerzykiewicz, M; Handler, G

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a search for identification of modes responsible for the six most significant frequency peaks detected in the rapidly rotating SPB star $\\mu$ Eridani. All published and some unpublished photometric data are used in our new analysis. The mode identification is carried out with the method developed by Daszy\\'nska-Daszkiewicz et al. employing the phases and amplitudes from multi-band photometric data and relying on the traditional approximation for the treatment of oscillations in rotating stars. Models consistent with the observed mean parameters are considered. For the five frequency peaks, the candidates for the identifications are searched amongst unstable modes. In the case of the third frequency, which is an exact multiple of the orbital frequency, this condition is relaxed. The systematic search is continued up to a harmonic degree $\\ell =6$. Determination of the angular numbers, $(\\ell,m)$, is done simultaneously with the rotation rate, $V_{\\rm rot}$, and the inclination angle, $i$,...

  16. The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Belkhir, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...

  17. THE CATALINA SURVEYS PERIODIC VARIABLE STAR CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, A. J.; Graham, M. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Donalek, C.; Williams, R. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, CA 91225 (United States); Catelan, M.; Torrealba, G. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); García-Álvarez, D. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Avenida Vía Láctea, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Prieto, J. L.; Beshore, E. [Department of Astronomy, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Ln., Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Larson, S.; Christen sen, E.; Boattini, A.; Gibbs, A.; Hill, R.; Kowalski, R.; Johnson, J. [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-07-01

    We present ∼47,000 periodic variables found during the analysis of 5.4 million variable star candidates within a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region covered by the Catalina Surveys Data Release-1 (CSDR1). Combining these variables with type ab RR Lyrae from our previous work, we produce an online catalog containing periods, amplitudes, and classifications for ∼61,000 periodic variables. By cross-matching these variables with those from prior surveys, we find that >90% of the ∼8000 known periodic variables in the survey region are recovered. For these sources, we find excellent agreement between our catalog and prior values of luminosity, period, and amplitude as well as classification. We investigate the rate of confusion between objects classified as contact binaries and type c RR Lyrae (RRc's) based on periods, colors, amplitudes, metallicities, radial velocities, and surface gravities. We find that no more than a few percent of the variables in these classes are misidentified. By deriving distances for this clean sample of ∼5500 RRc's, we trace the path of the Sagittarius tidal streams within the Galactic halo. Selecting 146 outer-halo RRc's with SDSS radial velocities, we confirm the presence of a coherent halo structure that is inconsistent with current N-body simulations of the Sagittarius tidal stream. We also find numerous long-period variables that are very likely associated within the Sagittarius tidal stream system. Based on the examination of 31,000 contact binary light curves we find evidence for two subgroups exhibiting irregular light curves. One subgroup presents significant variations in mean brightness that are likely due to chromospheric activity. The other subgroup shows stable modulations over more than a thousand days and thereby provides evidence that the O'Connell effect is not due to stellar spots.

  18. A planet in an 840-d orbit around a Kepler main-sequence A star found from phase modulation of its pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2016-01-01

    We have detected a 12 M$_{\\rm Jup}$ planet orbiting in or near the habitable zone of a main-sequence A star via the pulsational phase shifts induced by orbital motion. The planet has an orbital period of $840\\pm20$ d and an eccentricity of 0.15. All known planets orbiting main-sequence A stars have been found via the transit method or by direct imaging. The absence of astrometric or radial-velocity detections of planets around these hosts makes ours the first discovery using the orbital motion. It is also the first A star known to host a planet within 1$\\sigma$ of the habitable zone. We find evidence for planets in a large fraction of the parameter space where we are able to detect them. This supports the idea that A stars harbor high-mass planets in wide orbits.

  19. Discovery of Three Variable Stars in Direction toward NGC 4565

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Li; Hong Wu; Xiao-Bin Zhang; Ya-Bo Wu; Xu Zhou; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jun Ma

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a variable star search in a field next to the edgeon galaxies NGC 4565 from the archive data of Beijing-Arizona-Taibei-Connecticut Multicolor Sky Survey. Three new variable stars were discovered. Based on spectra obtained from the 2.16 m NAOC telescope, we identify two of these as RR Lyr stars and one as a special T Tauri star.

  20. Combining BRITE and ground-based photometry for the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani: impact on photometric pulsation mode identification and detection of several g modes

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G; Popowicz, A; Pigulski, A; Kuschnig, R; Zoclonska, E; Moffat, A F J; Weiss, W W; Grant, C C; Pablo, H; Whittaker, G N; Rucinski, S M; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Zwintz, K; Wade, G A

    2016-01-01

    We report a simultaneous ground and space-based photometric study of the Beta Cephei star Nu Eridani. Half a year of observations have been obtained by four of the five satellites constituting BRITE-Constellation, supplemented with ground-based photoelectric photometry. We show that carefully combining the two data sets virtually eliminates the aliasing problem that often hampers time-series analyses. We detect 40 periodic signals intrinsic to the star in the light curves. Despite a lower detection limit we do not recover all the pressure and mixed modes previously reported in the literature, but we newly detect six additional gravity modes. This behaviour is a consequence of temporal changes in the pulsation amplitudes that we also detected for some of the p modes. We point out that the dependence of theoretically predicted pulsation amplitude on wavelength is steeper in visual passbands than those observationally measured, to the extent that the three dominant pulsation modes of Nu Eridani would be incorrec...

  1. A non-pulsating neutron star in the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 / G353.6-0.7 with a carbon atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkov, D; Suleimanov, V; Simon, S; Werner, K; Santangelo, A

    2013-01-01

    Context: The CCO candidate in the center of the supernova remnant shell HESS J1731-347 / G353.6-0.7 shows no pulsations and exhibits a blackbody-like X-ray spectrum. If the absence of pulsations is interpreted as evidence for the emitting surface area being the entire neutron star surface, the assumption of the measured flux being due to a blackbody emission translates into a source distance that is inconsistent with current estimates of the remnant's distance. Aims: With the best available observational data, we extended the pulse period search down to a sub-millisecond time scale and used a carbon atmosphere model to describe the X-ray spectrum of the CCO and to estimate geometrical parameters of the neutron star. Methods: To search for pulsations we used data of an observation of the source with XMM-Newton performed in timing mode. For the spectral analysis, we used earlier XMM-Newton observations performed in imaging mode, which permits a more accurate treatment of the background. The carbon atmosphere mo...

  2. Combining BRITE and ground-based photometry for the β Cephei star ν Eridani: impact on photometric pulsation mode identification and detection of several g modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, G.; Rybicka, M.; Popowicz, A.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Zocłońska, E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Weiss, W. W.; Grant, C. C.; Pablo, H.; Whittaker, G. N.; Ruciński, S. M.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Zwintz, K.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report a simultaneous ground- and space-based photometric study of the β Cephei star ν Eridani. Half a year of observations have been obtained by four of the five satellites constituting BRITE-Constellation, supplemented with ground-based photoelectric photometry. We show that carefully combining the two data sets virtually eliminates the aliasing problem that often hampers time series analyses. We detect 40 periodic signals intrinsic to the star in the light curves. Despite a lower detection limit, we do not recover all the pressure and mixed modes previously reported in the literature, but we newly detect six additional gravity modes. This behaviour is a consequence of temporal changes in the pulsation amplitudes that we also detected for some of the p modes. We point out that the dependence of theoretically predicted pulsation amplitude on wavelength is steeper in visual passbands than those observationally measured, to the extent that three dominant pulsation modes of ν Eridani would be incorrectly identified using data in optical filters only. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  3. Combining BRITE and ground-based photometry for the β Cephei star ν Eridani: impact on photometric pulsation mode identification and detection of several g modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, G.; Rybicka, M.; Popowicz, A.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Zocłońska, E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Weiss, W. W.; Grant, C. C.; Pablo, H.; Whittaker, G. N.; Ruciński, S. M.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Zwintz, K.; Wade, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    We report a simultaneous ground and space-based photometric study of the β Cephei star ν Eridani. Half a year of observations have been obtained by four of the five satellites constituting BRITE-Constellation, supplemented with ground-based photoelectric photometry. We show that carefully combining the two data sets virtually eliminates the aliasing problem that often hampers time-series analyses. We detect 40 periodic signals intrinsic to the star in the light curves. Despite a lower detection limit we do not recover all the pressure and mixed modes previously reported in the literature, but we newly detect six additional gravity modes. This behaviour is a consequence of temporal changes in the pulsation amplitudes that we also detected for some of the p modes. We point out that the dependence of theoretically predicted pulsation amplitude on wavelength is steeper in visual passbands than those observationally measured, to the extent that the three dominant pulsation modes of ν Eridani would be incorrectly identified using data in optical filters only. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  4. GW Librae: a unique laboratory for pulsations in an accreting white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, O.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Townsley, D. M.; Schreiber, M. R.; Szkody, P.; Pala, A.; Beuermann, K.; Bildsten, L.; Breedt, E.; Cook, M.; Godon, P.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; de Martino, D.; Mukadam, A. S.; Myers, G.; Nelson, P.; Oksanen, A.; Patterson, J.; Sion, E. M.; Zorotovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-radial pulsations have been identified in a number of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables. These stars offer insight into the excitation of pulsation modes in atmospheres with mixed compositions of hydrogen, helium, and metals, and the response of these modes to changes in the white dwarf temperature. Among all pulsating cataclysmic variable white dwarfs, GW Librae stands out by having a well-established observational record of three independent pulsation modes that disappeared when the white dwarf temperature rose dramatically following its 2007 accretion outburst. Our analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectroscopy taken in 2002, 2010, and 2011, showed that pulsations produce variations in the white dwarf effective temperature as predicted by theory. Additionally in 2013 May, we obtained new HST/Cosmic Origin Spectrograph ultraviolet observations that displayed unexpected behaviour: besides showing variability at ≃275 s, which is close to the post-outburst pulsations detected with HST in 2010 and 2011, the white dwarf exhibits high-amplitude variability on an ≃4.4 h time-scale. We demonstrate that this variability is produced by an increase of the temperature of a region on white dwarf covering up to ≃30 per cent of the visible white dwarf surface. We argue against a short-lived accretion episode as the explanation of such heating, and discuss this event in the context of non-radial pulsations on a rapidly rotating star.

  5. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency Identification and Mode Determination of Gamma Doradus Star HD135825

    OpenAIRE

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K.R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D J; De Cat, P.; Kilmartin, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the mode identification of frequencies found in spectroscopic observations of the Gamma Doradus star HD135825. Four frequencies were successfully identified: 1.3150 +/- 0.0003 1/d; 0.2902 +/- 0.0004 1/d; 1.4045 +/- 0.0005 1/d; and 1.8829 +/- 0.0005 1/d. These correspond to (l, m) modes of (1,1), (2,-2), (4,0) and (1,1) respectively. Additional frequencies were found but they were below the signal-to-noise limit of the Fourier spectrum and not suitable for mode identification. The r...

  6. Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 4590 (M68

    CERN Document Server

    Sariya, Devesh Path; Yadav, R K S

    2013-01-01

    We present results of time series photometry to search for variable stars in the field of metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4590 (M68). Periods have been revised for 40 known variables and no significant changes were found. A considerable change in Blazhko effect for V25 has been detected. Among nine newly discovered variable candidates, 5 stars are of RRc Bailey type variables while 4 stars are unclassified. The variable stars V10, V21, V50 and V51 are found to be cluster members based on the radial velocity data taken from literature.

  7. Variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 4590 (M68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Lata, Sneh; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2014-02-01

    We present results of time series photometry to search for variable stars in the field of metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4590 (M68). Periods have been revised for 40 known variables and no significant changes were found. A considerable change in Blazhko effect for V25 has been detected. Among nine newly discovered variable candidates, 5 stars are of RRc Bailey type variables while 4 stars are unclassified. The variable stars V10, V21, V50 and V51 are found to be cluster members based on the radial velocity data taken from literature.

  8. Investigating the origin of cyclical wind variability in hot, massive stars - I. On the dipolar magnetic field hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    David-Uraz, A; Petit, V; ud-Doula, A; Sundqvist, J O; Grunhut, J; Shultz, M; Neiner, C; Alecian, E; Henrichs, H F; Bouret, J -C

    2014-01-01

    OB stars exhibit various types of spectral variability associated with wind structures, including the apparently ubiquitous discrete absorption components (DACs). These are proposed to be caused by either magnetic fields or non-radial pulsations (NRPs). In this paper, we evaluate the possible relation between large-scale, dipolar magnetic fields and the DAC phenomenon by investigating the magnetic properties of a sample of 13 OB stars exhibiting well-documented DAC behaviour. Using high-precision spectropolarimetric data acquired in part in the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project, we find no evidence for surface dipolar magnetic fields in any of these stars. Using Bayesian inference, we compute upper limits on the strengths of the fields and use these limits to assess two potential mechanisms by which the field may influence wind outflow: magnetic wind confinement and local photospheric brightness enhancements. Within the limits we derive, both mechanisms fail to provide a systematic pro...

  9. Triple system HD 201433 with a SPB star component seen by BRITE - Constellation: Pulsation, differential rotation, and angular momentum transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinger, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Beck, P. G.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Tkachenko, A.; Pakhomov, Y.; Ryabchikova, T.; Lüftinger, T.; Palle, , P. L.; Semenko, E.; Handler, G.; Koudelka, O.; Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pablo, H.; Popowicz, A.; Rucinski, S.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Stellar rotation affects the transport of chemical elements and angular momentum and is therefore a key process during stellar evolution, which is still not fully understood. This is especially true for massive OB-type stars, which are important for the chemical enrichment of the Universe. It is therefore important to constrain the physical parameters and internal angular momentum distribution of massive OB-type stars to calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. Stellar internal rotation can be probed through asteroseismic studies of rotationally split non radial oscillations but such results are still quite rare, especially for stars more massive than the Sun. The slowly pulsating B9V star HD 201433 is known to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic triple system, with two low-mass companions orbiting with periods of about 3.3 and 154 days. Aims: Our goal is to measure the internal rotation profile of HD 201433 and investigate the tidal interaction with the close companion. Methods: We used probabilistic methods to analyse the BRITE - Constellation photometry and radial velocity measurements, to identify a representative stellar model, and to determine the internal rotation profile of the star. Results: Our results are based on photometric observations made by BRITE - Constellation and the Solar Mass Ejection Imager on board the Coriolis satellite, high-resolution spectroscopy, and more than 96 yr of radial velocity measurements. We identify a sequence of nine frequency doublets in the photometric time series, consistent with rotationally split dipole modes with a period spacing of about 5030 s. We establish that HD 201433 is in principle a solid-body rotator with a very slow rotation period of 297 ± 76 days. Tidal interaction with the inner companion has, however, significantly accelerated the spin of the surface layers by a factor of approximately one hundred. The angular momentum transfer onto the surface of HD 201433 is also reflected by the

  10. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XXV: III. A central cluster or the galaxy nucleus?

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Federici, Luciana; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Musella, Ilaria; Testa, Vincenzo; Carini, Roberta; Faccini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We present B and V time-series photometry of Andromeda XXV, the third galaxy in our program on the Andromeda's satellites, that we have imaged with the Large Binocular Cameras of the Large Binocular Telescope. The field of Andromeda XXV is found to contain 63 variable stars, for which we present light curves and characteristics of the light variation (period, amplitudes, variability type, mean magnitudes, etc.). The sample includes 58 RR Lyrae variables (46 fundamental-mode $-$ RRab, and 12 first-overtone $-$RRc, pulsators), three anomalous Cepheids, one eclipsing binary system and one unclassified variable. The average period of the RRab stars ($\\langle Pab \\rangle$ = 0.60 $\\sigma=0.04$ days) and the period-amplitude diagram place Andromeda XXV in the class of the Oosterhoff-Intermediate objects. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars we derive for the galaxy a distance modulus of (m-M)$_0$=$24.63\\pm0.17$ mag. The color-magnitude diagram reveals the presence in Andromeda XXV of a single, metal-poo...

