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Sample records for pulsar xte j0103-728

  1. Looking into the Theory of Pulsar Accretion: Cen X-3 and XTE J1946+274

    CERN Document Server

    Marcu, Diana M; Gottlieb, Amy M; Wolff, Michael T; Becker, Peter A; Wilms, Joern; Ferrigno, Carlo; Wood, Kent S

    2015-01-01

    This is an overview of pulsar accretion modeling. The physics of pulsar accretion, i.e., the process of plasma flow onto the neutron star surface, can be constrained from the spectral properties of the X-ray source. We discuss a new implementation of the physical continuum model developed by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435). The model incorporates Comptonized blackbody, bremsstrahlung, and cyclotron emission. We discuss preliminary results of applying the new tool to the test cases of Suzaku data of Cen X-3 and XTE J1946+274. Cen X-3 is a persistent accreting pulsar with an O-star companion observed during a bright period. XTE J1946+274 is a transient accreting pulsar with a Be companion observed during a dim period. Both sources show spectra that are well described with an empirical Fermi Dirac cutoff power law model. We extend the spectral analysis by making the first steps towards a physical description of Cen X-3 and XTE J1946+274.

  2. Excitation of a nonradial mode in a millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1751-305

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Umin

    2014-01-01

    We discuss candidates for non-radial modes excited in a mass accreting and rapidly rotating neutron star to explain the coherent frequency identified in the light curves of a millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1751-305. The spin frequency of the pulsar is $\

  3. System mass constraints for the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1814-338 using Bowen fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Steeghs, D.; Casares, J.; Charles, P. A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Hynes, R. I.; O'Brien, K.

    2017-04-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338 obtained during its 2003 outburst. The spectra are dominated by high-excitation emission lines of He II λ4686, Hβ, and the Bowen blend C III/N III 4630-50 Å. We exploit the proven Bowen fluorescence technique to establish a complete set of dynamical system parameter constraints using bootstrap Doppler tomography, a first for an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar binary. The reconstructed Doppler map of the N III λ4640 Bowen transition exhibits a statistically significant (>4σ) spot feature at the expected position of the companion star. If this feature is driven by irradiation of the surface of the Roche lobe filling companion, we derive a strict lower limit to the true radial velocity semi-amplitude K2. Combining our donor constraint with the well-constrained orbit of the neutron star leads to a determination of the binary mass ratio: q = 0.123^{+0.012}_{-0.010}. The component masses are not tightly constrained given our lack of knowledge of the binary inclination. We cannot rule out a canonical neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ (1.1 M⊙ confidence limits of M2 are consistent with the companion being a significantly bloated, M-type main-sequence star. Our findings, combined with results from studies of the quiescent optical counterpart of XTE J1814-338, suggest the presence of a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar in XTE J1814-338 during an X-ray quiescent state. The companion mass is typical of the so-called redback pulsar binary systems (M2 ˜ 0.2 M⊙).

  4. The Fading of Transient Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    Three observations of the 5.54 s transient anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 obtained over 6 months with the Newton X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) mission are used to study its spectrum and pulsed light curve as the source fades from outburst. The decay is consistent with an exponential of time constant ~300 days but not a power law as predicted in some models of sudden deep crustal heating events. All spectra are well fitted by a blackbody plus a steep power law, a problematic model that is commonly fitted to anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). A two-temperature blackbody fit is also acceptable and better motivated physically in view of the faint optical/IR fluxes, the X-ray pulse shapes that weakly depend on energy in XTE J1810-197, and the inferred emitting areas that are less than or equal to the surface area of a neutron star. The fitted temperatures remained the same while the flux declined by 46%, which can be interpreted as a decrease in area of the emitting regions. The pulsar continues to spin down, albeit at a reduced rate of (5.1+/-1.6)×10-12 s s-1. The inferred characteristic age τc≡P/2P~17,000 yr, magnetic field strength Bs~1.7×1014 G, and outburst properties are consistent with both the outburst and quiescent X-ray luminosities being powered by magnetic field decay, i.e., XTE J1810-197 is a magnetar.

  5. Quasi-periodic oscillations discovered in the new X-ray pulsar XTE J1858+034

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, B

    1998-01-01

    We report the discovery of low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations centered at 0.11 Hz in the newly discovered 221 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1858+034. Among about 30 known transient X-ray pulsars this is the sixth source in which QPOs have been observed. If the QPOs are produced because of inhomogeneities in the accretion disk at the magnetospheric boundary, the low frequency of the QPOs indicate a large magnetosphere for this pulsar. Both the Keplerian frequency model and the beat frequency model are applicable for production of QPOs in this source. The QPOs and regular pulsations are found to be stronger at higher energy which favours the beat frequency model. The magnetic field of the pulsar is calculated as a function of its distance. The energy spectrum is found to be very hard, consisting of two components, a cut-off power law and an iron fluorescence line.

  6. Studies of orbital parameters and pulse profile of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1807-294

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, M G F; Breitfellner, M G; Djavidnia, S; Freyberg, M J; Kendziorra, E; Smith, M J S

    2004-01-01

    The accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1807-294 was observed by XMM-Newton on March 22, 2003 after its discovery on February 21, 2003 by RXTE. The source was detected in its bright phase with an observed average count rate of 33.3 cts/s in the EPIC-pn camera in the 0.5-10 keV energy band (3.7 mCrab). Using the earlier established best-fit orbital period of 40.0741+/-0.0005 minutes from RXTE observations and considering a circular binary orbit as first approximation, we derived a value of 4.8+/-0.1 lt-ms for the projected orbital radius of the binary system and an epoch of the orbital phase of MJD 52720.67415(16). The barycentric mean spin period of the pulsar was derived as 5.2459427+/-0.0000004 ms. The pulsar's spin-pulse profile showed a prominent (1.5 ms FWHM) pulse, with energy and orbital phase dependence in the amplitude and shape. The measured pulsed fraction in four energy bands was found to be 3.1+/-0.2 % (0.5-3.0 keV), 5.4+/-0.4 % (3.0-6.0 keV), 5.1+/-0.7 % (6.0-10.0 keV) and 3.7+/-0.2 % (0.5-10.0 ke...

  7. A Chandra observation of the accretion-driven millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J0929-314 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Heinke, C O; Miller, J M; Lewin, W H G; Wijnands, Rudy; Homan, Jeroen; Heinke, Craig O.; Miller, Jon M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2004-01-01

    We observed the accretion-driven millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J0929-314 in its quiescent state using Chandra. XTE J0929-314 is the second such source to be observed in quiescence, after SAX J1808.4-3658. We detected 22 source photons (in the energy range 0.3-8 keV) in ~24.4 ksec, resulting in a background-corrected count rate of 9+/-2 x 10^{-4} counts s^{-1}. This small number of photons detected did not allow for a detailed spectral analysis of the quiescent spectrum, but we can demonstrate that the spectrum is harder than simple thermal emission which is usually presumed to arise from a cooling neutron star that has been heated during the outbursts. Assuming a power-law model for the X-ray spectrum, we obtain a power-law index of 2.2+/-0.6 and an unabsorbed X-ray flux of 6.5^{+2.8}_{-2.1} x 10^{-15} ergs s^{-1} cm^{-2} (for the energy range 0.5-10 keV), resulting in a 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosity of 8+/-3 x 10^{31} (d/10 kpc)^2 ergs s^{-1}, with d the distance toward the source in kpc. No thermal component c...

  8. Long-Term Spectral and Temporal Evolution of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurgun, Eda; Gogus, Ersin; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Guver, Tolga

    2016-07-01

    We present spectral and timing studies of the first transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197, a 5.54 s pulsar discovered in 2003, when its X-ray luminosity increased ~100 fold. We investigate the long-term behaviour of the surface temperature,emitting area, and the pulsed fraction. X-ray spectra are well fitted by a two-component blackbody model in which the cool component is most likely arising from the whole surface of star and the hot component is arising from a relatively small hot spot on it. The spectral analysis has also shown evidence for the presence of an absorbtion line feature around 1.2 keV in almost all observations. We fit this absorption feature with an asymmetric gaussian component since it shows an asymmetric structure. The pulse fraction exhibits slightly different temporal evolution in higher and lower energy bands. We will discuss correlative behaviour between the spectral and timing parameters in order to constrain magnetar cooling models.

  9. The reawakening of the sleeping X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Sebastian; Caballero, Isabel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Fürst, Felix; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Sagredo, Macarena; Obst, Maria; Wilms, Jörn; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E; Staubert, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    We report on a series of outbursts of the high mass X-ray binary XTE J1946+274 in 2010/2011 as observed with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Swift. We discuss possible mechanisms resulting in the extraordinary outburst behavior of this source. The X-ray spectra can be described by standard phenomenological models, enhanced by an absorption feature of unknown origin at about 10 keV and a narrow iron K alpha fluorescence line at 6.4 keV, which are variable in flux and pulse phase. We find possible evidence for the presence of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature at about 25 keV at the 93% level. The presence of a strong cyclotron line at 35 keV seen in data from the source's 1998 outburst and confirmed by a reanalysis of these data can be excluded. This result indicates that the cyclotron line feature in XTE J1946+274 is variable between individual outbursts.

  10. Variable Quasi Periodic Oscillations during an Outburst of the Transient X-ray Pulsar XTE J1858 + 034

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U. Mukherjee; S. Bapna; H. Raichur; B. Paul; S. N. A. Jaaffrey

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) properties of the transient accreting X-ray pulsar XTE J1858 + 034 during the second outburst of this source in April–May 2004. We have used observations made with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during May 14–18, 2004, in the declining phase of the outburst. We detected the presence of low frequency QPOs in the frequency range of 140–185 mHz in all the RXTE-PCA observations. We report evolution of the QPO parameters with the time, X-ray flux, and X-ray photon energy. Though a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the instantaneous X-ray flux is not very clear from the data, we point out that the QPO frequency and the one day averaged X-ray flux decreased with time during these observations. We have obtained a clear energy dependence of the RMS variation in the QPOs, increasing from about 3% at 3 keV to 6% at 25 keV. The X-ray pulse profile is a single peaked sinusoidal, with pulse fraction increasing from 20% at 3 keV to 45% at 30 keV. We found that, similar to the previous outburst, the energy spectrum is well fitted with amodel consisting of a cut-off power law along with an iron emission line.

  11. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Accretion-Driven Millisecond X-ray Pulsar XTE J1751-305 in Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Méndez, M; Kendziorra, E; Tiengo, A; Van der Klis, M; Chakraborty, D; Gaensler, B M; Lewin, W H G

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the first high-resolution spectra measured from an accretion-driven millisecond X-ray pulsar in outburst. We observed XTE J1751-305 with XMM-Newton on 2002 April 7 for approximately 35 ks. Using a simple absorbed blackbody plus power-law model, we measure an unabsorbed flux of (6.6 +/- 0.1) * 10^(-10) erg/cm^(2)/s (0.5-10.0 keV). A hard power-law component (Gamma = 1.44 +/- 0.01) contributes 83% of the unabsorbed flux in the 0.5-10.0 keV band, but a blackbody component (kT = 1.05 +/- 0.01 keV) is required. We find no clear evidence for narrow or broad emission or absorption lines in the time-averaged spectra, and the sensitivity of this observation has allowed us to set constraining upper-limits on the strength of important features. The lack of line features is at odds with spectra measured from some other X-ray binaries which share some similarities with XTE J1751-305. We discuss the implications of these findings on the accretion flow geometry in XTE J1751-305 and the geometries i...

  12. The Transient Accereting X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1946+274: Stability of the X-Ray Properties at Low Flux and Updated Orbital Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M; Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Caballero, Isabel; Finger, Mark H; Jenke, Peter J; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Fürst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Hemphill, Paul B; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Klochkov, Dmitry; Rothschild, Richard E; Terada, Yukikatsu; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Wolff, Michael T; Becker, Peter A; Wood, Kent S; Wilms, Jöern

    2015-01-01

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 d orbit with 2-3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi-Dirac cutoff power law model along with a narrow Fe K line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ~35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the sub...

  13. Accurate X-ray position of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197 and identification of its likely IR counterpart

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Mangano, V; Testa, V; Perna, R; Hummel, W; Mignani, R P; Ageorges, N; Curto, G L; Marco, O; Angelini, L; Campana, S; Covino, S; Marconi, G; Mereghetti, S; Stella, L

    2004-01-01

    We report the accurate sub-arcsec X-ray position of the new Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) XTE J1810-197, derived with a Chndra-HRC Target of Opportunity observation carried out in November 2003. We also report the discovery of a likely IR counterpart based on a VLT (IR band) Target of Opportunity observation carried out in October 2003. Our proposed counterpart is the only IR source (Ks=20.8) in the X-ray error circle. Its IR colors as well as the X-ray/IR flux ratio, are consistent with those of the counterparts of all other AXPs (at variance with field star colors). Deep Gunn-i band images obtained at the 3.6m ESO telescope detected no sources down to a limiting magnitude of 24.3. Moreover, we find that the pulsed fraction and count rates of XTE J1810-197 remained nearly unchanged since the previous Chandra and XMM-Newton observations (2003 August 27th and September 8th, respectively). We briefly discuss the implications of these results. In particular, we note that the transient (or at least highly variable...

  14. Imaging X-ray, Optical, and Infrared Observations of the Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    CERN Document Server

    Gotthelf, E V; Buxton, M; Bailyn, C D

    2004-01-01

    We report an X-ray study of XTE J1810-197, a 5.54s pulsar discovered by Ibrahim (2003) in recent RXTE observations. In a short exposure with the Chandra HRC camera we detect one source at (J2000) 18:09:51.13, -19:43:51.7 with a 1-sigma uncertainty radius of 2.5 arcsec. Its flux is strongly modulated (58% pulsed fraction) at the expected period. Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton are well fitted by a two-component model that typically describes anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), an absorbed blackbody plus power law with kT = 0.67+/-0.01 keV, Gamma=3.7+/-0.2, N_H=(1.05+/-0.05)E22 cm^-2, and Fx(0.5-10 keV) = 3.98E-11 ergs/cm2/s. Alternatively, a 2-Temp blackbody fit is just as acceptable. The location of CXOU J180951.1-194351 is consistent with an Einstein, Rosat, and ASCA source, when its flux was 75 times fainter, and from which no pulsations are found. The spectrum changed dramatically between the "quiescent" and "active" states, the former can be modeled as a softer blackbody. Using XMM timing data, we place an u...

  15. THE TRANSIENT ACCRETING X-RAY PULSAR XTE J1946+274: STABILITY OF X-RAY PROPERTIES AT LOW FLUX AND UPDATED ORBITAL SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Kreykenbohm, Ingo [Dr. Karl Remeis-Observatory and ECAP, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Sternwartstr. 7, Bamberg (Germany); Caballero, Isabel [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Finger, Mark H. [Universities Space Research Association, National Space Science and Technology Center, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Jenke, Peter J. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grinberg, Victoria [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Klochkov, Dmitry [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen (IAAT), Sand 1, Tübingen (Germany); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Simo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 days orbit with 2–3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi–Dirac cut-off power-law model along with a narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ∼35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the subcritical (non-radiation dominated) state since its pulse profile is stable over all observed luminosities and the energy of the CRSF is approximately the same at the highest (∼5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}) and lowest (∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}) observed 3–60 keV luminosities.

  16. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX Observations of the Transient X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1859+083

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Levine, A. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2009-04-01

    We present observations of the 9.8 s X-ray pulsar XTE J1859+083 made with the All Sky Monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on board BeppoSAX. The ASM data cover a 12 year time interval and show that an extended outburst occurred between approximately MJD 50,250 and 50,460 (1996 June 16 to 1997 January 12). The ASM data excluding this outburst interval suggest a possible modulation with a period of 60.65 ± 0.08 days. Eighteen sets of PCA observations were obtained over an approximately one month interval in 1999. The flux variability measured with the PCA appears consistent with the possible period found with the ASM. The PCA measurements of the pulse period showed it to decrease nonmonotonically and then to increase significantly. Doppler shifts due to orbital motion rather than accretion torques appear to be better able to explain the pulse period changes. Observations with the WFC during the extended outburst give a position that is consistent with a previously determined PCA error box, but which has a significantly smaller error. The transient nature of XTE J1859+083 and the length of its pulse period are consistent with it being a Be/neutron star binary. The possible 60.65 day orbital period would be of the expected length for a Be star system with a 9.8 s pulse period.

  17. An unified timing and spectral model for the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216

    CERN Document Server

    Albano, A; Israel, G L; Zane, S; Nobili, L; Stella, L

    2010-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are two small classes of X-ray sources strongly suspected to host a magnetar, i.e. an ultra-magnetized neutron star with $B\\approx 10^14-10^15 G. Many SGRs/AXPs are known to be variable, and recently the existence of genuinely "transient" magnetars was discovered. Here we present a comprehensive study of the pulse profile and spectral evolution of the two transient AXPs (TAXPs) XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216. Our analysis was carried out in the framework of the twisted magnetosphere model for magnetar emission. Starting from 3D Monte Carlo simulations of the emerging spectrum, we produced a large database of synthetic pulse profiles which was fitted to observed lightcurves in different spectral bands and at different epochs. This allowed us to derive the physical parameters of the model and their evolution with time, together with the geometry of the two sources, i.e. the inclination of the line-of-sight and of the magnetic axis with resp...

  18. The optical counterpart of XTE J0929-314, the third transient millisecond X-ray pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, A B; Hill, K M; Sanders, E

    2005-01-01

    A blue and variable optical counterpart of the X-ray transient XTE J0929-314 was identified on 2002 May 1. We conducted frequent BVRI broadband photometry on this object using the Mt Canopus 1-m telescope during May and June until it had faded to below 21'st magnitude. Nearly continuous I band CCD photometry on 2002 May 2, 3 and 4 revealed a ~ 10 % sinusoidal modulation at the binary period lasting ~ 6 cycles during the latter half of May 2. The phase indicates that the modulation may be due to a combination of emission by a hot spot on the disc and X-ray heating of the secondary. The emission generally trended bluer with B-I decreasing by 0.6 magnitudes during the observations but there were anomalous changes in colour during the first few days after optical identification when the I band flux decreased slightly while fluxes in other bands increased. Spectral analysis of the BVRI broadband photometry show evidence of a variable excess in the R and I bands. We suggest that this may be due to synchrotron emiss...

  19. A Unified Timing and Spectral Model for the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, A.; Turolla, R.; Israel, G. L.; Zane, S.; Nobili, L.; Stella, L.

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are two small classes of X-ray sources strongly suspected to host a magnetar, i.e., an ultra-magnetized neutron star with B ≈ 1014-1015 G. Many SGRs/AXPs are known to be variable, and recently the existence of genuinely "transient" magnetars was discovered. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the pulse profile and spectral evolution of the two transient AXPs (TAXPs) XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216. Our analysis was carried out in the framework of the twisted magnetosphere model for magnetar emission. Starting from three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the emerging spectrum, we produced a large database of synthetic pulse profiles which was fitted to observed light curves in different spectral bands and at different epochs. This allowed us to derive the physical parameters of the model and their evolution with time, together with the geometry of the two sources, i.e., the inclination of the line of sight and the magnetic axis with respect to the rotation axis. We then fitted the (phase-averaged) spectra of the two TAXPs at different epochs using a model similar to that used to calculate the pulse profiles (ntzang in XSPEC) freezing all parameters to the values obtained from the timing analysis and leaving only the normalization free to vary. This provided acceptable fits to XMM-Newton data in all the observations we analyzed. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  20. Discovery of a Transient Magnetar: XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Ransom, Scott; Roberts, Mallory; Kaspi, Victoria; Woods, Peter M.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Balman, Solen; Parke, William C.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new X-ray pulsar, XTE J1810-197, that was serendipitously discovered on 2003 July 15 by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) while observing the soft gamma repeater SGR 1806-20. The pulsar has a 5.54 s spin period, a soft X-ray spectrum (with a photon index of approx. = 4). and is detectable in earlier RXTE observations back to 2003 January but not before. These show that a transient outburst began between 2002 November 17 and 2003 January 23 and that the source's persistent X-ray flux has been declining since then. The pulsar exhibits a high spin-down rate P approx.= l0(exp -11) s/s with no evidence of Doppler shifts due to a binary companion. The rapid spin-down rate and slow spin period imply a supercritical characteristic magnetic field B approx. = 3 x l0(exp 14) G and a young age tau less than or = 7600 yr. Follow-up Chandra observations provided an accurate position of the source. Within its error radius, the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish Optical Telescope found a limiting magnitude R(sub c) = 21.5. All such properties are strikingly similar to those of anomalous X-ray pulsars ad soft gamma repeaters, providing strong evidence that the source is a new magnetar. However, archival ASCA and ROSAT observations found the source nearly 2 orders of magnitude fainter. This transient behavior and the observed long-term flux variability of the source in absence of an observed SGR-like burst activity make it the first confirmed transient magnetar and suggest that other neutron stars that share the properties of XTE 51810- 197 during its inactive phase may be unidentified transient magnetars awaiting detection via a similar activity. This implies a larger population of magnetars than previously surmised and a possible evolutionary connection between magnetars and other neutron star families. Subject headings: pulsars: general -pulsars: individual (XTE 51810- 197) - stars: magnetic fields -

  1. XTE J1751-305 going back to its quiescent state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.

    2007-01-01

    After the recent reports of activity of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1751-305 (ATELs #1045, #1046 and #1051) we obtained another Swift/XRT (~4.3ksec) observation of the field starting on April 11th 2007 23:59. The source was not detected with a 2-10 keV upper limit of ~5E-14 erg/ cm2/s, cor

  2. Spin equilibrium with or without gravitational wave emission: the case of XTE J1814-338 and SAX J1808.4-3658

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haskell, B.D.L.; Patruno, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we present a new analysis of the torques acting on the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and show how our results can be used to constrain theoretical models of the spin evolution. In particular, we find upper limits on any spin-up/down phase of X

  3. Pulsar Magnetospheres and Pulsar Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Beskin, Vasily S

    2016-01-01

    Surprisingly, the chronology of nearly 50 years of the pulsar magnetosphere and pulsar wind research is quite similar to the history of our civilization. Using this analogy, I have tried to outline the main results obtained in this field. In addition to my talk, the possibility of particle acceleration due to different processes in the pulsar magnetosphere is discussed in more detail.

  4. X-Ray Bursts from the Transient Magnetar Candidate XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woods, Peter M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Ibrahim, Alaa; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Finger, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    We have discovered four X-ray bursts, recorded with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array between 2003 September and 2004 April, that we show to originate from the transient magnetar candidate XTE 51810-197. The burst morphologies consist of a short spike or multiple spikes lasting approx. 1 s each followed by extended tails of emission where the pulsed flux from XTE 51810-197 is significantly higher. The burst spikes are likely correlated with the pulse maxima, having a chance probability of a random phase distribution of 0.4%. The burst spectra are best fit to a blackbody with temperatures 4-8 keV, considerably harder than the persistent X-ray emission. During the X-ray tails following these bursts, the temperature rapidly cools as the flux declines, maintaining a constant emitting radius after the initial burst peak. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these bursts closely resemble the bursts seen from 1E 1048.1-5937 and a subset of the bursts detected from 1E 2259+586, thus establishing XTE J1810-197 as a magnetar candidate. The bursts detected from these three objects are sufficiently similar to one another, yet si,g&cantly differe2t from those seen from soft gamma repeaters, that they likely represent a new class of bursts from magnetar candidates exclusive (thus far) to the anomalous X-ray pulsar-like sources.

  5. Is XTE J1739-285 a quark star masquerading as a neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaoping, Zheng; Li, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of burst oscillation at 1122Hz in the X-ray transient XTE J1739-285 supports the suggestion that it contains a submillisecond pulsar\\cite{1}. We here find for the first time the enormous dissipation effect in the transition boundary layer between quark matter core and hadron matter envelope. Just combining the estimation with previous dissipation mechanism together, we show that XTE J1739-285 can be uniquely restricted to a quark star masquerading as a neutron star (hybrid star) that contains a pure quark matter or mixed quark-hadron matter core from synthesizing both gravitational wave radiation (r-mode) instability and Keplerian motion constraints at 1122Hz lever. Such constraints allow the radii in the range $9{\\rm km}\\leq R\\leq 12{\\rm km}$ and the masses in the range $1.2M_\\odot\\leq M\\leq 2.0M_\\odot$. The normal neutron stars, hyperon stars and strange stars within the mass-radius limits are excluded.

  6. The variable spin-down rate of the transient magnetar XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintore, Fabio; Bernardini, Federico; Mereghetti, Sandro; Esposito, Paolo; Turolla, Roberto; Rea, Nanda; Coti Zelati, Francesco; Israel, Gian Luca; Tiengo, Andrea; Zane, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    We have analysed XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 spanning more than 11 yr, from the initial phases of the 2003 outburst to the current quiescent level. We investigated the evolution of the pulsar spin period and we found evidence for two distinct regimes: during the outburst decay, dot{ν } was highly variable in the range -(2-4.5) × 10-13 Hz s-1, while during quiescence the spin-down rate was more stable at an average value of -1 × 10-13 Hz s-1. Only during ˜3000 d (from MJD 54165 to MJD 56908) in the quiescent stage it was possible to find a phase-connected timing solution, with dot{ν }=-4.9× 10^{-14} Hz s-1, and a positive second frequency derivative, ddot{ν }=1.8× 10^{-22} Hz s-2. These results are in agreement with the behaviour expected if the outburst of XTE J1810-197 was due to a strong magnetospheric twist.

  7. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of XTE J1859+083

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Levine, A. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2008-03-01

    The transient X-ray source XTE J1859+083, which has a pulse period of 9.8s, was discovered with RXTE in 1999. There have been no reports of more recent detections of this source. We present here observations of this pulsar made with the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on board RXTE, and the Wide Field Cameras (WFC) on board BeppoSax. Eighteen sets of PCA observations were obtained over an approximately one month period in 1999. The ASM data cover a 12 year time interval and show that an extended outburst occurred between approximately MJD 50,250 and 50,460. The ASM data excluding this outburst interval suggest a possible 61 day modulation. The PCA flux and pulse timing measurements are consistent with this possible period. Observations with the WFC during the outburst give an error box which is consistent with the PCA error box but is significantly smaller. The transient nature of XTE J1859+083 and the length of its pulse period are consistent with it being a Be/neutron star binary. The possible 61 day orbital period would be of the expected length for a Be star system with a 9.8s pulse period.

  8. SUBARCSECOND LOCATION OF IGR J17480-2446 WITH ROSSI XTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggio, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, localita Poggio dei Pini, Strada 54, 09012 Capoterra (Italy); Burderi, L.; Egron, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, SP Monserrato-Sestu km 0,7, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Di Salvo, T.; D' Ai, A.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, Palermo 90123 (Italy); Papitto, A. [Institut de Ciencies de lEspai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Fac. de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a planta, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Belloni, T.; Motta, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (Italy); Floris, M. [CRS4-Center for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Loc. Piscina Manna, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula (Italy); Testa, V.; Menna, M. T., E-mail: ariggio@oa-cagliari.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma. Via Frascati, 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2012-07-20

    On 2010 October 13, the X-ray astronomical satellite Rossi XTE, during the observation of the newly discovered accretion powered X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, detected a lunar occultation of the source. From knowledge of the lunar topography and Earth, Moon, and spacecraft ephemerides at the epoch of the event, we determined the source position with an accuracy of 40 mas (1{sigma} c.l.), which is interesting, given the very poor imaging capabilities of RXTE ({approx}1 Degree-Sign ). For the first time, using a non-imaging X-ray observatory, the position of an X-ray source with a subarcsecond accuracy is derived, demonstrating the neat capabilities of a technique that can be fruitfully applied to current and future X-ray missions.

  9. Transient Phenomena in Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, GianLuca; Burgay, Marta; Rea, Nanda; Possenti, Andrea; Dall'Osso, Simone; Stella, and Luigi

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 a previously unpulsed Einstein and ROSAT source cataloged as soft and dim (Lx of few 10^33 ergs) thermal emitting object, namely XTE J1810-197, was identified as the first unambiguous transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar. Two years later this source was also found to be a bright highly polarized transient radio pulsar, a unique property among both AXPs and radio pulsars. In September 2006 the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detected an intense burst from the candidate AXP CXOU J164710.2-455216, which entered in an outburst state reaching a peak emission of at least a factor of 300 higher than quiescence. Here, we briefly outline the recent results concerning the outburst phenomena observed in these two AXPs. In particular, XTE J1810-197 has probed to be a unique laboratory to monitor the timing and spectral properties of a cooling/fading AXP, while new important information have been inferred from X-ray and radio band simultaneous observations. CXOU J164710.2-455216 has been monitored in X-rays and radi...

  10. Pulsars at Parkes

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, R N

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about 2006 when the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey was essentially completed and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project was established.