  11. The massive eclipsing system ALS 1135 and variable stars in the field of the distant OB association Bochum 7

    CERN Document Server

    Michalska, G; Pigulski, A; Steslicki, M; Williams, A

    2012-01-01

    Using photometric and spectroscopic observations of the double-lined early-type eclipsing binary system ALS 1135, a member of the distant OB association Bochum 7, we derived the new physical and orbital parameters of its components. The masses of both components were derived with an accuracy better than 1 per cent, their radii, with an accuracy better than 3 per cent. Since the primary's mass is equal to about 25 sun masses, its radius was subsequently used to derive the age of the system which is equal to 4.3+/-0.5 Myr. The result shows that this method represents a viable alternative to isochrone fitting. A photometric search of the field of ALS 1135 resulted in the discovery of 17 variable stars, including seven pulsating ones. One of them is an SPB star belonging to Vel OB1, the other six are delta Scuti stars. Of the six delta Scuti stars three might belong to Vel OB1, the other two are likely members of Bochum 7. Given the age of Bochum 7, these two stars are probably pre-main sequence pulsators. In add...

  12. Variable Star Network: World Center for Transient Object Astronomy and Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, T; Ishioka, R; Nogami, D; Kunjaya, C; Baba, H; Yamaoka, H

    2003-01-01

    Variable Star Network (VSNET, http://www.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/vsnet/) is a global professional-amateur network of researchers in variable stars and related objects, particularly in transient objects, such as cataclysmic variables, black hole binaries, supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The VSNET has been playing a pioneering role in establishing the field of "transient object astronomy", by effectively incorporating modern advance in observational astronomy and global electronic network, as well as collaborative progress in theoretical astronomy and astronomical computing. The VSNET is now one of the best-featured global networks in this field of astronomy. We review on the historical progress, design concept, associated technology, and a wealth of scientific achievements powered by the VSNET.

  13. Searching for Variable Stars in the Field of NGC 7789

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey ofvariable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 7789. In a field of about onedegree centering on the cluster, a total of 28 new variable stars are discovered(14 W UMa systems, nine EA-type eclipsing binaries, one RR Lyr star, and fourunclassified). In addition, we recovered 11 old variables previously discovered byother authors. Preliminary parameters are given for some of these variables.

  14. Kepler's first view of O-star variability: K2 data of five O stars in Campaign 0 as a proof-of-concept for O-star asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Buysschaert, B; Bloemen, S; Debosscher, J; Neiner, C; Briquet, M; Vos, J; Papics, P; Manick, R; Schmid, V; Van Winkel, H; Tkachenko, A

    2015-01-01

    We present high-precision photometric light curves of five O-type stars observed with the refurbished {\\it Kepler\\/} satellite during its Campaign 0. For one of the stars, we also assembled high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy with the {\\sc hermes} spectrograph attached to the 1.2-m Mercator telescope. The stars EPIC202060097 (O9.5V) and EPIC202060098 (O7V) exhibit monoperiodic variability due to rotational modulation with an amplitude of 5.6 mmag and 9.3 mmag and a rotation period of 2.63 d and 5.03 d, respectively. EPIC202060091 (O9V) and EPIC202060093 (O9V:pe) reveal variability at low frequency but the cause is unclear. EPIC202060092 (O9V:p) is discovered to be a spectroscopic binary with at least one multiperiodic $\\beta\\,$Cep-type pulsator whose detected mode frequencies occur in the range $[0.11,6.99]$ d$^{-1}$ and have amplitudes between 0.8 and 2.0 mmag. Its pulsation spectrum is shown to be fully compatible with the ones predicted by core-hydrogen burning O-star models. Despite the short durati...

  15. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  16. Sky catalogue 2000.0. Volume 2: Double stars, variable stars and nonstellar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld, A.; Sinnott, R. W.

    This is a re-issue of a book first published in 1985 (see Abstr. 39.002.019). This is a standard reference work for telescope users which gives positional and other data for galaxies, double and variable stars, and star clusters. It includes tables on 20,000 objects. Comprehensive treatment is given for each object: position for epoch 2000.0, magnitudes in the UBV photometric system, color index, surface brightness and Hubble classification for galaxies. Contents: Glossary of selected astronomical names. Index to letter names of variable stars. Double and multiple stars. Visual binary stars. Spectroscopic binary stars. Variable stars. Suspected variable stars. Open clusters. Open cluster cross index. Globular clusters. Bright nebulae. Dark nebulae. Planetary nebulae. Galaxies. Quasi-stellar objects (QSO's). Radio sources. X-ray sources.

  17. AGB Star Variability Observed from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa

    2008-04-01

    We present here a short account of the first observations done at the Italo-French base of Dome C, Antarctica, in the field of Mira variability. The observations aimed at improving our knowledge of the variability period of some important Long Period Variables (LPV), to be used in Period-Luminosity criteria for determining in a reliable way the absolute magnitudes and hence the distances of AGB stars. The observations were taken during the 2007 winter campaign, using the small-IRAIT telescope, a 25 cm Cassegrain instrument capable of multiband photometry. The telescope was equipped with a reliable remote control system, which allowed us to get very high duty-cycle observations (the highest efficient was obtained in July 2007, with more than 98% of on-source time, over 9 ``solar'' days during the long polar night). The experiments done with small IRAIT will be precious as a pathfinder, for defining the observational strategies of the larger IRAIT (International Robotic Antarctic Infrared Telescope [1]), an 80-cm aperture telescope, working mainly in IR, that will be installed in Dome C next year.

  18. Clustering Based Feature Learning on Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mackenzie, Cristóbal; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2016-01-01

    The success of automatic classification of variable stars strongly depends on the lightcurve representation. Usually, lightcurves are represented as a vector of many statistical descriptors designed by astronomers called features. These descriptors commonly demand significant computational power to calculate, require substantial research effort to develop and do not guarantee good performance on the final classification task. Today, lightcurve representation is not entirely automatic; algorithms that extract lightcurve features are designed by humans and must be manually tuned up for every survey. The vast amounts of data that will be generated in future surveys like LSST mean astronomers must develop analysis pipelines that are both scalable and automated. Recently, substantial efforts have been made in the machine learning community to develop methods that prescind from expert-designed and manually tuned features for features that are automatically learned from data. In this work we present what is, to our ...

  19. Felix de Roy: a life of variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shears, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Felix de Roy (1883-1942), an internationality recognised amateur astronomer, made significant contributions to variable star research. As an active observer, he made some 91,000 visual estimates of a number of different variable stars. A Belgian national, he took refuge in England during World War 1. While there, de Roy became well enough known to later serve as Director of the BAA Variable Star Section for seventeen years. Through this office, and his connections with other organisations around the world, he encouraged others to pursue the observation of variable stars. Not merely content to accumulate observational data, de Roy also analysed the data and published numerous papers.

  20. Turbulent Convection in the Classical Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kollath, Z

    1999-01-01

    We give a status report of convective Cepheid and RR Lyrae model pulsations. Some striking successes can be reported, despite the use of a rather simple treatment of turbulent convection with a 1D time-dependent diffusion equation for the turbulent energy. It is now possible to obtain stable double-mode (beat) pulsations in both Cepheid and RR Lyrae models with astrophysical parameters, i.e. periods and amplitude ratios, that are in agreement with observations. The turbulent convective models, however, have difficulties giving global agreement with the observations. In particular, the Magellanic Cloud Cepheids, that have been observed in connection with the microlensing projects have imposed novel observational constraints because of the low metallicity of the MCs.

  1. IRAS observations of cepheid variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, P. A.; Deasy, H. P.

    1986-09-01

    Mass loss from cepheids is investigated in terms of the evolution and pulsation of cepheids. IR Point Source Catalogue data on galactic cepheids and nonvariable supergiants from IRAS (1985) are analyzed in terms of dereddened colors. The positions on two-color diagrams are compared to black-body curve positions. It is observed that nonvariable supergiants similar to cepheids and short-period cepheids are closely related to black-body objects. Analysis of the mass loss, which is estimated as about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr, indicates that mass loss is associated with cepheid pulsation; however, the effect of mass loss in the course of stellar evolution from the cepheid phase is insignificant.

  2. A close hidden stellar companion to the SX Phe-type variable star DW Psc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion (M{sub 2}sini∼0.45(±0.03) M{sub ⊙}). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  3. Variable Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 2257. I. Results Based on 2007-2008 B, V Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2009-11-01

    The variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 2257 are reinvestigated using photometry (to ~20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9 m telescope on 14 nights in 2007 December and 2008 January. New period searches have been made using two independent algorithms (CLEAN, Period04); the resultant periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there are discrepancies these have been resolved. For the B and V light curves, accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters are given. Six new variable stars have been discovered (V45-50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45) and two anomalously bright RRc stars (V48 and V50), which are shown to be brightened and reddened by nearby red giant stars. Also discovered among the previously known variable stars are three double-mode RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16, and V34) and several Blazhko variables. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images and the photometry by Johnson et al. have been used to define better the properties of the most crowded variable stars. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko amplitude variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period ~0.36 day and period ratios P 1/P 0 ~0.7450; and an LPV star located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison of the RRd stars with those in other environments shows them to be most similar to those in IC4499.

  4. Photometric multi-site campaign on the open cluster NGC 884 I. Detection of the variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Pigulski, A; Aerts, C; Handler, G; Narwid, A; Fu, J N; Zhang, C; Jiang, X J; Vanautgaerden, J; Kopacki, G; Stȩślicki, M; Acke, B; Poretti, E; Uytterhoeven, K; Gielen, C; Østensen, R; De Meester, W; Reed, M D; Kołaczkowski, Z; Michalska, G; Schmidt, E; Yakut, K; Leitner, A; Kalomeni, B; Cherix, M; Spano, M; Prins, S; Van Helshoecht, V; Zima, W; Huygen, R; Vandenbussche, B; Lenz, P; Ladjal, D; Antolín, E Puga; Verhoelst, T; De Ridder, J; Niarchos, P; Liakos, A; Lorenz, D; Dehaes, S; Reyniers, M; Davignon, G; Kim, S -L; Kim, D H; Lee, Y -J; Lee, C -U; Kwon, J -H; Broeders, E; Van Winckel, H; Vanhollebeke, E; Waelkens, C; Raskin, G; Blom, Y; Eggen, J R; Degroote, P; Beck, P; Puschnig, J; Schmitzberger, L; Gelven, G A; Steininger, B; Blommaert, J; Drummond, R; Briquet, M; Debosscher, J

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field beta Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physics in the stellar structure and evolution models of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. AIMS: To improve our comprehension of the beta Cep stars, we studied the young open cluster NGC 884 to discover new B-type pulsators, besides the two known beta Cep stars, and other variable stars. METHODS: An extensive multi-site campaign was set up to gather accurate CCD photometry time series in four filters (U, B, V, I) of a field of NGC884. Fifteen different instruments collected almost 77500 CCD images in 1286 hours. The images were calibrated and reduced to transform the CCD frames into interpretable differential light curves. Various variability indicators and frequency analyses were applied to detect variable stars in the field. Absolute photometry ...

  5. Chaos in large-amplitude pulsators: application to the beta Cep star HD180642

    CERN Document Server

    Degroote, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The CoRoT observations of the beta Cephei star HD180642 uncover an unexpectedly rich frequency spectrum, in addition to several heat-driven modes. So far, two processes have been proposed to explain this behaviour: the presence of stochastic oscillations, and the excitation of time-dependent frequencies by nonlinear resonance. I argue for a third explanation for the observations, in the form of chaos due to the nonlinear behaviour of the dominant radial mode. The long-term frequency stability of the dominant radial mode is studied using archival data spanning roughly 20 years. Nonlinear time series analysis techniques are applied to the CoRoT observations, and the observations are compared with simulations of a simple nonlinear oscillator. I show that chaos offers one single explanation for many of the observed features, such as the structure in the autocorrelation of the power spectrum, the long-term frequency shift, the power excess and the wide range of frequencies in the power spectrum. However, the mixtu...

  6. Signatures of nonlinear mode interactions in the pulsating hot B subdwarf star KIC 10139564

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Weikai; Vauclair, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    We analyse 38-month of contiguous short-cadence data, concentrating on mode multiplets induced by the star rotation and on frequencies forming linear combinations that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. We find clear signatures that point toward nonlinear effects predicted by resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings can induce various mode behaviors for the components of multiplets and for frequencies related by linear relationships. We find that a triplet at 5760\\,$\\mu$Hz, a quintuplet at 5287\\,$\\mu$Hz and a ($\\ell>2$) multiplet at 5412\\,$\\mu$Hz, all induced by rotation, show clear frequency and amplitude modulations which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of a resonance between the components. One triplet at 316\\,$\\mu$Hz and a doublet at 394\\,$\\mu$Hz show modulated amplitude and constant frequency which can be associated with a narrow transitory regime of the resonance. Another triplet at 519\\,$\\mu$Hz appears to be in a frequency lock regime where both ...

  7. Updates on the Pulsating SdB Star Feige 48 through Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Latour, M; Green, E M

    2013-01-01

    As part of a concentrated effort to understand and exploit better the seismic properties of Feige 48, we reestimated its atmospheric parameters using, for the first time, a self-consistent approach based on the detailed metal abundances that have been determined in previous studies of both its UV and optical spectrum. We computed a small 3D grid of 150 fully line-blanketed, NLTE model atmospheres incorporating the 8 most abundant metals found in the atmosphere of that star. We next compared quantitatively the synthetic spectra that we calculated from these models with three observed spectra having different resolutions (1 A, 6 A, and 8.7 A) and wavelength ranges. Our findings are Teff = 29,890 K, log g = 5.46, and log N(He)/N(H) = -2.88, with very small formal fitting errors. These estimates are in good agreement with those of previous studies, thus showing that the presence of metals do not affect significantly the bulk atmospheric properties of Feige 48. We also modeled the He II line at 1640 A from the STI...

  8. Spectral analysis of multi mode pulsating sdB stars II. Feige 48, KPD 2109+4401 and PG 1219+534

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, U; Werner, K

    2000-01-01

    Three members of the new class of pulsating sdB stars (sdBV or EC 14026 stars) are analysed from Keck HIRES spectra using line blanketed NLTE and LTE model atmospheres. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, He/H), metal abundances and rotational velocities are determined. As is typical for sdB stars, all programme stars are found to be helium deficient, with a He abundance ranging from 1/80 solar for Feige 48 to 1/3 solar for PG 1219+534, probably due to diffusion. Most metals are also depleted. The abundances of C, O, Ne, Mg, Al and Si in the high gravity programme stars KPD 2109+4401 and PG 1219+534 are considerably lower than in the lower gravity stars Feige 48 and PG 1605+072 which could be explained by an equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative levitation. Surprisingly iron is solar to within error limits in all programme stars irrespective of their gravity, confirming predictions from diffusion calculations. The metal lines are very sharp and allow the microturbulent velocity to be const...

  9. Periodic Variations in the O-C Diagrams of Five Pulsation Frequencies of the DB White Dwarf EC 20058-5234

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessio, James; Provencal, Judi; Shipman, Harry; Sullivan, Tiri; Kilkenny, Dave; Fraga, Luciano; Sefako, Ramotholo; 10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/5

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Add...

  10. The OmegaWhite survey for Short-Period Variable Stars III: Follow-up Photometric and Spectroscopic Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, S A; Groot, P J; Ramsay, G; Toma, R; Motsoaledi, M; Crause, L A; Gilbank, D G; O'Donoghue, D; Potter, S B; Sickafoose, A A; van Gend, C; Worters, H L

    2016-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of short-period variables discovered in the OmegaWhite survey: a wide-field high-cadence g-band synoptic survey targeting the Galactic Plane. We have used fast photometry on the SAAO 1.0-m and 1.9-m telescopes to obtain light curves of 27 variables, and use these results to validate the period and amplitude estimates from the OmegaWhite processing pipeline. Furthermore, 57 sources (44 unique, 13 also with new light curves) were selected for spectroscopic follow-up using either the SAAO 1.9-m telescope or the Southern African Large Telescope. We find many of these variables have spectra which are consistent with being delta Scuti type pulsating stars. At higher amplitudes, we detect four possible pulsating white dwarf/subdwarf sources and an eclipsing cataclysmic variable. Due to their rarity, these targets are ideal candidates for detailed follow-up studies. From spectroscopy, we confirm the symbiotic binary star nature of two variables identifie...

  11. Nonlinear pulsation masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The advent of nonlinear pulsation theory really coincides with the development of the large computers after the second world war. Christy and Stobbie were the first to make use of finite difference techniques on computers to model the bumps'' observed in the classical Cepheid light and velocity curves, the so-called Hertzsprung'' sequence. Following this work a more sophisticated analysis of the light and velocity curves from the models was made by Simon and Davis using Fourier techniques. Recently a simpler amplitude equation formalism has been developed that helps explain this resonance mechanism. The determination of Population I Cepheid masses by nonlinear methods will be discussed. For the lower mass objects, such as RR Lyrae and BL Her. stars, we find general agreement using evolutionary masses and nonlinear pulsation theory. An apparent difficulty of nonlinear pulsation theory occurs in the understanding of double'' mode pulsation, which will also be discussed. Recent studies in nonlinear pulsation theory have dealt with the question of mode selection, period doubling and the trends towards chaotic behavior such as is observed in the transition from W Virginis to RV Tauri-like stars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Time dependent diffusion in pulsating white dwarf stars Asteroseismology of G117-B15A

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G; Althaus, L G; Serenelli, A M

    2002-01-01

    We study the structural characteristic of the variable DA white dwarf G117B-15A by applying the methods of asteroseismology. For such a purpose, we construct white dwarf evolutionary models considering a detailed and up-to-date physical description as well as several processes responsible for the occurrence of element diffusion. We have considered several thickness for the outermost hydrogen layer, whereas for the inner helium-, carbon- and oxygen-rich layers we considered realistic profiles predicted by calculations of the white dwarf progenitor evolution. The evolution of each of the considered model sequences were followed down to very low effective temperature; in particular, from 12500K on we computed the dipolar, linear, adiabatic oscillations with low radial order. We find that asteroseismological results are not univocal regarding mode identification for the case of G117B-15A. However, our asteroseismological results are compatible with spectroscopical data only if the observed periods of 215.2, 271.0...

  13. Variable stars in the Fornax dSph Galaxy. I. The Globular Cluster Fornax 4

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, C; Catelan, M; Held, E V; Poretti, E; Gullieuszik, M; Maio, M; Rest, A; De Lee, N; Smith, H A; Pritzl, B J

    2007-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified for the first time in Fornax 4, the globular cluster located near the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. By applying the image subtraction technique to B,V time series photometry obtained with the MagIC camera of the 6.5-m Magellan/Clay telescope and with the wide field imager of the 4-m Blanco/CTIO telescope, we detected 27 RR Lyrae stars (22 fundamental mode, 3 first overtone, and 2 double-mode pulsators) in a 2.4'x2.4' area centered on Fornax 4. The average and minimum periods of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, = 0.594 d and P(ab,min)=0.5191 d, respectively, as well as the revised position of the cluster in the horizontal branch type--metallicity plane, all consistently point to an Oosterhoff-intermediate status for the cluster, unlike what is seen for the vast majority of Galactic globular clusters, but in agreement with previous indications for the other globular clusters in Fornax. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars located within 30 arcsec fr...

  14. Unusual Variabilities in the Atmosphere of the Star 55 CYG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharramov, Y. M.

    2010-09-01

    Some unusual spectral features of the star 55 Cyg are presented in the article. Observational data on the variability of hydrogen lines profiles, in particula, the unique observational fact of the disappearance of the Hα profile are presented. Profiles of the line and comparative analysis of the variables observed in the profiles of hydrogen lines of the star are adduced.

  15. Catalogue of variable stars in Milky Way globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Christine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globular cluster variable stars have been studied for more than a century. In the early investigations, more than 90% of the known variables were of the RR Lyrae type. However, in the interim, technological advances have facilitated the discovery of other types of variables. As a result, although RR Lyrae stars still dominate, they now constitute less than 70% of the known variables.

  16. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outsidethe Local Group Summary An international team led by ESO astronomer Marina Rejkuba [1] has discovered more than 1000 luminous red variable stars in the nearby elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) . Brightness changes and periods of these stars were measured accurately and reveal that they are mostly cool long-period variable stars of the so-called "Mira-type" . The observed variability is caused by stellar pulsation. This is the first time a detailed census of variable stars has been accomplished for a galaxy outside the Local Group of Galaxies (of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is a member). It also opens an entirely new window towards the detailed study of stellar content and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies . These massive objects are presumed to play a major role in the gravitational assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe (especially during the early phases). This unprecedented research project is based on near-infrared observations obtained over more than three years with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 14a/03 : Colour image of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A . PR Photo 14b/03 : Location of the fields in Centaurus A, now studied. PR Photo 14c/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14d/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (visual light; FORS1). PR Photo 14e/03 : "Field 1" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14f/03 : "Field 2" in Centaurus A (near-infrared; ISAAC). PR Photo 14g/03 : Light variation of six variable stars in Centaurus A PR Photo 14h/03 : Light variation of stars in Centaurus A (Animated GIF) PR Photo 14i/03 : Light curves of four variable stars in Centaurus A. Mira-type variable stars Among the stars that are visible in the sky to the unaided eye, roughly one out of three hundred (0.3%) displays brightness variations and is referred to by astronomers as a

  17. A detailed census of variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 6333 (M9) from CCD differential photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, A Arellano; Jaimes, R Figuera; Giridhar, Sunetra; Kains, N; Kuppuswamy, K; Jørgensen, U G; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dominik, M; Dreizler, S; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Harpsøe, K; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Mancini, L; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Vilela, C; Wertz, O

    2013-01-01

    We report CCD $V$ and $I$ time-series photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6333 (M9). The technique of difference image analysis has been used, which enables photometric precision better than 0.05 mag for stars brighter than $V \\sim 19.0$ mag, even in the crowded central regions of the cluster. The high photometric precision has resulted in the discovery of two new RRc stars, three eclipsing binaries, seven long-term variables and one field RRab star behind the cluster. A detailed identification chart and equatorial coordinates are given for all the variable stars in the field of our images of the cluster. Our data together with literature $V$-data obtained in 1994 and 1995 allowed us to refine considerably the periods for all RR Lyrae stars. The nature of the new variables is discussed. We argue that variable V12 is a cluster member and an Anomalous Cepheid. Secular period variations, double mode pulsations and/or the Blazhko-like modulations in some RRc variables are addressed. Through the light curve Fou...

  18. The Age and Distance of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6811 from an Eclipsing Binary, Turnoff Star Pulsation, and Giant Asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Brogaard, Karsten; Meibom, Søren; Leitner, Marika; Stello, Dennis; Bruntt, Hans; Antoci, Victoria; Orosz, Jerome A.; Grundahl, Frank; Frandsen, Søren

    2016-11-01

    We present the analysis of an eccentric, partially eclipsing long-period (P = 19.23 days) binary system KIC 9777062 that contains main-sequence stars near the turnoff of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6811. The primary is a metal-lined Am star with a possible convective blueshift to its radial velocities, and one star (probably the secondary) is likely to be a γ Dor pulsator. The component masses are 1.603 ± 0.006(stat.) ± 0.016(sys.) and 1.419 ± 0.003 ± 0.008 {M}⊙ , and the radii are 1.744 ± 0.004 ± 0.002 and 1.544 ± 0.002 ± 0.002 {R}⊙ . The isochrone ages of the stars are mildly inconsistent: the age from the mass-radius combination for the primary (1.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.09 Gyr, where the last quote was systematic uncertainty from models and metallicity) is smaller than that from the secondary (1.21 ± 0.05 ± 0.15 Gyr) and is consistent with the inference from the color-magnitude diagram (1.00 ± 0.05 Gyr). We have improved the measurements of the asteroseismic parameters Δν and ν max for helium-burning stars in the cluster. The masses of the stars appear to be larger (or alternately, the radii appear to be smaller) than predicted from isochrones using the ages derived from the eclipsing stars. The majority of stars near the cluster turnoff are pulsating stars: we identify a sample of 28 δ Sct, 15 γ Dor, and 5 hybrid types. We used the period-luminosity relation for high-amplitude δ Sct stars to fit the ensemble of the strongest frequencies for the cluster members, finding {(m-M)}V=10.37+/- 0.03. This is larger than most previous determinations, but smaller than values derived from the eclipsing binary (10.47 ± 0.05). Based on observations made with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic

  19. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Jin, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. The association of the RR Lyrae star discovered here with Hydra II is clear because is located at 42\\prime\\prime from the center of the dwarf, well within its half-light radius of 102\\prime\\prime . The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of i=21.30+/- 0.04 which is too faint to be a field halo star. This magnitude translates to a heliocentric distance of 151 ± 8 kpc for Hydra II; this value is ∼ 13% larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of {76}-10+12 pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of {M}V=-5.1+/- 0.3, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  20. Non-radial pulsation, rotation and outburst in the Be star omega Orionis from the MuSiCoS 1998 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Hubert, A.-M.; Floquet, M.; Jankov, S.; Henrichs, H. F.; Foing, B.; Oliveira, J.; Orlando, S.; Abbott, J.; Baldry, I. K.; Bedding, T. R.; Cami, J.; Cao, H.; Catala, C.; Cheng, K. P.; Domiciano de Souza, A., Jr.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Hao, J. X.; Kaper, L.; Kaufer, A.; Leister, N. V.; Neff, J. E.; O'Toole, S. J.; Schäfer, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Stahl, O.; Telting, J.; Tubbesing, S.; Zorec, J.

    2002-06-01

    omega Ori (HD 37490, HR 1934) is a Be star known to have presented variations. In order to investigate the nature and origin of its short-term and mid-term variability, a study is performed of several spectral lines (Hα , Hdelta , ion {He}i 4471, 4713, 4921, 5876, 6678, ion {C}{ii} 4267, 6578, 6583, ion {Mg}{ii} 4481, ion {Si}{iii} 4553 and ion {Si}{ii} 6347), based on 249 high signal-to-noise high-resolution spectra taken with 8 telescopes over 22 consecutive nights during the MuSiCoS (Multi SIte COntinuous Spectroscopy) campaign in November-December 1998. The stellar parameters are revisited and the projected rotational velocity (vsin i = 179 km s-1) is redetermined using several methods. With the MuSiCoS 98 dataset, a time series analysis of line-profile variations (LPVs) is performed using the Restricted Local Cleanest (RLC) algorithm and a least squares method. The behaviour of the velocity of the centroid of the lines, the equivalent widths and the apparent vsini for several lines, as well as Violet and Red components of photospheric lines affected by emission (red ion {He}i lines, ion {Si}{ii} 6347, ion {C}{ii} 6578, 6583) are analyzed. The non-radial pulsation (NRP) model is examined using phase diagrams and the Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI) method. The LPVs are consistent with a NRP mode with l = 2 or 3, |m| = 2 with frequency 1.03 c d-1. It is shown that an emission line outburst occurred in the middle of the campaign. Two scenarios are proposed to explain the behaviour of a dense cloud, temporarily orbiting around the star with a frequency 0.46 c d-1, in relation to the outburst. Based on observations taken during the MuSiCoS 98 campaign at OHP (France), La Silla (ESO, Chile, ID 62.H-0270), Mount Stromlo (Australia), Xinglong Station (China), Kitt Peak (USA), MCT/LNA (Brazil) and INT (Isaac Newton Group, La Palma Island).

  1. The OmegaWhite Survey for Short-Period Variable Stars I: Overview and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, S A; Ramsay, G; Groot, P J; Woudt, P A; Drew, J E; Barentsen, G; Eisloffel, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the goals, strategy and first results of the OmegaWhite survey: a wide-field high-cadence $g$-band synoptic survey which aims to unveil the Galactic population of short-period variable stars (with periods $<$ 80 min), including ultracompact binary star systems and stellar pulsators. The ultimate goal of OmegaWhite is to cover 400 square degrees along the Galactic Plane reaching a depth of $g = $ 21.5 mag (10$\\sigma$), using OmegaCam on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The fields are selected to overlap with surveys such as the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) and the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane (VPHAS+) for multi-band colour information. Each field is observed using 38 exposures of 39 s each, with a median cadence of $\\sim$2.7 min for a total duration of two hours. Within an initial 26 square degrees, we have extracted the light curves of 1.6 million stars, and have identified 613 variable candidates which satisfy our selection criteria. Furthermore, we present the ...

  2. The Hypervelocity Star SDSS J090745.0+024507 is a Short-Period Variable

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, C I; Gaudi, B S; McLeod, B A; Bogdanov, S B; Hartman, J D; Hickox, R C; Holman, M J; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Leod, Brian A. Mc; Bogdanov, Slavko B.; Hartman, Joel D.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of the hypervelocity star SDSS J090745.0+024507 (HVS), which has a Galactic rest-frame radial velocity of v=709 km/s, and so has likely been ejected from the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. Our data were obtained on two nights using the MMT 6.5m telescope, and is supplemented by lower precision photometry obtained on four nights using the FLWO 1.2m telescope. The high-precision photometry indicates that the HVS is a short-period, low-amplitude variable, with period P=0.2-2 days and amplitude A = 2-10%. Together with the known effective temperature of T_eff ~ 10,500 K (spectral type B9), this variability implies that the HVS is a member of the class of slowly pulsating B-type main sequence stars, thus resolving the previously-reported two-fold degeneracy in the luminosity and distance of the star. The HVS has a heliocentric distance of 71 kpc, and an age of ~0.35 Gyr. The time of ejection from the center of the Galaxy is < 100 Myr, and thus the existence ...

  3. Variable Stars in Leo A RR Lyraes, Short-period Cepheids, and Implications on Stellar Content

    CERN Document Server

    Dolphin, A E; Claver, J; Skillman, E D; Cole, A A; Gallagher, J S; Tolstoy, E; Dohm-Palmer, R C; Mateo, M

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a search for short-period variable stars in Leo A. We have found 92 candidate variables, including eight candidate RR Lyrae stars. From the RR Lyraes, we measure a distance modulus of (m-M)_0 = 24.51 +/- 0.12, or 0.80 +/- 0.04 Mpc. This discovery of RR Lyraes confirms, for the first time, the presence of an ancient (> ~11 Gyr) population in Leo A accounting for at least 0.1% of the galaxy's V luminosity. We have also discovered a halo of old (> ~2 Gyr) stars surrounding Leo A, with a scale length roughly 50% larger than that of the dominant young population. We also report the discovery of a large population of Cepheids in Leo A. The median absolute magnitude of our Cepheid sample is M_V = -1.1, fainter than 96% of SMC and 99% of LMC Cepheids. Their periods are also unusual, with three Cepheids that are deduced to be pulsating in the fundamental mode having periods of under 1 day. Upon examination, these characteristics of the Leo A Cepheid population appear to be a natural extension...

  4. K2 variable catalogue - II. Machine learning classification of variable stars and eclipsing binaries in K2 fields 0-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Spake, J.; Walker, S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Pollacco, D.; West, R.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    We are entering an era of unprecedented quantities of data from current and planned survey telescopes. To maximize the potential of such surveys, automated data analysis techniques are required. Here we implement a new methodology for variable star classification, through the combination of Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm) and the more common Random Forest (RF) supervised machine learning technique. We apply this method to data from the K2 mission fields 0-4, finding 154 ab-type RR Lyraes (10 newly discovered), 377 δ Scuti pulsators, 133 γ Doradus pulsators, 183 detached eclipsing binaries, 290 semidetached or contact eclipsing binaries and 9399 other periodic (mostly spot-modulated) sources, once class significance cuts are taken into account. We present light-curve features for all K2 stellar targets, including their three strongest detected frequencies, which can be used to study stellar rotation periods where the observed variability arises from spot modulation. The resulting catalogue of variable stars, classes, and associated data features are made available online. We publish our SOM code in PYTHON as part of the open source PYMVPA package, which in combination with already available RF modules can be easily used to recreate the method.

  5. Ernest Elliott Markwick: variable stars and military campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Shears, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Colonel E.E. Markwick, CB, CBE, FRAS (1853 - 1925) pursued a distinguished career in the British Army, serving in Great Britain and other parts of the Empire and rising to the rank of Colonel. He was an original member of the BAA and went on to become President between 1912 and 1914. His main observational interest was the study of variable stars and he independently discovered two variables, RY Sgr and T Cen. He directed the BAA Variable Star Section from 1899 to 1909, organising its work along lines that are largely pursued even to this day and which other variable star organisations around the world have emulated.