  11. 17 and 24 GHz observations of southern pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Keith, M J; Levin, L; Bailes, M

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of PSRs J0437-4715, J0738-4042, J0835-4510, J0908-4913, J1048-5832, J1622-4950, J1644-4559, J1721-3532 and J1740-3015 at 17 GHz using the Parkes radio telescope. All 9 were detected at 17 GHz, additionally, we detected PSR J0835-4510 and J1622-4950 at 24 GHz. Polarisation profiles of each pulsar and the variation with frequency are discussed. In general, we find that the highly polarised edge components of young pulsars continue to dominate their profiles at 17 GHz. Older pulsars (>10^5 years) appear to be almost completely depolarised. Our detection of PSR J0437-4715 is the highest frequency observation of a millisecond pulsar to date, and implies a luminosity at 17 GHz of 14 {\\mu}Jy kpc^2, and a mean spectral index of 2.2. We find that the spectral index of the magnetar PSR J1622-4950 is flat between 1.4 and 24 GHz, similar to the other known radio magnetars XTE J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0-5408. The profile is similar to that at 3.1 GHz, and is highly linearly polarised. Analysis of the ...

  12. Implications of an r-mode in XTE J1751-305: Mass, radius and spin evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N; Ho, W C G

    2014-01-01

    Recently Strohmayer and Mahmoodifar presented evidence for a coherent oscillation in the X-ray light curve of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1751-305, using data taken by RXTE during the 2002 outburst of this source. They noted that a possible explanation includes the excitation of a non-radial oscillation mode of the neutron star, either in the form of a g-mode or an r-mode. The r-mode interpretation has connections with proposed spin-evolution scenarios for systems such as XTE J1751-305. Here we examine in detail this interesting possible interpretation. Using the ratio of the observed oscillation frequency to the star's spin frequency, we derive an approximate neutron star mass-radius relation which yields reasonable values for the mass over the range of expected stellar radius (as constrained by observations of radius-expansion burst sources). However, we argue that the large mode amplitude suggested by the Strohmayer and Mahmoodifar analysis would inevitably lead to a large spin-down of the star, ...

  13. Emission geometry, radiation pattern, and magnetic topology of the magnetar XTE J1810-197 in its quiescent state

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Federico; Gotthelf, Eric; Israel, Gian Luca; Rea, Nanda; Stella, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The return to the quiescent state of the Anomalous X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 following its 2003 outburst represents a unique opportunity to probe the surface emission properties of a magnetar. The quiescent emission of XTE J1810-197 is composed of two thermal components, one arising from the whole star surface, and the other from a small warm spot on it. By modeling the magnitude and shape of the pulse profile in narrow spectral bands, we have been able to constrain the physical characteristics and geometrical parameters of the system: the two angles that the line of sight and the spin axis make with respect to the warm spot axis (\\psi\\ and \\xi\\ respectively), the angular size of the spot, and the overall surface temperature distribution. Our modeling accounts for the general relativistic effects of gravitational redshift and light bending near the stellar surface, and allows for local anisotropic emission. We found that the surface temperature distribution on the neutron star is consistent with the expectat...

  14. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  15. Radio Disappearance of the Magnetar XTE J1810-197 and Continued X-ray Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, F.; Ransom, S. M.; Halpern, J. P.; Alford, J. A. J.; Cognard, I.; Reynolds, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Sarkissian, J.; van Straten, W.

    2016-04-01

    We report on timing, flux density, and polarimetric observations of the transient magnetar and 5.54 s radio pulsar XTE J1810-197 using the Green Bank, Nançay, and Parkes radio telescopes beginning in early 2006, until its sudden disappearance as a radio source in late 2008. Repeated observations through 2016 have not detected radio pulsations again. The torque on the neutron star, as inferred from its rotation frequency derivative \\dot{ν }, decreased in an unsteady manner by a factor of three in the first year of radio monitoring, until approximately mid-2007. By contrast, during its final year as a detectable radio source, the torque decreased steadily by only 9%. The period-averaged flux density, after decreasing by a factor of 20 during the first 10 months of radio monitoring, remained relatively steady in the next 22 months, at an average of 0.7 ± 0.3 mJy at 1.4 GHz, while still showing day-to-day fluctuations by factors of a few. There is evidence that during this last phase of radio activity the magnetar had a steep radio spectrum, in contrast to earlier flat-spectrum behavior. No secular decrease presaged its radio demise. During this time, the pulse profile continued to display large variations; polarimetry, including of a new profile component, indicates that the magnetic geometry remained consistent with that of earlier times. We supplement these results with X-ray timing of the pulsar from its outburst in 2003 up to 2014. For the first 4 years, XTE J1810-197 experienced non-monotonic excursions in frequency derivative by at least a factor of eight. But since 2007, its \\dot{ν } has remained relatively stable near its minimum observed value. The only apparent event in the X-ray record that is possibly contemporaneous with the radio shutdown is a decrease of ≈20% in the hot-spot flux in 2008-2009, to a stable, minimum value. However, the permanence of the high-amplitude, thermal X-ray pulse, even after the (unexplained) radio demise, implies

  16. XMM-Newton observations of two transient millisecond X-ray pulsars in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; Stella, L; Israel, G L

    2005-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton observations of two X-ray transient millisecond pulsars (XRTMSPs). We detected XTE J0929-314 with an unabsorbed luminosity of \\~7x10^{31} erg/s. (0.5-10 keV) at a fiducial distance of 10 kpc. The quiescent spectrum is consistent with a simple power law spectrum. The upper limit on the flux from a cooling neutron star atmosphere is about 20% of the total flux. XTE J1807-294 instead was not detected. We can put an upper limit on the source quiescent 0.5-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity <4x10^{31} erg/s at 8 kpc. These observations strenghten the idea that XRTMSPs have quiescent luminosities significantly lower than classical neutron star transients.

  17. Fermi pulsar revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, Patrizia A

    2010-01-01

    2009 has been an extraordinary year for gamma-ray pulsar astronomy and 2010 promises to be equally good. Not only have we registered an extraordinary increase in the number of pulsars detected in gamma rays, but we have also witnessed the birth of new sub-families: first of all, the radio-quiet gamma pulsars and later an ever growing number of millisecond pulsars, a real surprise. We started with a sample of 7 gamma-ray emitting neutron stars (6 radio pulsars and Geminga) and now the Fermi-LAT harvest encompasses 24 "Geminga-like" new gamma-ray pulsars, a dozen millisecond pulsars and about thirty radio pulsars. Moreover, radio searches targeted to LAT unidentified sources yielded 18 new radio millisecond pulsars, several of which have been already detected also in gamma rays. Thus, currently the family of gamma-ray emitting neutron stars seems to be evenly divided between classical radio pulsars, millisecond pulsars and radio quiet neutron stars.

  18. Radio disappearance of the magnetar XTE J1810-197 and continued X-ray timing

    CERN Document Server

    Camilo, F; Halpern, J P; Alford, J A J; Cognard, I; Reynolds, J E; Johnston, S; Sarkissian, J; van Straten, W

    2016-01-01

    We report on timing, flux density, and polarimetric observations of the transient magnetar and 5.54 s radio pulsar XTE J1810-197 using the GBT, Nancay, and Parkes radio telescopes beginning in early 2006, until its sudden disappearance as a radio source in late 2008. Repeated observations through 2016 have not detected radio pulsations again. The torque on the neutron star, as inferred from its rotation frequency derivative f-dot, decreased in an unsteady manner by a factor of 3 in the first year of radio monitoring. In contrast, during its final year as a detectable radio source, the torque decreased steadily by only 9%. The period-averaged flux density, after decreasing by a factor of 20 during the first 10 months of radio monitoring, remained steady in the next 22 months, at an average of 0.7+/-0.3 mJy at 1.4 GHz, while still showing day-to-day fluctuations by factors of a few. There is evidence that during this last phase of radio activity the magnetar had a steep radio spectrum, in contrast to earlier be...

  19. Pulsar Ephemerides for Timing LAT Pulsars

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Timing pulsars with the LAT requires the use of an ephemeris that covers the time period being analyzed. Below are several resources to provide this useful input to...

  20. Pulsars and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, R N

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars are wonderful gravitational probes. Their tiny size and stellar mass give their rotation periods a stablility comparable to that of atomic frequency standards. This is especially true of the rapidly rotating "millisecond pulsars" (MSPs). Many of these rapidly rotating pulsars are in orbit with another star, allowing pulsar timing to probe relativistic perturbations to the orbital motion. Pulsars have provided the most stringent tests of theories of relativistic gravitation, especially in the strong-field regime, and have shown that Einstein's general theory of relativity is an accurate description of the observed motions. Many other gravitational theories are effectively ruled out or at least severely constrained by these results. MSPs can also be used to form a "Pulsar Timing Array" (PTA). PTAs are Galactic-scale interferometers that have the potential to directly detect nanohertz gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. Orbiting super-massive black holes in the cores of distant galaxies are t...

  1. Evidence of a non-conservative mass transfer for XTE J0929-314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Gambino, A. F.; Iaria, R.; Burderi, L.; Matranga, M.; Sanna, A.; Riggio, A.

    2017-07-01

    Context. In 1998 the first accreting millisecond pulsar, SAX J1808.4-3658, was discovered and to date 18 systems showing coherent, high frequency (>100 Hz) pulsations in low-mass X-ray binaries are known. Since their discovery, this class of sources has shown interesting and sometimes puzzling behaviours. In particular, apart from a few exceptions, they are all transient with very long X-ray quiescent periods implying a quite low averaged mass accretion rate onto the neutron star. Among these sources, XTE J0929-314 has been detected in outburst just once in about 15 years of continuous monitoring of the X-ray sky. Aims: We aim to demonstrate that a conservative mass transfer in this system will result in an X-ray luminosity that is higher than the observed, long-term averaged X-ray luminosity. Methods: Under the hypothesis of a conservative mass transfer driven by gravitational radiation, as expected for this system given the short orbital period of about 43.6 min and the low-mass of the companion implied by the mass function derived from timing techniques, we calculate the expected mass transfer rate in this system and predict the long-term averaged X-ray luminosity. This is compared with the averaged, over 15 years, X-ray flux observed from the system, and a lower limit of the distance to the source is inferred. Results: This distance is shown to be >7.4 kpc in the direction of the Galactic anticentre, implying a large height, >1.8 kpc, of the source with respect to the Galactic plane, placing the source in an empty region of the Galaxy. We suggest that the inferred value of the distance is unlikely. Conclusions: This problem can be solved if we hypothesize that the source is undergoing a non-conservative mass transfer, in which most of the mass transferred from the companion star is ejected from the system, probably because of the (rotating magnetic dipole) radiation pressure of the pulsar. If confirmed by future observations, this may be another piece of

  2. Multiwavelength observations revealing the outbursts of the two soft X-ray transients XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, S; Hynes, R I; Shrader, C R; Cui, W; Mauche, C W; Norton, A J; Solheim, J E; Ostensen, R; Geballe, T R; Ioannou, Z; King, A R

    2001-01-01

    We report here on multiwavelength observations of the two new soft X-ray transients (SXTs) XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480, which we observed with HST/RXTE/UKIRT. For XTE J1118+480 we also used EUVE since it is located at a very high galactic latitude and suffers from very low extinction. The two sources exhibited very different behaviour. XTE J1859+226 seems quite normal and therefore a good object for testing the accretion mechanisms in place during the outbursts, XTE J1118+480 is much more unusual because it exhibits i) a low X-ray to optical ratio and ii) a strong non-thermal contribution in the radio to optical domain, which is likely to be due to synchrotron emission. We concentrate here on the near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations of these two systems.

  3. Near-infrared Observations of Magnetars: XTE J1810-197, 1RXS J1708-4009, 1E 1841-045 and SGR 1900+14

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, V; Mignani, R P; Israel, G L; Perna, R; Chaty, S; Stella, L; Covino, S; Turolla, R; Zane, S; Curto, G Lo; Campana, S; Marconi, G; Mereghetti, S

    2007-01-01

    . We report on near-infrared (IR) observations of the three anomalous X-ray pulsars XTE J1810-197, 1RXS J1708-4009, 1E 1841-045 and the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1900+14, taken with the ESO-VLT, the Gemini, and the CFHT telescopes. . This work is aimed at identifying and/or confirming the IR counterparts of these magnetars, as well as at measuring their possible IR variability. . In order to perform photometry of objects as faint as Ks~20, we have used data taken with the largest telescopes, equipped with the most advanced IR detectors and in most of the cases with Adaptive Optics devices. The latter are critical to achieve the sharp spatial accuracy required to pinpoint faint objects in crowded fields. . We confirm with high confidence the identification of the IR counterpart to XTE J1810-197, and its IR variability. For 1E 1841-045 and SGR 1900+14 we propose two candidate IR counterparts based on the detection of IR variability. For 1RXS J1708-4009 we show that none of the potential counterparts within th...

  4. Optical observations of XTE J1709-267

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K.; Higgins, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    The X-ray binary XTE J1709-267 was recently found to be in outburst again by MAXI (Atel #9108). We observed this source using EFOSC2 on the ESO NTT. At 02:33 UT on 23 June 2016, the source was detected at V=17.9 mag. This is several magnitudes brighter than the brightness in quiescence (Jonker et al. 2004, MNRAS 354, 666).

  5. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  6. Pulsars and Extreme Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Burnell, Jocelyn

    2004-10-01

    Pulsars were discovered 35 years ago. What do we know about them now, and what have they taught us about the extremes of physics? With an average density comparable to that of the nucleus, magnetic fields around 108 T and speeds close to c these objects have stretched our understanding of the behaviour of matter. They serve as extrememly accurate clocks with which to carry out precision experiments in relativity. Created in cataclysmic explosions, pulsars are a (stellar) form of life after death. After half a billion revolutions most pulsars finally die, but amazingly some are born again to yet another, even weirder, afterlife. Pulsar research continues lively, delivering exciting, startling and almost unbelievable results!

  7. Multiwavelength observations revealing the outbursts of the soft X-ray transients XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, S; Hynes, R I; Shrader, C R; Cui, W

    2000-01-01

    We report multiwavelength observations of the two soft X-ray transients (SXTs) XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480, which we observed with HST, RXTE and UKIRT. The two sources exhibited very different behaviour. XTE J1859+226 showed a thermal-viscous disc instability outburst modified by irradiation. XTE J1118+480, which we also observed with EUVE since it is located at a very high galactic latitude and suffers from very low extinction, is much more unusual. It exhibits i) a low X-ray to optical flux ratio and ii) a strong non-thermal contribution throughout the spectrum, which is likely to be due to synchrotron emission. We concentrate here on their evolution in the course of their outbursts.

  8. Pulse Portraiture: Pulsar timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennucci, Timothy T.; Demorest, Paul B.; Ransom, Scott M.

    2016-06-01

    Pulse Portraiture is a wideband pulsar timing code written in python. It uses an extension of the FFTFIT algorithm (Taylor 1992) to simultaneously measure a phase (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM). The code includes a Gaussian-component-based portrait modeling routine. The code uses the python interface to the pulsar data analysis package PSRCHIVE (ascl:1105.014) and also requires the non-linear least-squares minimization package lmfit (ascl:1606.014).

  9. Pulsar Timing Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the use of an ensemble of radio pulsars to constrain the characteristic strain caused by a stochastic gravitational wave background has advanced the cause of detection of very low frequency gravitational waves significantly. This electromagnetic means of gravitational wave detection, called Pulsar Timing Array(PTA), is reviewed in this article. The principle of operation of PTA, the current operating PTAs and their status is presented along-with a discussion of the main ch...

  10. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  11. Revised Pulsar Spindown

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, I; Contopoulos, Ioannis; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2005-01-01

    We address the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown by combining our experience from the two limiting idealized cases which have been studied in great extent in the past: that of an aligned rotator where ideal MHD conditions apply, and that of a misaligned rotator in vacuum. We construct a spindown formula that takes into account the misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes, and the magnetospheric particle acceleration gaps. We show that near the death line aligned rotators spin down much slower than orthogonal ones. In order to test this approach, we use a simple Monte Carlo method to simulate the evolution of pulsars and find a good fit to the observed pulsar distribution in the P-Pdot diagram without invoking magnetic field decay. Our model may also account for individual pulsars spinning down with braking index n 3, and that the older pulsar population has preferentially smaller magnetic inclination angles. We discuss possible signatures of such alignment in the existing pulsar data.

  12. Coherent Radio Emission from Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Dipanjan; Gil, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    We review a physical model where the high brightness temperature of 10$^{25}-10^{30}$ K observed in pulsar radio emission is explained by coherent curvature radiation excited in the relativistic electron-positron plasma in the pulsar magnetosphere.

  13. XTE J1701-462 seen by INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, N.; Bazzano, A.; Schoenfelder, V.; Westergaard, N.-J.; McBreen, B.; Much, R.; Hermsen, W.; Molkov, S.

    2006-01-01

    The newly discovered X-ray transient XTE J1701-462 (ATEL #696, #700, #702, #703, #704, #706) was in the field of view of the INTEGRAL instruments during a routine Galactic Plane Scan on 2006 Jan. 21 at 03:45 UT, during one pointing of 1850 sec in JEM-X and three pointings in IBIS. It was detected by the JEM-X instrument with a flux of 58+-6 counts/s in 3-10 keV (about 0.9 Crab) and 2.8+-0.5 counts/s in 10-20 keV (about 0.13 Crab).

  14. XTE J1701-407 INTEGRAL and Swift observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soldi, S.; Beckmann, V.; Eckert, D.

    2008-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the Galactic center region starting September 18, 2008 through a long key program (KP) and several ToO observations of H1743-322. In the course of these observations, the neutron star LMXB XTE J1701-407 (Markwardt et al. 2008, ATel #1569 and ATel #1616, ATel #1621) has been...... al. 2008), this results in a luminosity of L(2-50 keV) = 1.3e+36 erg/sec. INTEGRAL will continue to observe the Galactic center region over the next revolutions. The data of the INTEGRAL ToO observations of H1743-322 are public....

  15. INTEGRAL sees transient activity in the Galactic Bulge: XTE J1751-305 and GRS 1741.9-2853 in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.;

    2009-01-01

    Crab in above-mentioned energy ranges. IBIS/ISGRI did also detect GRS 1741.9-2853 with an average intensity of about 10 mCrab and significance of 6.1 sigma in the 18-40 keV range. The accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1751-305 (e.g. Markwardt et al. ApJ 575, L21, 2002) is detected with JEM-X at 15 +/- 6 m......, the closeby and recently discovered accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J17511-3057 (e.g. ATels #2196-2199) has dimmed to below the INTEGRAL detection levels, whereas it was still detected 6 days earlier at about 12 mCrab averaged over the above-mentioned energy bands. The 3-sigma upper limits are now...... about 5 mCrab and about 2 mCrab between 3-10 keV and 10-25 keV, respectively. We further notice that none of the X-ray bursters in the close source pair SLX 1744-299/300 is significantly detected in JEM-X with 3-sigma upper limits of about 6 mCrab (3-10 keV) and about 3 mCrab (10-25 keV). This seems...

  16. Pulsars: Gigantic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Renxin

    2011-01-01

    What is the real nature of pulsars? This is essentially a question of the fundamental strong interaction between quarks at low-energy scale and hence of the non-perturbative quantum chromo-dynamics, the solution of which would certainly be meaningful for us to understand one of the seven millennium prize problems (i.e., "Yang-Mills Theory") named by the Clay Mathematical Institute. After a historical note, it is argued here that a pulsar is very similar to an extremely big nucleus, but is a little bit different from the {\\em gigantic nucleus} speculated 80 years ago by L. Landau. The paper demonstrates the similarity between pulsars and gigantic nuclei from both points of view: the different manifestations of compact stars and the general behavior of the strong interaction.

  17. Pulsar lensing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Siqi; Macquart, J-P; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of archival VLBI data of PSR 0834+06 revealed that its scintillation properties can be precisely modelled using the inclined sheet model (Pen & Levin 2014), resulting in two distinct lens planes. These data strongly favour the grazing sheet model over turbulence as the primary source of pulsar scattering. This model can reproduce the parameters of the observed diffractive scintillation with an accuracy at the percent level. Comparison with new VLBI proper motion results in a direct measure of the ionized ISM screen transverse velocity. The results are consistent with ISM velocities local to the PSR 0834+06 sight-line (through the Galaxy). The simple 1D structure of the lenses opens up the possibility of using interstellar lenses as precision probes for pulsar lens mapping, precision transverse motions in the ISM, and new opportunities for removing scattering to improve pulsar timing. We describe the parameters and observables of this double screen system. While relative screen distances can i...

  18. Pulsar virtual observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Keith, M; Lyne, A; Brooke, J

    2007-01-01

    The Pulsar Virtual Observatory will provide a means for scientists in all fields to access and analyze the large data sets stored in pulsar surveys without specific knowledge about the data or the processing mechanisms. This is achieved by moving the data and processing tools to a grid resource where the details of the processing are seen by the users as abstract tasks. By developing intelligent scheduling middle-ware the issues of interconnecting tasks and allocating resources are removed from the user domain. This opens up large sets of radio time-series data to a wider audience, enabling greater cross field astronomy, in line with the virtual observatory concept. Implementation of the Pulsar Virtual Observatory is underway, utilising the UK National Grid Service as the principal grid resource.

  19. Handbook of pulsar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars. Studies of these fascinating objects have provided applications in solid-state physics, general relativity, galactic astronomy, astrometry, planetary physics and even cosmology. Most of these applications and much of what we know about neutron stars are derived from single-dish radio observations using state-of-the-art receivers and data acquisition systems. This comprehensive 2004 book is a unique resource that brings together the key observational techniques, background information and a review of results, including the discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided which can be used to analyse example data, made available on a related website. This work will be of great value not only to graduate students but also to researchers wishing to carry out and interpret a wide variety of radio pulsar observations.

  20. Current Flows in Pulsar Magnetospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The global structure of .current flows in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated, with rough calculations of the circuit elements. It is emphasized that the potential of the critical field lines (the field lines that intersect the null surface at the light cylinder radius) should be the same as that of interstellar medium, and that pulsars whose rotation axes and magnetic dipole axes are parallel should be positively charged, in order to close the pulsar's current flows. The statistical relation between the radio luminosity and pulsar's electric charge (or the spindown power) may hint that the millisecond pulsars could be low-mass bare strange stars.

  1. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Rachel; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lynch, Ryan; Kondratiev, Vlad I; Boyles, Jason R; Wilson, M Terry; Lorimer, Duncan R; Ransom, Scott; 10.3847/AER2010004

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsar Search Collaboratory [PSC, NSF #0737641] is a joint project between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU) designed to interest high school students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] related career paths by helping them to conduct authentic scientific research. The 3- year PSC program, which began in summer 2008, teaches students to analyze astronomical radio data acquired with the 100-m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope for the purpose of discovering new pulsars. We present the results of the first complete year of the PSC, which includes two astronomical discoveries.

  2. Pulsars: Cosmic Permanent 'Neutromagnets'?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We argue that pulsars may be spin-polarized neutron stars, i.e. cosmic permanent magnets. This would simply explain several observational facts about pulsars, including the 'beacon effect' itself i.e. the static/stable misalignment of rotational and magnetic axes, the extreme temporal stability of the pulses and the existence of an upper limit for the magnetic field strength - coinciding with the one observed in "magnetars". Although our model admittedly is speculative, this latter fact seems to us unlikely to be pure coincidence.

  3. Pulsars in FIRST Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We identify 16 pulsars from the Survey of Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) at 1.4 GHz. Their positions and total flux densities are extracted from the FIRST catalog. By comparing the source positions with those in the PSR catalog, we obtain better determined positions of PSR J1022+1001,J1518+4904, J1652+2651, and proper motion upper limits of PSR J0751+1807,J1012+5307, and J1640+2224. The proper motions of the other ten pulsars are consistent with the catalog values.

  4. INTEGRAL detects the recurrent transients XTE J1709-267 and XTE J1739-285 in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Pavan, L.

    2012-01-01

    in the 20-40 keV band. We estimate a rough flux of ~8 mCrab (5 sigma) for an effective ISGRI exposure time of 21 ks. A preliminary spectral fit to the JEM-X data is consistent with an absorbed disk blackbody model of temperature ~2.2 keV. The onset of this outburst was also detected by MAXI http://maxi.......riken.jp/top/index.php?cid=1&jname=J1709-266 This new outburst from XTE J1709-267 occurs 2 years after the previous period of activity of the source, reported by MAXI/GSC (ATEL #2729), and is consistent with a outburst recurrence time of 2-3 years, claimed in ATel #1302. XTE J1739-285 was seen by JEM-X at the 9-sigma level...... in the 3-10 keV band, with an average flux of 16 +/- 2 mCrab, and at the 8-sigma level in the 10-25 keV band, with an average flux of 16 +/- 4 mCrab, for an effective exposure time of 10 ks. A weak (short) type-I X-ray burst was detected during these observations. The source flux in the 20-40 keV band...

  5. Pulsar Timing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lommen, Andrea N

    2013-01-01

    We describe the procedure, nuances, issues, and choices involved in creating times-of-arrival (TOAs), residuals and error bars from a set of radio pulsar timing data. We discuss the issue of mis-matched templates, the problem that wide- bandwidth backends introduce, possible solutions to that problem, and correcting for offsets introduced by various observing systems.

  6. Observations of Accreting Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chiu, John; Finger, Mark H.; Koh, Danny T.; Nelson, Robert W.; Prince, Thomas A.; Rubin, Bradley C.; Scott, D. Matthew; Stollberg, Mark; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilson, Colleen A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    We summarize 5 years of continuous monitoring of accretion-powered pulsars with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Our 20-70 keV observations have determined or refined the orbital parameters of 13 binaries, discovered five new transient accreting pulsars, measured the pulsed flux history during outbursts of 12 transients (GRO J1744-28, 4U 0115+634, GRO J1750-27, GS 0834-430, 2S 1417-624, GRO J1948+32, EXO 2030+375, GRO J1008-57, A0535+26, GRO J2058+42, 4U 1145-619, and A1118-616), and also measured the accretion torque history during outbursts of six of those transients whose orbital param- eters were also known. We have also continuously measured the pulsed flux and spin frequency for eiaht persistently accreting pulsars (Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, OAO 1657-415, GX 301-2, 4U 1626-67, 4U 1538-52, and GX 1+4). Because of their continuity and uniformity over a long baseline, BATSE observations have provided new insights into the long-term behavior of accreting magnetic neutron stars. We have found that all accreting pulsars show stochastic variations in their spin frequencies and luminosities, including those displaying secular spin-up or spin-down on long timescales, which blurs the con- ventional distinction between disk-fed and wind-fed binaries. Pulsed flux and accretion torque are strongly correlated in outbursts of transient accreting pulsars but are uncorrelated, or even anti- correlated, in persistent sources. We describe daily folded pulse profiles, frequency, and flux measurements that are available through the Compton Observatory Science Support Center at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. The Design of an Intelligent FITS File Database for XTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, A. H.

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) is a High Energy Astrophysics mission intended for launch in the second half of 1995. It carries two pointed instruments that together cover the range 2-250 keV at s time resolution and moderate spectral resolution, and one instrument that will monitor the X-ray sky continuously over the 2-10 keV range. XTE's on-board science data systems provide considerable processing power and unprecedented flexibility in telemetry data modes. Events are processed on-board in several simultaneous data modes, chosen from a large repertoire of modes. Consequently, keeping track of the collected data in the database and providing a mechanism to select data that satisfy selection criteria couched in physical terms is a challenging problem. The XTE Guest Observer Facility, in conformity with the practices at the Office of Guest Investigator Programs, will provide the data in FITS format. The design of these FITS files includes two new features that address the cataloging and data selection issues. First, a hierarchy of FITS tables will be used to navigate the database. A master index will allow software to browse through the catalog with the granularity of individual observations, and find references to instrument indices (one index per instrument or subsystem per observation), as well as, for instance, source information. An instrument index table will contain references to data files generated by data-system components for various time intervals during the observation. The emphasis for the data tables is on those containing raw data, but there will be additional ones holding, for instance, data products and calibration information. Thus, given access to the master index and a set of selection criteria, extractor software will be able to determine the location of the requested data. Second, a Data Description Language (DDL) has been developed to label each data item unambiguously and to facilitate data selection browsing. Through the use of tokens

  8. On the randomness of pulsar nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Rankin, Joanna M.

    2009-05-01

    Pulsar nulling is not always a random process; most pulsars, in fact, null non-randomly. The Wald-Wolfowitz statistical runs test is a simple diagnostic that pulsar astronomers can use to identify pulsars that have non-random nulls. It is not clear at this point how the dichotomy in pulsar nulling randomness is related to the underlying nulling phenomenon, but its nature suggests that there are at least two distinct reasons that pulsars null.

  9. X-ray pulsar rush in 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yokogawa, J.; Koyama, K. [Kyoto Univ., Faculty of Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We present recent remarkable topics about discoveries of X-ray pulsars. 1. Pulsations from two Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters: These pulsars have enormously strong magnetic field (B {approx} 10{sup 15} G), thus these are called as 'magnetar', new type of X-ray pulsars. 2. New Crab-like pulsars: These discoveries lead to suggesting universality of Crab-like pulsars. 3. An X-ray bursting millisecond pulsar: This is strong evidence for the recycle theory of generating radio millisecond pulsars. 4. X-ray pulsar rush in the SMC: This indicates the younger star formation history in the SMC. (author)

  10. Gamma rays from Galactic pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we show that they explain only a small fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background.