  6. The History of Variable Stars: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) For historians of astronomy, variable stars are important for a simple reason - stars change. But good evidence suggests this is a very modern idea. Over the millennia, our species has viewed stars as eternal and unchanging, forever fixed in time and space - indeed, the Celestial Dance was a celebration of order, reason, and stability. But everything changed in the period between Copernicus and Newton. According to tradition, two New Stars announced the birth of the New Science. Blazing across the celestial stage, Tycho's Star (1572) and Kepler's Star (1604) appeared dramatically - and just as unexpectedly - disappeared forever. But variable stars were different. Mira Ceti, the oldest, brightest, and most controversial variable star, was important because it appeared and disappeared again and again. Mira was important because it did not go away. The purpose of this essay is to take a fresh look at the history of variable stars. In re-thinking the traditional narrative, I begin with the first sightings of David Fabricius (1596) and his contemporaries - particularly Hevelius (1662) and Boulliau (1667) - to new traditions that unfolded from Newton and Maupertuis to Herschel (1780) and Pigott (1805). The essay concludes with important 19th-century developments, particularly by Argelander (1838), Pickering (1888), and Lockyer (1890). Across three centuries, variable stars prompted astronomers to re-think all the ways that stars were no longer "fixed." New strategies were needed. Astronomers needed to organize, to make continuous observations, to track changing magnitudes, and to explain stellar phases. Importantly - as Mira suggested from the outset - these challenges called for an army of observers with the discipline of Spartans. But recruiting that army required a strategy, a set of theories with shared expectations. Observation and theory worked hand-in-hand. In presenting new historical evidence from neglected printed sources and unpublished

  7. Modelling of variability of the chemically peculiar star phi Draconis

    CERN Document Server

    Prvák, Milan; Krtička, Jiří; Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Lüftinger, T

    2015-01-01

    Context: The presence of heavier chemical elements in stellar atmospheres influences the spectral energy distribution (SED) of stars. An uneven surface distribution of these elements, together with flux redistribution and stellar rotation, are commonly believed to be the primary causes of the variability of chemically peculiar (CP) stars. Aims: We aim to model the photometric variability of the CP star PHI Dra based on the assumption of inhomogeneous surface distribution of heavier elements and compare it to the observed variability of the star. We also intend to identify the processes that contribute most significantly to its photometric variability. Methods: We use a grid of TLUSTY model atmospheres and the SYNSPEC code to model the radiative flux emerging from the individual surface elements of PHI Dra with different chemical compositions. We integrate the emerging flux over the visible surface of the star at different phases throughout the entire rotational period to synthesise theoretical light curves of...

  8. CoRoT\\,102699796, the first metal-poor Herbig Ae pulsator: a hybrid $\\delta$ Sct-$\\gamma$ Dor variable?

    CERN Document Server

    Ripepi, V; Di Criscienzo, M; Catanzaro, G; Palla, F; Marconi, M; Ventura, P; Neiner, C; Catala, C; Bernabei, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the time series observations of CoRoT\\,102699796 obtained by the CoRoT satellite that show the presence of five independent oscillation frequencies in the range 3.6-5 c/d. Using spectra acquired with FLAMES@VLT, we derive the following stellar parameters: spectral type F1V, T$_{\\rm eff}$=7000$\\pm$200 K, log(g)=$3.8\\pm0.4$, [M/H]=$-1.1\\pm0.2$, $v$sin$i$=$50\\pm5$ km/s, L/L$_{\\odot}$=21$^{+21}_{-11}$. Thus, for the first time we report the existence of a metal poor, intermediate-mass PMS pulsating star. Ground-based and satellite data are used to derive the spectral energy distribution of CoRoT\\,102699796 extending from the optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. The SED shows a significant IR excess at wavelengths greater than $\\sim5 \\mu$. We conclude that CoRoT\\,102699796 is a young Herbig Ae (F1Ve) star with a transitional disk, likely associated to the HII region [FT96]213.1-2.2. The pulsation frequencies have been interpreted in the light of the non-radial pulsation theory, using the...

  9. The Clusters AgeS Experiment (CASE). Variable stars in the field of the globular cluster NGC 362

    CERN Document Server

    Rozyczka, M; Narloch, W; Pych, W; Czerny, A Schwarzenberg -

    2016-01-01

    The field of the globular cluster NGC 362 was monitored between 1997 and 2015 in a search for variable stars. BV light curves were obtained for 151 periodic or likely periodic variables, over a hundred of which are new detections. Twelve newly detected variables are proper motion members of the cluster: two SX Phe and two RR Lyr pulsators, one contact binary, three detached or semi-detached eclipsing binaries, and four spotted variables. The most interesting objects among these are the binary blue straggler V20 with an asymmetric light curve, and the 8.1 d semidetached binary V24 located on the red giant branch of NGC 362, which is a Chandra X-ray source. We also provide substantial new data for 24 previously known variables.

  10. On the pulsation modes and masses of RGB OSARGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saio H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OSARG (OGLE Small Amplitude Red Giants variables are RGB or AGB stars that show multi-periodic light variations with periods of about 10-100 days. Comparing linear nonadiabatic pulsation periods and period ratios with observed ones, we determined pulsation modes and masses of the RGB OSARG variables in the LMC. We found that pulsations of OSARGs involve radial 1st to 3rd overtones, p4 of l = 1, and p2 of l = 2 modes. The range of mass isfound to be 0.9-1.4M⊙ for RGB OSARGs and their mass-luminosity relation is logL/L⊙ = 0.79 M/M⊙ + 2.2.

  11. Strange nonchaotic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented light curves of the Kepler space telescope document how the brightness of some stars pulsates at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear dynamical system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies generically exhibits a strange but nonchaotic attractor. For Kepler's "golden" stars, we present evidence of the first observation of strange nonchaotic dynamics in nature outside the laboratory. This discovery could aid the classification and detailed modeling of variable stars.

  12. Modelling of W UMa-type variable stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Skelton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available W Ursae Majoris (W UMa-type variable stars are over-contact eclipsing binary stars. To understand how these systems form and evolve requires observations spanning many years, followed by detailed models of as many of them as possible. The All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS has an extensive database of these stars. Using the ASAS V band photometric data, models of W UMatype stars are being created to determine the parameters of these stars. This paper discusses the classification of eclipsing binary stars, the methods used to model them as well as the results of the modelling of ASAS 120036–3915.6, an over-contact eclipsing binary star that appears to be changing its period.

  13. The GTC Variable Star One-Shot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, D.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Alvarez-Iglesias, C. A.; Gómez-Velarde, G.; González-Pérez, J. M.; Reverte-Payá, D.; Scarpa, R.; Rutten, R.; Fernández-Acosta, S.; García-Rodríguez, A. M.; VSOP Team

    2013-05-01

    Stellar variability types are assigned on the basis of lightcurve appearance, which often remains unchallenged without further observational evidence. VSOP (Variable Star One-shot Project) is a large international collaboration, which has so far obtained spectra of more than 1200 stars during the past few years using ESO facilities. Operationally this program is perfectly suited for a modern and efficient observatory, providing GTC with a large pool of filler observations. Scientifically, our aims are: (1) obtain first spectroscopy of all unstudied variable stars suitable for GTC, (2) provide data products to the public in a fast and automatic way, and (3) generate an influx of serendipitous discoveries across all fields of astrophysics.

  14. Statistically Optimal Approximations of Astronomical Signals: Implications to Classification and Advanced Study of Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Tkachenko, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have elaborated a set of new algorithms and programs for advanced time series analysis of (generally) multi-component multi-channel observations with irregularly spaced times of observations, which is a common case for large photometric surveys. Previous self-review on these methods for periodogram, scalegram, wavelet, autocorrelation analysis as well as on "running" or "sub-interval" local approximations were self-reviewed in (2003ASPC..292..391A). For an approximation of the phase light curves of nearly-periodic pulsating stars, we use a Trigonometric Polynomial (TP) fit of the statistically optimal degree and initial period improvement using differential corrections (1994OAP.....7...49A). For the determination of parameters of "characteristic points" (minima, maxima, crossings of some constant value etc.) we use a set of methods self-reviewed in 2005ASPC..335...37A, Results of the analysis of the catalogs compiled using these programs are presented in 2014AASP....4....3A. For more complicated signals, we use "phenomenological approximations" with "special shapes" based on functions defined on sub-intervals rather on the complete interval. E. g. for the Algol-type stars we developed the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv1212.6707A, 2015JASS...32..127A), which was compared to common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree. The method allows determine the minimal set of parameters required for the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars", as well as an extended set of phenomenological and astrophysical parameters which may be used for the classification. Totally more that 1900 variable stars were studied in our group using these methods in a frame of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" campaign (2010OAP....23....8A) and the "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" project (2012KPCB...28...85V).

  15. Galactic membership of BL Her type variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, M. I.; Stojanovic, M.; Ninkovic, S.

    2016-05-01

    As the RR Lyrae stars evolve on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram they are believed to become short period Type II Cepheids, known as BL Her type (with a pulsation period from 1 to 3-8 days). Assuming that their mass is around 0.5-0.6M_Sol, and that they are low metallicity objects, they were thought to belong to the halo of the Milky Way. We investigated seven Galactic short period Type II Cepheids (BL Her, SW Tau, V553 Cen, DQ And, BD Cas, V383 Cyg, and KT Com) in order to establish their membership within the Galactic structure using the kinematic approach. Gaia should provide us with more data needed to conduct the study of the whole sample.

  16. Galactic membership of BL Her type variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jurkovic, Monika I; Ninković, Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    As the RR Lyrae stars evolve on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram they are believed to become short period Type II Cepheids, known as BL Her type (with a pulsation period from $1$ to $3-8$ days). Assuming that their mass is around $0.5 - 0.6 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$, and that they are low metallicity objects, they were thought to belong to the halo of the Milky Way. We investigated seven Galactic short period Type II Cepheids (BL Her, SW Tau, V553 Cen, DQ And, BD Cas, V383 Cyg, and KT Com) in order to establish their membership within the Galactic structure using the kinematic approach. $Gaia$ should provide us with more data needed to conduct the study of the whole sample.

  17. RR Lyrae variable stars in M31-M33 super-halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanakul, Nahathai; Sarajedini, Ata

    2017-01-01

    RR Lyrae variable stars can serve as powerful probes of their host stellar populations. Information such as distance, metallicity, reddening, and age can be gleaned from their pulsation properties. Therefore, studying them in the nearest spiral galaxies M31 and M33 will yield important information about the early history of these galaxies. The main goals of this study are: 1) To investigate the Oosterhoff type of RR Lyrae stars in M31 and M33 and compare them with the Milky Way to better understand the formation of these galaxies. 2) To investigate the early formation history of these two galaxies through knowledge of their RR Lyrae stars. In order to achieve these goals, we have analyzed 10 fields in M31 and M33 (6 fields in M31 and 4 fields in M33) using archival imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. Published data for M31, M33, and several M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also used to study the global properties of RR Lyrae in these systems. The results are then compared with those in the Milky Way galaxy.

  18. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  19. KIC 7582608: a new Kepler roAp star with frequency variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the fifth roAp star reported in the Kepler field, KIC 7582608, discovered with the SuperWASP project. The object shows a high frequency pulsation at 181.7324d−1 (P = 7.9 min with an amplitude of 1.45 mmag, and low frequency rotational modulation corresponding to a period of 20.4339 d. Spectral analysis confirms the Ap nature of the target, with characteristic lines of rare earth elements present. From our spectral observations we derive a lower limit on the mean magnetic field modulus of 〈B〉 =3.05 ± 0.23 kG. Long Cadence Kepler observations show a frequency quintuplet split by the rotational period of the star, typical for an oblique pulsator. We suggest the star is a quadrupole pulsator with a geometry such that i ~ 66° and β ~ 33°. We detect frequency variations of the pulsation in both the WASP and Kepler data sets on many time scales. Linear, non-adiabatic stability modelling allows us to constrain a region on the HR diagram where the pulsations are unstable, an area consistent with observations.

  20. Target selection of classical pulsating variables for space-based photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, E.; Molnar, L.; Szabo, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Banyai, E.

    2016-05-01

    In a few years the Kepler and TESS missions will provide ultra- precise photometry for thousands of RR Lyrae and hundreds of Cepheid stars. In the extended Kepler mission all targets are proposed in the Guest Observer (GO) Program, while the TESS space telescope will work with full frame images and a ~15-16th mag brightness limit with the possibility of short cadence measurements for a limited number of pre-selected objects. This paper highlights some details of the enormous and important work of the target selection process made by the members of Working Group 7 (WG#7) of the Kepler and TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium.

  1. Target selection of classical pulsating variables for space-based photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Plachy, E; Szabó, R; Kolenberg, K; Bányai, E

    2016-01-01

    In a few years the Kepler and TESS missions will provide ultra-precise photometry for thousands of RR Lyrae and hundreds of Cepheid stars. In the extended Kepler mission all targets are proposed in the Guest Observer (GO) Program, while the TESS space telescope will work with full frame images and a ~15-16th mag brightness limit with the possibility of short cadence measurements for a limited number of pre-selected objects. This paper highlights some details of the enormous and important work of the target selection process made by the members of Working Group 7 (WG#7) of the Kepler and TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium.

  2. Discovering new variable stars at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Katy; Hood, Rosie; Wilson, Thomas; Holdship, Jonathan; Hutton, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    Details of the London pilot of the ‘Discovery Project’ are presented, where university-based astronomers were given the chance to pass on some real and applied knowledge of astronomy to a group of selected secondary school pupils. It was aimed at students in Key Stage 3 of their education, allowing them to be involved in real astronomical research at an early stage of their education, the chance to become the official discoverer of a new variable star, and to be listed in the International Variable Star Index database (The International Variable Star Index, Version 1.1, American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), 2016, http://aavso.org/vsx), all while learning and practising research-level skills. Future plans are discussed.

  3. Basic relations for the period variation models of variable stars

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Gráf, Tomáš; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhu, Liying; Qian, Shen-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Models of period variations are basic tools for period analyzes of variable stars. We introduce phase function and instant period and formulate basic relations and equations among them. Some simple period models are also presented.

  4. The Age and Distance of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6811 from an Eclipsing Binary, Turnoff Star Pulsation, and Giant Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Sandquist, Eric L; Shetrone, Matthew D; Brogaard, Karsten; Meibom, Soren; Leitner, Marika; Stello, Dennis; Bruntt, Hans; Antoci, Victoria; Orosz, Jerome A; Grundahl, Frank; Frandsen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of an eccentric, partially eclipsing long-period ($P=19.23$ d) binary system KIC 9777062 that contains main sequence stars near the turnoff of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 6811. The primary is a metal-lined Am star with a possible convective blueshift to its radial velocities, and one star (probably the secondary) is likely to be a $\\gamma$ Dor pulsator. The component masses are $1.603\\pm0.006$(stat.)$\\pm0.016$(sys.) and $1.419\\pm0.003\\pm0.008 M_\\odot$, and the radii are $1.744\\pm0.004\\pm0.002$ and $1.544\\pm0.002\\pm0.002 R_\\odot$. The isochrone ages of the stars are mildly inconsistent: the age from the mass-radius combination for the primary ($1.05\\pm0.05\\pm0.09$ Gyr, where the last quote was systematic uncertainty from models and metallicity) is smaller than that from the secondary ($1.21\\pm0.05\\pm0.15$ Gyr) and is consistent with the inference from the color-magnitude diagram ($1.00\\pm0.05$ Gyr). We have improved the measurements of the asteroseismic parameters $\\Delta \

  5. Spectroscopic variability of two Oe stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rauw, G; Naze, Y; Eversberg, T; Alves, F; Arnold, W; Bergmann, T; Viegas, N G Correia; Fahed, R; Fernando, A; Gonzalez-Perez, J N; Carreira, L F Gouveia; Hempelmann, A; Hunger, T; Knapen, J H; Leadbeater, R; Dias, F Marques; Mittag, M; Moffat, A F J; Reinecke, N; Ribeiro, J; Romeo, N; Gallego, J Sanchez; Santos, E M Dos; Schanne, L; Schmitt, J H M M; Schroeder, K -P; Stahl, O; Stober, Ba; Stober, Be; Vollmann, K

    2015-01-01

    The Oe stars HD45314 and HD60848 have recently been found to exhibit very different X-ray properties: whilst HD60848 has an X-ray spectrum and emission level typical of most OB stars, HD45314 features a much harder and brighter X-ray emission, making it a so-called gamma Cas analogue. Monitoring the optical spectra could provide hints towards the origin of these very different behaviours. We analyse a large set of spectroscopic observations of HD45314 and HD60848, extending over 20 years. We further attempt to fit the H-alpha line profiles of both stars with a simple model of emission line formation in a Keplerian disk. Strong variations in the strengths of the H-alpha, H-beta, and He I 5876 emission lines are observed for both stars. In the case of HD60848, we find a time lag between the variations in the equivalent widths of these lines. The emission lines are double peaked with nearly identical strengths of the violet and red peaks. The H-alpha profile of this star can be successfully reproduced by our mod...

  6. Variable stars in the open cluster NGC 6791 and its surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, F; Montalto, M; Piotto, G; Desidera, S; Bedin, L R; Claudi, R; Ferro, A Arellano; Bruntt, H; Stetson, P B

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This work presents a high--precision variability survey in the field of the old, super metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. Methods: The data sample consists of more than 75,000 high-precision CCD time series measurements in the V band obtained mainly at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with additional data from S. Pedro Martir and Loiano observatories, over a time span of ten nights. The field covers an area of 42x28 arcmin^2. Results: We have discovered 260 new variables and re-determined periods and amplitudes of 70 known variable stars. By means of a photometric evaluation of the membership in NGC 6791, and a preliminary membership based on the proper motions, we give a full description of the variable content of the cluster and surrounding field in the range 16variables with P<4.0 d, while for ones with longer periods the limited time-baseline hampered precise determinations. We categorized the entire sample as follows: 6 pulsating, 3 irregula...

  7. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Felice; Garofalo, Alessia; Cignoni, Michele; Federici, Luciana; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Boutsia, Konstantina; Fumana, Marco; Gallozzi, Stefano; Testa, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We present B,V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.2') of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, that we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23'x 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V~26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which, however, extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and 3 of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ( = 0.62 d, \\sigma= 0.03 d) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermedia...

  8. Analysis of Kepler B stars: rotational modulation and Maia variables

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J; De Cat, P

    2015-01-01

    We examine 4-yr almost continuous Kepler photometry of 115 B stars. We find that the light curves of 39 percent of these stars are simply described by a low-frequency sinusoid and its harmonic, usually with variable amplitudes, which we interpret as rotational modulation. A large fraction (28 percent) of B stars might be classified as ellipsoidal variables, but a statistical argument suggests that these are probably rotational variables as well. About 8 percent of the rotational variables have a peculiar periodogram feature which is common among A stars. The physical cause of this is very likely related to rotation. The presence of so many rotating variables indicates the presence of star spots. This suggests that magnetic fields are indeed generated in radiative stellar envelopes. We find five beta Cep variables, all of which have low frequencies with relatively large amplitudes. The presence of these frequencies is a puzzle. About half the stars with high frequencies are cooler than the red edge of the beta...

  9. Variable stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Kunder, Andrea; Catelan, Marcio; Walker, Alistair R; Amigo, Pia

    2012-01-01

    The first calibrated broadband BVI time-series photometry is presented for the variable stars in NGC 2808, with observations spanning a range of twenty-eight years. We have also redetermined the variability types and periods for the variable stars identified previously by Corwin et al, revising the number of probable fundamental-mode RR Lyrae variables (RR0) to 11 and the number of first-overtone variables (RR1) to five. Our observations were insufficient to discern the nature of the previously identified RR1 star, V24, and the tentatively identified RR1 star, V13. These two variables are \\sim0.8 mag brighter than the RR Lyrae variables, appear to have somewhat erratic period and/or luminosity changes, and lie inside the RR Lyrae instability strip. Curiously, all but one of the RR Lyrae stars studied in this relatively metal-rich cluster exhibit the Blazhko phenomenon, an effect thought to occur with higher frequency in metal-poor environments. The mean periods of the RR0 and RR1 variables are _RR0=0.56 pm 0....

  10. C.Ragoonatha Chary and his Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara; Thakur, Priya; Birdie, Christina

    2009-01-01

    C. Ragoonatha Chary, the first assistant at Madras Observatory during 1864 to 1880 was not only a celebrated observational astronomer but also a person who emphasized the need for incorporating modern observations based improvements into the traditional methods of astronomical calculations. He was one of the first few people who argued for establishment of independent modern Indian observatory for education and training. He was credited with the discovery of two variable stars R Reticuli and another star whose identity is uncertain. The person and his variable star discoveries are discussed.

  11. Dynamical properties and search of variable stars: NGC 1960

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Gireesh C

    2015-01-01

    The total-to-selective extinction RV in the direction of a cluster is found to be 3.12 +/- 0.2 (close to its normal value). We derive the luminosity and mass functions for the cluster main sequence stars. The mass function slope is found to be -2.29 +/- 0.20 which is close to Salpeter value. We find evidence of mass segregation process in the cluster which is not yet dynamically relaxed. We have performed time series photometric observations to detect variable stars within star cluster NGC 1960. The DAOPHOT-II package is utilized to estimate the apparent stellar magnitudes of stars. The secondary standardization method is applied to the transformation of these apparent magnitudes into standard values. The magnitude-time diagrams (light curves) of stars are constructed to identify possible variability nature within them. The stars, having sufficient magnitude variation with time, are considered to be variable stars and their period values have computed through PERIOD04 package. These periodic values of variabl...

  12. Formation of SiC Grains in Pulsation-Enhanced Dust-Driven Wind Around Carbon Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the formation of silicon carbide (SiC) grains in the framework of dust-driven wind around pulsating carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (C-rich AGB) stars in order to reveal not only the amount but also the size distribution. Two cases are considered for the nucleation process; one is the LTE case where the vibration temperature of SiC clusters $T_{\\rm v}$ is equal to the gas temperature as usual, and another is the non-LTE case in which $T_{\\rm v}$ is assumed to be the same as the temperature of small SiC grains. The results of hydrodynamical calculations for a model with stellar parameters of mass $M_{\\ast}$=1.0 $M_{\\odot}$, luminosity $L_{\\ast}$=10$^{4}$ $L_{\\odot}$, effective temperature $T_{\\rm eff}$=2600 K, C/O ratio=1.4, and pulsation period $P$=650 days show the followings: In the LTE case, SiC grains condense in accelerated outflowing gas after the formation of carbon grains and the resulting averaged mass ratio of SiC to carbon grains of $\\sim$ 10$^{-8}$ is too small to reproduce the ...

  13. The variability of the CoRoT target HD171834: gamma Dor pulsations and/or activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Uytterhoeven, K; Baglin, A; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Amado, P; Chapellier, E; Mantegazza, L; Pollard, K; Suarez, J C; Kilmartin, P M; Sato, K H; Garcia, R A; Auvergne, M; Michel, E; Samadi, R; Catala, C; Baudin, F

    2011-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a frequency and line-profile analysis of the CoRoT gamma Dor candidate HD171834. The data consist of 149 days of CoRoT light curves and a ground-based dataset of more than 1400 high-resolution spectra, obtained with six different instruments. Low-amplitude frequencies between 0 and 5 c/d, dominated by a frequency near 0.96 c/d and several of its harmonics, are detected. These findings suggest that HD171834 is not a mere gamma Dor pulsator and that stellar activity plays an important role in its variable behaviour. Based on CoRoT space data and on ground-based observations with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under the ESO Large Programmes ESO LP 178.D-0361 and ESO LP 182.D-0356 (FEROS/2.2m and HARPS/3.6m), and data collected with FOCES/2.2m at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman at Calar Alto, SOPHIE/1.93m at Observatoire de Haute Provence, FIES/NOT at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and HERCULES/1.0m at Mount John University Observatory.

  14. Spectroscopy of Nine Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sheets, H A; Peters, C J; Kapusta, A B; Taylor, C J

    2007-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of nine cataclysmic binary stars, mostly dwarf novae, obtained primarily to determine orbital periods Porb. The stars and their periods are LX And, 0.1509743(5) d; CZ Aql, 0.2005(6) d; LU Cam, 0.1499686(4) d; GZ Cnc, 0.0881(4) d; V632 Cyg, 0.06377(8) d; V1006 Cyg, 0.09903(9) d; BF Eri, 0.2708804(4) d; BI Ori, 0.1915(5) d; and FO Per, for which Porb is either 0.1467(4) or 0.1719(5) d. Several of the stars proved to be especially interesting. In BF Eri, we detect the absorption spectrum of a secondary star of spectral type K3 +- 1 subclass, which leads to a distance estimate of approximately 1 kpc. However, BF Eri has a large proper motion (100 mas/yr), and we have a preliminary parallax measurement that confirms the large proper motion and yields only an upper limit for the parallax. BF Eri's space velocity is evidently large, and it appears to belong to the halo population. In CZ Aql, the emission lines have strong wings that move with large velocity amplitude, suggesting a mag...

  15. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity of white dwarfs can be inferred from spectroscopy, the internal structure of these compact stars can be unveiled only by means of asteroseismology, an approach based on the comparison between the observed pulsation periods of variable stars and the periods of appropriate theoretical models. In this communication, we first briefly describe the physical properties of white dwarf stars and the various families of pulsating white dwarfs known up to the present day, and then we present two recent analysis carried out by the La...

  16. A Deep Catalog of Variable Stars in a 0.66deg^2 Lupus Field

    CERN Document Server

    Weldrake, David T F

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted a wide-field photometric survey in a single 52'x52' field towards the Lupus Galactic Plane in an effort to detect transiting Hot Jupiter planets. The planet Lupus-TR-3b was identified from this work. The dataset also led to the detection of 494 field variables, all of which are new discoveries. This paper presents an overview of the project, along with the total catalog of variables, which comprises 190 eclipsing binaries (of contact, semi-contact and detached configurations), 51 miscellaneous pulsators of various types, 237 long period variables (P>=2d), 11 delta Scuti stars, 4 field RR Lyrae (3 disk and 1 halo) and 1 irregular variable. Our survey provides a complete catalog of W UMa eclipsing binaries in the field to V=18.8, which display a Gaussian period distribution of 0.277+/-0.036d. Several binary systems are likely composed of equal mass M-dwarf components and others display evidence of mass transfer. We find 17 candidate blue stragglers and one binary that has the shortest period k...

  17. Variable stars in Leo A : RR Lyrae stars, short-period cepheids, and implications for stellar content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolphin, AE; Saha, A; Claver, J; Skillman, ED; Cole, AA; Gallagher, JS; Tolstoy, E; Dohm-Palmer, RC; Mateo, M

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a search for short-period variable stars in Leo A. We have found 92 candidate variables, including eight candidate RR Lyrae stars. From the RR Lyrae stars, we measure a distance modulus of (m - M)(0) = 24.51 +/- 0.12, or 0.80 +/- 0.04 Mpc. This discovery of RR Lyrae stars c

  18. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, 10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, 25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  19. On the Effect of Rotation on Populations of Classical Cepheids II. Pulsation Analysis for Metallicities 0.014, 0.006, and 0.002

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Richard I; Ekström, Sylvia; Georgy, Cyril; Meynet, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Classical Cepheid variable stars are high-sensitivity probes of stellar evolution and fundamental tracers of cosmic distances. While rotational mixing significantly affects the evolution of Cepheid progenitors (intermediate-mass stars), the impact of the resulting changes in stellar structure and composition on Cepheids on their pulsational properties is hitherto unknown. Here we present the first detailed pulsational instability analysis of stellar evolution models that include the effects of rotation, for both fundamental mode and first overtone pulsation. We employ Geneva evolution models spanning a three-dimensional grid in mass (1.7 - 15 $M_\\odot$), metallicity (Z = 0.014, 0.006, 0.002), and rotation (non-rotating, average & fast rotation). We determine (1) hot and cool instability strip (IS) boundaries taking into account the coupling between convection and pulsation, (2) pulsation periods, and (3) rates of period change. We investigate relations between period and (a) luminosity, (b) age, (c) radiu...

  20. Tight asteroseismic constraints on core overshooting and diffusive mixing in the slowly rotating pulsating B8.3V star KIC 10526294

    CERN Document Server

    Moravveji, Ehsan; Papics, Peter I; Triana, Santiago Andres; Vandoren, Bram

    2015-01-01

    KIC 10526294 is a very slowly rotating and slowly pulsating late B-type star. Its 19 consecutive dipole gravity modes constitute a series with almost constant period spacing. This unique collection of identified modes probes the near-core environment of this star and holds the potential to reveal the size and structure of the overshooting zone on top of the convective core, as well as the mixing properties of the star. We pursue forward seismic modelling based on adiabatic eigenfrequencies of equilibrium models for eight extensive evolutionary grids tuned to KIC 10526294, by varying the initial mass, metallicity, chemical mixture, and the extent of the overshooting layer on top of the convective core. We examine models for both OP and OPAL opacities and test the occurrence of extra diffusive mixing. We find a tight mass, metallicity relation within the ranges $M$ ~ 3.13 to 3.25 Msun and $Z$ ~ 0.014 to 0.028. We deduce that an exponentially decaying diffusive core overshooting prescription describes the seismi...

  1. A Modern Update and Usage of Historical Variable Star Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Graur, Or; Murray, Zachary; Kruk, Julia; Christie-Dervaux, Lucien; Chen, Dong Yi

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest modern variable star catalogs was constructed by Henrietta Swan Leavitt during her tenure at the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) in the early 1900s. Originally published in 1908, Leavitt's catalog listed 1777 variables in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The construction and analysis of this catalog allowed her to subsequently discover the Cepheid period-luminosity relationship, now known as the Leavitt Law. The MC variable star catalogs were updated and expanded by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin in 1966 and 1971. Although newer studies of the MC variables have been performed since then, the new information has not always been correlated with the old due to a lack of modern descriptors of the stars listed in the Harvard MC catalogs. We will discuss the history of MC variable star catalogs, especially those compiled using the HCO plates, as well as our modernized version of the Leavitt and Payne-Gaposchkin catalogs. Our modern catalog can be used in conjunction with the archival plates (primarily via the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard scanning project) to study the secular behavior of the MC variable stars over the past century.

  2. Caroline Furness and the Evolution of Visual Variable Star Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars by Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, was published in October 2015. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars as well as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness’s work is therefore a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. Furness’s book and its reception in the scientific community are analyzed, and parallels with (and departures from) the current advice given by the AAVSO to beginning variable star observers today are highlighted.

  3. uvbybeta photometry of early type open cluster and field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2011-01-01

    The beta Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are massive main sequence variables. The strength of their pulsational driving strongly depends on the opacity of iron-group elements. As many of those stars naturally occur in young open clusters, whose metallicities can be determined in several fundamental ways, it is logical to study the incidence of pulsation in several young open clusters. To provide the foundation for such an investigation, Str\\"omgren-Crawford uvbybeta photometry of open cluster target stars was carried out to determine effective temperatures, luminosities, and therefore cluster memberships. In the course of three observing runs, uvbybeta photometry for 168 target stars was acquired and transformed into the standard system by measurements of 117 standard stars. The list of target stars also included some known cluster and field beta Cephei stars, as well as beta Cephei and SPB candidates that are targets of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler satellite mission. The uvbybeta phot...

  4. Confirmation of simultaneous p and g mode excitation in HD 8801 and Gamma Peg from time-resolved multicolour photometry of six candidate "hybrid" pulsators

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a multi-colour time-series photometric study of six stars claimed as "hybrid" p and g mode pulsators in the literature. Gamma Peg was confirmed to show short-period oscillations of the Beta Cep type and simultaneous long-period pulsations typical of Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) stars. From the measured amplitude ratios in the Stromgren uvy passbands, the stronger of the two short period pulsation modes was identified as radial; the second is l=1. Three of the four SPB-type modes are most likely l=1 or 2. Comparison with theoretical model calculations suggests that Gamma Peg is either an 8.5 solar mass radial fundamental mode pulsator or a 9.6 solar mass first radial overtone pulsator. HD 8801 was corroborated as a "hybrid" Delta Sct Gamma Dor star; four pulsation modes of the Gamma Dor type were detected, and two modes of the Delta Sct type were confirmed. Two pulsational signals between the frequency domains of these two known classes of variables were confirmed and another was newly detected. The...

  5. A New Catalog of Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster M37

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, S -W; Hartman, J D

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive re-analysis of stellar photometric variability in the field of the open cluster M37 following the application of a new photometry and de-trending method to MMT/Megacam image archive. This new analysis allows a rare opportunity to explore photometric variability over a broad range of time-scales, from minutes to a month. The intent of this work is to examine the entire sample of over 30,000 objects for periodic, aperiodic, and sporadic behaviors in their light curves. We show a modified version of the fast $\\chi^{2}$ periodogram algorithm (F$\\chi^{2}$) and change-point analysis (CPA) as tools for detecting and assessing the significance of periodic and non-periodic variations. The benefits of our new photometry and analysis methods are evident. A total of 2306 stars exhibit convincing variations that are induced by flares, pulsations, eclipses, starspots, and unknown causes in some cases. This represents a 60% increase in the number of variables known in this field. Moreover, 30 of t...