  11. Interplanetary spacecraft navigation using pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, X P; You, X P; Li, M T; Keith, M J; Shannon, R M; Coles, W; Manchester, R N; Zheng, J H; Yu, X Z; Gao, D; Wu, X; Chen, D

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how observations of pulsars can be used to help navigate a spacecraft travelling in the solar system. We make use of archival observations of millisecond pulsars from the Parkes radio telescope in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight issues, such as pulsar spin irregularities, which need to be accounted for. We show that observations of four millisecond pulsars every seven days using a realistic X-ray telescope on the spacecraft throughout a journey from Earth to Mars can lead to position determinations better than approx. 20km and velocity measurements with a precision of approx. 0.1m/s.

  12. Modelling lightcurves and spectra of transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, S; Turolla, R; Israel, G L; Nobili, L; Stella, L

    2011-01-01

    We present the first detailed joint modelling of both the timing and spectral properties during the outburst decay of transient anomalous X-ray pulsars. We consider the two sources XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216, and describe the source decline in the framework of a twisted magnetosphere model, using Monte Carlo simulations of magnetospheric scattering and mimicking localized heat deposition at the NS surface following the activity. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  13. Modelling lightcurves and spectra of transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, S.; Albano, A.; Turolla, R.; Israel, G. L.; Nobili, L.; Stella, L.

    2011-09-01

    We present the first detailed joint modelling of both the timing and spectral properties during the outburst decay of transient anomalous X-ray pulsars. We consider the two sources XTE J1810-197 and CXOU J164710.2-455216, and describe the source decline in the framework of a twisted magnetosphere model, using Monte Carlo simulations of magnetospheric scattering and mimicking localized heat deposition at the NS surface following the activity. Our results support a picture in which a limited portion of the star surface close to one of the magnetic poles is heated at the outburst onset. The subsequent evolution is driven both by the cooling/varying size of the heated cap and by a progressive untwisting of the magnetosphere.

  14. Models of Pulsar Glitches

    CERN Document Server

    Haskell, Brynmor

    2015-01-01

    Radio pulsars provide us with some of the most stable clocks in the universe. Nevertheless several pulsars exhibit sudden spin-up events, known as glitches. More than forty years after their first discovery, the exact origin of these phenomena is still open to debate. It is generally thought that they an observational manifestation of a superfluid component in the stellar interior and provide an insight into the dynamics of matter at extreme densities. In recent years there have been several advances on both the theoretical and observational side, that have provided significant steps forward in our understanding of neutron star interior dynamics and possible glitch mechanisms. In this article we review the main glitch models that have been proposed and discuss our understanding, in the light of current observations.

  15. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  16. Electrodynamics of pulsar magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    We review electrodynamics of rotating magnetized neutron stars, from the early vacuum model to recent numerical experiments with plasma-filled magnetospheres. Significant progress became possible due to the development of global particle-in-cell simulations which capture particle acceleration, emission of high-energy photons, and electron-positron pair creation. The numerical experiments show from first principles how and where electric gaps form, and promise to explain the observed pulsar activity from radio waves to gamma-rays.

  17. Strange-pulsar model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G.; Horvath, J.E.; Vucetich, H. (Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata, Argentina Nacional de La Plata, Calle 49 y 115, Casilla de Correo 67, 1900 La Plata, (Argentina))

    1990-02-12

    Deep modifications to the current strange-star structure can occur if strange matter is not stable all the way down to zero pressure. This would be the case, for example, if some stable particle is formed at relatively low pressure and/or temperature. We show that the inclusion of a likely specific candidate particle (quark {alpha}) in the strange-matter picture leads to stellar models that present more realistic behavior in the light of current pulsar understanding.

  18. Nature of eclipsing pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Khechinashvili, D; Gil, J; Khechinashvili, David; Melikidze, George; Gil, Janusz

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for pulsar radio eclipses in some binary systems, and test this model for PSRs B1957+20 and J2051-0827. We suggest that in these binaries the companion stars are degenerate dwarfs with strong surface magnetic fields. The magnetospheres of these stars are permanently infused by the relativistic particles of the pulsar wind. We argue that the radio waves emitted by the pulsar split into the eigenmodes of the electron-positron plasma as they enter the companion's magnetosphere and are then strongly damped due to cyclotron resonance with the ambient plasma particles. Our model explains in a natural way the anomalous duration and behavior of radio eclipses observed in such systems. In particular, it provides stable, continuous, and frequency-dependent eclipses, in agreement with the observations. We predict a significant variation of linear polarization both at eclipse ingress and egress. In this paper we also suggest several possible mechanisms of generation of the optical and $X$-ray emission ...

  19. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  20. Pulsar Wind Nebulae Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) are ideal astrophysical laboratories where high energy relativistic phenomena can be investigated. They are close, well resolved in our observations, and the knowledge derived in their study has a strong impact in many other fields, from AGNs to GRBs. Yet there are still unresolved issues, that prevent us from a full clear understanding of these objects. The lucky combination of high resolution X-ray imaging and numerical codes to handle the outflow and dynamical properties of relativistic MHD, has opened a new avenue of investigation that has lead to interesting progresses in the last years. Despite all of this, we do not understand yet how particles are accelerated, and the functioning of the pulsar wind and pulsar magnetosphere, that power PWNe. I will review what is now commonly known as the MHD paradigm, and in particular I will focus on various approaches that have been and are currently used to model these systems. For each I will highlight its advantages, limitations, and de...

  1. INTEGRAL sees Swift J174510.8-2624, Swift J1753.7-2544, XTE J1810-189, XTE J1739-285 to be still on, while 1E 1740.7-2942 is off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, J.; Alfonso-Garzon, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bird, T.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.; Del Santo, M.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-01-01

    A new season of the INTEGRAL Bulge monitoring programme (see ATel #438) started this morning (UT 2013 Feb 11 00:57-04:39). The sources Swift J174510.8-2624 (ATels #4760, #4782), Swift J1753.7-2544 (ATels #4769, #4789), XTE J1810-189 (ATel #4752) and XTE J1739-285 (ATels #4304, #4354) are still activ

  2. Excitation of wakefield around pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhiani, V; Belic, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the generation of the wakefields by means of the high energy radiation of pulsars. The problem is considered in the framework of a one dimensional approach. We linearize the set of governing equations consisting of the momentum equation, continuity equation an Poisson equation and show that a wavelike structure will inevitably arise relatively close to the pulsar.

  3. Populations and evolution of radio pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 汪珍如

    1996-01-01

    A new physical parameter Q=log(We/P2/3) is defined as a criterion for judging whether a radio pulsar is a normal pulsar or a recycled pulsar originating from accreting binary systems.Based on the definition,the observational characteristics and the evolution of the two groups of pulsars are discussed.

  4. Pulsars as Fantastic Objects and Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J L

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are fantastic objects, which show the extreme states of matters and plasma physics not understood yet. Pulsars can be used as probes for the detection of interstellar medium and even the gravitational waves. Here I review the basic facts of pulsars which should attract students to choose pulsar studies as their future projects.

  5. Magnetars and white dwarf pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, Manuel; Coelho, Jaziel G.

    2016-07-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely B ≳ 1014G, and for that reason are known as magnetars. However, in the last years, some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields B ˜ (1012-1013)G have been detected, challenging the magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on WDs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized WDs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107-1010 G and rotate very fast with frequencies Ω ˜ 1rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods P ˜ (2-12)s.

  6. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  7. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  8. Millisecond pulsars: Timekeepers of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion on the characteristics of pulsars is given followed by a review of millisecond pulsar discoveries including the very first, PRS B1937+21, discovered in 1982. Methods of timing millisecond pulsars and the accuracy of millisecond pulsars as clocks are discussed. Possible reasons for the pulse residuals, or differences between the observed and predicted pulse arrival times for millisecond pulsars, are given.

  9. The Coughing Pulsar Magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, I

    2005-01-01

    Polar magnetospheric gaps consume a fraction of the electric potential that develops accross open field lines. This effect modifies significantly the structure of the axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere. We present numerical stead-state solutions for various values of the gap potential. We show that a charge starved magnetosphere contains significantly less electric current than one with freely available electric charges. As a result, electromagnetic neutron star braking becomes inefficient. We argue that the magnetosphere may spontaneously rearrange itself to a lower energy configuration through a dramatic release of electromagnetic field energy and magentic flux. Our results might be relevant in understanding the recent December 27, 2004 burst observed in SGR 1806-20.

  10. VLT spectroscopy of XTE J2123-058 during quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, J; Shahbaz, T; Zurita, C; Charles, P A

    2001-01-01

    We present VLT low resolution spectroscopy of the neutron star X-ray transient XTE J2123-058 during its quiescent state. Our data reveal the presence of a K7V companion which contributes 77 % to the total flux at 6300 A and orbits the neutron star at K_2 = 287 +/- 12 km/s. Contrary to other soft X-ray transients (SXTs), the Halpha emission is almost exactly in antiphase with the velocity curve of the optical companion. Using the light-center technique we obtain K_1 = 140 +/- 27 km/s and hence q=K_1/K_2=M_2/M_1= 0.49 +/- 0.10. This, combined with a previous determination of the inclination angle (i=73 +/- 4) yields M_1 = 1.55 +/- 0.31 Msun and M_2 = 0.76 +/- 0.22 Msun. M_2 agrees well with the observed spectral type. Doppler tomography of the Halpha emission shows a non-symmetric accretion disc distribution mimicking that seen in SW Sex stars. Although we find a large systemic velocity of -110 +/- 8 km/s this value is consistent with the galactic rotation velocity at the position of J2123-058, and hence a halo...

  11. The Pulsating Pulsar Magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, K H

    2015-01-01

    Following the basic principles of a charge separated pulsar magnetosphere \\citep{goldreich1969}, we consider the magnetosphere be stationary in space, instead of corotating, and the electric field be uploaded from the potential distribution on the pulsar surface, set up by the unipolar induction. Consequently, the plasma of the magnetosphere undergoes guiding center drifts of the gyro motion due to the transverse forces to the magnetic field. These forces are the electric force, magnetic gradient force, and field line curvature force. Since these plasma velocities are of drift nature, there is no need to introduce an emf along the field lines, which would contradict the $E_{\\parallel}=\\vec E\\cdot\\vec B=0$ plasma condition. Furthermore, there is also no need to introduce the critical field line separating the electron and ion open field lines. We present a self-consistent description where the magnetosphere is described in terms of electric and magnetic fields and also in terms of plasma velocities. The fields...

  12. Doppler Imaging of Black Hole SYSTEMS:XTE J1118+480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Paul; Perres-Torres, Manuel; Garcia, Michael

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the black-hole candidate XTE J1118+480 obtained during its approach to quiescence. Doppler imaging of the intense Hα line shows persistent emission with an origin in the gas stream/hotspot. In addition the Doppler maps show enhanced emission in the +Vx -Vy quadrant clearing incompatible with a stream/hotspot origin. We favour a non-uniform disk intensity distribution due to tidal effects as the origin of this emission. We compare our map with that of XTE J1118+480 in outburst as well as with those of other transient systems in quiescence

  13. Tempo: Pulsar timing data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, R.; Taylor, J.; Peters, W.; Weisberg, J.; Irwin, A.; Wex, N.; Stairs, I.; Demorest, P.; Nice, D.

    2015-09-01

    Tempo analyzes pulsar timing data. Pulse times of arrival (TOAs), pulsar model parameters, and coded instructions are read from one or more input files. The TOAs are fitted by a pulse timing model incorporating transformation to the solar-system barycenter, pulsar rotation and spin-down and, where necessary, one of several binary models. Program output includes parameter values and uncertainties, residual pulse arrival times, chi-squared statistics, and the covariance matrix of the model. In prediction mode, ephemerides of pulse phase behavior (in the form of polynomial expansions) are calculated from input timing models. Tempo is the basis for the Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) code.

  14. The Pulsar Kick Velocity Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, B M S; Hansen, Brad M. S.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sample of pulsar proper motions, taking detailed account of the selection effects of the original surveys. We treat censored data using survival statistics. From a comparison of our results with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the mean birth speed of a pulsar is 250-300 km/s, rather than the 450 km/s foundby Lyne & Lorimer (1994). The resultant distribution is consistent with a maxwellian with dispersion $ \\sigma_v = 190 km/s$. Despite the large birth velocities, we find that the pulsars with long characteristic ages show the asymmetric drift, indicating that they are dynamically old. These pulsars may result from the low velocity tail of the younger population, although modified by their origin in binaries and by evolution in the galactic potential.

  15. Pulsar Electrodynamics: an unsolved problem

    CERN Document Server

    Melrose, D B

    2016-01-01

    Pulsar electrodynamics is reviewed emphasizing the role of the inductive electric field in an oblique rotator and the incomplete screening of its parallel component by charges, leaving `gaps' with $E_\\parallel\

  16. Pulsar observations at Mt. Pleasant

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, D R; McCulloch, P M

    2002-01-01

    Two daily pulsar monitoring programs are progressing at the Mount Pleasant Observatory, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. A new system involving the 26-metre radio telescope monitors 10 young pulsars daily and is focussed on near-real-time glitch finding. This will allow Target of Opportunity observations to measure post-glitch heating of the neutron star surface (Helfand, Gotthelf, & Halpern 2000). The 14-metre continues its 21st year of daily monitoring of the Vela pulsar with a recent comprehensive frontend upgrade. This is prior to an upgrade of the backend equipment currently in progress. The 14-metre observed the most recent glitch of the Vela pulsar in January 2000 to the highest time resolution of any glitch and revealed a particularly short-term decay component (Dodson, McCulloch, & Lewis 2002). This decay component will provide constraints to the nature of the coupling of the stellar crust to the liquid interior.

  17. Higgs portals to pulsar collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars apparently missing from the galactic center could have been destroyed by asymmetric fermionic dark matter ($m_X = 1-100$ GeV) coupled to a light scalar ($m_{\\phi}= 5-20$ MeV), which mixes with the Higgs boson. We point out that this pulsar-collapsing dark sector can resolve the core-cusp problem and will either be excluded or discovered by upcoming direct detection experiments. Another implication is a maximum pulsar age curve that increases with distance from the galactic center, with a normalization that depends on the couplings and masses of dark sector particles. In addition, we use old pulsars outside the galactic center to place bounds on asymmetric Higgs portal models.

  18. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project are to 1) make a direct detection of gravitational waves, 2) improve the solar system planetary ephemeris and 3) develop a pulsar-based time scale. In this article we describe the project, explain how the data are collected and processed and describe current research. Our current data sets are able to place an upper bound on the gravitational wave background that is the most stringent to date.

  19. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  20. Ion-proton pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  1. Pulsars In The Headlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    1967 was the year of the so-called “war of the six days” or “third Arab Israeli war”, the year of the Che Guevara's death in Bolivia, the year of the military coup in Greece and, in medicine, the year of the first human heart transplant. Moreover, the signing of the international agreement on the use of space with peaceful means and the crash of the Russian shuttle Soyuz-1, with Cosmonaut Vladimir Kamarov on board also happened that year. Likewise, Spanish writer and professor of journalists, José Azorín, passed away. However, here we are interested in 1967 because it was the year of the detection of pulsars, which astronomers initially confused with signals from extraterrestrials or Little Green Men. Nowadays, they are still present in the headlines.

  2. Ion-proton pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, P B

    2016-01-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  3. INTEGRAL monitoring of the X-ray burster XTE J1739-285

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2008-01-01

    XTE J1739-285 is a recurrent X-ray transient first discovered by INTEGRAL as an X-ray burster. We have carried out a systematic search for X-ray bursts at various levels of accretion rate onto the Neutron Star surface during the source outbursts in 2005 and 2006. A total of 25 X-ray bursts were f...

  4. Evolution of the X-ray Properties of the Transient Magnetar XTE J1810-197

    CERN Document Server

    Alford, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the 5.54 s transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 using the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, analyzing new data from 2008 through 2014, and re-analyzing data from 2003 through 2007 with the benefit of these six years of new data. From the discovery of XTE J1810-197 during its 2003 outburst to the most recent 2014 observations, its 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux has declined by a factor of about 50 from 4.1E-11 to 8.1E-13 erg/cm^2/s. Its X-ray spectrum has now reached a steady state. Pulsations continue to be detected from a 0.3 keV thermal hot-spot that remains on the neutron star surface. The luminosity of this hot-spot exceeds XTE J1810-197's spin down luminosity, indicating continuing magnetar activity. We find that XTE J1810-197's X-ray spectrum is best described by a multiple component blackbody model in which the coldest 0.14 keV component likely originates from the entire neutron star surface, and the thermal hot-spot is, at different epochs, well described by an either one or ...

  5. Young Radio Pulsars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boyles, Jason; Turk, Phil J; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Lynch, Ryan S; Ransom, Scott M; Freire, Paulo C; Belczynski, Khris

    2011-01-01

    Currently three isolated radio pulsars and one binary radio pulsar with no evidence of any previous recycling are known in 97 surveyed Galactic globular clusters. As pointed out by Lyne et al., the presence of these pulsars cannot be explained by core-collapse supernovae, as is commonly assumed for their counterparts in the Galactic disk. We apply a Bayesian analysis to the results from surveys for radio pulsars in globular clusters and find the number of potentially observable non-recycled radio pulsars present in all clusters to be -0.6. In this case, the potentially observable population of such young pulsars is 447^{+1420}_{-399} (the error bars give the 95% confidence interval) and their birth rate is 0.012^{+0.037}_{-0.010} pulsars per century. The mostly likely creation scenario to explain these pulsars is the electron capture supernova of a OMgNe white dwarf.

  6. Polarization observations of 20 millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Wenming; van Straten, Willem; Reynolds, John; Hobbs, George; Wang, Na; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Champion, David; Coles, William; Hotan, Aidan; Khoo, Jonathan; Oslowski, Stefan; Sarkissian, John; Verbiest, Joris; Yardley, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Polarization profiles are presented for 20 millisecond pulsars that are being observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. The observations used the Parkes multibeam receiver with a central frequency of 1369 MHz and the Parkes digital filterbank pulsar signal-processing system PDFB2. Because of the large total observing time, the summed polarization profiles have very high signal/noise ratios and show many previously undetected profile features. Thirteen of the 20 pulsars show emission over more than half of the pulse period. Polarization variations across the profiles are complex and the observed position angle variations are generally not in accord with the rotating-vector model for pulsar polarization. Never-the-less, the polarization properties are broadly similar to those of normal (non-millisecond) pulsars, suggesting that the basic radio emission mechanism is the same in both classes of pulsar. The results support the idea that radio emission from millisecond pulsars originates high in t...

  7. Evolution of the X-ray Properties of the Transient Magnetar XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the 5.54 s transient magnetar XTE J1810-197 using the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, analyzing new data from 2008 through 2014, and re-analyzing data from 2003 through 2007 with the benefit of these six years of new data. From the discovery of XTE J1810-197 during its 2003 outburst to the most recent 2014 observations, its 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux has declined by a factor of about 50 from 4.1E-11 to 8.1E-13 erg/cm^2/s. Its X-ray spectrum has now reached a steady state. Pulsations continue to be detected from a 0.3 keV thermal hot-spot that remains on the neutron star surface. The luminosity of this hot-spot exceeds XTE J1810-197's spin down luminosity, indicating continuing magnetar activity. We find that XTE J1810-197's X-ray spectrum is best described by a multiple component blackbody model in which the coldest 0.14 keV component likely originates from the entire neutron star surface, and the thermal hot-spot is, at different epochs, well described by an either one or two-component blackbody model. A 1.2 keV absorption line, possibly due to resonant proton scattering, is detected at all epochs. The X-ray flux of the hot spot decreased by approximately 20% between 2008 March and 2009 March, the same period during which XTE J1810-197 became radio quiet.

  8. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  9. Towards a Realistic Pulsar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents ami charge densities of pulsar magnetospberes which do not obey the ideal condition, E(raised dot) B = O. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation requires the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E(sub ll) the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-Ideal pulsar maglletospheres is important because their comparison (including models for t he production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support nonzero values for E(sub ll) and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) Force-Free Electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that tltis is at most 20-40% (depending on t he non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = pc and discuss their possible implicatioll on the determination of the "on/ off" states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E(sub ll) locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  10. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  11. Search for Millisecond Pulsars for the Pulsar Timing Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, S.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetised neutron stars (i.e. ultra dense stars, where about one solar mass is concentrated in a sphere with a radius of ~ 10 km), which irradiate radio beams in a fashion similar to a lighthouse. As a consequence, whenever the beams cut our line of sight we perceive a radio pulses, one (or two) per pulsar rotation, with a frequency up to hundred of times a second. Owing to their compact nature, rapid spin and high inertia, pulsars are in general fairly stable rotators, hence the Times of Arrival (TOAs) of the pulses at a radio telescope can be used as the ticks of a clock. This holds true in particular for the sub­class of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs), having a spin period smaller than the conventional limit of 30 ms, whose very rapid rotation and relatively older age provide better rotational stability than the ordinary pulsars. Indeed, some MSPs rotate so regularly that they can rival the best atomic clocks on Earth over timespan of few months or years.This feature allows us to use MSPs as tools in a cosmic laboratory, by exploiting a procedure called timing, which consists in the repeated and regular measurement of the TOAs from a pulsar and then in the search for trends in the series of the TOAs over various timespans, from fraction of seconds to decades.For example the study of pulsars in binary systems has already provided the most stringent tests to date of General Relativity in strong gravitational fields and has unambiguously showed the occurrence of the emission of gravitational waves from a binary system comprising two massive bodies in a close orbit. In last decades a new exciting perspective has been opened, i.e. to use pulsars also for a direct detection of the so far elusive gravitational waves and thereby applying the pulsar timing for cosmological studies. In fact, the gravitational waves (GWs) going across our Galaxy pass over all the Galactic pulsars and the Earth, perturbing the space­time at the

  12. Understanding pulsar magnetospheres with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Karastergiou, A; Andersson, N; Breton, R; Brook, P; Gwinn, C; Lewandowska, N; Keane, E; Kramer, M; Macquart, J -P; Serylak, M; Shannon, R; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J; Verbiest, J P W; Weltevrede, P; Wright, G

    2015-01-01

    The SKA will discover tens of thousands of pulsars and provide unprecedented data quality on these, as well as the currently known population, due to its unrivalled sensitivity. Here, we outline the state of the art of our understanding of magnetospheric radio emission from pulsars and how we will use the SKA to solve the open problems in pulsar magnetospheric physics.

  13. Using HAWC to Discover Invisible Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Auchettl, Katie [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Bramante, Joseph [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Fang, Ke [Maryland U.; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Karwal, Tanvi [Johns Hopkins U.; Li, Shirley Weishi [Ohio State U., CCAPP

    2017-03-28

    Observations by HAWC and Milagro have detected bright and spatially extended TeV gamma-ray sources surrounding the Geminga and Monogem pulsars. We argue that these observations, along with a substantial population of other extended TeV sources coincident with pulsar wind nebulae, constitute a new morphological class of spatially extended TeV halos. We show that HAWCs wide field-of-view unlocks an expansive parameter space of TeV halos not observable by atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Under the assumption that Geminga and Monogem are typical middle-aged pulsars, we show that ten-year HAWC observations should eventually observe 37$^{+17}_{-13}$ middle-aged TeV halos that correspond to pulsars whose radio emission is not beamed towards Earth. Depending on the extrapolation of the TeV halo efficiency to young pulsars, HAWC could detect more than 100 TeV halos from mis-aligned pulsars. These pulsars have historically been difficult to detect with existing multiwavelength observations. TeV halos will constitute a significant fraction of all HAWC sources, allowing follow-up observations to efficiently find pulsar wind nebulae and thermal pulsar emission. The observation and subsequent multi-wavelength follow-up of TeV halos will have significant implications for our understanding of pulsar beam geometries, the evolution of PWN, the diffusion of cosmic-rays near energetic pulsars, and the contribution of pulsars to the cosmic-ray positron excess.

  14. The timing behaviour of radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to summarise the pulsar timing method, to provide an overview of recent research into the spin-down of pulsars over decadal timescales and to highlight the science that can be achieved using high-precision timing of millisecond pulsars.

  15. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  16. Pulsars: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Arons, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    I survey recent successes in the application of relativistic MHD and force-free electrodynamics to the modeling of the pulsars' rotational energy loss mechanism as well as to the structure and emission characteristics of Pulsar Wind Nebulae. I suggest that unsteady reconnection in the current sheet separating the closed from the open zones of the magnetosphere is responsible for the torque fluctuations observed in some pulsars, as well as for departures of the braking index from the canonical value of 3. I emphasize the significance of the boundary layer between the closed and open zones as the active site in the outer magnetopshere. I elaborate on the conflict between the models currently in use to interpret the gamma ray and X-ray pulses from these systems with the electric current flows found in the spin down models. Because the polar cap ``gap'' is the essential component in the supply of plasma to pulsar magnetospheres and to pulsar wind nebulae, I emphasize the importance of high sensitivity gamma ray o...

  17. Observational features of pulsar glitches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Pulsar glitches are sudden increases in the rotation rate which probably result from angular momentum transfer within the neutron star. We review the observational features of the 39 glitches detected at Nanshan from 2000 to 2008, including several events which appear to be slow glitches. A wide variety of post-glitch behavior is observed with very little recovery in some pulsars and over-recovery in others. Analysis of the whole sample of known glitches shows that fractional glitch amplitudes are correlated with characteristic age with a peak at about 105 years, but there is a spread of two or three orders of magnitude at all ages. For individual pulsars with many glitches, the time until the next glitch is sometimes proportional to the fractional glitch amplitude.

  18. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner; Jessner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  19. Pulsar data analysis with PSRCHIVE

    CERN Document Server

    van Straten, Willem; Osłowski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    PSRCHIVE is an open-source, object-oriented, scientific data analysis software library and application suite for pulsar astronomy. It implements an extensive range of general-purpose algorithms for use in data calibration and integration, statistical analysis and modeling, and visualisation. These are utilised by a variety of applications specialised for tasks such as pulsar timing, polarimetry, radio frequency interference mitigation, and pulse variability studies. This paper presents a general overview of PSRCHIVE functionality with some focus on the integrated interfaces developed for the core applications.

  20. Development of a pulsar-based timescale

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G; Manchester, R N; Keith, M J; Shannon, R M; Chen, D; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D; Chaudhary, A; Hotan, A; Khoo, J; Kocz, J; Levin, Y; Oslowski, S; Preisig, B; Ravi, V; Reynolds, J E; Sarkissian, J; van Straten, W; Verbiest, J P W; Yardley, D; You, X P

    2012-01-01

    Using observations of pulsars from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project we develop the first pulsar-based timescale that has a precision comparable to the uncertainties in international atomic timescales. Our ensemble of pulsars provides an Ensemble Pulsar Scale (EPS) analogous to the free atomic timescale Echelle Atomique Libre (EAL). The EPS can be used to detect fluctuations in atomic timescales and therefore can lead to a new realisation of Terrestrial Time, TT(PPTA11). We successfully follow features known to affect the frequency of the International Atomic Timescale (TAI) and we find marginally significant differences between TT(PPTA11) and TT(BIPM11). We discuss the various phenomena that lead to a correlated signal in the pulsar timing residuals and therefore limit the stability of the pulsar timescale.

  1. Can gluon condensate in pulsar cores explain pulsar glitches ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, R D

    1998-01-01

    Making use of the possibility that gluon condensate can be formed in neutron star core, we study the vortex pinning force between the crust and the interior of the neutron star. Our estimations indicate an increase in pinning strength with the age of the neutron star. This helps in explaining observed pulsar glitches and removes some difficulties faced by vortex creep model.

  2. DETERMINATION OF THE INCOMMENSURATELY MODULATED STRUCTURE OF NI3+/-XTE2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUTTE, WJ; DEBOER, JL

    1993-01-01

    The modulated structure of nickel telluride Ni3+/-xTe2 (Ni2.76Te2) is stabilized at 300 K by the substitution of a small amount of Fe (prepared as Ni2.57Fe0.29Te2). The structure of this compound has been determined by X-ray diffraction at room temperature (1311 unique reflections). The structure is

  3. Radio detection of XTE J1752-223 with the ATCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocksopp, Catherine; Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Tasso; Fender, Rob

    2009-11-01

    Following the detection of the new X-ray transient, XTE J1752-223, by RXTE and Swift (ATel. #2258; see also ATels. #2259, #2261, #2263, #2265, #2268, #2269), we have performed radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the new CABB back-end. Data were obtained at 5.5 GHz and 9 GHz on October 30 and November 1. We detect a radio source at a position consistent with the X-ray coordinates.

  4. Millisecond Pulsars in 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C; Lorimer, D R; Lyne, A G; Manchester, R N; Freire, Paulo C.; Camilo, Fernando; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Lyne, Andrew G.; Manchester, Richard N.

    1999-01-01

    Recent observations of the globular cluster 47 Tuc, made with the Parkes telescope at a wavelength of 20 cm, have resulted in the discovery of nine new millisecond pulsars, all in binary systems. The number of timing solutions available has risen from two to 14. These results will make possible a more detailed study of the cluster dynamics.