  6. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31. I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Garofalo, Alessia; Federici, Luciana, E-mail: felice.cusano@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: luciana.federici@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

    2013-12-10

    We present B, V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.'2) of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, which we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23' × 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V ∼ 26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and three of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ((P {sub ab}) = 0.62 days, σ = 0.03 days) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermediate system. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars ((V(RR)) = 25.34 mag, σ = 0.10 mag), we determine a distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 24.52 ± 0.23 mag in a scale where the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is 18.5 ± 0.1 mag. The ACs follow a well-defined Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation that appears to be in very good agreement with the PW relationship defined by the ACs in the LMC.

  7. Understanding the dynamical structure of pulsating stars: The center-of-mass velocity and the Baade-Wesselink projection factor of the beta-Cephei star alpha-Lupi

    CERN Document Server

    Nardetto, N; Fokin, A; Chapellier, E; Pietrzynski, G; Gieren, W; Graczyk, D; Mourard, D

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of pulsating stars is a powerful tool to study the dynamical structure of their atmosphere. Lines asymmetry is used to derive the center-of-mass velocity of the star, while a direct measurement of the atmospheric velocity gradient helps determine the projection factor used in the Baade-Wesselink method of distance determination. We aim at deriving the center-of-mass velocity and the projection factor of the beta-Cephei star alpha-Lup. We present HARPS high spectral resolution observations of alpha-Lup. We calculate the first-moment radial velocities and fit the spectral line profiles by a bi-Gaussian to derive line asymmetries. Correlations between the gamma-velocity and the gamma-asymmetry (defined as the average values of the radial velocity and line asymmetry curves respectively) are used to derive the center-of-mass velocity of the star. By combining our spectroscopic determination of the atmospheric velocity gradient with a hydrodynamical modelof the photosphere of the star, ...

  8. Planet-induced Stellar Pulsations in HAT-P-2's Eccentric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Fuller, Jim; Antoci, Victoria; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Deming, Drake; Shporer, Avi; Batygin, Konstantin; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-02-01

    Extrasolar planets on eccentric short-period orbits provide a laboratory in which to study radiative and tidal interactions between a planet and its host star under extreme forcing conditions. Studying such systems probes how the planet’s atmosphere redistributes the time-varying heat flux from its host and how the host star responds to transient tidal distortion. Here, we report the insights into the planet–star interactions in HAT-P-2's eccentric planetary system gained from the analysis of ∼350 hr of 4.5 μm observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The observations show no sign of orbit-to-orbit variability nor of orbital evolution of the eccentric planetary companion, HAT-P-2 b. The extensive coverage allows us to better differentiate instrumental systematics from the transient heating of HAT-P-2 b’s 4.5 μm photosphere and yields the detection of stellar pulsations with an amplitude of approximately 40 ppm. These pulsation modes correspond to exact harmonics of the planet’s orbital frequency, indicative of a tidal origin. Transient tidal effects can excite pulsation modes in the envelope of a star, but, to date, such pulsations had only been detected in highly eccentric stellar binaries. Current stellar models are unable to reproduce HAT-P-2's pulsations, suggesting that our understanding of the interactions at play in this system is incomplete.

  9. Synergies between exoplanet surveys and variable star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Geza

    2017-09-01

    With the discovery of the first transiting extrasolar planetary system back in 1999, a great number of projects started to hunt for other similar systems. Because the incidence rate of such systems was unknown and the length of the shallow transit events is only a few percent of the orbital period, the goal was to monitor continuously as many stars as possible for at least a period of a few months. Small aperture, large field of view automated telescope systems have been installed with a parallel development of new data reduction and analysis methods, leading to better than 1% per data point precision for thousands of stars. With the successful launch of the photometric satellites CoRoT and Kepler, the precision increased further by one-two orders of magnitude. Millions of stars have been analyzed and searched for transits. In the history of variable star astronomy this is the biggest undertaking so far, resulting in photometric time series inventories immensely valuable for the whole field. In this review we briefly discuss the methods of data analysis that were inspired by the main science driver of these surveys and highlight some of the most interesting variable star results that impact the field of variable star astronomy.

  10. Observing variable stars at the University of Athens Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.; Manimanis, V. N.; Niarchos, P. G.

    In 1999 the University of Athens installed a 0.4-m Cassegrain telescope (CCT-16, by DFM Engineering) on the roof of the Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, equipped with a ST-8 CCD camera and Bessel UBVRI filters. Although the telescope was built for educational purposes, we found it can be a perfect research instrument, as we can obtain fine quality light curves of bright variable stars, even from a place close to the city center. Light curves of the δ Scuti star V1162 Ori and of the sdB star PG 1336-018 are presented, showing the ability of a 40-cm telescope to detect negligible luminosity fluctuations of relatively bright variable stars. To date, we succeed in making photometry of stars down to 15th magnitude with satisfactory results. We expect to achieve even better results in the future, as our methods still improve, and as the large number of relatively bright stars gives us the chance to study various fields of CCD photometry of variables.

  11. Invited Talk: Photometry of Bright Variable Stars with the BRITE Constellation Nano-Satellites: Opportunities for Amateur Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, E. F.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) The BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE) is a joint Austrian-Canadian-Polish Astronomy mission to carry out high precision photometry of bright (mv cubes equipped with wide field (20 × 24 deg.) CCD cameras, control systems, solar panels, onboard computers, and so on. The first two (of up to six) satellites were successfully launched during February 2013. After post-launch commissioning, science operations commenced during October 2013. The primary goals are to carry out continuous multi-color (currently blue and red filters) high-precision millimag (mmag) photometry in particular locations in the sky. Typically these pointings will last for two to four months and secure simultaneous blue/red photometry of bright variable stars within the field. The first science pointing is centered on the Orion region. Since most bright stars are intrinsically luminous, hot O/B stars, giants, and supergiants will be the most common targets. However, some bright eclipsing binaries (such as Algol, b Lyr, e Aur) and a few chromospherically-active RS CVn stars (such as Capella) may be eventually be monitored. The BRITE-Constellation program of high precision, two color photometry of bright stars offers a great opportunity to study a wide range of stellar astrophysical problems. Bright stars offer convenient laboratories to study many current and important problems in stellar astrophysics. These include probing stellar interiors and pulsation in pulsating stars, tests of stellar evolution and structure for Cepheids and other luminous stars. To scientifically enhance the BRITE science returns, the BRITE investigators are very interested in securing contemporaneous ground-based spectroscopy and standardized photometry of target stars. The BRITE Ground Based Observations Team is coordinating ground-based observing efforts for BRITE targets. The team helps coordinate collaborations with amateur and professional astronomer. The ground-based coordinators are: Thomas Eversberg

  12. Adventures in the World of Pulsating Variable Stars: Multisite Photometric Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, R.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of photometric multisite campaigns are discussed, then published or prospective results of four - preceding and ongoing - observing runs are presented. Prospects and limits of photometric observations carried out from Hungary with small (~ 1m) telescopes are also outlined.

  13. The 2003-2004 multisite photometric campaign for the β Cephei and eclipsing star 16 (EN) Lacertae with an appendix on 2 Andromedae, the variable comparison star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzykiewicz, M.; Handler, G.; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Pigulski, A.; Poretti, E.; Rodríguez, E.; Amado, P. J.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Dorokhova, T. N.; Dorokhov, N. I.; Lorenz, D.; Zsuffa, D.; Kim, S.-L.; Bourge, P.-O.; Acke, B.; De Ridder, J.; Verhoelst, T.; Drummond, R.; Movchan, A. I.; Lee, J.-A.; Stȩślicki, M.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Garrido, R.; Kim, S.-H.; Michalska, G.; Paparó, M.; Antoci, V.; Aerts, C.

    2015-11-01

    A multisite photometric campaign for the β Cephei and eclipsing variable 16 Lacertae is reported. 749 h of high-quality differential photoelectric Strömgren, Johnson and Geneva time series photometry were obtained with 10 telescopes during 185 nights. After removing the pulsation contribution, an attempt was made to solve the resulting eclipse light curve by means of the computer program EBOP. Although a unique solution was not obtained, the range of solutions could be constrained by comparing computed positions of the secondary component in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with evolutionary tracks. For three high-amplitude pulsation modes, the uvy and the Geneva UBG amplitude ratios are derived and compared with the theoretical ones for spherical-harmonic degrees ℓ ≤ 4. The highest degree, ℓ = 4, is shown to be incompatible with the observations. One mode is found to be radial, one is ℓ = 1, while in the remaining case ℓ = 2 or 3. The present multisite observations are combined with the archival photometry in order to investigate the long-term variation of the amplitudes and phases of the three high-amplitude pulsation modes. The radial mode shows a non-sinusoidal variation on a time-scale of 73 yr. The ℓ = 1 mode is a triplet with unequal frequency spacing, giving rise to two beat-periods, 720.7 d and 29.1 yr. The amplitude and phase of the ℓ = 2 or 3 mode vary on time-scales of 380.5 d and 43 yr. The light variation of 2 And, one of the comparison stars, is discussed in the appendix.

  14. Variability and star formation in Leo T, the lowest luminosity star-forming galaxy known today

    CERN Document Server

    Clementini, Gisella; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Federici, Luciana; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Tosi, Monica; Musella, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first combined study of variable stars and star formation history (SFH) of the Milky Way (MW) "ultra-faint" dwarf (UFD) galaxy Leo T, based on F606W and F814W multi-epoch archive observations obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We have detected 14 variable stars in the galaxy. They include one fundamental-mode RR Lyrae star and 10 Anomalous Cepheids with periods shorter than 1 day, thus suggesting the occurrence of multiple star formation episodes in this UFD, of which one about 10 Gyr ago produced the RR Lyrae star. A new estimate of the distance to Leo T of 409 $^{+29}_{-27}$ kpc (distance modulus of 23.06 $\\pm$ 0.15 mag) was derived from the galaxy's RR Lyrae star. Our V, V-I color-magnitude diagram of Leo T reaches V~29 mag and shows features typical of a galaxy in transition between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal types. A quantitative analysis of the star formation history, based on the comparison of the observed V,V-I CMD...

  15. Galactic and Extragalactic Distance Scales: The Variable Star Project

    CERN Document Server

    Feast, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    This paper summaries the status of a large project to improve distance scales of various classes of variable stars. This is being carried out by a large group in Cape Town, Japan, England and the USA. The results are illustrated by giving the distances of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Galactic Centre (Ro) as well as the value of the Hubble Constant, Ho, based on our current results. The classes of variables considered are; Classical Cepheids, Type II Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, O- and C-Miras

  16. On the near infrared variability of chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, F A

    1998-01-01

    Some CP stars have recently been discovered by Catalano et al. (1991) to be variable also in the near infrared, although with smaller amplitudes than in the visible. Hence an observational campaign was started in which the infrared light variability of a number of CP2 and CP4 stars has been investigated at the ESO-La Silla Observatory in the bands J, H, and K. As a general result, infrared variations show the same behavior in all three filters but amplitudes are smaller than in the visible.

  17. Variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 2419

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, C; Federici, L; Clementini, G; Fabrizio, L D; Baldacci, L; Maio, M; Marconi, M; Musella, I; Stetson, P B

    2005-01-01

    We have used DOLORES at the TNG to obtain B,V time series photometry of NGC 2419, one of the most distant and bright clusters in the Galactic halo. These data will be used to study its variable star population in order to check whether the cluster could be the relic of an extragalactic system accreted by the Milky Way. Using the Image Subtraction technique (Alard 2000) we have identified about 300 candidate variables, many of which are in the cluster central regions. Several of the variables appear to be RR Lyrae stars, but we detected variability also around the tip of the red giant branch, and in other regions of the colour-magnitude diagram. To improve the light curve sampling and to resolve variables in the cluster inner regions, the TNG data were combined with HST archive data. Preliminary results are presented on the light curves from the combined data set.

  18. A second case of outbursts in a pulsating white dwarf observed by Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, J J; Bell, Keaton J; Chote, P; Gaensicke, B T; Kawaler, Steven D; Clemens, J C; Dunlap, B H; Winget, D E; Armstrong, D J

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of a new phenomenon in pulsating white dwarf stars: large-amplitude outbursts at timescales much longer than the pulsation periods. The cool (Teff = 11,010 K), hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf PG 1149+057 was observed nearly continuously for more than 78.8 d by the extended Kepler mission in K2 Campaign 1. The target showed 10 outburst events, recurring roughly every 8 d and lasting roughly 15 hr, with maximum flux excursions up to 45% in the Kepler bandpass. We demonstrate that the outbursts affect the pulsations and therefore must come from the white dwarf. Additionally, we argue that these events are not magnetic reconnection flares, and are most likely connected to the stellar pulsations and the relatively deep surface convection zone. PG 1149+057 is now the second cool pulsating white dwarf to show this outburst phenomenon, after the first variable white dwarf observed in the Kepler mission, KIC 4552982. Both stars have the same effective temperature, within the uncertain...

  19. CURiuos Variables Experiment (CURVE): Variable Stars in the metal-poor Globular Cluster M56

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Kedzierski, P; Zloczewski, K; Wisniewski, M; Mularczyk, K

    2008-01-01

    We have surveyed a 6.5' x 6.5' field centered on the globular cluster M56 (NGC 6779) in search for variable stars. We have detected seven variables, among which two objects are new identifications. One of the new variables is an RR Lyrae star, the third such star in M56. Comparison of the new observations and old photometric data for an RV Tauri variable V6 indicates a likely period change in the star. Its slow and negative rate of -0.005+/-0.003 d/yr would disagree with post-AGB evolution, however this could be a result of blue-loop evolution and/or random fluctuations of the period.

  20. The Unusual Photometric Variability of the PMS Star GM Cep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkov, E. H.; Ibryamov, S. I.; Peneva, S. P.; Milanov, T. R.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Stateva, I. K.; Kjurkchieva, D. P.; Dimitrov, D. P.; Radeva, V. S.

    2015-03-01

    Results from UBVRI photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star GM Cep obtained in the period 2011 April-2014 August are reported in the paper. Presented data are a continuation of our photometric monitoring of the star started in 2008. GM Cep is located in the field of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 and over the past years it has been an object of intense photometric and spectral studies. The star shows a strong photometric variability interpreted as a possible outburst from EXor type in previous studies. Our photometric data for a period of over six years show a large amplitude variability (ΔV ~ 2.3 mag) and several deep minimums in brightness are observed. The analysis of the collected multicolour photometric data show the typical of UX Ori variables a colour reversal during the minimums in brightness. The observed decreases in brightness have a different shape, and evidences of periodicity are not detected. At the same time, high amplitude rapid variations in brightness typical for the classical T Tauri stars also present on the light curve of GM Cep. The spectrum of GM Cep shows the typical of classical T Tauri stars wide Hα emission line and absorption lines of some metals. We calculate the outer radius of the Hα emitting region as 10.4 ± 0.5 R⊙ and the accretion rate as 1.8 × 10- 7 M⊙ yr- 1.

  1. Adapting Predictive Models for Cepheid Variable Star Classification Using Linear Regression and Maximum Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kinjal Dhar; Vilalta, Ricardo; Asadourian, Vicken; Macri, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    We describe an approach to automate the classification of Cepheid variable stars into two subtypes according to their pulsation mode. Automating such classification is relevant to obtain a precise determination of distances to nearby galaxies, which in addition helps reduce the uncertainty in the current expansion of the universe. One main difficulty lies in the compatibility of models trained using different galaxy datasets; a model trained using a training dataset may be ineffectual on a testing set. A solution to such difficulty is to adapt predictive models across domains; this is necessary when the training and testing sets do not follow the same distribution. The gist of our methodology is to train a predictive model on a nearby galaxy (e.g., Large Magellanic Cloud), followed by a model-adaptation step to make the model operable on other nearby galaxies. We follow a parametric approach to density estimation by modeling the training data (anchor galaxy) using a mixture of linear models. We then use maximum likelihood to compute the right amount of variable displacement, until the testing data closely overlaps the training data. At that point, the model can be directly used in the testing data (target galaxy).

  2. Variable stars in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6401

    CERN Document Server

    Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Kains, N; Street, R; Hundertmark, M; Horne, K; Dominik, M; Snodgrass, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of variable stars in globular cluster NGC 6401. The cluster is only $5.3\\degr$ away from the Galactic centre and suffers from strong differential reddening. The photometric precision afforded us by difference image analysis resulted in improved sensitivity to variability in formerly inaccessible interior regions of the cluster. We find 23 RRab and 11 RRc stars within one cluster radius (2.4$\\arcmin$), for which we provide coordinates, finder-charts and time-series photometry. Through Fourier decomposition of the RR Lyrae star light curves we derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]$_{\\mathrm{UVES}} = -1.13 \\pm 0.06$ (${\\rm [Fe/H]}_{\\mathrm{ZW}} = -1.25 \\pm 0.06$), and a distance of $d\\approx 6.35 \\pm 0.81$ kpc. Using the RR Lyrae population, we also determine that NGC 6401 is an Oosterhoff type I cluster.

  3. Long-period variable stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185 - I. Their star formation histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani Golshan, Roya; Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib; Saremi, Elham

    2017-04-01

    NGC 147 and NGC 185 are two of the most massive satellites of the Andromeda galaxy (M 31). Close together in the sky, of similar mass and morphological type dE, they possess different amounts of interstellar gas and tidal distortion. The question therefore is, how do their histories compare? Here, we present the first reconstruction of the star formation histories of NGC 147 and NGC 185 using long-period variable stars. These represent the final phase of evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars at the asymptotic giant branch, when their luminosity is related to their birth mass. Combining near-infrared photometry with stellar evolution models, we construct the mass function and hence the star formation history. For NGC 185, we found that the main epoch of star formation occurred 8.3 Gyr ago, followed by a much lower, but relatively constant star formation rate. In the case of NGC 147, the star formation rate peaked only 7 Gyr ago, staying intense until ∼3 Gyr ago, but no star formation has occurred for at least 300 Myr. Despite their similar masses, NGC 147 has evolved more slowly than NGC 185 initially, but more dramatically in more recent times. This is corroborated by the strong tidal distortions of NGC 147 and the presence of gas in the centre of NGC 185.

  4. Discovery of a new PG 1159 (GW Vir) pulsator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.; Fraga, Luciano; Winget, Don Earl; Bell, Keaton; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Werner, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in the spectroscopic PG 1159 type pre-white dwarf SDSS J075415.12 + 085232.18. Analysis of the spectrum by Werner et al. indicated Teff = 120 000 ± 10 000 K, log g = 7.0 ± 0.3, mass {M}=0.52 ± 0.02 M_{⊙}, C/He = 0.33 by number. We obtained time series images with the SOAR 4.1 m telescope and 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory and show the star is also a variable PG 1159 type star, with dominant period of 525 s.

  5. Discovery of a new PG1159 (GW Vir) Pulsator

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Winget, Don Earl; Bell, Keaton; Corsico, Alejandro H; Werner, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in the spectroscopic PG 1159 type pre-white dwarf SDSS J075415.12+085232.18. Analysis of the spectrum by Werner, Rauch and Kepler (2014) indicated Teff=120 000+/-10 000 K, log g=7.0+/-0.3, mass M=0.52+/-0.02 Msun, C/He=0.33 by number. We obtained time-series images with the SOAR 4.1 m telescope and 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory and show the star is also a variable PG 1159 type star, with dominant period of 525 s.

  6. Pulsational-Pair Instability Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Woosley, S E

    2016-01-01

    The final evolution of stars in the mass range 60 - 150 solar masses is explored. Depending upon their mass loss and rotation rates, many of these stars will end their lives as pulsational pair-instability supernovae. Even a non-rotating 70 solar mass star is pulsationally unstable during oxygen shell burning and can power a sub-luminous supernova. Rotation decreases the limit further. For more massive stars, the pulsations are less frequent, span a longer time, and are more powerful. Violent pulsations eject not only any residual low density envelope, but also that fraction of the helium core mass outside about 35 - 50 solar masses. The remaining core of helium and heavy elements continues to evolve, ultimately forming an iron core of about 2.5 solar masses that probably collapses to a black hole. A variety of observational transients result with total durations ranging from days to 10,000 years, and luminosities from 10$^{41}$ to 10$^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Many transients resemble ordinary Type IIp supernovae,...

  7. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Romero, A.D.; Kepler, S.O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Mukadam, A.S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); García-Berro, E. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Isern, J. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Corti, M.A., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: aromero@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: enrique.garcia-berro@upc.edu, E-mail: isern@ice.cat, E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: mariela@fcaglp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (CCT-La Plata, CONICET), C.C. No. 5, 1894 Villa Elisa (Argentina)

    2012-12-01

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time (.Π)) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theoretical .Π) values to the corresponding empirical rate of change of period with time of R548 to discern the presence of axion cooling. We found that if the dominant period at 213.13 s in R548 is associated with a pulsation mode trapped in the hydrogen envelope, our models indicate the existence of additional cooling in this pulsating white dwarf, consistent with axions of mass m{sub a}cos {sup 2}β ∼ 17.1 meV at a 2σ confidence level. This determination is in agreement with the value inferred from another well-studied DAV, G117-B15A. We now have two independent and consistent estimates of the mass of the axion obtained from DAVs, although additional studies of other pulsating white dwarfs are needed to confirm this value of the axion mass.

  8. High Precision Photometry of Variable Stars in Clusters of Different Ages with the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, E. F.; McCook, G. P.; DeWarf, L. E.; Gelderman, R. F.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Howell, S. B.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Mattox, J. R.

    2003-05-01

    We discuss a new program of carrying out high precision VRI CCD photometry of several star clusters of different ages. The photometry is being carried out using the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT), located at KPNO. This program focuses on the study of variable stars in mostly open clusters. Selected astrophysically important eclipsing binaries, pulsating variables, blue stragglers, and chromospherically active variable stars will be studied. Also, searches of new variable stars will be made from the expected large samples of cluster stars. For example, photometry is planned of the several W UMa eclipsing binaries and blue straggler stars in the old open cluster NGC 188. Photometry also will be carried out of the young open cluster NGC 7790. This cluster is unique because has three confirmed classical cepheid members: CE Cas A (V ˜ +10.9 mag; F8 Ib; P = 4.446 d ), CE Cep B (V ˜ +11.0 mag; F9 Ib; 5.128 d), and CF Cas (V ˜ +11.1 mag; F8 Ib; 4.875 d). NGC 7790 also contains the 10th mag eccentric B0+B0 eclipsing binary QX Cas. The observations of QX Cas are being conducted to determine the accurate distance to this star and thus to the cluster and its cepheid members. When complete these observations, combined with spectroscopy, will permit a reliable calibration of the ``zero-point'' of the galactic cepheid Period-Luminosity Law. Another possible project is the search of light variations of PMS stars and chromospherically active stars (from star spot rotational modulations) in young clusters such as the alpha Perseus Cluster, h & χ Per, M34, and the Pleiades. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG 58762. The RCT Consortium includes: Western Kentucky Univ., S. Carolina St Univ., Francis Marion Univ., Villanova Univ., and the Planetary Science Institute (PSI).

  9. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  10. Variable Stars in Local Group Galaxies. III. And VII, NGC 147, and NGC 185: Insight into the Building Blocks of the M31 Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Bernard, E. J.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Stetson, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    We present the discovery of 1568 RR Lyrae stars in three of the most luminous M31 satellites: And VII (573), NGC 147 (177), and NGC 185 (818). We use their properties to study the formation history of Local Group spiral haloes, and in particular, to infer about the nature of their possible building blocks by comparison with available data for RR Lyrae stars in the halo and in a sample of satellites of M31 and the Milky Way. We find that the brightest satellites and the halos of both galaxies host a number of High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) RR Lyrae variable stars, which are missing in the faintest satellites. HASP variable stars have been shown by Fiorentino et al. to be tracers of a population of stars as metal-rich as [Fe/H] ≃ -1.5 and older than ≃ 10 {Gyr}. This suggests that the metal-rich M31 and MW halo component, which manifests through the HASP phenomenon, comes from massive dwarf galaxy building blocks, as the low-mass dwarfs did not chemically enrich fast enough to produce them. All detected variable stars are new discoveries; in particular, this work presents the first detections of RR Lyrae stars in And VII. Moreover, a number of candidate Anomalous Cepheids, and binary and long-period variable stars have been detected. We provide pulsation properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude), light curves, and time series photometry for all of the variable stars in the three galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #10430 and #11724.

  11. Synthetic photometry for carbon-rich giants II. The effects of pulsation and circumstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotny, Walter; Höfner, Susanne; Lederer, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    By using self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres which simulate pulsation-enhanced dust-driven winds of AGB stars we studied in detail the influence of (i) pulsations of the stellar interiors, and (ii) the development of dusty stellar winds on the spectral appearance of long period variables with carbon-rich atmospheric chemistry. While the pulsations lead to large-amplitude photometric variability, the dusty envelopes cause pronounced circumstellar reddening. Based on one selected dynamical model which is representative of C-type Mira variables with intermediate mass loss rates, we calculated synthetic spectra and photometry for standard broad-band filters from the visual to the near-infrared. Our modelling allows to investigate in detail the substantial effect of circumstellar dust on the resultant photometry. The pronounced absorption of amorphous carbon dust grains leads to colour indices which are significantly redder than the corresponding ones based on hydrostatic dust-free models. Only if we account...

  12. DISCOVERY OF PULSATIONS, INCLUDING POSSIBLE PRESSURE MODES, IN TWO NEW EXTREMELY LOW MASS, He-CORE WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Bell, Keaton J.; Harrold, Samuel T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We report the discovery of the second and third pulsating extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 (hereafter J1112) and SDSS J151826.68+065813.2 (hereafter J1518). Both have masses < 0.25 M{sub Sun} and effective temperatures below 10, 000 K, establishing these putatively He-core WDs as a cooler class of pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere WDs (DAVs, or ZZ Ceti stars). The short-period pulsations evidenced in the light curve of J1112 may also represent the first observation of acoustic (p-mode) pulsations in any WD, which provide an exciting opportunity to probe this WD in a complimentary way compared to the long-period g-modes that are also present. J1112 is a T{sub eff} =9590 {+-} 140 K and log g =6.36 {+-} 0.06 WD. The star displays sinusoidal variability at five distinct periodicities between 1792 and 2855 s. In this star, we also see short-period variability, strongest at 134.3 s, well short of the expected g-modes for such a low-mass WD. The other new pulsating WD, J1518, is a T{sub eff} =9900 {+-} 140 K and log g =6.80 {+-} 0.05 WD. The light curve of J1518 is highly non-sinusoidal, with at least seven significant periods between 1335 and 3848 s. Consistent with the expectation that ELM WDs must be formed in binaries, these two new pulsating He-core WDs, in addition to the prototype SDSS J184037.78+642312.3, have close companions. However, the observed variability is inconsistent with tidally induced pulsations and is so far best explained by the same hydrogen partial-ionization driving mechanism at work in classic C/O-core ZZ Ceti stars.

  13. An Undergraduate Research Experience on Studying Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A.; Percy, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe and evaluate a summer undergraduate research project and experience by one of us (AA), under the supervision of the other (JP). The aim of the project was to sample current approaches to analyzing variable star data, and topics related to the study of Mira variable stars and their astrophysical importance. This project was done through the Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) in astronomy at the University of Toronto. SURP allowed undergraduate students to explore and learn about many topics within astronomy and astrophysics, from instrumentation to cosmology. SURP introduced students to key skills which are essential for students hoping to pursue graduate studies in any scientific field. Variable stars proved to be an excellent topic for a research project. For beginners to independent research, it introduces key concepts in research such as critical thinking and problem solving, while illuminating previously learned topics in stellar physics. The focus of this summer project was to compare observations with structural and evolutionary models, including modelling the random walk behavior exhibited in the (O-C) diagrams of most Mira stars. We found that the random walk could be modelled by using random fluctuations of the period. This explanation agreed well with observations.

  14. Pulsation driving and convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Convection in stellar envelopes affects not only the stellar structure, but has a strong impact on different astrophysical processes, such as dynamo-generated magnetic fields, stellar activity and transport of angular momentum. Solar and stellar observations from ground and space have shown that the turbulent convective motion can also drive global oscillations in many type of stars, allowing to study stellar interiors at different evolutionary stages. In this talk I will concentrate on the influence of convection on the driving of stochastic and coherent pulsations across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and give an overview of recent studies.

  15. Physical variability of the magnetic field of some stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V D; Madej, J

    2016-01-01

    Apparent variability of the longitudinal magnetic fields in most stars is caused by rotation, which quantitavely changes projection of the magnetic field configuration on the line of sight. This is a purely geometrical effect and is not related to possible intrinsic changes of the field. In some stars we observe changes of the magnetic phase curve with time, which means that parameters of the magnetic field change. Such changes occur in some objects in time scale of several years, which is few orders of magnitude faster than predicted by theory. Those changes imply need for improvement of the theory of magnetic field evolution. We demonstrate changes of the rotational phase curves in few stars.

  16. CoRoT observations of O stars: diverse origins of variability

    CERN Document Server

    Blomme, R; Degroote, P; Mahy, L; Aerts, C; Cuypers, J; Godart, M; Gosset, E; Hareter, M; Montalban, J; Morel, T; Nieva, M F; Noels, A; Oreiro, R; Poretti, E; Przybilla, N; Rainer, M; Rauw, G; Schiller, F; Simon-Diaz, S; Smolders, K; Ventura, P; Vuckovic, M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2011-01-01

    Six O-type stars were observed continuously by the CoRoT satellite during a 34.3-day run. The unprecedented quality of the data allows us to detect even low-amplitude stellar pulsations in some of these stars (HD 46202 and the binaries HD 46149 and Plaskett's star). These cover both opacity-driven modes and solar-like stochastic oscillations, both of importance to the asteroseismological modelling of O stars. Additional effects can be seen in the CoRoT light curves, such as binarity and rotational modulation. Some of the hottest O-type stars (HD 46223, HD 46150 and HD 46966) are dominated by the presence of red-noise: we speculate that this is related to a sub-surface convection zone.

  17. Luminous blue variables and the fates of very massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2017-09-01

    Luminous blue variables (LBVs) had long been considered massive stars in transition to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase, so their identification as progenitors of some peculiar supernovae (SNe) was surprising. More recently, environment statistics of LBVs show that most of them cannot be in transition to the WR phase after all, because LBVs are more isolated than allowed in this scenario. Additionally, the high-mass H shells around luminous SNe IIn require that some very massive stars above 40 Mȯ die without shedding their H envelopes, and the precursor outbursts are a challenge for understanding the final burning sequences leading to core collapse. Recent evidence suggests a clear continuum in pre-SN mass loss from super-luminous SNe IIn, to regular SNe IIn, to SNe II-L and II-P, whereas most stripped-envelope SNe seem to arise from a separate channel of lower-mass binary stars rather than massive WR stars. This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'.

  18. Photometric Variability in Kepler Target Stars: The Sun Among Stars -- A First Look

    CERN Document Server

    Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Gilliland, Ronald L; Jenkins, Jon; Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Caldwell, Doug; Dupree, Andrea K; Latham, David W; Meibom, Soeren; Howell, Steve; Brown, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission provides an exciting opportunity to study the lightcurves of stars with unprecedented precision and continuity of coverage. This is the first look at a large sample of stars with photometric data of a quality that has heretofore been only available for our Sun. It provides the first opportunity to compare the irradiance variations of our Sun to a large cohort of stars ranging from vary similar to rather different stellar properties, at a wide variety of ages. Although Kepler data is in an early phase of maturity, and we only analyze the first month of coverage, it is sufficient to garner the first meaningful measurements of our Sun's variability in the context of a large cohort of main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. We find that nearly half of the full sample is more active than the active Sun, although most of them are not more than twice as active. The active fraction is closer to a third for the stars most similar to the Sun, and rises to well more than half for stars cooler t...

  19. Frequency Analysis of Delta Scuti and RR Lyrae Stars in OGLE-1 Database

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalik, P

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the results of a systematic search for multiperiodic pulsations in Galactic Bulge Delta Scuti and RR Lyrae stars. Six "normal" double-mode variables pulsating in two radial modes have been identified (5 Delta Scuti-type and 1 RR Lyrae-type). In 37 RR Lyrae stars secondary periodicities very close to the primary pulsation frequency have been detected. These periodicities correspond to nonradial modes of oscillation. They are found in \\~23% of RRab and in ~3% of RRc variables of our sample.