  5. Early pulsar observations with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, J.; Stappers, B.; Hassall, T.; Weltevrede, P.; Alexov, A.; Coenen, T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Kondratiev, V.; Mol, J.D.; Kramer, M.; Noutsos, A.; Karastergiou, A.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution to the proceedings of "A New Golden Age for Radio Astronomy" is simply intended to give some of the highlights from pulsar observations with LOFAR at the time of its official opening: June 12th, 2010. These observations illustrate that, though LOFAR is still under construction and

  6. Space 'beachballs' generate pulsar bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    Wasowicz, L

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have analyzed radio emissions from a pulsar at the center of the Crab Nebula and have found 'subpulses' that last around 2 nanoseconds. They speculate this means the regions in which these ultra-short pulses are generated can be no larger than about 2 feet across - the distance light travels in 2 nanoseconds (2 pages).

  7. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver Q; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of $\\Omega$. This relation leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts $n$ exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of $n$, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1$ <$ n $ < $ 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In spite of an extensive investigation of various modifications of the MDR model, no satisfactory explanation of observation has been found yet. The aim of this work is t...

  8. X-ray softening during the 2008 outburst of XTE J1810-189

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Shan-Shan; Yi, Shu-Xu; Rong, Yu; Gao, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    XTE J1810-189 underwent an outburst in 2008, and was observed over $\\sim 100$ d by RXTE. Performing a time-resolved spectral analysis on the photospheric radius expansion burst detected on 2008 May 4, we obtain the source distance in the range of 3.5--8.7 kpc for the first time. During its outburst, XTE J1810-189 did not enter into the high/soft state, and both the soft and hard colours decreased with decreasing flux. The fractional rms remained at high values ($\\sim 30$ per cent). The RXTE/PCA spectra for 3-25 keV can be described by an absorbed power-law component with an additional Gaussian component, and the derived photon index $\\Gamma$ increased from $1.84\\pm0.01$ to $2.25\\pm0.04$ when the unabsorbed X-ray luminosity in 3-25 keV dropped from $4\\times10^{36}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ to $6\\times10^{35}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. The relatively high flux, dense observations and broadband spectra allow us to provide strong evidence that the softening behaviour detected in the outburst of XTE J1810-189 originates from the evolut...

  9. Type I X-ray bursts and burst oscillations in the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, D; Linares, M; Markwardt, C B; Strohmayer, T; Patruno, A

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of burst oscillations at the spin frequency in ten thermonuclear bursts from the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) IGR J17511-3057. The burst oscillation properties are, like those from the AMXPs SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, anomalous compared to burst oscillations from intermittent pulsars or non-pulsing LMXBs. Like SAX J1808.4-3658 they show frequency drifts in the rising phase rather than the tail. There is also evidence for harmonic content. Where IGR J17511-3057 is unusual compared to the other pulsars is that oscillations are not detected throughout all bursts. As accretion rate drops the bursts get brighter and their rise/decay time scales become shorter, while the oscillation amplitude falls below the detection threshold: first in the burst peak and then also in the rise. None of the bursts from IGR J17511-3057 show evidence for photospheric radius expansion (which might be expected to suppress oscillation amplitude) which allow us to set an upper limit to the di...

  10. Pulsar VLBI to Measure Cosmological Rotation and Study Pulsar Emission Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, C. R.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsars are useful for measuring the rotation of the universe. Also, their emission regions provide interesting laboratories for plasma physics. I describe here how VLBI of pulsars, and the VSOP-2 spacecraft, can contribute to such studies.

  11. A transient I band excess in the optical spectrum of the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhill, J G; Coutures, C

    2006-01-01

    The optical counterpart of the transient, millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 was observed in four colours (BVRI) for five weeks during the 2005 June-July outburst. The optical fluxes declined by ~2 magnitudes during the first 16 days and then commenced quasi-periodic secondary outbursts, with time-scales of several days, similar to those seen in 2000 and 2002. The broadband spectra derived from these measurements were generally consistent with emission from an X-ray heated accretion disc. During the first 16 days decline in intensity the spectrum became redder. We suggest that the primary outburst was initiated by a viscosity change driven instability in the inner disc and note the contrast with another accreting millisecond pulsar, XTE J0929-314, for which the spectrum becomes bluer during outburst. Several significant short duration changes in V-I were detected. One occurred at about HJD 2453546 in the early phase of the first secondary outburst and may be due to a mass transfer instability. On the n...

  12. The kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations during the Z and atoll phases of the unique transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanna, Andrea; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Homan, Jeroen; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso; Lin, Dacheng; van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy

    2010-01-01

    We analysed 866 observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 during its 2006-2007 outburst. XTE J1701-462 is the only example so far of a source that during an outburst showed, beyond any doubt, spectral and timing characteristics both of the Z and atoll type. There are 707 R

  13. The kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations during the Z and atoll phases of the unique transient XTE J1701−462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanna, A.; Méndez, M.; Altamirano, D.; Homan, J.; Casella, P.; Belloni, T.; Lin, D.; van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.

    2010-01-01

    We analysed 866 observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701−462 during its 2006-2007 outburst. XTE J1701−462 is the only example so far of a source that during an outburst showed, beyond any doubt, spectral and timing characteristics both of the Z and atoll type. There are 707 R

  14. A strong and broad Fe line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Méndez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Díaz Trigo, María; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and

  15. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray-radio observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratti, E.M.; Jonker, P.G.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Torres, M.A.P.; Homan, J.; Markoff, S.; Tomsick, J.; Kaaret, P.; Wijnands, R.; Gallo, E.; Özel, F.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Fender, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752−223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752−223 is fainter than 24.4 mag in the i′ band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-201

  16. A Pulsar and a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Recent, unusual X-ray observations from our galactic neighbor, the Small Magellanic Cloud, have led to an interesting model for SXP 214, a pulsar in a binary star system.Artists illustration of the magnetic field lines of a pulsar, a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. [NASA]An Intriguing BinaryAn X-ray pulsar is a magnetized, rotating neutron star in a binary system with a stellar companion. Material is fed from the companion onto the neutron star, channeled by the objects magnetic fields onto a hotspot thats millions of degrees. This hotspot rotating past our line of sight is what produces the pulsations that we observe from X-ray pulsars.Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SXP 214 is a transient X-ray pulsar in a binary with a Be-type star. This star is spinning so quickly that material is thrown off of it to form a circumstellar disk.Recently, a team of authors led by JaeSub Hong (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have presented new Chandra X-ray observations of SXP 214, tracking it for 50 ks (~14 hours) in January 2013. These observations reveal some very unexpected behavior for this pulsar.X-ray PuzzleThe energy distribution of the X-ray emission from SXP 214 over time. Dark shades or blue colors indicate high counts, and light shades or yellow colors indicate low counts. Lower-energy X-ray emission appeared only later, after about 20 ks. [Hong et al. 2016]Three interesting pieces of information came from the Chandra observations:SXP 214s rotation period was measured to be 211.5 s an increase in the spin rate since the discovery measurement of a 214-second period. Pulsars usually spin down as they lose angular momentum over time so what caused this one to spin up?Its overall X-ray luminosity steadily increased over the 50 ks of observations.Its spectrum became gradually softer (lower energy) over time; in the first 20 ks, the spectrum only consisted of hard X-ray photons above 3 keV, but after 20 ks, softer X-ray photons below 2 ke

  17. The Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The Crab pulsar belongs to one of the most studied stellar objects in the sky. Since its accidental detection in 1968, its pulsed emission has been observed throughout most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although currently one of more than 2000 known pulsars, its way of work has remained not understood making the Crab pulsar an object of continuous studies and interest. Referring to the pulsed emission of the Crab pulsar only at radio wavelengths, it reveals a diversity of different phenomena. They range from deviations of the predicted slowing down process of the pulsar with time (long time phenomena) to an irregularity of its single pulse emission (short time phenomena). Similar and different kinds of deviations are observed at other wavelengths. Consequently, the Crab pulsar provides a large diversity of different emission characteristics which have remained difficult to interpret with a uniform theoretical approach including all observed properties. Since a review of all currently examined properties of...

  18. Beyond the 2nd Fermi Pulsar Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Xian; Reposeur, Thierry; Rousseau, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Over thirteen times more gamma-ray pulsars have now been studied with the Large Area Telescope on NASA's Fermi satellite than the ten seen with the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in the nineteen-nineties. The large sample is diverse, allowing better understanding both of the pulsars themselves and of their roles in various cosmic processes. Here we explore the prospects for even more gamma-ray pulsars as Fermi enters the 2nd half of its nominal ten-year mission. New pulsars will naturally tend to be fainter than the first ones discovered. Some of them will have unusual characteristics compared to the current population, which may help discriminate between models. We illustrate a vision of the future with a sample of six pulsars discovered after the 2nd Fermi Pulsar Catalog was written.

  19. No-Hair Theorem for Weak Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that there exists a class of pulsars, called weak pulsars, for which the large-scale magnetosphere, and hence the gamma-ray emission, are independent of the detailed pattern of plasma production. The weak pulsar magnetosphere and its gamma-ray emission are uniquely determined by just three parameters: spin, dipole, and the spin-dipole angle. We calculate this supposedly unique pulsar magnetosphere in the axisymmetric case. The magnetosphere is found to be very close to (although interestingly not fully identical with) the magnetosphere we have previously calculated, explaining the phenomenological success of the old calculation. We offer only a highly tentative proof of this "Pulsar No-Hair Theorem". Our analytics, while convincing in its non-triviality, is incomplete, and counts only as a plausibility argument. Our numerics, while complete, is dubious. The plasma flow in the weak pulsar magnetosphere turns out to be even more intricate than what we have previously proposed: some particles, aft...

  20. Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Paul S; Parent, Damien; PSC, the Fermi

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of precise pulsar timing using data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi. We describe the analysis techniques including a maximum likelihood method for determining pulse times of arrival from unbinned photon data. In addition to determining the spindown behavior of the pulsars and detecting glitches and timing noise, such timing analyses allow the precise determination of the pulsar position, thus enabling detailed multiwavelength follow up.

  1. Stokes tomography of radio pulsar magnetospheres. II. Millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, C T Y

    2011-01-01

    The radio polarization characteristics of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) differ significantly from those of non-recycled pulsars. In particular, the position angle (PA) swings of many MSPs deviate from the S-shape predicted by the rotating vector model, even after relativistic aberration is accounted for, indicating that they have non-dipolar magnetic geometries, likely due to a history of accretion. Stokes tomography uses phase portraits of the Stokes parameters as a diagnostic tool to infer a pulsar's magnetic geometry and orientation. This paper applies Stokes tomography to MSPs, generalizing the technique to handle interpulse emission. We present an atlas of look-up tables for the Stokes phase portraits and PA swings of MSPs with current-modified dipole fields, filled core and hollow cone beams, and two empirical linear polarization models. We compare our look-up tables to data from 15 MSPs and find that the Stokes phase portraits for a current-modified dipole approximately match several MSPs whose PA swings ...

  2. Cherenkov Telescopes Results on Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Emma De Oña

    The last few years have seen a revolution in very high γ-ray astronomy (VHE; E>100 GeV) driven largely by a new generation of Cherenkov telescopes. These new facilities, namely H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System), MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope) and its upgrade MAGIC 2, VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) and CANGAROO (Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a Gamma Ray Observatory in the Outback) were designed to increase the flux sensitivity in the energy regime of hundreds of GeV, expanding the observed energy range from 50 to multi-TeV, and fostered as a result a period of rapid growth in our understanding of the Non-ThermalUniverse. As a result of this fast development the number of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) detected has increased from a few in the early 90's to more than two dozen of firm candidates nowadays. Also, the low energy threshold achieved allows to investigate the pulsed spectra of the high energy pulsars powering PWNe. A review of the most relevant VHE results concerning pulsars and their relativistic winds is discussed here in the context of Cherenkov telescopes.

  3. Circular Polarization in Pulsar Integrated Profiles: Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We update the systematic studies of circular polarization in integrated pulse profiles by Han et al. Data of circular polarization profiles are compiled. Sense reversals can occur in core or cone components, or near the intersection between components. The correlation between the sense of circular polarization and the sense of position angle variation for conal-double pulsars is confirmed with a much large database. Circular polarization of some pulsars has clear changes with frequency.Circular polarization of millisecond pulsars is marginally different from that of normal pulsars.

  4. An analysis of radio pulsar nulling statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Survival analysis methods are used to seek correlations between the fraction of null pulsars and other pulsar characteristics for an ensemble of 72 radio pulsars. The strongest correlation is found between the null fraction and the pulse period, suggesting that nulling is a manifestation of a faltering emission mechanism. Correlations are also found between the fraction of null pulses and other parameters that have a strong dependence on the pulse period. The results presented here suggest that nulling is broad-band and may ultimately be explained in terms of polar cap models of pulsar emission.

  5. The spin evolution of young pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Espinoza, Cristobal M

    2012-01-01

    The current understanding of the spin evolution of young pulsars is reviewed through a compilation of braking index measurements. An immediate conclusion is that the spin evolution of all pulsars with a measured braking index is not purely caused by a constant magnetic dipole. The case of PSR J1734-3333 and its upward movement towards the magnetars is used as a guide to try to understand why pulsars evolve with n < 3. Evolution between different pulsar families, driven by the emergence of a hidden internal magnetic field, appears as one possible picture.

  6. Searching for gravitational waves from known pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Pitkin, M; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Abbott, R; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J; Pitkin, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    We present upper limits on the amplitude of gravitational waves from 28 isolated pulsars using data from the second science run of LIGO. The results are also expressed as a constraint on the pulsars' equatorial ellipticities. We discuss a new way of presenting such ellipticity upper limits that takes account of the uncertainties of the pulsar moment of inertia. We also extend our previous method to search for known pulsars in binary systems, of which there are about 80 in the sensitive frequency range of LIGO and GEO 600.

  7. Pulsar Discovery by Global Volunteer Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, B.; Allen, B.; Cordes, J. M.; Deneva, J. S.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bock, O.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Demorest, P. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; Machenschalk, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Messenger, C.; Nice, D. J.; Papa, M. A.; Pletsch, H. J.; Prix, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2010-09-01

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted recycled pulsar. PSR J2007+2722’s pulse profile is remarkably wide with emission over almost the entire spin period; the pulsar likely has closely aligned magnetic and spin axes. The massive computing power provided by volunteers should enable many more such discoveries.

  8. Pulsar Discovery by Global Volunteer Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Knispel, B; Cordes, J M; Deneva, J S; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C; Bhat, N D R; Bock, O; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Demorest, P B; Fehrmann, H; Freire, P C C; Gonzalez, M E; Hammer, D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Machenschalk, A G Lyne B; McLaughlin, M A; Messenger, C; Nice, D J; Papa, M A; Pletsch, H J; Prix, R; Ransom, S M; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A

    2010-01-01

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to "mine" large data sets. It has now found a 40.8 Hz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted recycled pulsar. PSR J2007+2722's pulse profile is remarkably wide with emission over almost the entire spin period; the pulsar likely has closely aligned magnetic and spin axes. The massive computing power provided by volunteers should enable many more such discoveries.

  9. The pulsar planet production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, E. S.; Hansen, B. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Most plausible scenarios for the formation of planets around pulsars end with a disk of gas around the pulsar. The supplicant author then points to the solar system to bolster faith in the miraculous transfiguration of gas into planets. We here investigate this process of transfiguration. We derive analytic sequences of quasi-static disks which give good approximations to exact solutions of the disk diffusion equation with realistic opacity tables. These allow quick and efficient surveys of parameter space. We discuss the outward transfer of mass in accretion disks and the resulting timescale constraints, the effects of illumination by the central source on the disk and dust within it, and the effects of the widely different elemental compositions of the disks in the various scenarios, and their extensions to globular clusters. We point out where significant uncertainties exist in the appropriate grain opacities, and in the effect of illumination and winds from the neutron star.

  10. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    CERN Document Server

    Čadež, A; Barbieri, C; Calvani, M; Naletto, G; Barbieri, M; Ponikvar, D

    2015-01-01

    Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "inst...

  11. Geminga's puzzling pulsar wind nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, B; Slane, P O; Romani, R; Bucciantini, N; Bykov, A M; Kargaltsev, O; Weisskopf, M C; Ng, C -Y

    2016-01-01

    We report on six new Chandra observations of the Geminga pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The PWN consists of three distinct elongated structures - two $\\approx 0.2 d_{250}$ pc long lateral tails and a segmented axial tail of $\\approx 0.05 d_{250}$ pc length, where $d_{250}=d/(250 {\\rm pc})$. The photon indices of the power law spectra of the lateral tails, $\\Gamma \\approx 1$, are significantly harder than those of the pulsar ($\\Gamma \\approx 1.5$) and the axial tail ($\\Gamma \\approx 1.6$). There is no significant diffuse X-ray emission between the lateral tails -- the ratio of the X-ray surface brightness between the south tail and this sky area is at least 12. The lateral tails apparently connect directly to the pulsar and show indication of moving footpoints. The axial tail comprises time-variable emission blobs. However, there is no evidence for constant or decelerated outward motion of these blobs. Different physical models are consistent with the observed morphology and spectra of the Geminga PWN. In one scena...

  12. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ~9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  13. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Brazier, A. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lynch, R.; Scholz, P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M., E-mail: zhuww@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ∼9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  14. THE TIMING OF NINE GLOBULAR CLUSTER PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S. [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4325 (United States); Jacoby, Bryan A., E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: pfreire@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: sransom@nrao.edu, E-mail: bryan.jacoby@gmail.com [Aerospace Corporation, 15049 Conference Center Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151-3824 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters (GCs) M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with other authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called 'black widow' class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that one of the pulsars in NGC 6624 is indeed a member of the rare class of non-recycled pulsars found in GCs. We have also measured the orbital precession and Shapiro delay for a relativistic binary in NGC 6544. If we assume that the orbital precession can be described entirely by general relativity, which is likely, we are able to measure the total system mass (2.57190(73) M{sub Sun }) and companion mass (1.2064(20) M{sub Sun }), from which we derive the orbital inclination (sin i = 0.9956(14)) and the pulsar mass (1.3655(21) M{sub Sun }), the most precise such measurement ever obtained for a millisecond pulsar. The companion is the most massive known around a fully recycled pulsar.

  15. Electromagnetic spin down of a transient accreting millisecond pulsar during quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Melatos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The measured spin-down rates in quiescence of the transient accreting millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751-305, SAX J1808.4-3658, and Swift J1756.9-2508 have been used to estimate the magnetic moments of these objects assuming standard magnetic dipole braking. It is shown that this approach leads to an overestimate, if the amount of residual accretion is enough to distort the magnetosphere away from a force-free configuration, through magnetospheric mass loading or crushing, so that the lever arm of the braking torque migrates inside the light cylinder. We derive an alternative spin-down formula and calculate the residual accretion rates where the formula is applicable. As a demonstration, we apply the alternative spin-down formula to produce updated magnetic moment estimates for the four objects above. We note that, based on current uncertain observations of quiescent accretion rates, magnetospheric mass loading and crushing are neither firmly indicated nor ruled out in these four objects. Because ...

  16. The Magnetar Nature and the Outburst Mechanism of a Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guver, Tolga; Ozel, Feryal; Gogus, Ersin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) belong to a class of neutron stars believed to harbor the strongest magnetic fields in the universe, as indicated by their energetic bursts and their rapid spindowns. However, a direct measurement of their surface field strengths has not been made to date. It is also not known whether AXP outbursts result from changes in the neutron star magnetic field or crust properties. Here we report the first, spectroscopic measurement of the surface magnetic field strength of an AXP, XTE J1810-197, and solidify its magnetar nature. The field strength obtained from detailed spectral analysis and modeling is remarkably close to the value inferred from the rate of spindown of this source and remains nearly constant during numerous observations spanning over two orders of magnitude in source flux. The surface temperature, on the other hand, declines steadily and dramatically following the 2003 outburst of this source. Our findings demonstrate that heating occurs in the upper neutron star crust during an outburst and sheds light on the transient behaviour of AXPs.

  17. Detailed Physical Modeling Reveals the Magnetar Nature of a Transient Anomalous X-ray Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guever, T.; Oezel, F.; Goegues, E.; Kouveliotou, C.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) belong to a class of neutron stars believed to harbor the strongest magnetic fields in the universe, as indicated by their energetic bursts and their rapid spindowns. However, a direct measurement of their surface field strengths has not been made to date. It is also not known whether AXP outbursts result from changes in the neutron star magnetic field or crust properties. Here we report the first, spectroscopic measurement of the surface magnetic field strength of an AXP, XTE J1810-197, and solidify its magnetar nature. The field strength obtained from detailed spectral analysis and modeling is remarkably close to the value inferred from the rate of spindown of this source and remains nearly constant during numerous observations spanning over two orders of magnitude in source flux. The surface temperature, on the other hand, declines steadily and dramatically following the 2003 outburst of this source. Our findings demonstrate that heating occurs in the upper neutron star crust during an outburst and sheds light on the transient behaviour of AXPs.

  18. Properties and geometry of radio pulsar emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Johannes Martinus

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of a number of studies on the radio emission of pulsars. The central topics are polarisation and multi frequency observations, which both lead to important information on the geometry of the emission. The first chapter introduces different aspects of pulsars that are related to

  19. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lupin Chun-Che

    2016-09-01

    A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog) known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400) of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on) are also specified to discuss their common and specific features.

  20. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Lorimer, Duncan R; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J; Ransom, Scott M

    2011-01-01

    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  1. Pulsar observations with the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Jezabel R.; Dazzi, F.; Idec, W.; Moretti, E.; Schweizer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bonnefoy, S.; Carreto-Fidalgo, D.; Lopez, M. [Universitad Compultense, Madrid (Spain); Galindo, D.; Zanin, R. [Universitat de Barcelona, ICC/IEEC-UB, Barcelona (Spain); Ona Wilhelmi, E. de [Institute for Space Sciences (CSIC/IEEC), Barcelona (Spain); Reichardt, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padova (Italy); Saito, T. [Kyoto University, Hakubi Center (Japan); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    MAGIC is a stereoscopic system of two IACTs, located at the ORM (Spain). Since 2008, MAGIC has played a big role in Pulsar physics due to the discovery of the first VHE gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar. Such a discovery was possible thanks to a revolutionary trigger technique used in the initial MAGIC mono system, the Sum-Trigger, that provided a 25 GeV energy threshold. The study of the Crab keeps providing numerous important results for the understanding of pulsar physics. The most recent ones are the bridge emission at VHE and the detection of the Crab pulsations at TeV energies. MAGIC has been also searching for new pulsars, providing recently interesting results about the Geminga pulsar and nebula. This talk reviews the essential MAGIC results about VHE pulsars and their implications for pulsar physics.Also we discuss the development of a new stereo trigger system, the Sum-Trigger-II, and the importance of the observation windows that this system opens for the study of VHE pulsars.

  2. Recycled Pulsars: Spins, Masses and Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Recycled pulsars are mainly characterized by their spin periods, B-fields and masses. All these quantities are affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. Therefore, we can use these quantities as fossil records and learn about binary evolution. Here, I briefly review the distribution of these observed quantities and summarize our current understanding of the pulsar recycling process.

  3. Gamma Rays From Rotation-Powered Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2002-01-01

    The seven known gamma-ray pulsars represent a very small fraction of the more than 1000 presently known radio pulsars, yet they can give us valuable information about pulsar particle acceleration and energetics. Although the theory of acceleration and high-energy emission in pulsars has been studied for over 25 years, the origin of the pulsed gamma rays is a question that remains unanswered. Characteristics of the pulsars detected by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory could not clearly distinguish between an emission site at the magnetic poles (polar cap models) and emission from the outer magnetosphere (outer gap models). There are also a number of theoretical issues in both type of model which have yet to be resolved. The two types of models make contrasting predictions for the numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars and of their spectral characteristics. GLAST will probably detect at least 50 radio-selected pulsars and possibly many more radio-quiet pulsars. With this large sample, it will b...

  4. Very-high energy emission from pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Breed, M; Harding, A K

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) display exponentially cutoff spectra with cutoffs falling in a narrow band around a few GeV. Early spectral modelling predicted spectral cutoffs at energies of up to 100 GeV, assuming curvature radiation. It was therefore not expected that pulsars would be visible in the very-high energy (VHE) regime (>100 GeV). The VERITAS announcement of the detection of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at energies up to 400 GeV (and now up to 1.5 TeV as detected by MAGIC) therefore raised important questions about our understanding of the electrodynamics and local environment of pulsars. H.E.S.S. has now detected pulsed emission from the Vela pulsar down to tens of GeV, making this the second pulsar detected by a ground-based Cherenkov telescope. Deep upper limits have also been obtained by VERITAS and MAGIC for the Geminga pulsar. We will review the latest developments in VHE pulsar science, including an overview of the latest observations, ...

  5. Rotational properties of strange-pulsar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G. (Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata, Argentina (AR)); Horvath, J.E. (Instituto Astronomico e Geofisico, Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 30627, 01051 Sao Paulo, Brazil (BR)); Vucetich, H. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, (1900) La Plata, Argentina (AR))

    1991-07-15

    We present a study of the rotational properties of strange pulsars: strange-matter stars capable of supporting glitches. It is shown that their differentiated internal structure implies a lower maximum rotational frequency than that of homogeneous strange stars. Nevertheless, they are able to fit the known pulsar properties.

  6. Rotational properties of strange-pulsar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G. (Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)); Horvath, J.E. (Instituto Astronomico e Geofisico, Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 30627, 01051 Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Vucetich, H. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, (1900) La Plata (Argentina))

    1991-08-15

    We present a study of the rotational properties of strange pulsars: strange-matter stars capable of supporting glitches. It is shown that their differentiated internal structure implies a lower maximum rotational frequency than that of homogeneous strange stars. Nevertheless, they are able to fit the known pulsar properties.

  7. High-time Resolution Astrophysics and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Shearer, Andy

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of pulsars in 1968 heralded an era where the temporal characteristics of detectors had to be reassessed. Up to this point detector integration times would normally be measured in minutes rather seconds and definitely not on sub-second time scales. At the start of the 21st century pulsar observations are still pushing the limits of detector telescope capabilities. Flux variations on times scales less than 1 nsec have been observed during giant radio pulses. Pulsar studies over the next 10 to 20 years will require instruments with time resolutions down to microseconds and below, high-quantum quantum efficiency, reasonable energy resolution and sensitive to circular and linear polarisation of stochastic signals. This chapter is review of temporally resolved optical observations of pulsars. It concludes with estimates of the observability of pulsars with both existing telescopes and into the ELT era.

  8. A Radio Pulsar Spinning at 716 Hz

    CERN Document Server

    Hessels, J W T; Stairs, I H; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Camilo, F; Hessels, Jason W.T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Freire, Paulo C.C.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Camilo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    We have discovered a 716-Hz eclipsing binary radio pulsar in the globular cluster Terzan 5 using the Green Bank Telescope. It is the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, breaking the 23-year-old record held by the 642-Hz pulsar B1937+21. The difficulty in detecting this pulsar, due to its very low flux density and high eclipse fraction (~40% of the orbit), suggests that even faster-spinning neutron stars exist. If the pulsar has a mass less than 2 Msun, then its radius is constrained by the spin rate to be < 16 km. The short period of this pulsar also constrains models that suggest gravitational radiation, through an r-mode instability, limits the maximum spin frequency of neutron stars.

  9. Searching for Pulsars with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Scott

    2007-12-01

    One of the SKA Key Science Projects involves "strong field tests of gravity using pulsars and black holes". However, we currently don't know of any pulsar - black hole binaries! Another component of this key science project involves the detection of nano-Hertz gravitational waves using an ensemble of many tens or hundreds of very high-precision millisecond pulsars, many of which are also, as yet, unknown. It is clear that some of the first major pulsar projects conducted with early phases of the SKA will involve large-area surveys. Given the likely nature of the mid-frequency-range SKA (i.e. large numbers of small dishes), such surveys will be incredibly challenging, and will require extremely large data and computational rates. However, the technical issues are likely surmountable, and the resulting surveys will find thousands of new pulsars, many of which will be useful for these and other basic physics tests.

  10. Stability of pulsar rotational and orbital periods

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Millisecond and binary pulsars are the most stable astronomical standards of frequency. They can be applied to solving a number of problems in astronomy and time-keeping metrology including the search for a stochastic gravitational wave background in the early universe, testing general relativity, and establishing a new time-scale. The full exploration of pulsar properties requires that proper unbiased estimates of spin and orbital parameters of the pulsar be obtained. These estimates depend essentially on the random noise components present in pulsar timing residuals. The instrumental white noise has predictable statistical properties and makes no harm for interpretation of timing observations, while the astrophysical/geophysical low-frequency noise corrupts them, thus, reducing the quality of tests of general relativity and decreasing the stability of the pulsar time scale.

  11. The disturbance of a millisecond pulsar magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, R M; Kerr, M; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Coles, W A; Dai, S; Dempsey, J; Hobbs, G; Keith, M J; Lasky, P D; Levin, Y; Manchester, R N; Oslowski, S; Ravi, V; Reardon, D J; Rosado, P A; Spiewak, R; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J -B; Wen, L; You, X -P; Zhu, X -J

    2016-01-01

    Pulsar timing has enabled some of the strongest tests of fundamental physics. Central to the technique is the assumption that the detected radio pulses can be used to accurately measure the rotation of the pulsar. Here we report on a broad-band variation in the pulse profile of the millisecond pulsar J1643-1224. A new component of emission suddenly appears in the pulse profile, decays over 4 months, and results in a permanently modified pulse shape. Profile variations such as these may be the origin of timing noise observed in other millisecond pulsars. The sensitivity of pulsar-timing observations to gravitational radiation can be increased by accounting for this variability.

  12. The Parkes Observatory Pulsar Data Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G; Manchester, R N; Dempsey, J; Chapman, J M; Khoo, J; Applegate, J; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Bridle, R; Borg, A; Brown, A; Burnett, C; Camilo, F; Cattalini, C; Chaudhary, A; Chen, R; D'Amico, N; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Cornwell, T; George, R; Hampson, G; Hepburn, M; Jameson, A; Keith, M; Kelly, T; Kosmynin, A; Lenc, E; Lorimer, D; Love, C; Lyne, A; McIntyre, V; Morrissey, J; Pienaar, M; Reynolds, J; Ryder, G; Sarkissian, J; Stevenson, A; Treloar, A; van Straten, W; Whiting, M; Wilson, G

    2011-01-01

    The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 10^5 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.

  13. Improving Pulsar Distances by Modelling Interstellar Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Deshpande, A A

    1998-01-01

    We present here a method to study the distribution of electron density fluctuations in pulsar directions as well as to estimate pulsar distances. The method, based on a simple two-component model of the scattering medium discussed by Gwinn et al. (1993), uses scintillation & proper motion data in addition to the measurements of angular broadening & temporal broadening to solve for the model parameters, namely, the fractional distance to a discrete scatterer and the ascociated relative scattering strength. We show how this method can be used to estimate pulsar distances reliably, when the location of a discrete scatterer (e.g. an HII region), if any, is known. Considering the specific example of PSR B0736-40, we illustrate how a simple characterization of the Gum nebula region (using the data on the Vela pulsar) is possible and can be used along with the temporal broadening measurements to estimate pulsar distances.

  14. A Survey of Variable Extragalactic Sources with XTE's All Sky Monitor (ASM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Garrett

    1998-01-01

    The original goal of the project was the near real-time detection of AGN utilizing the SSC 3 of the ASM on XTE which does a deep integration on one 100 square degree region of the sky. While the SSC never performed sufficiently well to allow the success of this goal, the work on the project has led to the development of a new analysis method for coded aperture systems which has now been applied to ASM data for mapping regions near clusters of galaxies such as the Perseus Cluster and the Coma Cluster. Publications are in preparation that describe both the new method and the results from mapping clusters of galaxies.

  15. INTEGRAL observes A1744-361 (XTE J1748-361) in hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, S. A.; Goldoni, P.; Schoenfelder, V.; Roques, J.-P.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Courvoisier, T.; Winkler, C.

    2004-04-01

    The X-ray transient A1744-361 (XTE J1748-361) was detected with ISGRI/IBIS on April 7-8, 2004 during the INTEGRAL Galactic Center Deep Exposure observation. The average flux in the 17-45 keV band was equal to 19.8+/-1.6 mCrab (the S/N ratio was 13). The photon spectrum was extending to at least 100 keV. The source was seen neither in March during previous GCDE observations nor in the beginning of April during the Galactic Center Open Program observation (the 3-sigma upper limit was 1.5 mCrab).

  16. ATCA detection of increased radio emission from XTE J1752-223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocksopp, Catherine; Corbel, Stephane; Tzioumis, Tasso; Fender, Rob; Coriat, Mickael

    2010-01-01

    Following the announcement that the new X-ray transient source, XTE J1752-223 (ATel. 2258), is making a transition from the hard to the intermediate state (ATel. 2387, 2391, 2396), we have observed the radio counterpart with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the new CABB back-end. The radio source has risen from the previous ~2 mJy plateau to 20 mJy at 1.2, 2.5, 5.5, 9, 17, 19 GHz on January 21.

  17. EINSTEIN-HOME DISCOVERY OF 24 PULSARS IN THE PARKES MULTI-BEAM PULSAR SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knispel, B.; Kim, H.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Fehrmann, H.; Machenschalk, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Eatough, R. P.; Keane, E. F.; Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anderson, D. [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Crawford, F.; Rastawicki, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Hammer, D.; Papa, M. A.; Siemens, X. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Lyne, A. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Miller, R. B. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 111 White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Sarkissian, J., E-mail: benjamin.knispel@aei.mpg.de [CSIRO Parkes Observatory, Parkes, NSW 2870 (Australia); and others

    2013-09-10

    We have conducted a new search for radio pulsars in compact binary systems in the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey (PMPS) data, employing novel methods to remove the Doppler modulation from binary motion. This has yielded unparalleled sensitivity to pulsars in compact binaries. The required computation time of Almost-Equal-To 17, 000 CPU core years was provided by the distributed volunteer computing project Einstein-Home, which has a sustained computing power of about 1 PFlop s{sup -1}. We discovered 24 new pulsars in our search, 18 of which were isolated pulsars, and 6 were members of binary systems. Despite the wide filterbank channels and relatively slow sampling time of the PMPS data, we found pulsars with very large ratios of dispersion measure (DM) to spin period. Among those is PSR J1748-3009, the millisecond pulsar with the highest known DM ( Almost-Equal-To 420 pc cm{sup -3}). We also discovered PSR J1840-0643, which is in a binary system with an orbital period of 937 days, the fourth largest known. The new pulsar J1750-2536 likely belongs to the rare class of intermediate-mass binary pulsars. Three of the isolated pulsars show long-term nulling or intermittency in their emission, further increasing this growing family. Our discoveries demonstrate the value of distributed volunteer computing for data-driven astronomy and the importance of applying new analysis methods to extensively searched data.

  18. Einstein@Home Discovery of 24 Pulsars in the Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, B.; Eatough, R. P.; Kim, H.; Keane, E. F.; Allen, B.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Crawford, F.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Fehrmann, H.; Hammer, D.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Machenschalk, B.; Miller, R. B.; Papa, M. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Sarkissian, J.; Siemens, X.; Stappers, B. W.

    2013-09-01

    We have conducted a new search for radio pulsars in compact binary systems in the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey (PMPS) data, employing novel methods to remove the Doppler modulation from binary motion. This has yielded unparalleled sensitivity to pulsars in compact binaries. The required computation time of ≈17, 000 CPU core years was provided by the distributed volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, which has a sustained computing power of about 1 PFlop s-1. We discovered 24 new pulsars in our search, 18 of which were isolated pulsars, and 6 were members of binary systems. Despite the wide filterbank channels and relatively slow sampling time of the PMPS data, we found pulsars with very large ratios of dispersion measure (DM) to spin period. Among those is PSR J1748-3009, the millisecond pulsar with the highest known DM (≈420 pc cm-3). We also discovered PSR J1840-0643, which is in a binary system with an orbital period of 937 days, the fourth largest known. The new pulsar J1750-2536 likely belongs to the rare class of intermediate-mass binary pulsars. Three of the isolated pulsars show long-term nulling or intermittency in their emission, further increasing this growing family. Our discoveries demonstrate the value of distributed volunteer computing for data-driven astronomy and the importance of applying new analysis methods to extensively searched data.

  19. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  20. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Neupane, Madhab; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Song, You; Bu, Haijun; Wang, Guanghou; Li, Shisheng; Eda, Goki; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-12-01

    The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

  1. Radius expansion bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462; a new distance estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Homan, J.; Remillard, R.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed spectral analysis of the second and third type-I X- ray bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462 (detected on July 20 and July 25, see also ATel #1165) reveals clear photospheric radius expansion in both of them. The bursts show radius expansion for about 2-3 seconds, with the

  2. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Mendez, M.; Altamirano, D.; Brown, E. F.; Belloni, T. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the cooling of the neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and XMM-Newton since the source entered quiescence in 2007 after an exceptionally luminous 19-month outburst. A recent Chandra observation made almost 1200 days into quiescence indicat

  3. Multistate observations of the Galactic black hole XTE J1752-223: evidence for an intermediate black hole spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.C.; Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Cackett, E.M.; Maitra, D.; Reynolds, C.S.; Rupen, M.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752−223 was observed during the decay of its 2009 outburst with the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observatories. The observed spectra are consistent with the source being in the ‘intermediate’ and ‘low-hard’ states, respectively. The presence of a strong, relativistic

  4. A late jet rebrightening revealed from multiwavelength monitoring of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Curran, P.A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Lewis, F.; Motta, S.; Stiele, H.; Belloni, T.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Jonker, P.G.; O'Brien, K.; Homan, J.; Casella, P.; Gandhi, P.; Soleri, P.; Markoff, S.; Maitra, D.; Gallo, E.; Cadolle Bel, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present optical monitoring of the black hole candidate XTE J1752−223 during its 2009-10 outburst and decay to quiescence. The optical light curve can be described by an exponential decay followed by a plateau, then a more rapid fade towards quiescence. The plateau appears to be due to an extra co

  5. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  6. Cosmic-Ray Positrons Produced by Pulsar Winds from Mature Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the γ-ray pulsar outer gap model, e± pairs in the pulsar magnetosphere are produced by the cascade of e+ pairs through synchrotron radiation of the return current from the outer gap. These pairs are accelerated mono-energetically to relativistic energies in the pulsar wind driven by low-frequency electromagnetic waves. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate a sample of the mature γ-ray pulsars in our Galaxy and calculate the positron production rate from these pulsars. With a simple leaky box model, we calculate the ratio of cosmic-ray positron to total electrons. Our result indicates that the pulsar contribution to the cosmic-ray positron peaks at about 40 GeV and the observed e+ / (e- + e+) ratio can be explained by this model.

  7. The accretion rate independence of horizontal branch oscillation in XTE J1701-462

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhaosheng; Qu, Jinlu; Bu, Qingcui; Wang, Dehua; Xu, Renxin

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal and energy spectral properties of the unique neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462. After assuming the HB/NB vertex as a reference position of accretion rate, the horizontal branch oscillation (HBO) of the HB/NB vertex is roughly 50 Hz. It indicates that the HBO is independent with the accretion rate or the source intensity. The spectral analysis shows $R_{\\rm{in}}\\propto\\dot{M}_{\\rm{Disk}}^{2.9\\pm0.09}$ in the HB/NB vertex and $R_{\\rm{in}}\\propto\\dot{M}_{\\rm{Disk}}^{1.7\\pm0.06}$ in the NB/FB vertex, which implies that different accretion rate may be produced in the HB/NB vertex and the NB/FB vertex. The Comptonization component could be fitted by constrained broken power law (CBPL) or nthComp. Different with GX 17+2, the frequencies of HBO positively correlate with the inner disk radius, which contradict with the prediction of Lense-Thirring precession model. XTE J1701-462, both in the Cyg-like phase and in the Sco-like phase, follows a positive correlation between the break ...

  8. Phonon Density of States and Heat Capacity of La$_{3-x}$Te$_4$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; May, Andrew F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Lucas, [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Snyder, G. J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

    2009-01-01

    The phonon density of states (DOS) of La$_{3-x}$Te$_4$ compounds ($x=0.0, 0.18, 0.32$) was measured at 300, 520, and 780$\\,$K, using inelastic neutron scattering. A significant stiffening of the phonon DOS, and a large broadening of features were observed upon introduction of vacancies on La sites (increasing $x$). Heat capacity measurements were performed at temperatures $~1.85 \\leqslant T \\leqslant 1200 \\,$K, and were analyzed to quantify the contributions of phonons and electrons. The Debye temperature and the electronic coefficient of heat capacity determined from these measurements are consistent with the neutron scattering results, and with previously reported first-principles calculations. Our results indicate that La vacancies in La$_{3-x}$Te$_4$ strongly scatter phonons, and this source of scattering appears to be independent of temperature. The stiffening of the phonon DOS induced by the introduction of vacancies is explained in terms of the electronic structure and the change in bonding. The temperature dependence of the phonon DOS is captured satisfactorily by the quasiharmonic approximation.

  9. X-ray Observation of XTE J2012+381 during the 1998 Outburst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Naik; P. C. Agrawal; B. Paul; A. R. Rao; S. Seetha; Κ. Kasturirangan

    2000-06-01

    The outburst of X-ray transient source XTE J2012+381 was detected by the RXTE All-Sky Monitor on 1998 May 24th. Following the outburst, X-ray observations of the source were made in the 2-18keV energy band with the Pointed Proportional Counters of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) on-board the Indian satellite IRS-P3 during 1998 June 2nd-10th. The X-ray flux of the source in the main outburst decreased exponentially during the period of observation. No large amplitude short-term variability in the intensity is detected from the source. The power density spectrum obtained from the timing analysis of the data shows no indication of any quasi-periodic oscillations in 0.002-0.5 Hz band. The hardness ratio i.e. the ratio of counts in 6-18 keV to 2-6 keV band, indicates that the X-ray spectrum is soft with spectral index > 2. From the similarities of the X-ray properties with those of other black hole transients, we conclude that the X-ray transient XTE J2012+381 is likely to be a black hole.

  10. Resolved, expanding jets in the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1908+094

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, A. P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Paragi, Z.; Spencer, R. E.; Yang, J.; Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Fender, R. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Maitra, D.; Migliari, S.; Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Soria, R.; Tudose, V.

    2017-07-01

    Black hole X-ray binaries undergo occasional outbursts caused by changing inner accretion flows. Here we report high angular resolution radio observations of the 2013 outburst of the black hole candidate X-ray binary system XTE J1908+094, using data from the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network. We show that following a hard-to-soft state transition, we detect moving jet knots that appear asymmetric in morphology and brightness, and expand to become laterally resolved as they move away from the core, along an axis aligned approximately -11° east of north. We initially see only the southern component, whose evolution gives rise to a 15-mJy radio flare and generates the observed radio polarization. This fades and becomes resolved out after 4 days, after which a second component appears to the north, moving in the opposite direction. From the timing of the appearance of the knots relative to the X-ray state transition, a 90° swing of the inferred magnetic field orientation, the asymmetric appearance of the knots, their complex and evolving morphology, and their low speeds, we interpret the knots as working surfaces where the jets impact the surrounding medium. This would imply a substantially denser environment surrounding XTE J1908+094 than has been inferred to exist around the microquasar sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40.

  11. The 2003 radio outburst of a new X-ray transient: XTE J1720-318

    CERN Document Server

    Brocksopp, C; Fender, R P; Rupen, M; Sault, R; Tingay, S J; Hannikainen, D C; O'Brien, K

    2001-01-01

    We present radio observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1720-318, which was discovered in 2003 January as it entered an outburst. We analyse the radio data in the context of the X-ray outburst and the broad-band spectrum. An unresolved radio source was detected during the rising phase, reaching a peak of nearly 5 mJy approximately coincident with the peak of the X-ray lightcurve. Study of the spectral indices suggests that at least two ejection events took place, the radio-emitting material expanding and becoming optically thin as it faded. The broad-band spectra suggested that the accretion disc dominated the emission, as expected for a source in the high/soft state. The radio emission decayed to below the sensitivity of the telescopes for ~6 weeks but switched on again during the transition of the X-ray source to the low/hard state. At least one ``glitch'' was superimposed on the otherwise exponential decay of the X-ray lightcurve, which was reminiscent of the multiple jet ejections of XTE J185...

  12. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Alexov, A; Mol, J D; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J

    2010-01-01

    Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing the LOFAR Pulsar Search Pipeline. These LOFAR pipelines and software tools are being developed as the next gen...

  13. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, W W; Madsen, E C; Tan, M; Stairs, I H; Brazier, A; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Scholz, P; Stovall, K; Random, S M; Banaszak, S; Biwer, C M; Cohen, S; Dartez, L P; Flanigan, J; Lunsford, G; Matinez, J G; Mata, A; Rohr, M; Walker, A; Allen, B; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kaplan, D; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Lee, K J; van Leeuwen, J; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Spitler, L G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surv eys using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets---the PICS(Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interferences by looking for patterns from candidate. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of up to thousands pixel of image data. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its $\\sim$9000 neurons. Different from other pulsar selection programs which use pre-designed patterns, the PICS AI teaches itself the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability in recognizing various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated wi...

  14. Arecibo Pulsar and Transient Surveys Using ALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    A large scale survey for pulsars and transients is being conducted at the Arecibo Observatory using the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA). Data acquisition so far has been with correlation spectrometers that analyze a 0.1 GHz bandwidth at 1.4 GHz. The 256 frequency channels limit dispersion smearing to 1.2 ms at DMmax = 103 pc cm-3 while the sampling interval of 64 μs equals the dispersion smearing at DM~54 pc cm-3, providing high sensitivity to millisecond pulsars with standard periods out to implied distances of several kpc at low Galactic latitudes. In early 2008, we will use a new set of polyphase filter bank systems that provide the same time and frequency resolutions but over ALFA's full 0.3 GHz bandwidth. Currently the survey covers sky positions within 5° of the Galactic plane that are reachable with Arecibo. Preliminary results are given for some of the discoveries made so far, which include millisecond pulsars, a relativistic binary pulsar, a likely counterpart of a Compton GRO/EGRET gamma-ray source, and transient pulsars (including `RRATs''). We discuss the methodology of the survey, which includes archival of raw survey data at the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing and processing at distributed sites. The survey and follow up observations, which include timing observations, multiwavelength searches for orbital companions in the case of binary pulsars, etc. are organized through the Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) Consortium. We expect the Galactic plane survey to continue until at least 2010, most likely involving multiple passes on each sky position to optimize detection of variable sources. The ALFA system will also be used to survey intermediate Galactic latitudes for millisecond pulsars, relativistic binaries with large systemic velocities, and runaway pulsars that will escape the Galaxy.

  15. Pulsar Search Using Supervised Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John M.

    2017-05-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars which emit a strong beam of energy through mechanisms that are not entirely clear to physicists. These very dense stars are used by astrophysicists to study many basic physical phenomena, such as the behavior of plasmas in extremely dense environments, behavior of pulsar-black hole pairs, and tests of general relativity. Many of these tasks require a large ensemble of pulsars to provide enough statistical information to answer the scientific questions posed by physicists. In order to provide more pulsars to study, there are several large-scale pulsar surveys underway, which are generating a huge backlog of unprocessed data. Searching for pulsars is a very labor-intensive process, currently requiring skilled people to examine and interpret plots of data output by analysis programs. An automated system for screening the plots will speed up the search for pulsars by a very large factor. Research to date on using machine learning and pattern recognition has not yielded a completely satisfactory system, as systems with the desired near 100% recall have false positive rates that are higher than desired, causing more manual labor in the classification of pulsars. This work proposed to research, identify, propose and develop methods to overcome the barriers to building an improved classification system with a false positive rate of less than 1% and a recall of near 100% that will be useful for the current and next generation of large pulsar surveys. The results show that it is possible to generate classifiers that perform as needed from the available training data. While a false positive rate of 1% was not reached, recall of over 99% was achieved with a false positive rate of less than 2%. Methods of mitigating the imbalanced training and test data were explored and found to be highly effective in enhancing classification accuracy.

  16. Einstein@Home Discovery of 24 Pulsars in the Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Knispel, B.; Eatough, R.; Kim, H.; Keane, E; Allen, B.; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Crawford, F; Eggenstein, H.; Fehrmann, H.; Hammer, D.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A,; Machenschalk, B.

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a new search for radio pulsars in compact binary systems in the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey (PMPS) data, employing novel methods to remove the Doppler modulation from binary motion. This has yielded unparalleled sensitivity to pulsars in compact binaries. The required computation time of approximately 17000 CPU core years was provided by the distributed volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, which has a sustained computing power of about 1 PFlop/s. We discovered 24 n...

  17. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  18. Gamma-ray Pulsar Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, Patrizia A

    2013-01-01

    Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. At first, in the 70s, there were only two identified sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space both in the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting, INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. Today we are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known of gamma-ray-emitting neutron stars. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011 and we are now appr...

  19. A digital pulsar backend based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin-Tao; Chen, Lan; Han, Jin-Lin; Esamdin, Ali; Wu, Ya-Jun; Li, Zhi-Xuan; Hao, Long-Fei; Zhang, Xiu-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A digital pulsar backend based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is developed. It is designed for incoherent de-dispersion of pulsar observations and has a maximum bandwidth of 512 MHz. The channel bandwidth is fixed to 1 MHz, and the highest time resolution is 10 {{μ }} s. Testing observations were carried out using the Urumqi 25-m telescope administered by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory and the Kunming 40-m telescope administered by Yunnan Observatories, targeting PSR J0332+5434 in the L band and PSR J0437–4715 in the S band, respectively. The successful observation of PSR J0437–4715 demonstrates its ability to observe millisecond pulsars.

  20. On magnetic fields of radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitina, E B

    2016-01-01

    We used the magneto-dipole radiation mechanism for the braking of radio pulsars to calculate the new values of magnetic inductions at the surfaces of neutron stars. For this aim we estimated the angles ? between the rotation axis and the magnetic moment of the neutron star for 376 radio pulsars using three different methods. It was shown that there was the predominance of small inclinations of the magnetic axes. Using the obtained values of the angle ? we calculated the equatorial magnetic inductions for pulsars considered. These inductions are several times higher as a rule than corresponding values in the known catalogs.

  1. Dark matter vs. Pulsars: Catching the impostor

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabal, N

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of excess GeV emission nearly coinciding with the Galactic Centre has been interpreted as a possible signature of annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we argue that it seems too early to discard pulsars as a viable explanation for the observed excess. On the heels of the recently released Second Fermi LAT Pulsar Catalogue (2FPC), it is still possible that a population of hard (Gamma < 1) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) either endemic to the innermost region or part of a larger nascent collection of hard MSPs that appears to be emerging in the 2FPC could explain the GeV excess near the Galactic Centre.

  2. The characteristics of millisecond pulsar emission; 2, Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Xilouris, K M; Jessner, A; Von Hoensbroech, A; Lorimer, D; Wielebinski, R; Wolszczan, A; Camilo, F M

    1998-01-01

    We have made polarimetric monitoring observations of millisecond pulsars visible from the northern hemisphere at 1410 MHz. Their emission properties are compared with those of normal pulsars. Although we demonstrated in paper I that millisecond pulsars exhibit the same flux density spectra and similar profile complexity, our results presented here suggest that millisecond pulsar profiles do not comply with the predictions of classification schemes based on ``normal'' pulsars. The frequency development of a large number of millisecond pulsar profiles is abnormal when compared with the development seen for normal pulsars. Moreover, the polarization characteristics suggest that millisecond-pulsar magnetospheres might not simply represent scaled versions of the magnetospheres of normal pulsars, supporting results of paper I. However, phenomena such as mode-changing activity in both intensity and polarization are recognized here for the first time (e.g., J1730--2304). This suggests that while the basic emission me...

  3. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  4. Observing pulsars and fast transients with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Stappers, B W; Alexov, A; Anderson, K; Coenen, T; Hassall, T; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; van Leeuwen, J; Mol, J D; Noutsos, A; Romein, J W; Weltevrede, P; Fender, R; Wijers, R A M J; Bähren, L; Bell, M E; Broderick, J; Daw, E J; Dhillon, V S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Griessmeier, J; Law, C; Markoff, S; Miller-Jones, J C A; Scheers, B; Spreeuw, H; Swinbank, J; ter Veen, S; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Beck, R; Bennema, P; Bentum, M J; Best, P; Bregman, J; Brentjens, M; van de Brink, R H; Broekema, P C; Brouw, W N; Brüggen, M; de Bruyn, A G; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Conway, J; Dettmar, R -J; van Duin, A; van Enst, J; Garrett, M; Gerbers, M; Grit, T; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M P; Hamaker, J P; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Holties, H; Horneffer, A; Koopmans, L V E; Kuper, G; Loose, M; Maat, P; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Miley, G; Morganti, R; Nijboer, R; Noordam, J E; Norden, M; Olofsson, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Schoenmakers, A; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Sterks, C G M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Vermeulen, R; Vermaas, N; Vogt, C; de Vos, M; Wijnholds, S J; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency radio waves, while challenging to observe, are a rich source of information about pulsars. The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new radio interferometer operating in the lowest 4 octaves of the ionospheric "radio window": 10-240MHz, that will greatly facilitate observing pulsars at low radio frequencies. Through the huge collecting area, long baselines, and flexible digital hardware, it is expected that LOFAR will revolutionize radio astronomy at the lowest frequencies visible from Earth. LOFAR is a next-generation radio telescope and a pathfinder to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), in that it incorporates advanced multi-beaming techniques between thousands of individual elements. We discuss the motivation for low-frequency pulsar observations in general and the potential of LOFAR in addressing these science goals. We present LOFAR as it is designed to perform high-time-resolution observations of pulsars and other fast transients, and outline the various relevant observing modes and data reduct...

  5. The origin of the Guitar pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Tetzlaff, Nina; Hohle, Markus M

    2009-01-01

    Among a sample of 140 OB associations and clusters, we want to identify probable parent associations for the Guitar pulsar (PSR B2224+65) which would then also constrain its age. For this purpose, we are using an Euler-Cauchy technique treating the vertical component of the galactic potential to calculate the trajectories of the pulsar and each association into the past. To include errors we use Monte-Carlo simulations varying the initial parameters within their error intervals. The whole range of possible pulsar radial velocities is taken into account during the simulations. We find that the Guitar pulsar most probably originated from the Cygnus OB3 association ~0.8 Myr ago inferring a current radial velocity of v_r~-30 km/s, consistent with the inclination of its bow shock.

  6. The origin of the Guitar pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, N.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Among a sample of 140 OB associations and clusters, we want to identify probable parent associations for the Guitar pulsar (PSR B2224+65), which would then also constrain its age. For this purpose, we are using an Euler-Cauchy technique, treating the vertical component of the Galactic potential to calculate the trajectories of the pulsar and each association into the past. To include errors, we use Monte Carlo simulations varying the initial parameters within their error intervals. The whole range of possible pulsar radial velocities is taken into account during the simulations. We find that the Guitar pulsar most probably originated from the Cygnus OB3 association ~0.8Myr ago, inferring a current radial velocity of vr ~ -30kms-1, consistent with the inclination of its bow shock.

  7. Perspectives on Gamma-Ray Pulsar Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are powerful sources of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper highlights some theoretical insights into non-thermal, magnetospheric pulsar gamma-ray radiation. These advances have been driven by NASA's Fermi mission, launched in mid-2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on Fermi has afforded the discrimination between polar cap and slot gap/outer gap acceleration zones in young and middle-aged pulsars. Altitude discernment using the highest energy pulsar photons will be addressed, as will spectroscopic interpretation of the primary radiation mechanism in the LAT band, connecting to both polar cap/slot gap and outer gap scenarios. Focuses will mostly be on curvature radiation and magnetic pair creation, including population trends that may afford probes of the magnetospheric accelerating potential.

  8. Outlook for Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Though the recent discovery of GW150914 is a thrilling success in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, LIGO is only one tool the scientific community is using to hunt for these elusive signals. After 10 years of unsuccessful searching, how likely is it that pulsar-timing-array projects will make their own first detection soon?Frequency ranges for gravitational waves produced by different astrophysical sources. Pulsar timing arrays such as the EPTA and IPTA are used to detect low-frequency gravitational waves generated by the stochastic background and supermassive black hole binaries. [Christopher Moore, Robert Cole and Christopher Berry]Supermassive BackgroundGround-based laser interferometers like LIGO are ideal for probing ripples in space-time caused by the merger of stellar-mass black holes; these mergers cause chirps in the frequency range of tens to thousands of hertz. But how do we pick up the extremely low-frequency, nanohertz background signal caused by the orbits of pairs of supermassive black holes? For that, we need pulsar timing arrays.Pulsar timing arrays are sets of pulsars whose signals are analyzed to look for correlations in the pulse arrival time. As the space-time between us and a pulsar is stretched and then compressed by a passing gravitational wave, the pulsars pulses should arrive a little late and then a little early. Comparing these timing residuals in an array of pulsars could theoretically allow for the detection of the gravitational waves causing them.Globally, there are currently four pulsar timing array projects actively searching for this signal, with a fifth planned for the future. Now a team of scientists led by Stephen Taylor (NASA-JPL/Caltech) has estimated the likelihood that these projects will successfully detect gravitational waves in the future.Probability for SuccessExpected detection probability of the gravitational-wave background as a function of observing time, for five different pulsar timing arrays. Optimistic

  9. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Arzoumanian, Z; Cordes, J M

    2002-01-01

    (Abridged) We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars by modelling their birth, evolution, and detection in large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys, and by comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. We test models that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as sqrt(Edot) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/s and 500 km/s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (i)...

  10. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the birth and evolution of Galactic isolated radio pulsars. We begin by estimating their birth space velocity distribution from proper motion measurements of Brisken et al. (2002, 2003). We find no evidence for multimodality of the distribution and favor one in which the absolute one-dimensional velocity components are exponentially distributed and with a three-dimensional mean velocity of 380^{+40}_{-60} km s^-1. We then proceed with a Monte Carlo-based population synthesis, modelling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam surveys. We present a population model that appears generally consistent with the observations. Our results suggest that pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with a Galactocentric radial distribution that is well described by the functional form proposed by Yusifov & Kucuk (2004), in which the pulsar surface density peaks at radius ~3 kpc. The birth spin period distribution extends to several h...