  20. Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubath, P.; Rimoldini, L.; Süveges, M.; Blomme, J.; López, M.; Sarro, L. M.; De Ridder, J.; Cuypers, J.; Guy, L.; Lecoeur, I.; Nienartowicz, K.; Jan, A.; Beck, M.; Mowlavi, N.; De Cat, P.; Lebzelter, T.; Eyer, L.

    2011-07-01

    We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light-curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi-stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10-fold cross-validation (CV) experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100 per cent, depending on the variability type. The main mis-classification cases, up to a rate of about 10 per cent, arise due to confusion between SPB and ACV blue variables and between eclipsing binaries, ellipsoidal variables and other variability types. Our training set and the predicted types for the other Hipparcos periodic stars are available online.

  1. The Catalina Surveys Southern periodic variable star catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Catelan, M.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A. A.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Torrealba, G.; Beshore, E.; McNaught, R. H.; Garradd, G.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present the results from our analysis of 6 yr of optical photometry taken by the Siding Spring Survey (SSS). This completes a search for periodic variable stars within the 30 000 deg2 of the sky covered by the Catalina Surveys. The current analysis covers 81 million sources with declinations between -20° and -75° with median magnitudes in the range 11 values of luminosity, period, and amplitude. However, we find many variable stars that had previously been misclassified. Examining the distribution of RR Lyrae, we find a population associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that extends more than 20° from its centre confirming recent evidence for the existence of a very extended stellar halo in the LMC. By combining SSS photometry with Dark Energy Survey data, we identify additional LMC halo RR Lyrae, thus confirming the significance of the population.

  2. A Variable Star Census in a Perseus Field

    CERN Document Server

    Pasternacki, T; Cabrera, J; Eigmueller, P; Erikson, A; Fruth, T; von Paris, P; Rauer, H; Titz, R; Eisloeffel, J; Hatzes, A; Boer, M; Tournois, G; Kabath, P; Hedelt, P; Voss, H; 10.1088/0004-6256/142/1/1

    2011-01-01

    The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope is a small-aperture, wide-field telescope dedicated to time-series photometric observations. During an initial commissioning phase at the Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany, and subsequent operations at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, a 3.1 {\\deg} x 3.1 {\\deg} circumpolar field close to the galactic plane centered at ({\\alpha}, {\\delta}) = (02h 39m 23s, +52{\\deg} 01' 46") (J 2000.0) was observed between 2001 August and 2006 December during 52 nights. From the 32129 stars observed, a subsample of 145 stars with clear stellar variability was detected out of which 125 are newly identified variable objects. For five bright objects, the system parameters were derived by modeling the light curve.

  3. Chemical inhomogeneities and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2001-01-01

    Major improvements in models of chemically peculiar stars have been achieved in the past few years. With these new models it has been possible to test quantitatively some of the processes involved in the formation of abundance anomalies and their effect on stellar structure. The models of metallic A (Am) stars have shown that a much deeper mixing has to be present to account for observed abundance anomalies. This has implications on their variability, which these models also reproduce qualitatively. These models also have implications for other chemically inhomogeneous stars such as HgMn B stars which are not known to be variable and lambda Bootis stars which can be. The study of the variability of chemically inhomogeneous stars can provide unique information on the dynamic processes occurring in many types of stars in addition to modeling of the evolution of their surface composition.

  4. The unusual photometric variability of the PMS star GM Cep

    CERN Document Server

    Semkov, E; Peneva, S; Milanov, T; Stoyanov, K; Stateva, I; Kjurkchieva, D; Dimitrov, D; Radeva, V

    2015-01-01

    Results from UBVRI photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star GM Cep obtained in the period April 2011 - August 2014 are reported in the paper. Presented data are a continuation of our photometric monitoring of the star started in 2008. GM Cep is located in the field of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 and over the past years it has been an object of intense photometric and spectral studies. The star shows a strong photometric variability interpreted as a possible outburst from EXor type in previous studies. Our photometric data for a period of over six years show a large amplitude variability (Delta V ~ 2.3 mag.) and several deep minimums in brightness are observed. The analysis of the collected multicolor photometric data shows the typical of UX Ori variables a color reversal during the minimums in brightness. The observed decreases in brightness have a different shape, and evidences of periodicity are not detected. At the same time, high amplitude rapid variations in brightness typical for th...

  5. Photometric variability of the Herbig Ae star HD 37806

    CERN Document Server

    Rucinski, S M; Hareter, M; Pojmanski, G; Kuschnig, R; Matthews, J M; Guenther, D B; Moffat, A F J; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W

    2010-01-01

    The more massive counterparts of T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae/Be stars, are known to vary in a complex way with no variability mechanism clearly identified. We attempt to characterize the optical variability of HD~37806 (MWC 120) on time scales ranging between minutes and several years. A continuous, one-minute resolution, 21 day-long sequence of MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite observations has been analyzed using wavelet, scalegram and dispersion analysis tools. The MOST data have been augmented by sparse observations over 9 seasons from ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey), by previously non-analyzed ESO (European Southern Observatory) data partly covering 3 seasons and by archival measurements dating back half a century ago. Mutually superimposed flares or accretion instabilities grow in size from about 0.0003 of the mean flux on a time scale of minutes to a peak-to-peak range of <~0.05 on a time scale of a few years. The resulting variability has properties of stochastic "red" nois...

  6. Asteroseismology of pulsating DA white dwarfs with fully evolutionary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaus L.G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for asteroseismology of DA white dwarfs that consists in the employment of a large set of non-static, physically sound, fully evolutionary models representative of these stars. We already have applied this approach with success to pulsating PG1159 stars (GW Vir variables. Our white dwarf models, which cover a wide range of stellar masses, effective temperatures, and envelope thicknesses, are the result of fully evolutionary computations that take into account the complete history of the progenitor stars from the ZAMS. In particular, the models are characterized by self-consistent chemical structures from the centre to the surface, a crucial aspect of white dwarf asteroseismology. We apply this approach to an ensemble of 44 bright DAV (ZZ Ceti stars.

  7. Highly variable young massive stars in ATLASGAL clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M S N; Lucas, P W; Thompson, M A

    2016-01-01

    High-amplitude variability in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is usually associated with episodic accretion events. It has not been observed so far in massive YSOs. Here, the high-amplitude variable star sample of ContrerasPe\\~{n}a et al.(2016) has been used to search for highly-variable($\\Delta$K$\\ge$1\\,mag) sources coinciding with dense clumps mapped using the 850\\mum continuum emission by the ATLASGAL survey. 18 variable sources are centred on the sub-mm clump peaks, and coincide ($$2 mag, significantly higher compared to the mean variability of the entire VVV sample. The light curves of these objects sampled between 2010-2015 display rising, declining, or quasi-periodic behaviour but no clear periodicity. Light-curve analysis using Plavchan method show that the most prominent phased signals have periods of a few hundred days. The nature and time-scale of variations found in 6.7 Ghz methanol maser emission (MME) in massive stars are similar to that of the VYSO light curves. We argue that the origin of the obs...

  8. Long-term variability of T Tauri stars using WASP

    CERN Document Server

    Rigon, Laura; Anderson, David; West, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a reference study of the long-term optical variability of young stars using data from the WASP project. Our primary sample is a group of well-studied classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), mostly in Taurus-Auriga. WASP lightcurves cover timescales up to 7 years and typically contain 10000-30000 datapoints. We quantify the variability as function of timescale using the time-dependent standard deviation 'pooled sigma'. We find that the overwhelming majority of CTTS has low-level variability with sigma0.3mag) is 21% in our sample and 21% in an unbiased control sample. An even smaller fraction (13% in our sample, 6% in the control) show evidence for an increase in variability amplitude as a function of timescale from weeks to months or years. The presence of long-term variability correlates with the spectral slope at 3-5mu, which is an indicator of inner disk geometry, and with the U-B band slope, which is an accretion diagnostics. This shows that the long-term variations in CTTS are predominantly driven by p...

  9. Variable stars in the field of the Hydra II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Walker, Alistair; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland; Majewski, Steven; Kaleida, Catherine; Muñoz, Ricardo; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra--faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Chile. The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of $i = 21.30\\pm 0.04$ which translates to a heliocentric distance of $151\\pm 8$ kpc for Hydra II; this value is $\\sim 13\\%$ larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of $76^{+12}_{-10}$ pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of $M_V = -5.1 \\pm 0.3$, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. The pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae star ($P=0.645$ d, $\\Delta g = 0.68$ mag) suggest Hydra II may be a member of the intermediate Oosterhoff or Oosterhoff II group. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra--faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them...

  10. Investigating the potential magnetic origin of wind variability in OB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Uraz, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    In this thesis, the origin of large-scale structures in hot star winds, believed to be responsible for the presence of discrete absorption components (DACs) in the absorption troughs of ultraviolet resonance lines, is constrained using both observations and numerical simulations. These structures are understood as arising from bright regions on the stellar surface, although their physical cause remains unknown. First, we use high quality circular spectropolarimetric observations of 13 well-studied OB stars to evaluate the potential role of dipolar magnetic fields in producing DACs. We perform longitudinal field measurements and place limits on the field strength using Bayesian inference, assuming that it is dipolar. No magnetic field was detected within this sample. The derived constraints statistically refute any significant dynamical influence from a magnetic dipole on the wind for all of these stars, ruling out such fields as a cause for DACs. Second, we perform numerical simulations using bright spots constrained by broadband optical photometric observations. We calculate hydrodynamical wind models using three sets of spot sizes and strengths. Co-rotating interaction regions are yielded in each model, and radiative transfer shows that the properties of the variations in the UV resonance lines synthesized from these models are consistent with those found in observed UV spectra, establishing the first consistent link between UV spectroscopic line profile variability and photometric variations and thus supporting the bright spot paradigm (BSP). Finally, we develop and apply a phenomenological model to quantify the measurable effects co-rotating bright spots would have on broadband optical photometry and on the profiles of photospheric lines in optical spectra. This model can be used to evaluate the existence of these spots, and, in the event of their detection, characterize them. Furthermore, a tentative spot evolution model is presented. A preliminary analysis of

  11. Mixed-model Regression for Variable-star Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Mixed-model regression, a recent advance from social-science statistics, applies directly to reducing one night's photometric raw data, especially for variable stars in fields with multiple comparison stars. One regression model per filter/passband yields any or all of: transform values, extinction values, nightly zero-points, rapid zero-point fluctuations ("cirrus effect"), ensemble comparisons, vignette and gradient removal arising from incomplete flat-correction, check-star and target-star magnitudes, and specific indications of unusually large catalog magnitude errors. When images from several different fields of view are included, the models improve without complicating the calculations. The mixed-model approach is generally robust to outliers and missing data points, and it directly yields 14 diagnostic plots, used to monitor data set quality and/or residual systematic errors - these diagnostic plots may in fact turn out to be the prime advantage of this approach. Also presented is initial work on a split-annulus approach to sky background estimation, intended to address the sensitivity of photometric observations to noise within the sky-background annulus.

  12. A Package for the Automated Classification of Periodic Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    We present a machine learning package for the classification of periodic variable stars. Our package is intended to be general: it can classify any single band optical light curve comprising at least a few tens of observations covering durations from weeks to years, with arbitrary time sampling. We use light curves of periodic variable stars taken from OGLE and EROS-2 to train the model. To make our classifier relatively survey-independent, it is trained on 16 features extracted from the light curves (e.g. period, skewness, Fourier amplitude ratio). The model classifies light curves into one of seven superclasses - Delta Scuti, RR Lyrae, Cepheid, Type II Cepheid, eclipsing binary, long-period variable, non-variable - as well as subclasses of these, such as ab, c, d, and e types for RR Lyraes. When trained to give only superclasses, our model achieves 0.98 for both recall and precision as measured on an independent validation dataset (on a scale of 0 to 1). When trained to give subclasses, it achieves 0.81 for...

  13. Periodic Variations in the O - C Diagrams of Five Pulsation Frequencies of the DB White Dwarf EC 20058-5234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessio, J.; Sullivan, D. J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L.; Sullivan, T.; Kilkenny, D.; Fraga, L.; Sefako, R.

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. PERIODIC VARIATIONS IN THE O - C DIAGRAMS OF FIVE PULSATION FREQUENCIES OF THE DB WHITE DWARF EC 20058-5234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalessio, J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Sullivan, D. J.; Sullivan, T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Kilkenny, D. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Fraga, L. [Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Sefako, R. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa)

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions.

  15. Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, P; Süveges, M; Blomme, J; López, M; Sarro, L M; De Ridder, J; Cuypers, J; Guy, L; Lecoeur, I; Nienartowicz, K; Jan, A; Beck, M; Mowlavi, N; De Cat, P; Lebzelter, T; Eyer, L

    2011-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light-curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi-stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10-fold cross-validation experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100%, depending on the variability type. The main mis-classification case...

  16. Variable Star Signature Classification using Slotted Symbolic Markov Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Kyle B

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of digital astronomy, new benefits and new challenges have been presented to the modern day astronomer. No longer can the astronomer rely on manual processing, instead the profession as a whole has begun to adopt more advanced computational means. This paper focuses on the construction and application of a novel time-domain signature extraction methodology and the development of a supporting supervised pattern classification algorithm for the identification of variable stars. A methodology for the reduction of stellar variable observations (time-domain data) into a novel feature space representation is introduced. The methodology presented will be referred to as Slotted Symbolic Markov Modeling (SSMM) and has a number of advantages which will be demonstrated to be beneficial; specifically to the supervised classification of stellar variables. It will be shown that the methodology outperformed a baseline standard methodology on a standardized set of stellar light curve data. The performance on ...

  17. Quantitative results of stellar evolution and pulsation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, K.; Stobie, R. S.; Strittmatter, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The discrepancy between the masses of Cepheid variables deduced from evolution theory and pulsation theory is examined. The effect of input physics on evolutionary tracks is first discussed; in particular, changes in the opacity are considered. The sensitivity of pulsation masses to opacity changes and to the ascribed values of luminosity and effective temperature are then analyzed. The Cepheid mass discrepancy is discussed in the light of the results already obtained. Other astronomical evidence, including the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars, the solar neutrino flux, and cluster ages are also considered in an attempt to determine the most likely source of error in the event that substantial mass loss has not occurred.

  18. A package for the automated classification of periodic variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2016-03-01

    We present a machine learning package for the classification of periodic variable stars. Our package is intended to be general: it can classify any single band optical light curve comprising at least a few tens of observations covering durations from weeks to years with arbitrary time sampling. We use light curves of periodic variable stars taken from OGLE and EROS-2 to train the model. To make our classifier relatively survey-independent, it is trained on 16 features extracted from the light curves (e.g., period, skewness, Fourier amplitude ratio). The model classifies light curves into one of seven superclasses - δ Scuti, RR Lyrae, Cepheid, Type II Cepheid, eclipsing binary, long-period variable, non-variable - as well as subclasses of these, such as ab, c, d, and e types for RR Lyraes. When trained to give only superclasses, our model achieves 0.98 for both recall and precision as measured on an independent validation dataset (on a scale of 0 to 1). When trained to give subclasses, it achieves 0.81 for both recall and precision. The majority of misclassifications of the subclass model is caused by confusion within a superclass rather than between superclasses. To assess classification performance of the subclass model, we applied it to the MACHO, LINEAR, and ASAS periodic variables, which gave recall/precision of 0.92/0.98, 0.89/0.96, and 0.84/0.88, respectively. We also applied the subclass model to Hipparcos periodic variable stars of many other variability types that do not exist in our training set, in order to examine how much those types degrade the classification performance of our target classes. In addition, we investigate how the performance varies with the number of data points and duration of observations. We find that recall and precision do not vary significantly if there are more than 80 data points and the duration is more than a few weeks. The classifier software of the subclass model is available (in Python) from the GitHub repository (http

  19. PCS: an Euler--Lagrange method for treating convection in pulsating stars using finite difference techniques in two spatial dimensions. [Finite difference method, time dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deupree, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Finite difference techniques were used to examine the coupling of radial pulsation and convection in stellar models having comparable time scales. Numerical procedures are emphasized, including diagnostics to help determine the range of free parameters.

  20. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.