  11. Searching for Pulsars in Close Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jouteux, S; Stappers, B W; Jonker, P; Van der Klis, M

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed mathematical analysis of the Fourier response of binary pulsar signals whose frequencies are modulated by circular orbital motion. The fluctuation power spectrum of such signals is found to be \

  12. Finding Pulsars with Einstein@Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, B.; Cordes, J.; Deneva, J.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bock, O.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Demorest, P. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; Machenschalk, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Messenger, C.; Nice, D. J.; Papa, M. A.; Pletsch, H. J.; Prix, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Desvignes, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Einstein@Home project is a global distributed computing project and aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to "mine" large data sets. Its long-term goal is the detection of continuous gravitational waves in data from the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Since March 2009 about a third of Einstein@Home's computation cycles is also used to search for tight binary pulsars in PALFA radio data from the Arecibo observatory. In July 2010, two new pulsars were found by Einstein@Home, J2007+2722 and J1952+26, the latter in a binary system with 9.4 hours orbital period. Here, we present an overview of the status of the Einstein@Home project and describe its search for radio pulsars in binaries with periods larger than 11 minutes. Further, we briefly review Einstein@Home's pulsar discoveries.

  13. Testing Gravity with Pulsars in the SKA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lijing; Antoniadis, John; Deller, Adam T; Freire, Paulo C C; Hessels, Jason W T; Janssen, Gemma H; Kramer, Michael; Kunz, Jutta; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Perlick, Volker; Possenti, Andrea; Ransom, Scott; Stappers, Benjamin W; van Straten, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will use pulsars to enable precise measurements of strong gravity effects in pulsar systems, which yield tests of gravitational theories that cannot be carried out anywhere else. The Galactic census of pulsars will discover dozens of relativistic pulsar systems, possibly including pulsar -- black hole binaries which can be used to test the "cosmic censorship conjecture" and the "no-hair theorem". Also, the SKA's remarkable sensitivity will vastly improve the timing precision of millisecond pulsars, allowing probes of potential deviations from general relativity (GR). Aspects of gravitation to be explored include tests of strong equivalence principles, gravitational dipole radiation, extra field components of gravitation, gravitomagnetism, and spacetime symmetries.

  14. The Fastest Rotating Pulsar: a Strange Star?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁新; 徐轩彬; 吴鑫基

    2001-01-01

    According to the observational limits on the radius and mass, the fastest rotating pulsar (PSR 1937+21) is probably a strange star, or at least some neutron star equations of state should be ruled out, if we suggest that a dipole magnetic field is relevant to its radio emission. We presume that the millisecond pulsar is a strange star with much low mass, small radius and weak magnetic moment.

  15. A Large Glitch in the Crab Pulsar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a new pulsar timing system at the 25-m radio telescope of Urumqi Astronomical Observatory, we have detected a large glitch in the Crab pulsar which occurred in 2000 July. The size of the gfitch is Av/v ~ 2.4 × 10-8, with a rela tive increment in frequency derivative Av/v ~ 5 × 10-3. The observing system is introduced and the observed properties of the glitch are discussed.

  16. The Timing of Nine Globular Cluster Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Ransom, Scott M; Jacoby, Bryan A

    2011-01-01

    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with past authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called "black widow" class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that on...

  17. Pulsar Navigation in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray Pulsar-based Autonomous Navigation(XNAV) were recently tested which use the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21) in the USA Experiment on flown by the Navy on the Air Force Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) under the Space Test Program. It provide the way that the spacecraft could autonomously determine its position with respect to an inertial origin. Now I analysis the sensitivity of the exist instrument and the signal process to use radio pulsar navigation and discuss the integrated navigation use pulsar,then give the different navigation mission analysis and design process basically which include the space, the airborne, the ship and the land of the planet or the lunar.So the pulsar navigation can give the continuous position in deep spaces, that means we can freedom fly successfully in the solar system use celestial navigation that include pulsar and traditional star sensor.It also can less or abolish the depend of Global Navigation Satellite System which include GPS, GRONSS, Gali...

  18. The Future of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappers, B. W.

    Significant advances have been made in the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays for the detection of gravitational waves in the last decade. This presentation looked forward to consider where the development of pulsar timing arrays might go as we head towards the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and then beyond. I reviewed where progress needs to be made in terms of sensitivity to gravitational waves, including improvements to existing observing approaches and new telescopes such as MeerKAT and FAST and techniques like LEAP. The dramatic increase in the number of millisecond pulsars is presented and how that might affect progress towards a first detection is discussed. Developments in analytic techniques were also discussed, including the removal of interstellar medium effects, red noise and pulse profile variations. A summary of how the SKA can contribute through an increased millisecond pulsar population and pulsar timing sensitivity was presented. With the likelihood that the SKA will implement some form of Key Science Project approach, some ideas of how will this affect how the International Pulsar Timing Array effort and how it might evolve into a KSP were discussed.

  19. On gigahertz spectral turnovers in pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, Kaustubh; Anderson, Loren D

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars are known to emit non-thermal radio emission that is generally a power-law function of frequency. In some cases, a turnover is seen at frequencies around 100~MHz. Kijak et al. have reported the presence of a new class of ''Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum'' (GPS) pulsars that show spectral turnovers at frequencies around 1 GHz. We apply a model based on free-free thermal absorption to explain these turnovers in terms of surrounding material such as the dense environments found in HII regions, Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), or in cold, partially ionized molecular clouds. We show that the turnover frequency depends on the electron temperature of the environment close to the pulsar, as well as the emission measure along the line of sight. We fitted this model to the radio fluxes of known GPS pulsars and show that it can replicate the GHz turnover. From the thermal absorption model, we demonstrate that normal pulsars would exhibit a GPS-like behaviour if they were in a dense environment. We discuss the application ...

  20. Detecting pulsars in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwade, K. M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Anderson, L. D.

    2017-10-01

    Although high-sensitivity surveys have revealed a number of highly dispersed pulsars in the inner Galaxy, none have so far been found in the Galactic Centre (GC) region, which we define to be within a projected distance of 1 pc from Sgr A*. This null result is surprising given that several independent lines of evidence predict a sizable population of neutron stars in the region. Here, we present a detailed analysis of both the canonical and millisecond pulsar populations in the GC and consider free-free absorption and multipath scattering to be the two main sources of flux density mitigation. We demonstrate that the sensitivity limits of previous surveys are not sufficient to detect GC pulsar population, and investigate the optimum observing frequency for future surveys. Depending on the degree of scattering and free-free absorption in the GC, current surveys constrain the size of the potentially observable population (i.e. those beaming towards us) to be up to 52 canonical pulsars and 10 000 millisecond pulsars. We find that the optimum frequency for future surveys is in the range of 9-13 GHz. We also predict that future deeper surveys with the Square Kilometre array will probe a significant portion of the existing radio pulsar population in the GC.

  1. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array Project

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, R N; Bailes, M; Coles, W A; van Straten, W; Keith, M J; Shannon, R M; Bhat, N D R; Brown, A; Burke-Spolaor, S G; Champion, D J; Chaudhary, A; Edwards, R T; Hampson, G; Hotan, A W; Jameson, A; Jenet, F A; Kesteven, M J; Khoo, J; Kocz, J; Maciesiak, K; Oslowski, S; Ravi, V; Reynolds, J R; Sarkissian, J M; Verbiest, J P W; Wen, Z L; Wilson, W E; Yardley, D; Yan, W M; You, X P

    2012-01-01

    A "pulsar timing array" (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of "global" phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 millisecond pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50cm (~700 MHz), 20cm (~1400 MHz) and 10cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of 2 - 3 weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For...

  2. Millisecond Pulsars, their Evolution and Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. N. Manchester

    2017-09-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are short-period pulsars that are distinguished from “normal” pulsars, not only by their short period, but also by their very small spin-down rates and high probability of being in a binary system. These properties are consistent with MSPs having a different evolutionary history to normal pulsars, viz., neutron-star formation in an evolving binary system and spin-up due to accretion from the binary companion. Their very stable periods make MSPs nearly ideal probes of a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. For example, they have been used to detect planets around pulsars, to test the accuracy of gravitational theories, to set limits on the low-frequency gravitational-wave background in the Universe, and to establish pulsar-based timescales that rival the best atomic-clock timescales in long-term stability. MSPs also provide a window into stellar and binary evolution, often suggesting exotic pathways to the observed systems. The X-ray accretion-powered MSPs, and especially those that transition between an accreting X-ray MSP and a non-accreting radio MSP, give important insight into the physics of accretion on to highly magnetized neutron stars.

  3. Pulsars in Globular Clusters with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Hessels, J W T; Bailes, M; Bassa, C G; Freire, P C C; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R; Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are highly efficient radio pulsar factories. These pulsars can be used as precision probes of the clusters' structure, gas content, magnetic field, and formation history; some of them are also highly interesting in their own right because they probe exotic stellar evolution scenarios as well as the physics of dense matter, accretion, and gravity. Deep searches with SKA1-MID and SKA1-LOW will plausibly double to triple the known population. Such searches will only require one to a few tied-array beams, and can be done during early commissioning of the telescope - before an all-sky pulsar survey using hundreds to thousands of tied-array beams is feasible. With SKA2 it will be possible to observe most of the active radio pulsars within a large fraction of the Galactic globular clusters, an estimated population of 600 - 3700 observable pulsars (those beamed towards us). This rivals the total population of millisecond pulsars that can be found in the Galactic field; fully characterizing it will p...

  4. Millisecond Pulsars, their Evolution and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, R. N.

    2017-09-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are short-period pulsars that are distinguished from "normal" pulsars, not only by their short period, but also by their very small spin-down rates and high probability of being in a binary system. These properties are consistent with MSPs having a different evolutionary history to normal pulsars, viz., neutron-star formation in an evolving binary system and spin-up due to accretion from the binary companion. Their very stable periods make MSPs nearly ideal probes of a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena. For example, they have been used to detect planets around pulsars, to test the accuracy of gravitational theories, to set limits on the low-frequency gravitational-wave background in the Universe, and to establish pulsar-based timescales that rival the best atomic-clock timescales in long-term stability. MSPs also provide a window into stellar and binary evolution, often suggesting exotic pathways to the observed systems. The X-ray accretion-powered MSPs, and especially those that transition between an accreting X-ray MSP and a non-accreting radio MSP, give important insight into the physics of accretion on to highly magnetized neutron stars.

  5. Radio polarimetry of Galactic centre pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzeler, D H F M; Ferrière, K; Kramer, M; Lee, K J; Noutsos, A; Shannon, R M

    2016-01-01

    To study the strength and structure of the magnetic field in the Galactic centre (GC) we measured Faraday rotation of the radio emission of pulsars which are seen towards the GC. Three of these pulsars have the largest rotation measures (RMs) observed in any Galactic object with the exception of Sgr A*. Their large dispersion measures, RMs and the large RM variation between these pulsars and other known objects in the GC implies that the pulsars lie in the GC and are not merely seen in projection towards the GC. The large RMs of these pulsars indicate large line-of-sight magnetic field components between ~ 16-33 microgauss; combined with recent model predictions for the strength of the magnetic field in the GC this implies that the large-scale magnetic field has a very small inclination angle with respect to the plane of the sky (~ 12 degrees). Foreground objects like the Radio Arc or possibly an ablated, ionized halo around the molecular cloud G0.11-0.11 could contribute to the large RMs of two of the pulsar...

  6. Scaling from Jupiter to pulsars and the acceleration of cosmic ray particles by pulsars, 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    An expression for the rate of energy generation by a pulsar an estimate of contribution from all the pulsars in our galaxy to the observed cosmic ray intensity was presented. The theory was then developed to an expanded version, and observational facts supporting the theory were cited.

  7. The imprint of pulsar parameters on the morphology of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Rolf; Giomi, Matteo

    2016-11-01

    The morphology of young Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) is largely determined by the properties of the wind injected by the pulsar. We have used a recent parametrization of the wind obtained from force-free electrodynamics simulations of pulsar magnetospheres to simulate nebulae for different sets of pulsar parameters. We performed axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations to test the morphology dependence of the nebula on the obliquity of the pulsar and on the magnetization of the pulsar wind. We compare these simulations to the morphology of the Vela and Crab PWN. We find that the morphology of Vela can be reproduced qualitatively if the pulsar obliquity angle is α ≈ 45° and the magnetization of the wind is high (σ0 ≈ 3.0). A morphology similar to the one of the Crab nebula is only obtained for low-magnetization simulations with α ≳ 45°. Interestingly, we find that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities produce small-scale turbulences downstream of the reverse shock of the pulsar wind.

  8. The International Pulsar Timing Array project: using pulsars as a gravitational wave detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbs, G.; Archibald, A.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Cognard, I.; Coles, W.; Cordes, J.; Demorest, P.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R.D.; Finn, L.; Freire, P.; Gonzalez, M.; Hessels, J.; Hotan, A.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Kaspi, V.; Kramer, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Lazio, J.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K.J.; Levin, Y.; Lommen, A.; Lorimer, D.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; McLaughlin, M.; Nice, D.; Oslowski, S.; Pilia, M.; Possenti, A.; Purver, M.; Ransom, S.; Reynolds, J.; Sanidas, S.; Sarkissian, J.; Sesana, A.; Shannon, R.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Theureau, G.; van Haasteren, R.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Yardley, D.R.B.; You, X.P.

    2010-01-01

    The International Pulsar Timing Array project combines observations of pulsars from both northern and southern hemisphere observatories with the main aim of detecting ultra-low frequency (similar to 10(-9)-10(-8) Hz) gravitational waves. Here we introduce the project, review the methods used to sear

  9. Einstein@Home Discovery of 24 Pulsars in the Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Knispel, B; Kim, H; Keane, E F; Allen, B; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C; Bock, O; Crawford, F; Eggenstein, H -B; Fehrmann, H; Hammer, D; Kramer, M; Lyne, A G; Machenschalk, B; Miller, R B; Papa, M A; Rastawicki, D; Sarkissian, J; Siemens, X; Stappers, B W

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a new search for radio pulsars in compact binary systems in the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey (PMPS) data, employing novel methods to remove the Doppler modulation from binary motion. This has yielded unparalleled sensitivity to pulsars in compact binaries. The required computation time of approximately 17 000 CPU core years was provided by the distributed volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, which has a sustained computing power of about one PFlop/s. We discovered 24 new pulsars in our search, of which 18 were isolated pulsars, and six were members of binary systems. Despite the wide filterbank channels and relatively slow sampling time of the PMPS data, we found pulsars with very large ratios of dispersion measure (DM) to spin period. Among those is PSR J1748-3009, the millisecond pulsar with the highest known DM (420 pc cm^{-3}). We also discovered PSR J1840-0643, which is in a binary system with an orbital period of 937 days, the fourth largest known. The new pulsar J1750-2531 li...

  10. The imprint of pulsar parameters on the morphology of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of young Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) is largely determined by the properties of the wind injected by the pulsar. We have used a recent parametrization of the wind obtained from Force Free Electrodynamics simulations of pulsar magnetospheres to simulate nebulae for different sets of pulsar parameters. We performed axisymmetric Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics simulations to test the morphology dependence of the nebula on the obliquity of the pulsar and on the magnetization of the pulsar wind. We compare these simulations to the morphology of the Vela and Crab PWN. We find that the morphology of Vela can be reproduced qualitatively if the pulsar obliquity angle is alpha ~45deg and the magnetization of the wind is high (sigma_0 ~ 3.0). A morphology similar to the one of the Crab Nebula is only obtained for low magnetization simulations with alpha >~ 45deg. Interestingly, we find that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities produce small scale turbulences downstream of the reverse shock of the pulsar wind.

  11. Radio Searches of Fermi LAT Sources and Blind Search Pulsars: The Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, P S; Parent, D; Bhattacharya, D; Bhattacharyya, B; Camilo, F; Cognard, I; Theureau, G; Ferrara, E C; Harding, A K; Thompson, D J; Freire, P C C; Guillemot, L; Gupta, Y; Roy, J; Hessels, J W T; Johnston, S; Keith, M; Shannon, R; Kerr, M; Michelson, P F; Romani, R W; Kramer, M; McLaughlin, M A; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Parkinson, P M Saz; Ziegler, M; Smith, D A; Stappers, B W; Weltevrede, P; Wood, K S

    2012-01-01

    We present a summary of the Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium (PSC), an international collaboration of radio astronomers and members of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration, whose goal is to organize radio follow-up observations of Fermi pulsars and pulsar candidates among the LAT gamma-ray source population. The PSC includes pulsar observers with expertise using the world's largest radio telescopes that together cover the full sky. We have performed very deep observations of all 35 pulsars discovered in blind frequency searches of the LAT data, resulting in the discovery of radio pulsations from four of them. We have also searched over 300 LAT gamma-ray sources that do not have strong associations with known gamma-ray emitting source classes and have pulsar-like spectra and variability characteristics. These searches have led to the discovery of a total of 43 new radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and four normal pulsars. These discoveries greatly increase the known population of MSPs in the Galactic disk...

  12. Possible distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Distance measurement of gamma-ray pulsars is a current challenge in pulsar studies. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi gamma-ray observatory discovered more than 70 gamma-ray pulsars including 24 new gamma-selected pulsars with almost no distance information. We study the relation between gammaray emission efficiency (η = Lγ/E) and pulsar parameters for young radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars with known distance information in the first gamma-ray pulsar catalog reported by Fermi/LAT. We have introduced three generation-order parameters to describe the gamma-ray emission properties of pulsars, and find a strong correlation of rη- ζ3, a generation-order parameter which reflects γ-ray photon generation in the pair cascade processes induced by magnetic field absorption in a pulsar's magnetosphere.A good correlation of η- BLC, the magnetic field at the light cylinder radius, is also found. These correlations are the distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars used to evaluate distances for gamma-selected pulsars. Distances of 25 gamma-selected pulsars are estimated, which could be tested by other distance measurement methods. The physical origin of the correlations may also be interesting for pulsar studies.

  13. Exploring Radio Pulsars With New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torne, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Pulsars are rapidly-rotating, highly-magnetized compact neutron stars. Their strong gravitational and magnetic fields, together with the stability of their rotations and the precision with which we can measure them using radio telescopes, make pulsars unique laboratories for a wide variety of physical experiments. This thesis presents an investigation of the application of new receiver technologies and observing techniques at different radio wavelengths to the search for and study of pulsars. Discovering new pulsars always expands our capabilities to do new science. In general, the most exciting pulsars are those in binary systems because of their potential in high-precision tests of General Relativity and other gravity theories, and for constraining the Equation-of-State of ultra-dense matter. I present a search for pulsars in the Galactic Centre, where the probabilities of finding pulsar binaries, including the long-sought pulsar-black hole system, are high. The data were taken with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope and used high radio frequencies between 4.85 and 18.95 GHz to partially overcome the strong scattering in the direction to the centre of the Galaxy. With approximately 50 per cent of the results reviewed, no new pulsars have been discovered. We carried out a study of the sensitivity limits of the survey, finding that our sensitivity to Galactic Centre pulsars is highly reduced by the contributions to the total system noise of the Galactic Centre background and the atmosphere. We conclude that the paucity of detections in this and perhaps also previous similar surveys is likely due to insufficient sensitivity, and not a lack of pulsars in the region. In March 2013, a radio magnetar, one of the rarest types of pulsars, became suddenly visible from the Galactic Centre. I led two multifrequency observing campaigns on this source, SGR J1745-2900, in order to study its radio emission properties. Four different observatories were involved (including

  14. Do asteroids evaporate near pulsars? Induction heating by pulsar waves revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Kotera, Kumiko; Voisin, Guillaume; Heyvaerts, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evaporation of close-by pulsar companions, such as planets, asteroids, and white dwarfs, by induction heating. Assuming that the outflow energy is dominated by a Poynting flux (or pulsar wave) at the location of the companions, we calculate their evaporation timescales, by applying the Mie theory. Depending on the size of the companion compared to the incident electromagnetic wavelength, the heating regime varies and can lead to a total evaporation of the companion. In particular, we find that inductive heating is mostly inefficient for small pulsar companions, although it is generally considered the dominant process. Small objects like asteroids can survive induction heating for $10^4\\,$years at distances as small as $1\\,R_\\odot$ from the neutron star. For degenerate companions, induction heating cannot lead to evaporation and another source of heating (likely by kinetic energy of the pulsar wind) has to be considered. It was recently proposed that bodies orbiting pulsars are the cause of ...

  15. Interaction of a magnetized pulsar wind with its surroundings. MHD simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaluw, E

    2003-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical simulations are presented of a magnetized pulsar wind interacting directly with the interstellar medium, or, in the case of a surrounding supernova remnant, with the associated freely expanding ejecta of the progenitor star. In both cases the simulations show that the pulsar wind nebula will be elongated due to the dynamical influence of the toroidal magnetic fields, which confirm predictions from a semi-analytical model presented by Begelman & Li. The simulations follow the expansion of the pulsar wind nebula when the latter is bounded by a strong shock and show that the expansion can be modeled with a standard power-law expansion rate. By performing different simulations with different magnetization parameters, I show that the latter weakly correlates with the elongation of the pulsar wind nebula. The results from the simulations are applied to determine the nature of the expansion rate of the pulsar wind nebula 3C58. It is shown that there is both observational and theoretical evi...

  16. XTE J1739-302 An Unusual New X-ray Transient

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D M; Marshall, F; Swank, J H; Heindl, W A; Leventhal, M; in 't Zand, J J M; Heise, J

    1998-01-01

    A new x-ray transient, designated XTE J1739-302, was discovered with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in data from 12 August 1997. Although it was the brightest source in the Galactic Center region while active (about 3.0 x 10^-9 ergs/cm2/s from 2 to 25 keV), it was only observed on that one day; it was not detectable nine days earlier or two days later. There is no known counterpart at other wavelengths, and its proximity to the Galactic Center will make such an identification difficult due to source confusion and extinction. The x-ray spectrum and intensity suggest a giant outburst of a Be/neutron star binary, although no pulsations were observed and the outburst was shorter than is usual from these systems.

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Orosz, J A; McClintock, J E; Remillard, R A

    2001-01-01

    We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the RXTE All Sky Monitor by 11.5 +/- 0.9 and 8.8 +/- 0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve, but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to non-thermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2001-06-01

    We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor by 11.5+/-0.9 and 8.8+/-0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to nonthermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.

  19. Spectrum of jet emitting disc: Application to microquasar XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Under the framework of the magnetized accretion ejection structures, we analyze the energy balance properties, and study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Jet Emitting Disc (JED) model for black hole X-ray transients. Various radiative processes are considered, i.e. synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, and their Comptonizations, and external Comptonization of radiation from outer thin disc. With these cooling terms taken into account, we solve the thermal equilibrium equation self-consistently and find three solutions, of which the cold and the hot solutions are stable. Subsequently we investigate the theoretical SEDs for these two stable solutions.We find the hot JED model can naturally explain the spectra of the Galactic microquasars in their hard states. As an example, we apply this model to the case of XTE J1118+480.

  20. Evolution of a low frequency QPO during the 2000 outburst of XTE J1550-564

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, J; Kalemci, E; Tomsick, J A; Tagger, M

    2002-01-01

    We follow the evolution of a low frequency QPO during the 2000 outburst of the microquasar XTE J1550-564, which was found to be present in the PCA energy range (2-65 keV) in 19 of 43 observations. The frequency of the QPO varies from 0.1 Hz to 6 Hz, and appears to follow the evolution of the soft X-ray flux. If we assume the soft X-rays represent the behavior of an accretion disk, the relation indicates that this low frequency QPO is linked to the accretion disk. We show that the non-trivial relation between the QPO frequency and the soft flux may be as expected from the Accretion Ejection Instability (AEI), when the disk approaches its last stable orbit. Furthermore, the energy dependence of the QPO may indicate the presence of a hot spot rotating in the disk as predicted by the AEI.

  1. The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Solar Array Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Edward M.; Kichak, Robert; Niemeyer, Lee; Stegeman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The XTE was launched December 30, 1995. Shortly after launch, it become apparent that the solar array was not performing as expected. On leaving shadow, the array exhibited many discontinuous drops in current output. The size of each of these drops was consistent with the loss of a part of a sell. The current decreases could not be caused by the loss of an entire circuit. This meant that the array may have had numerous cracked solar cells that opened as array got warmer. Studies performed on the array's qualification panel suggest that the cell cracks may have been cased by extensive tap testing performed on the array and that these cracks were undetectable at room temperature using usual inspection method.

  2. A Gravitational Wave Pulsar Timing Backend for DSN Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a state-of-the-art pulsar timing processor to be installed at the DSN to demonstrate precision pulsar timing capability along with a novel signal processing...

  3. Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V I; Pimenov, A B; Sokolov, V A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics corrections on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed.

  4. The hunt for new pulsars with the Green Bank Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Banaszak, Shawn; Becker, Alison; Berndsen, Aaron; Biwer, Chris; Boyles, Jason; Cardoso, Rogerio F; Cherry, Angus; Dartez, Louis P; Day, David; Epstein, Courtney R; Flanigan, Joe; Ford, Anthony; Garcia, Alejandro; Hessels, Jason W T; Jenet, Fredrick A; Kaplan, David L; Karako-Argaman, Chen; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kondratiev, Vladislav I; Lorimer, Duncan R; Lunsford, Grady; Martinez, Jose; McLaughlin, Maura A; McPhee, Christie A; Pennucci, Tim; Ransom, Scott M; Roberts, Mallory S E; Rohr, Matt; Siemens, Xavi; Stairs, Ingrid H; Stovall, Kevin; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Walker, Arielle; Wells, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the largest fully steerable radio telescope in the world and is one of our greatest tools for discovering and studying radio pulsars. Over the last decade, the GBT has successfully found over 100 new pulsars through large-area surveys. Here I discuss the two most recent---the GBT 350 MHz Drift-scan survey and the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. The primary science goal of both surveys is to find interesting individual pulsars, including young pulsars, rotating radio transients, exotic binary systems, and especially bright millisecond pulsars (MSPs) suitable for inclusion in Pulsar Timing Arrays, which are trying to directly detect gravitational waves. These two surveys have combined to discover 85 pulsars to date, among which are 14 MSPs and many unique and fascinating systems. I present highlights from these surveys and discuss future plans. I also discuss recent results from targeted GBT pulsar searches of globular clusters and Fermi sources.

  5. How Fast Could a Proto-pulsar Rotate?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to two estimated relations between the initial period andthe dynamo-generated magnetic dipole field of pulsars, we calculate the statisticaldistributions of pulsar initial periods. It is found that proto-pulsars are very likelyto have rotation periods between 20 ms and 30 ms, and that most of the pulsarsrotate initially at a period < 60 ms. Our result supports the asymmetric neutrinoemission model for pulsar kick.

  6. Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory have found new evidence that a pulsar in the constellation of Sagittarius was created when a massive star exploded, witnessed by Chinese astronomers in the year 386 AD. If confirmed, this will be only the second pulsar to be clearly associated with a historic event. These results were presented today by Victoria Kaspi and Mallory Roberts of McGill University at the American Astronomical Society meeting. Also participating in the research were Gautum Vasisht from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Eric Gotthelf from Columbia University, Michael Pivovaroff from Therma-Wave, Inc., and Nobuyuki Kawai from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The scientists used Chandra to locate the pulsar exactly at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This location provides very strong evidence that the pulsar, a neutron star that is rotating 14 times a second, was formed in the supernova of 386 AD, and therefore has an age of 1615 years. "Determining the true ages of astronomical objects is notoriously difficult, and for this reason, historical records of supernovas are of great importance,"said Kaspi."In roughly the past 2,000 years, fewer than 10 reports of probable supernovae have been archived mostly by Asian astronomers. Of those handful, the remnant of 1054 AD, the Crab Nebula, was until now the only pulsar whose birth could be associated with a historic event - and, hence, the only neutron star that has a firm age." Between mid-April and mid-May in the year 386 AD, a young "guest star", presumably a supernova, was recorded by Chinese observers in the direction of the sky now known as the constellation of Sagittarius. In the 1970s, radio astronomers discovered an expanding nebula of gas and high-energy particles, called G11.2-0.3, that is believed to be the remnant of that explosion. In 1997, a team of X-ray astronomers used Japan’s ASCA satellite to discover a pulsar

  7. Strongly absorbed quiescent X-ray emission from the X-ray transient XTE J0421+56

    CERN Document Server

    Boirin, L; Lumb, D H; Orlandini, M; Schartel, N

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the soft X-ray transient XTE J0421+56 in quiescence with XMM-Newton. The observed spectrum is highly unusual being dominated by a broad feature at 6.5 keV and can be modeled by a strongly absorbed continuum. The spectra of X-ray transients observed so far are normally modeled using Advection Dominated Accretion Flow models, black-bodies, power-laws, or by the thermal emission from a neutron star surface. The strongly absorbed X-ray emission of XTE J0421+56 could result from the compact object being embedded within the dense circumstellar wind emitted from the supergiant B[e] companion star.

  8. High Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the 2000 Outburst of the Galactic Microquasar XTE J1550-564

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Homan, J; Belloni, T; Pooley, D; Corbel, S; Kouveliotou, C; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the high frequency timing properties of the April-May 2000 outburst of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar XTE J1550-564, measured with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The rapid X-ray variability we measure is consistent with the source being in either the ``very high'' or ``intermediate'' black hole state. Strong (5-8% rms) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are found between 249-278 Hz; this represents the first detection of the same high frequency QPO in subsequent outbursts of a transient black hole candidate. We also present evidence for lower-frequency QPOs at approximately 187 Hz, also reported previously and likely present simultaneously with the higher-frequency QPOs. We discuss these findings within the context of the 1998 outburst of XTE J1550-564, and comment on implications for models of QPOs, accretion flows, and black hole spin.

  9. Unusual flux-distance relationship for pulsars suggested by analysis of the Australia national telescopy facility pulsar catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perez, M R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Singleton, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ardavan, H [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Ardavan, A [UNIV OF OXFORD

    2009-01-01

    We analyze pulsar fluxes at 1400 MHz (S(1400)) and distances d taken from the Australia National Telescope Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue. Under the assumption that pulsar populations in different parts of the Galaxy are similar, we find that either (a) pulsar fluxes diminish with distance according to a non-standard power law (we suggest S(1400){proportional_to} 1/d rather than {proportional_to} 1/d{sup 2}) or (b) that there are very significant (i.e. order of magnitude) errors in the distance estimates quoted in the ATNF Catalogue. The former conclusion (a) supports a recent model for pulsar emission that has also successfully explained the frequency spectrum of the Crab pulsar over 16 orders of magnitude of frequency, whilst alternative (b) would necessitate a radical re-evaluation of both the dispersion method for estimating pulsar distances and current ideas about the distribution of pulsars within our Galaxy.

  10. Frequency dependence of orthogonal polarisation modes in pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.M.; Stappers, B.W.; Edwards, R.T.; Kuijpers, J.; Ramachandran, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out a study of the orthogonal polarisation mode behaviour as afunction of frequency of 18pulsars, using average pulsar data from the European Pulsar Network(EPN). Assuming that the radiation consists of two100% polarised completely orthogonal superposed modes we separated these

  11. Clocks in the sky the story of pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Pulsars are rapidly spinning neutron stars, the collapsed cores of once massive stars that ended their lives as supernova explosions. Pulsar rotation rates can reach incredible speeds, up to hundreds of times per second. This title explores the history, subsequent discovery and contemporary research into pulsar astronomy.

  12. Timing and spectral analysis of the unusual X-ray transient XTE J0421+560/CI Camelopardalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, E.S.; Clark, J.S.; Coe, M.J.; Garcia, M.G.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed X-ray study of the 2003 XMM-Newton observation of the high-mass X-ray binary XTE J0421+560/CI Camelopardalis. The continuum of the X-ray spectrum is well described by a flat power law (Γ = 1.0 ± 0.2) with a large intrinsic absorbing column (NH = (4.4 ± 0.5) × 1023 cm−2). We hav

  13. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray-radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, E. M.; Jonker, P. G.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Torres, M. A. P.; Homan, J.; Markoff, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kaaret, P.; Wijnands, R.; Gallo, E.; Özel, F.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Fender, R. P.

    2012-07-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752-223 is fainter than 24.4 mag in the i' band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-2010 outburst shows that the outburst amplitude is more than 8 mag in the i' band. Known X-ray properties of the source combined with the faintness of the quiescence optical counterpart and the large outburst optical amplitude point towards a short orbital-period system (Porb≲ 6.8 h) with an M type (or later) mass donor, at a distance of 3.5 ≲d≲ 8 kpc. Simultaneous X-ray and radio data were collected with Chandra and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), allowing constraints to be placed on the quiescent X-ray and radio flux of XTE J1752-223. Furthermore, using data covering the final stage of the outburst decay, we investigated the low-luminosity end of the X-ray-radio correlation for this source and compared it with other BHTs. We found that XTE J1752-223 adds to the number of outliers with respect to the 'standard' X-ray-radio luminosity relation. Furthermore, XTE J1752-223 is the second source, after the BHT H1743-322, that shows a transition from the region of the outliers towards the 'standard' correlation at low luminosity. Finally, we report on a faint, variable X-ray source we discovered with Chandra at an angular distance of ˜2.9 arcsec to XTE J1752-223 and at a position angle consistent with that of the radio jets previously observed from the BHT. We discuss the possibility that we detected X-ray emission associated with a jet from XTE J1752-223.

  14. Detection and localization of continuous gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays: the role of pulsar terms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xingjiang; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    A pulsar timing array is a Galactic-scale detector of nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs). Its target signals contain two components: the `Earth term' and the `pulsar term' corresponding to GWs incident on the Earth and pulsar respectively. In this work we present a Frequentist method for the detection and localization of continuous waves that takes into account the pulsar term and is significantly faster than existing methods. We investigate the role of pulsar terms by comparing a full-signal search with an Earth-term-only search for non-evolving black hole binaries. By applying the method to synthetic data sets, we find that (i) a full-signal search can slightly improve the detection probability (by about five percent); (ii) sky localization is biased if only Earth terms are searched for and the inclusion of pulsar terms is critical to remove such a bias; (iii) in the case of strong detections (with signal-to-noise ratio $\\gtrsim$ 30), it may be possible to improve pulsar distance estimation through GW meas...

  15. The Millisecond Pulsars in NGC 6760

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C; Nice, D J; Ransom, S M; Lorimer, D R; Stairs, I H; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Nice, David J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Stairs, Ingrid H.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of recent Arecibo and Green Bank observations of the globular cluster NGC 6760. Using Arecibo, a phase-coherent timing solution has been obtained for the previously known binary pulsar in this cluster, PSR J1911+0102A. We have also discovered a new millisecond pulsar in NGC 6760, PSR J1911+0101B, an isolated object with a rotational period of 5.38 ms and a dispersion measure DM = 196.7 cm-3 pc. Both pulsars are located within 1.3 core radii of the cluster center and have negative period derivatives. The resulting lower limits for the accelerations of the pulsars are within the range expected given a simple model of the cluster. A search for eclipses in the PSR J1911+0102A binary system using both telescopes yielded negative results. The corresponding limits on the extra gas column density at superior conjunction are consistent with the hypothesis that the observational properties of ultra-low-mass binary pulsars like PSR J1911+0102A are strongly affected by the inclination of the orbita...

  16. Binary pulsars as dark-matter probes

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During the motion of a binary pulsar around the galactic center, the pulsar and its companion experience a wind of dark-matter particles that can affect the orbital motion through dynamical friction. We show that this effect produces a characteristic seasonal modulation of the orbit and causes a secular change of the orbital period whose magnitude can be well within the astonishing precision of various binary-pulsar observations. Our analysis is valid for binary systems with orbital period longer than a day. By comparing this effect with pulsar-timing measurements, it is possible to derive model-independent upper bounds on the dark-matter density at different distances $D$ from the galactic center. For example, the precision timing of J1713+0747 imposes $\\rho_{\\rm DM}\\lesssim 10^5\\,{\\rm GeV/cm}^3$ at $D\\approx7\\,{\\rm kpc}$. The detection of a binary pulsar at $D\\lesssim 10\\,{\\rm pc}$ could provide stringent constraints on dark-matter halo profiles and on growth models of the central black hole. The Square Kil...

  17. Thermal properties of three Fermi pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, A.; Karpova, A.; Kirichenko, A.; Shibanov, Y.; Shternin, P.; Zharikov, S.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-01

    We analysed thermal properties of the Fermi pulsars J0357+3205, J1741-2054, and J0633+0632 using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives. The X-ray spectra of all three pulsars can be fitted by sum of thermal and power-law components. For J1741-2054, the thermal component is best described by a blackbody model whose normalization suggests that the thermal emission comes from the bulk of the neutron star surface. The effective temperature of 60 eV, which is rather large for a pulsar as old as J1741-2054, makes it similar to the well-studied pulsar B1055-52, one of ``the three musketeers''. The thermal components of PSRs J0357+3205 and J0633+0632 can be equally well described by blackbody or the hydrogen atmosphere models. In the former case the normalizations suggest hot polar cap as thermal emission origin and only upper limits on the neutron stars surface temperatures can be computed. For the hydrogen atmosphere models, the normalizations are in agreement with emission coming from a substantial part of neutron star surface. Thermal properties of the pulsars are confronted with similar data on other isolated neutron stars and predictions of the neutron star cooling theory.

  18. The Ages, Speeds and Offspring of Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bradley Miles Stougaard

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the cooling of low mass white dwarfs with helium cores. We construct a detailed numerical model using the most modern input physics, including our own calculations of low temperature hydrogen opacities. We use our models to constrain the ages of binary millisecond pulsars from the optical observations of their white dwarf companions. We use this to place limits on the initial spin periods, magnetic field decay times and accretion histories of the millisecond pulsars. Our models can also be used along with observations of spectroscopic gravities and radial velocities to place interesting constraints on the neutron star equation of state. We provide grids of temperature and luminosity as a function of age for various white dwarf masses and surface compositions to facilitate future analyses. We have investigated the effect of the pulsar wind on the atmospheric composition of binary companions. The spallation of atmospheric helium to hydrogen increases the cooling age of the white dwarf. We find that all white dwarf companions in binaries with orbital period censored data using survival statistics, we arrive at an estimate of the characteristic pulsar birth velocity ~300 km.s ^{-1}, 2/3 that of Lyne & Lorimer. We also show that the older pulsar population shows the effects of the asymmetric drift, indicating that it must be dynamically old.

  19. Detecting pulsars in the Galactic centre

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, Kaustubh; Anderson, Loren

    2016-01-01

    Although high-sensitivity surveys have revealed a number of highly dispersed pulsars in the inner Galaxy, none have so far been found in the Galactic centre (GC) region, which we define to be within a projected distance of 1~pc from Sgr~A*. This null result is surprising given that several independent lines of evidence predict a sizeable population of neutron stars in the region. Here, we present a detailed analysis of both the canonical and millisecond pulsar populations in the GC and consider free-free absorption and multi-path scattering to be the two main sources of flux mitigation. We demonstrate the sensitivity limits of previous surveys are not sufficient to detect GC pulsar population, and investigate the optimum observing frequency for future surveys. Depending on the degree of scattering and free-free absorption in the GC, current surveys constrain the size of the potentially observable population (i.e. those beaming towards us) to be up to 50 canonical pulsars and 1430 millisecond pulsars. We find ...

  20. Disentangling the NIR/optical emission of the black hole XTE J1650-500 during outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, P A; Heras, J A Zurita

    2012-01-01

    While the sources of X-ray and radio emission in the different states of low-mass X-ray binaries are relatively well understood, the origin of the near-infrared (NIR) and optical emission is more often debated. It is likely that the NIR/optical flux originates from an amalgam of different emission regions, because it occurs at the intersecting wavelengths of multiple processes. We aim to identify the NIR/optical emission region(s) of one such low-mass X-ray binary and black hole candidate, XTE J1650-500, via photometric, timing, and spectral analyses. We present unique NIR/optical images and spectra, obtained with the ESO-New Technology Telescope, during the peak of the 2001 outburst of XTE J1650-500. The data suggest that the NIR/optical flux is due to a combination of emission mechanisms including a significant contribution from X-ray reprocessing and, at early times in the hard state, a relativistic jet that is NIR/radio dim compared to similar sources.The jet of XTE J1650-500 is relatively weak compared t...

  1. Discovery and X-ray Monitoring of a New Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Swank, J. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Krimm, H.

    2010-03-01

    On October 23, 2009 a new X-ray transient source XTE J1752-223 was discovered by RXTE during observations scanning the Galactic Bulge region. Source identification in the optical, infra-red, and radio immediately followed. The first pointed RXTE observation, three days after the discovery, revealed a very hard non-thermal energy spectrum and strong iron line emission. After the initial rise the source flux leveled off and showed very stable properties for more than a month of monitoring observations until the Sun was too close for RXTE to observe. We analyzed RXTE data collected during this monitoring campaign. The aperiodic fast variability properties are strongly reminiscent of the extreme hard states shown by the well known black hole binary Cygnus X-1, as well as several other black hole candidates. The overall similarity of the source properties to those of other Galactic black holes classify XTE J1752-223 as a new stellar black hole candidate. We compare spectral and variability properties of XTE J1752-223 to Cygnus X-1 and discuss possible implications for various mechanisms of non-thermal emission.

  2. Triple Pulsar Tests Mass Triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, inertial mass, $m_{\\cal I}$, passive gravitational mass, $m_{\\cal P}$, and active gravitational mass, $m_{\\cal A}$. It is assumed that, for any objects, $m_{\\cal I} = m_{\\cal P} = m_{\\cal A}$ in Newtonian gravity, and $m_{\\cal I} = m_{\\cal P}$ in Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We propose new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J0337+1715. Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses can be probed to $3\\times10^{-8}$, improving the post-Newtonian constraints of strong equivalence principle by $10^3$--$10^6$. The test of $m_{\\cal P}=m_{\\cal A}$ presents the first test of ...

  3. Polarization in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, D; Amato, E; Bucciantini, N

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of our present work is to provide, for the first time, a simple computational tool that can be used to compute the brightness, the spectral index, the polarization, the time variability and the spectrum of the non-thermal light (both synchrotron and inverse Compton, IC) associated with the plasma dynamics resulting from given relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) simulations. The proposed method is quite general, and can be applied to any scheme for RMHD and to all non-thermal emitting sources, e.g. pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and in particular to the Crab Nebula (CN) as in the present proceeding. Here only the linear optical and X-ray polarization that characterizes the PWNe synchrotron emission is analyzed in order to infer information on the inner bulk flow structure, to provide a direct investigation of the magnetic field configuration, in particular the presence and the strength of a poloidal component, and to understand the origin of some emitting features, such as the knot, whose origi...

  4. Testing gravity with pulsar scintillation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Pen, Ue-Li

    2017-04-01

    We propose to use pulsar scintillation measurements to test predictions of alternative theories of gravity. Compared to single-path pulsar timing measurements, the scintillation measurements can achieve an accuracy of one part in a thousand within one wave period, which means picosecond scale resolution in time, due to the effect of multipath interference. Previous scintillation measurements of PSR B 0834 +06 have hours of data acquisition, making this approach sensitive to mHz gravitational waves. Therefore it has unique advantages in measuring the effect of gravity or other mechanisms on light propagation. We illustrate its application in constraining the scalar gravitational-wave background, in which case the sensitivities can be greatly improved with respect to previous limits. We expect much broader applications in testing gravity with existing and future pulsar scintillation observations.

  5. Testing Gravity with Pulsar Scintillation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-01-01

    We propose to use pulsar scintillation measurements to test predictions of alternative theories of gravity. Comparing to single-path pulsar timing measurements, the scintillation measurements can achieve a factor of 10^5 improvement in timing accuracy, due to the effect of multi-path interference. Previous scintillation measurements of PSR B0834+06 have data acquisition for hours, making this approach sensitive to mHz gravitational waves. Therefore it has unique advantages in measuring gravitational effect or other mechanisms (at mHz and above frequencies) on light propagation. We illustrate its application in constraining scalar gravitational-wave background, in which case the sensitivities can be greatly improved with respect to previous limits. We expect much broader applications in testing gravity with existing and future pulsar scintillation observations.

  6. Polarized Curvature Radiation in Pulsar Magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, P F; Han, J L

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of polarized emission in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated in this paper. The polarized waves are generated through curvature radiation from the relativistic particles streaming along curved magnetic field lines and co-rotating with the pulsar magnetosphere. Within the 1/{\\deg} emission cone, the waves can be divided into two natural wave mode components, the ordinary (O) mode and the extraord nary (X) mode, with comparable intensities. Both components propagate separately in magnetosphere, and are aligned within the cone by adiabatic walking. The refraction of O-mode makes the two components separated and incoherent. The detectable emission at a given height and a given rotation phase consists of incoherent X-mode and O-mode components coming from discrete emission regions. For four particle-density models in the form of uniformity, cone, core and patches, we calculate the intensities for each mode numerically within the entire pulsar beam. If the co-rotation of relativistic particles with...

  7. Arecibo Observations of Parkes Multibeam Pulsars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. D. R. Bhat; F. Camilo; J. M. Cordes; D. J. Nice; D. R. Lorimer; S. Chatterjee

    2002-03-01

    The on-going Parkes multibeam survey has been astoundingly successful (Manchester et al. 2001), and its discovery of over 600 pulsars has opened up new avenues for probing the Galaxy’s electron content and magnetic field. Here we report on recent observations made with the Arecibo 305-m telescope, where 80 distant, high dispersion measure pulsars (of which 35 are from the multibeam survey) were studied at multiple frequency bands in the range 0.4–2.4 GHz, in order to determine their scattering properties, rotation measures and spectral indices. The results will be used to meet a variety of science goals; viz., creating an improved model of the electron density, mapping out the Galactic magnetic field, and modeling the pulsar population.

  8. Pulsar Death at an Advanced Age

    CERN Document Server

    Arons, J

    1999-01-01

    I summarize the theory of acceleration of non-neutral particle beams by starvation electric fields along the polar magnetic field lines of rotation powered pulsars, including the effect of dragging of inertial frames which dominates the acceleration of a space charge limited beam. I apply these results to a new calculation of the radio pulsar death line, under the hypotheses that pulsar ``death'' corresponds to cessation of pair creation over the magnetic poles {\\it and} that the magnetic field has a locally dipolar topology. The frame dragging effect in star centered dipole geometry does improve comparison of the theory with observation, but an unacceptably large conflict between observation and theory still persists. Offsetting the dipole improves the comparison, but a fully satisfactory theory requires incorporating magnetic conversion of inverse Compton gamma rays, created by scattering thermal photons from the surface of old neutron stars ($t > 10^8 $ years) kept warm ($T \\geq 10^5$ K) by friction betwee...

  9. Gravitational Radiation from Compact Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding question in modern Physics is whether general relativity (GR) is a complete description of gravity among bodies at macroscopic scales. Currently, the best experiments supporting this hypothesis are based on high-precision timing of radio pulsars. This chapter reviews recent advances in the field with a focus on compact binary millisecond pulsars with white-dwarf (WD) companions. These systems - if modeled properly - provide an unparalleled test ground for physically motivated alternatives to GR that deviate significantly in the strong-field regime. Recent improvements in observational techniques and advances in our understanding of WD interiors have enabled a series of precise mass measurements in such systems. These masses, combined with high-precision radio timing of the pulsars, result to stringent constraints on the radiative properties of gravity, qualitatively very different from what was available in the past.

  10. Consecutive Bright Pulses in the Vela Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Palfreyman, Jim L; Dickey, John M; Young, Timothy G; Hotan, Claire E; 10.1088/2041-8205/735/1/L17

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of consecutive bright radio pulses from the Vela pulsar, a new phenomenon that may lead to a greater understanding of the pulsar emission mechanism. This results from a total of 345 hr worth of observations of the Vela pulsar using the University of Tasmania's 26 m radio telescope to study the frequency and statistics of abnormally bright pulses and sub-pulses. The bright pulses show a tendency to appear consecutively. The observations found two groups of six consecutive bright pulses and many groups of two to five bright pulses in a row. The strong radio emission process that produces the six bright pulses lasts between 0.4 and 0.6 s. The numbers of bright pulses in sequence far exceed what would be expected if individual bright pulses were independent random events. Consecutive bright pulses must be generated by an emission process that is long lived relative to the rotation period of the neutron star.

  11. Gamma-ray pulsars: a gold mine

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    The most energetic neutron stars, powered by their rotation, are capable of producing pulsed radiation from the radio up to gamma rays with nearly TeV energies. These pulsars are part of the universe of energetic and powerful particle accelerators, using their uniquely fast rotation and formidable magnetic fields to accelerate particles to ultra-relativistic speed. The extreme properties of these stars provide an excellent testing ground, beyond Earth experience, for nuclear, gravitational, and quantum-electrodynamical physics. A wealth of gamma-ray pulsars has recently been discovered with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The energetic gamma rays enable us to probe the magnetospheres of neutron stars and particle acceleration in this exotic environment. We review the latest developments in this field, beginning with a brief overview of the properties and mysteries of rotation-powered pulsars, and then discussing gamma-ray observations and magnetospheric models in more detail.

  12. Spectral indices for radio emission of 228 pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Chen; Xu, Jun; Han, Jin-Lin

    2016-10-01

    We determine spectral indices of 228 pulsars by using Parkes pulsar data observed at 1.4 GHz, among which 200 spectra are newly determined. The indices are distributed in the range from ‑4.84 to ‑0.46. Together with known pulsar spectra from literature, we tried to find clues to the pulsar emission process. The weak correlations between the spectral index, the spin-down energy loss rate E and the potential drop in the polar gap ΔΨ hint that emission properties are related to the particle acceleration process in a pulsar's magnetosphere.

  13. Radio Searches for Pulsars and Short-Duration Transients

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Maura

    2011-01-01

    I discuss methods and current software packages for radio searches for pulsars and short-duration transients. I then describe the properties of the current pulsar population and the status of and predictions for ongoing and future surveys. The presently observed pulsar population numbers around 2000 and is expected to roughly double over the next five years, with the number of millisecond pulsars expected to more than triple. Finally, I discuss individual objects discovered in the Green Bank Telescope 350-MHz Drift-Scan Survey and the Arecibo Pulsar ALFA Survey.

  14. A LOFAR census of millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiev, V. I.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bilous, A. V.; Stappers, B. W.; Kramer, M.; Keane, E. F.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Breton, R. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Alexov, A.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pilia, M.; Sobey, C.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Weltevrede, P.; Bell, M. E.; Broderick, J. W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Swinbank, J. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnands, R.; Zarka, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at these low frequencies, and half of the detected MSPs were observed for the first time atfrequencies below 200 MHz. We present the average pulse profiles of the detected MSPs, their effective pulse widths, and flux densities and compare these with higher observing frequencies. The flux-calibrated, multifrequency LOFAR pulse profiles are publicly available via the European Pulsar Network Database of Pulsar Profiles. We also present average values of dispersion measures (DM) and discuss DM and profile variations. About 35% of the MSPs show strong narrow profiles, another 25% exhibit scattered profiles, and the rest are only weakly detected. A qualitative comparison of the LOFAR MSP profiles with those at higher radio frequencies shows constant separation between profile components. Similarly, the profile widths are consistent with those observed at higher frequencies, unless scattering dominates at the lowest frequencies. This is very different from what is observed for normal pulsars and suggests a compact emission region in the MSP magnetosphere. The amplitude ratio of the profile components, on the other hand, can dramatically change towards low frequencies, often with the trailing component becoming dominant. As previously demonstrated this can be caused by aberration and retardation. This data set enables high-precision studies of pulse profile evolution with frequency, dispersion, Faraday rotation, and scattering in the interstellar medium. Characterising and correcting these systematic effects may improve pulsar-timing precision at higher observing frequencies, where pulsar timing array projects aim to directly detect gravitational waves.

  15. A strong and broad iron line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Mendez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Trigo, Maria Diaz; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We observed the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652−453 si- multaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652−453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a

  16. A Cosmic Census of Radio Pulsars with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, E F; Kramer, M; Stappers, B W; Bates, S D; Burgay, M; Chatterjee, S; Champion, D J; Eatough, R P; Hessels, J W T; Janssen, G; Lee, K J; van Leeuwen, J; Margueron, J; Oertel, M; Possenti, A; Ransom, S; Theureau, G; Torne, P

    2015-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will make ground breaking discoveries in pulsar science. In this chapter we outline the SKA surveys for new pulsars, as well as how we will perform the necessary follow-up timing observations. The SKA's wide field-of-view, high sensitivity, multi-beaming and sub-arraying capabilities, coupled with advanced pulsar search backends, will result in the discovery of a large population of pulsars. These will enable the SKA's pulsar science goals (tests of General Relativity with pulsar binary systems, investigating black hole theorems with pulsar-black hole binaries, and direct detection of gravitational waves in a pulsar timing array). Using SKA1-MID and SKA1-LOW we will survey the Milky Way to unprecedented depth, increasing the number of known pulsars by more than an order of magnitude. SKA2 will potentially find all the Galactic radio-emitting pulsars in the SKA sky which are beamed in our direction. This will give a clear picture of the birth properties of pulsars and of the gr...

  17. Nature of microstructure in pulsar radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Machabeli, G Z; Melikidze, G I; Shapakidze, D; Machabeli, George; Khechinashvili, David; Melikidze, George; Shapakidze, David

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for microstructure in pulsar radio emission. We propose that micropulses result from the alteration of the radio wave generation region by nearly transverse drift waves propagating across the pulsar magnetic field and encircling the bundle of the open magnetic field lines. It is demonstrated that such waves can modify significantly curvature of these dipolar field lines. This in turn affects strongly fulfillment of the resonance conditions necessary for the excitation of radio waves. The time-scale of micropulses is therefore determined by the wavelength of drift waves. Main features of the microstructure are naturally explained in the frame of this model.

  18. Pulsar glitches: The crust is not enough

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N; Ho, W C G; Espinoza, C M

    2012-01-01

    Pulsar glitches are traditionally viewed as a manifestation of vortex dynamics associated with a neutron superfluid reservoir confined to the inner crust of the star. In this Letter we show that the non-dissipative entrainment coupling between the neutron superfluid and the nuclear lattice leads to a less mobile crust superfluid, effectively reducing the moment of inertia associated with the angular momentum reservoir. Combining the latest observational data for prolific glitching pulsars with theoretical results for the crust entrainment we find that the required superfluid reservoir exceeds that available in the crust. This challenges our understanding of the glitch phenomenon, and we discuss possible resolutions to the problem.

  19. The braking indices in pulsar emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, F; Gil, J; Gil, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices.

  20. The Feasibility of Using Black Widow Pulsars in Pulsar Timing Arrays for Gravitational Wave Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bochenek, Christopher; Demorest, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the past five years, approximately one third of the 65 pulsars discovered by radio observations of Fermi unassociated sources are black widow pulsars (BWPs). BWPs are binary millisecond pulsars with companion masses ranging from 0.01-0.1 solar masses which often exhibit radio eclipses. The bloated companions in BWP systems exert small torques on the system causing the orbit to change on small but measurable time scales. Because adding parameters to a timing model reduces sensitivity to a gravitational wave (GW) signal, the need to fit many orbital frequency derivatives to the timing data is potentially problematic for using BWPs to detect GWs with pulsar timing arrays. Using simulated data with up to four orbital frequency derivatives, we show that fitting for orbital frequency derivatives absorbs less than 5% of the low frequency spectrum expected from a stochastic gravitational wave background signal. Furthermore, this result does not change with orbital period. Therefore, we suggest that if timing syste...

  1. Effect of long-term intensity variations on pulsar searches and the pulsar luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, S.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term intensity data for five pulsars are used to obtain the probability density distribution of intensities for each pulsar, and it is found that they are described satisfactorily by chi-squared distributions. Based on these distributions, the number of new pulsars expected to be found on repeatedly searching the same region of the sky with the same sensitivity is given. Nearly 25 percent more new pulsars are expected to be found on the first repeat search. It is also shown that the luminosity function deduced from either a single survey or surveys with very different sensitivities is not affected by the omission of flux density variations in the calculation of selection effects. Finally, a method is proposed for deriving the luminosity function by combining the different searches of a given area on the basis of a probabilistic approach to the evaluation of selection effects.

  2. Constraining Gamma-Ray Pulsar Gap Models with a Simulated Pulsar Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierbattista, Marco; Grenier, I. A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    With the large sample of young gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), population synthesis has become a powerful tool for comparing their collective properties with model predictions. We synthesised a pulsar population based on a radio emission model and four gamma-ray gap models (Polar Cap, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, and One Pole Caustic). Applying gamma-ray and radio visibility criteria, we normalise the simulation to the number of detected radio pulsars by a select group of ten radio surveys. The luminosity and the wide beams from the outer gaps can easily account for the number of Fermi detections in 2 years of observations. The wide slot-gap beam requires an increase by a factor of 10 of the predicted luminosity to produce a reasonable number of gamma-ray pulsars. Such large increases in the luminosity may be accommodated by implementing offset polar caps. The narrow polar-cap beams contribute at most only a handful of LAT pulsars. Using standard distributions in birth location and pulsar spin-down power (E), we skew the initial magnetic field and period distributions in a an attempt to account for the high E Fermi pulsars. While we compromise the agreement between simulated and detected distributions of radio pulsars, the simulations fail to reproduce the LAT findings: all models under-predict the number of LAT pulsars with high E , and they cannot explain the high probability of detecting both the radio and gamma-ray beams at high E. The beaming factor remains close to 1.0 over 4 decades in E evolution for the slot gap whereas it significantly decreases with increasing age for the outer gaps. The evolution of the enhanced slot-gap luminosity with E is compatible with the large dispersion of gamma-ray luminosity seen in the LAT data. The stronger evolution predicted for the outer gap, which is linked to the polar cap heating by the return current, is apparently not supported by the LAT data. The LAT sample of gamma-ray pulsars

  3. Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The high-voltage environment of one of the most energetic and strongly magnetized pulsars known has been surveyed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. A team of astronomers found a powerful jet of high-energy particles extending over a distance of 20 light years and bright arcs believed to be due to particles of matter and anti-matter generated by the pulsar. The team of US, Canadian, and Japanese scientists pointed Chandra at the rapidly spinning neutron star B1509-58, located 19,000 light years away in the constellation of Circinus, for over five hours. These results were announced at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium in Washington, DC. "Jets and arcs on this vast scale have never been seen in any other pulsar," said Bryan Gaensler of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. "The spectacular images we have obtained of this source are letting us test theories as to how pulsars unleash so much energy." The features seen with Chandra give the scientists insight into the process by which voltages of more than 7000 trillion volts are created around rotating neutron stars (the dense remnants of supernova explosions) and how these extreme voltages affect their environment. B1509-58 is of particular interest because it has a much stronger magnetic field than the Crab Nebula pulsar, which exhibits similar features on a much smaller scale. The general picture emerging from these results is that high-energy particles of matter and antimatter are streaming away from the neutron star along its poles and near its equator. The particles leaving the poles produce the jets; astronomers speculate that only one side of the jet is apparent in B1509-58, indicating that this one side is beamed in our direction, while the other is rushing away. "Until this observation, no one knew for sure whether such tremendous voltages and energy outputs were a trademark of all pulsars, or if the Crab was an oddball," said Vicky Kaspi of McGill University in Montreal. "Now thanks

  4. Experimental Constraints on {\\gamma}-ray Pulsar Gap Models and the Pulsar GeV to Pulsar Wind Nebula TeV Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U

    2015-01-01

    The pulsar emission mechanism in the gamma-ray energy band is poorly understood. Currently, there are several models under discussion in the pulsar community. These models can be constrained by studying the collective properties of a sample of pulsars, which became possible with the large sample of gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). In this paper we develop a new experimental multi-wavelength technique to determine the beaming factor $\\left( f_\\Omega \\right)$ dependance on spin-down luminosity of a set of GeV pulsars. This technique requires three input parameters: pulsar spin-down luminosity, pulsar phase-averaged GeV flux and TeV or X-ray flux from the associated Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN). The analysis presented in this paper uses the PWN TeV flux measurements to study the correlation between $f_\\Omega$ and $\\dot{E}$. The measured correlation has some features that favor the Outer Gap model over the Polar Cap, Slot Gap and One Pole Caustic models for pulsar emission i...

  5. 363. WE-Heraeus seminar on neutron stars and pulsars - 40 years after the discovery. Posters and contributed talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Huang, H.H. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: X-ray observation of pulsars, gamma-ray observation of pulsars, radio observations of pulsars, theory of neutron stars and pulsars, AXPs, SGRs, and strange stars, gravitayional waves, analysis tools with software. (HSI)

  6. Recently discovered pulsars and unidentified EGRET sources

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Camilo, F M; Torres, Diego F.; Butt, Yousaf M.; Camilo, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    We present a correlative study between all unidentified EGRET sources at low Galactic latitudes and the newly discovered pulsars in the released portion of the Parkes multibeam radio survey. We note 14 positional coincidences: eight of these are ``Vela-like'' pulsars, with relatively small periods, small characteristic ages, and high spin-down luminosities. Three of these coincidences have been investigated by D'Amico et al. (2001) and Camilo et al. (2001). Among the others, we argue that PSR J1015-5719 may plausibly generate part of the high energy radiation observed from 3EG J1014-5705. Three additional interesting cases are: 3EG J1410-6147 and either of PSRs J1412-6145 or J1413-6141, if the pulsars are at the estimated distance of the coincident SNR G312.4-0.4; and 3EG J1639-4702/PSR J1637-4642. The remaining positional coincidences between the EGRET sources and the newly discovered pulsars are almost certainly spurious.

  7. A New Class of Radio Quiet Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.

    1997-01-01

    The complete absence of radio pulsars with periods exceeding a few seconds has lead to the popular notion of the existence of a high $P$ death line. In the standard picture, beyond this boundary, pulsars with low spin rates cannot accelerate particles above the stellar surface to high enough energies to initiated pair cascades through curvature radiation, and the pair creation needed for radio emission is strongly suppressed. In this paper we postulate the existence of another pulsar ``death line,'' corresponding to high magnetic fields $B$ in the upper portion of the $\\dot{P}$--$P$ diagram, a domain where few radio pulsars are observed. The origin of this high $B$ boundary, which occurs when $B$ becomes comparable to or exceeds $10^{13}$ Gauss, is again due to the suppression of magnetic pair creation $\\gamma\\to e^+e^-$, but in this instance, primarily because of ineffective competition with the exotic QED process of magnetic photon splitting. This paper describes the origin, shape and position of the new ``...

  8. Gamma-Ray Pulsars Models and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10^{12} - 10^{13} G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers at around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. N...

  9. A LOFAR census of millisecond pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratiev, V.I.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Bilous, A.V.; Stappers, B.W.; Kramer, M.; Keane, E.F.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Breton, R.P.; Hassall, T.E.; Alexov, A.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pilia, M.; Sobey, C.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Weltevrede, P.; Bell, M.E.; Broderick, J.W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Swinbank, J.D.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Zarka, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at

  10. A HIGH BRAKING INDEX FOR A PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, R. F.; Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Tendulkar, S. P. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Gotthelf, E. V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Guillot, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keane, E. F. [SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Pivovaroff, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tomsick, J. A. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present a phase-coherent timing solution for PSR J1640–4631, a young 206 ms pulsar using X-ray timing observations taken with NuSTAR. Over this timing campaign, we have measured the braking index of PSR J1640–4631 to be n = 3.15 ± 0.03. Using a series of simulations, we argue that this unusually high braking index is not due to timing noise, but is intrinsic to the pulsar's spin-down. We cannot, however, rule out contamination due to an unseen glitch recovery, although the recovery timescale would have to be longer than most yet observed. If this braking index is eventually proven to be stable, it demonstrates that pulsar braking indices greater than three are allowed in nature; hence, other physical mechanisms such as mass or magnetic quadrupoles are important in pulsar spin-down. We also present a 3σ upper limit on the pulsed flux at 1.4 GHz of 0.018 mJy.

  11. A LOFAR census of millisecond pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratiev, V.I.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Bilous, A.V.; Stappers, B.W.; Kramer, M.; Keane, E.F.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Breton, R.P.; Hassall, T.E.; Alexov, A.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pilia, M.; Sobey, C.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Weltevrede, P.; Bell, M.E.; Broderick, J.W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Swinbank, J.D.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Zarka, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at t

  12. Gamma-ray binaries: pulsars in disguise ?

    CERN Document Server

    Dubus, G

    2006-01-01

    LS 5039 and LSI +61 303 are unique amongst high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) for their spatially-resolved radio emission and their counterpart at >GeV gamma-ray energies, canonically attributed to non-thermal particles in an accretion-powered relativistic jet. The only other HMXB known to emit very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63, harbours a non-accreting millisecond pulsar. I investigate whether the interaction of the relativistic wind from a young pulsar with the wind from its stellar companion, as in PSR B1259-63, constitutes a viable scenario to explain the observations of LS 5039 and LSI +61 303. Emission would arise from the shocked pulsar wind material, which then flows away to large distances in a comet-shape tail, reproducing on a smaller scale what is observed in isolated, high motion pulsars interacting with the ISM. Simple expectations for the SED are derived and are shown to depend on few input parameters. Detailed modelling of the particle evolution is compared to the observations from ...

  13. Pulsars at the Center of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Walid

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few years, a number of groups using data from NASA's space-borne Fermi LAT instrument have identified excess gamma-ray flux toward the inner 1º of the Galactic Center (GC), with an even larger significant excess within 0.2º degrees. At present there are two leading candidates for this excess: dark matter annihilation and a population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We are currently developing dedicated instrumentation to carry out a sensitive search for the pulsars in this region of the galaxy using a newly developed front end and receiver on a Deep Space Network large diameter antenna in Australia. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the challenges encountered with pulsar searches at the GC region and a summary of previous and ongoing efforts to survey this region with radio telescopes. We will also provide preliminary results from our recent observations of the GC region at 2 and 8 GHz and will conclude with prospects for detection of perhaps hundreds of pulsars in this region with new generations of radio telescopes now under construction.

  14. Pulsar motions from VEP neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, M.; Casini, H.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Montemayor, R.

    2002-07-01

    We show that a violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) can explain pulsar motions. We find that both the translational and rotational velocities can be accounted by VEP induced anisotropies in the linear and angular momentum of the neutrinos emitted by the protoneutron star. The violation needed to obtain the observed motions is compatible with existing boundaries.

  15. A Bayesian method for pulsar template generation

    CERN Document Server

    Imgrund, M; Kramer, M; Lesch, H

    2015-01-01

    Extracting Times of Arrival from pulsar radio signals depends on the knowledge of the pulsars pulse profile and how this template is generated. We examine pulsar template generation with Bayesian methods. We will contrast the classical generation mechanism of averaging intensity profiles with a new approach based on Bayesian inference. We introduce the Bayesian measurement model imposed and derive the algorithm to reconstruct a "statistical template" out of noisy data. The properties of these "statistical templates" are analysed with simulated and real measurement data from PSR B1133+16. We explain how to put this new form of template to use in analysing secondary parameters of interest and give various examples: We implement a nonlinear filter for determining ToAs of pulsars. Applying this method to data from PSR J1713+0747 we derive ToAs self consistently, meaning all epochs were timed and we used the same epochs for template generation. While the average template contains fluctuations and noise as unavoida...

  16. Improving Pulsar Timing Precision with Single Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The measurement error of pulse times of arrival (TOAs) in the high S/N limit is dominated by the quasi-random variation of a pulsar's emission profile from rotation to rotation. Like measurement noise, this noise is only reduced as the square root of observing time, posing a major challenge to future pulsar timing campaigns with large aperture telescopes, e.g. the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array. We propose a new method of pulsar timing that attempts to approximate the pulse-to-pulse variability with a small family of 'basis' pulses. If pulsar data are integrated over many rotations, this basis can be used to measure sub-pulse structure. Or, if high-time resolution data are available, the basis can be used to 'tag' single pulses and produce an optimal timing template. With realistic simulations, we show that these applications can dramatically reduce the effect of pulse-to-pulse variability on TOAs. Using high-time resolution data taken from the bright PSR J0835-...

  17. Pulsar discovery by global volunteer computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knispel, B.; Allen, B.; Cordes, J.M.; Deneva, J.S.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bock, O.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Demorest, P.B.; Fehrmann, H.; Freire, P.C.C.; Gonzalez, M.E.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Jenet, F.A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D.R.; Lyne, A.G.; Machenschalk, B.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Messenger, C.; Nice, D.J.; Papa, M.A.; Pletsch, H.J.; Prix, R.; Ransom, S.M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pul

  18. Testing Relativistic Gravity with Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Wex, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Before the 1970s, precision tests for gravity theories were constrained to the weak gravitational fields of the Solar system. Hence, only the weak-field slow-motion aspects of relativistic celestial mechanics could be investigated. Testing gravity beyond the first post-Newtonian contributions was for a long time out of reach. The discovery of the first binary pulsar by Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor in the summer of 1974 initiated a completely new field for testing the relativistic dynamics of gravitationally interacting bodies. For the first time the back reaction of gravitational wave emission on the binary motion could be studied. Furthermore, the Hulse-Taylor pulsar provided the first test bed for the orbital dynamics of strongly self-gravitating bodies. To date there are a number of pulsars known, which can be utilized for precision test of gravity. Depending on their orbital properties and their companion, these pulsars provide tests for various different aspects of relativistic dynamics. Besides tests...

  19. Evolution of relativistic jets from XTE J1550-564 and the environment of microquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2008-01-01

    Two relativistic X-ray jets have been detected with the Chandra X-ray observatory in the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1550-564. We report a full analysis of the evolution of the two jets with a gamma-ray burst external shock model. A plausible scenario suggests a cavity outside the central source and the jets first travelled with constant velocity and then are slowed down by the interactions between the jets and the interstellar medium (ISM). The best fitted radius of the cavity is ~0.36 pc on the eastern side and ~0.46 pc on the western side, and the densities also show asymmetry, of ~0.015 cm$^{-3}$ on the east to ~0.21 cm$^{-3}$ on the west. Large scale low density region is also found in another microquasar system, H 1743-322. These results are consistent with previous suggestions that the environment of microquasars should be rather vacuous, compared to the normal Galactic environment. A generic scenario for microquasar jets is proposed, classifying the observed jets into three main categories, with d...

  20. The new intermediate long-bursting source XTE J1701-407

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falanga, M.; Cumming, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2009-01-01

    was (m) over dot approximate to 4 x 10(3) g cm(-2) s(-1), and the total energy released was E-burst approximate to 3.5 x 10(40) erg. This corresponds to an ignition column depth of y(ign) approximate to 1.8 x 10(9) g cm(-2), for a pure helium burning. We find that the energetics of this burst can...... days later a short burst, have been recorded from XTE J1701-407. We analyzed the public available data from Swift and RXTE, and compared the observed properties of the intermediate long-burst with theoretical ignition condition and light curves to investigate the possible nuclear-burning processes...... be modeled in different ways, as (i) pure helium ignition, as the result of either pure helium accretion or depletion of hydrogen by steady burning during accumulation; or (ii) as ignition of a thick layer of hydrogen-rich material in a source of low metallicity. However, comparison of the burst duration...

  1. The Swift capture of a long X-ray burst from XTE J1701-407

    CERN Document Server

    Linares, Manuel; Wijnands, Rudy; Soleri, Paolo; Degenaar, Nathalie; Curran, Peter A; Starling, Rhaana L C; van der Klis, Michiel

    2008-01-01

    XTE J1701-407 is a new transient X-ray source discovered on June 8th, 2008. More than one month later it showed a rare type of thermonuclear explosion: a long type I X-ray burst. We report herein the results of our study of the spectral and flux evolution during this burst, as well as the analysis of the outburst in which it took place. We find an upper limit on the distance to the source of 6.2 kpc by considering the maximum luminosity reached by the burst. We measure a total fluence of 3.5*10^{-6} erg/cm^2 throughout the ~20 minutes burst duration and a fluence of 2.6*10^{-3} erg/cm^2 during the first two months of the outburst. We show that the flux decay is best fitted by a power law (index ~1.6) along the tail of the burst. Finally, we discuss the implications of the long burst properties, and the presence of a second and shorter burst detected by Swift ten days later, for the composition of the accreted material and the heating of the burning layer.

  2. INTEGRAL confirms that XTE J1728-295 = IGR J17285-2922

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turler, Marc; ., .; Brandt, Søren Kristian;

    2010-01-01

    37 (12+/-2 mCrab, 6 sigma). Earlier observations on 20 Aug 23:37 - 21 Aug 03:19 do not show any source activity, with a 3-sigma upper limit of 7 mCrab (20-40 keV). By combining the three observations when the source is detected, we obtain a detection significance of 9.4 and 7.0 sigma in the 20......% confinement radius of 2.8 arcmin (Gros et al., 2003, A&A, L179) is (RA,DEC)=(262.172,-29.325), fully consistent with the location of the Swift/XRT Soft X-ray counterpart (ATel #2824). IGR J17285-2922 was not detected by JEM-X with a 3-sigma upper limit of about 12 mCrab (3-11 keV). This is consistent...... with the peak flux of 6.5 mCrab obtained for XTE J1728-295 in the 2-10 keV band with RXTE/PCA (ATel #2823). We note that the hard X-ray activity is confirmed by the Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Transient Monitor (see ATel #904), which evidences enhanced emission around the same time, and at a similar level...

  3. Transient Relativistic Ejections and Stationary Core in XTE J1752-223

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Corbel, S; Gurvits, L I; Campbell, R M; Brocksopp, C

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 was shown to have properties of black hole binary candidates. As reported in our previous paper, we identified transient and decelerating ejecta in multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) and the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Here we present new EVN and VLBA data in which a new transient ejection event and later a stationary component are identified. The latter is interpreted as a reappearance of the radio core/compact jet during the transition from soft to hard X-ray state. This component appears to be highly variable in brightness although effects of tropospheric instabilities might play a role too. We also re-analyze the earlier VLBI data and find that the transient ejecta closer to the core position has significantly higher proper motion, further strengthening the case for strongly decelerating ejecta on the scale of several hundred milli-arcsecond, never observed in X-ray binaries before. Alt...

  4. RXTE observations of Galactic microquasar XTE J1748-288 during its 1998 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Revnivtsev, M G; Borozdin, K N

    1999-01-01

    We present an analysis of the RXTE observations of recently discovered Galactic microquasar XTE J1748-288 during its 1998 outburst. The spectral evolution of the source during the outburst can be considered as a sequence of three qualitatively distinct states. During the first observations corresponding to the maximum of X-ray flux the spectrum of the source was formed by the sum of the dominating hard power law component and soft thermal component, which can be described by the model of multicolor disk emission. Hard component contributed >=80% to the X-ray luminosity in 3-25 keV energy band. This spectral shape is quite different from spectra of high and low spectral states typical for Galactic black hole systems. Later on, as the X-ray source faded, its energy spectrum qualitatively changed, and first high, then low standard states have been observed. In correlation with the spectral changes the character of fast variability have changed dramatically also. Initially the power density spectrum was formed by...

  5. Comparative study of Hg xCd 1-xTe films grown on CdTe thin films previously deposited from two different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Abbas Shah, N.; Maqsood, A.

    2009-04-01

    High quality cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were grown on glass substrates with two different techniques, two evaporation source (TES) and closed space sublimation (CSS). Further to the above mercury telluride (HgTe) was then deposited by using single source on both CdTe thin films for obtaining Hg xCd 1-xTe samples. The crystalline structure of the Hg xCd 1-xTe sample grown from CSS-CdTe showed the preferential (1 1 1) orientation with smoother and larger grain size than those of TES-CdTe. The optical transmission for TES-CdTe sample was above 90% in the 1000-1500 nm range whereas it was significantly below 80% for CSS-CdTe sample. The optical transmission for TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe was ˜60%. The resistivity at room temperature of TES-CdTe and CSS-CdTe was ˜3.33×10 9 Ω cm and ˜2.20×10 8 Ω cm, respectively, while the resistivity of TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe samples was ˜1.73 Ω cm and ˜5.34×10 5 Ω cm, respectively. The comparative study of ternary compound prepared with the above techniques has been carried out for the first time.

  6. OSCILLATION-DRIVEN MAGNETOSPHERIC ACTIVITY IN PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Meng-Xiang; Xu, Ren-Xin; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: linmx97@gmail.com, E-mail: r.x.xu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We study the magnetospheric activity in the polar cap region of pulsars under stellar oscillations. The toroidal oscillation of the star propagates into the magnetosphere, which provides additional voltage due to unipolar induction, changes Goldreich-Julian charge density from the traditional value due to rotation, and hence influences particle acceleration. We present a general solution of the effect of oscillations within the framework of the inner vacuum gap model and consider three different inner gap modes controlled by curvature radiation, inverse Compton scattering, and two-photon annihilation, respectively. With different pulsar parameters and oscillation amplitudes, one of three modes would play a dominant role in defining the gap properties. When the amplitude of oscillation exceeds a critical value, mode changing occurs. Oscillations also lead to a change of the size of the polar cap. As applications, we show the inner gap properties under oscillations in both normal pulsars and anomalous X-ray pulsars/soft gamma-ray repeaters (AXPs/SGRs). We interpret the onset of radio emission after glitches/flares in AXPs/SGRs as due to oscillation-driven magnetic activities in these objects, within the framework of both the magnetar model and the solid quark star model. Within the magnetar model, radio activation may be caused by the enlargement of the effective polar cap angle and the radio emission beam due to oscillation, whereas within the solid quark star angle, it may be caused by activation of the pulsar inner gap from below the radio emission death line due to an oscillation-induced voltage enhancement. The model can also explain the glitch-induced radio profile change observed in PSR J1119–6127.

  7. The formation of different phases of Cu {sub x}Te and their effects on CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 (United States)]. E-mail: Jie_Zhou@nrel.gov; Wu, X. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Duda, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Teeter, G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Demtsu, S.H. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2007-06-25

    Material studies and device applications of Cu {sub x}Te in an NREL-developed CdTe solar cell structured as glass/Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/ZnSnO {sub x}/CdS/CdTe are presented. The Cu {sub x}Te primary back contact was formed by evaporating a Cu layer with various thicknesses at room temperature on HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (NP) solution etched CdTe layer. A post-annealing was then followed. The structural evolution and electrical properties of Cu {sub x}Te were investigated. Cu/Te ratio and post-annealing temperature are two processing parameters in this study. The Cu {sub x}Te phases are mainly controlled by the Cu/Te ratio. After a post-annealing at a low temperature, such as 100 deg. C, no Cu {sub x}Te phase transformation from its as-deposited phase was observed. A post-annealing treatment at a higher temperature, such as 250 deg. C, can reveal the stoichiometric Cu {sub x}Te phases based on the Cu/Te ratio used in the devices. But a post-annealing at a further higher temperature, such as 400 deg. C, resulted in a complicated Cu {sub x}Te phase appearance. CuTe, Cu{sub 1.4}Te, and Cu{sub 2}Te are three major phases detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for different Cu thickness application annealed at 250 deg. C. Application of Cu thicker than 60 nm degrades open-circuit voltage (V {sub oc}) and shunting resistance (R {sub sh}), but increases series resistance (R {sub s}). The correlation between device performance and the Cu {sub x}Te back contact illustrates that the process used for forming the Cu{sub 2}Te back contact failed to produce good fill factor (FF) and also introduced higher barrier height. The best device was observed for a back contact with a mixed Cu{sub 1.4}Te and CuTe phases.

  8. PEACE: pulsar evaluation algorithm for candidate extraction - a software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F. A.; Martinez, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Mata, A.; Lunsford, G.; Cohen, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Rohr, M.; Flanigan, J.; Walker, A.; Banaszak, S.; Allen, B.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.; Stairs, I.; Tan, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2013-07-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labour intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction (PEACE) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning-based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68 per cent of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17 per cent of sorted candidates, 95 per cent within the top 0.34 per cent and 100 per cent within the top 3.7 per cent. This clearly demonstrates that PEACE significantly increases the pulsar identification rate by a factor of about 50 to 1000. To date, PEACE has been directly responsible for the discovery of 47 new pulsars, 5 of which are millisecond pulsars that may be useful for pulsar timing based gravitational-wave detection projects.

  9. Einstein@Home Finds an Elusive Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Since the release of the second Fermi-LAT catalog in 2012, astronomers have been hunting for 3FGL J1906.6+0720, a gamma-ray source whose association couldn't be identified. Now, personal-computer time volunteered through the Einstein@Home project has resulted in the discovery of a pulsar that has been hiding from observers for years. A Blind Search: Identifying sources detected by Fermi-LAT can be tricky: the instrument's sky resolution is limited, so the position of the source can be hard to pinpoint. The gamma-ray source 3FGL J1906.6+0720 appeared in both the second and third Fermi-LAT source catalogs, but even after years of searching, no associated radio or X-ray source had been found. A team of researchers, led by Colin Clark of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, suspected that the source might be a gamma-ray pulsar. To confirm this, however, they needed to detect pulsed emission — something inherently difficult given the low photon count and the uncertain position of the source. The team conducted a blind search for pulsations coming from the general direction of the gamma-ray source. Two things were needed for this search: clever data analysis and a lot of computing power. The data analysis algorithm was designed to be adaptive: it searched a 4-dimensional parameter space that included a safety margin, allowing the algorithm to wander if the source was at the edge of the parameter space. The computing power was contributed by tens of thousands of personal computers volunteered by participants in the Einstein@Home project, making much shorter work out of a search that would have required dozens of years on a single laptop. The sky region around the newly discovered pulsar. The dotted ellipse shows the 3FGL catalog 95% confidence region for the source. The data analysis algorithm was designed to search an area 50% larger (given by the dashed ellipse), but it was allowed to “walk away” within the gray shaded region if the source seemed to

  10. First Principles Calculations of Structural, Electronic, Thermodynamic and Thermal Properties of BaxSr1-xTe Ternary Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelli, S.; Meradji, H.; Amara Korba, S.; Ghemid, S.; El Haj Hassan, F.

    2014-12-01

    The structural, electronic thermodynamic and thermal properties of BaxSr1-xTe ternary mixed crystals have been studied using the ab initio full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof-generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential. Moreover, the recently proposed modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential approximation, which successfully corrects the band-gap problem was also used for band structure calculations. The ground-state properties are determined for the cubic bulk materials BaTe, SrTe and their mixed crystals at various concentrations (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). The effect of composition on lattice constant, bulk modulus and band gap was analyzed. Deviation of the lattice constant from Vegard's law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence (LCD) were observed for the ternary BaxSr1-xTe alloys. The microscopic origins of the gap bowing were explained by using the approach of Zunger and co-workers. On the other hand, the thermodynamic stability of these alloys was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing, ΔHm as well as the phase diagram. It was shown that these alloys are stable at high temperature. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of BaxSr1-xTe alloys were investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered.

  11. Growth and Characterization of Cd1−XZnXTe-Sintered Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hussain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The II-VI polycrystalline semiconducting materials have come under increased scrutiny because of their wide use in the cost reduction of devices for photovoltaic applications. Cd1−XZnXTe is one of the II-VI ternary semiconductor materials whose bandgap can be tailored to any value between 1.48–2.26 eV as X varies from 0 to 1. It is promising material for high-efficiency solar cells, switching, and other optoelectronic devices. Polycrystalline thin film of Cd1−XZnXTe with variable composition (0≤X≤1 has been deposited on ultraclean glass substrates by screen printing method followed by sintering process. The optical and structural properties of Cd1−XZnXTe thin films have been examined. The optical bandgap of these films is studied using reflection spectra in wavelength range of 350–900 nm by using double beam spectrophotometer. The structure of sample was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. The films were polycrystalline in nature having wurtzite (Hexagonal structure over the whole range studied. The lattice parameters vary almost linearly with the composition parameter X, following Vegard's law. Sintering is a very simple and viable method compared to other cost-intensive methods. The results of the present investigation will be useful in characterizing the material CdZnTe for its applications in photovoltaics.

  12. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO's sixth science run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadors, G. D.; Goetz, E.; Riles, K.; Creighton, T.; Robinet, F.

    2017-02-01

    Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) and x-ray transient XTE J1751-305 are low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) that may emit continuous gravitational waves detectable in the band of ground-based interferometric observatories. Neutron stars in LMXBs could reach a torque-balance steady-state equilibrium in which angular momentum addition from infalling matter from the binary companion is balanced by angular momentum loss, conceivably due to gravitational-wave emission. Torque balance predicts a scale for detectable gravitational-wave strain based on observed x-ray flux. This paper describes a search for Sco X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO science run 6 data using the TwoSpect algorithm, based on searching for orbital modulations in the frequency domain. While no detections are claimed, upper limits on continuous gravitational-wave emission from Sco X-1 are obtained, spanning gravitational-wave frequencies from 40 to 2040 Hz and projected semimajor axes from 0.90 to 1.98 light-seconds. These upper limits are injection validated, equal any previous set in initial LIGO data, and extend over a broader parameter range. At optimal strain sensitivity, achieved at 165 Hz, the 95% confidence level random-polarization upper limit on dimensionless strain h0 is approximately 1.8 ×10-24. The closest approach to the torque-balance limit, within a factor of 27, is also at 165 Hz. Upper limits are set in particular narrow frequency bands of interest for J1751-305. These are the first upper limits known to date on r -mode emission from this XTE source. The TwoSpect method will be used in upcoming searches of Advanced LIGO and Virgo data.

  13. Detecting Pulsars with Interstellar Scintillation in Variance Images

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, S; Bell, M E; Coles, W A; Hobbs, G; Ekers, R D; Lenc, E

    2016-01-01

    Pulsars are the only cosmic radio sources known to be sufficiently compact to show diffractive interstellar scintillations. Images of the variance of radio signals in both time and frequency can be used to detect pulsars in large-scale continuum surveys using the next generation of synthesis radio telescopes. This technique allows a search over the full field of view while avoiding the need for expensive pixel-by-pixel high time resolution searches. We investigate the sensitivity of detecting pulsars in variance images. We show that variance images are most sensitive to pulsars whose scintillation time-scales and bandwidths are close to the subintegration time and channel bandwidth. Therefore, in order to maximise the detection of pulsars for a given radio continuum survey, it is essential to retain a high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to make variance images sensitive to pulsars with different scintillation properties. We demonstrate the technique with Murchision Widefield Array data and show th...

  14. Discovery of Two New Pulsars in Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mickaliger, Mitchell B; Boyles, Jason; McLaughlin, Maura A; Collins, Adam; Hough, Logan; Tehrani, Nathan; Tenney, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Reprocessing of the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey has resulted in the discovery of two previously unknown pulsars and several as-yet-unconfirmed candidates. One of the new pulsars, PSR J1725-3853, is an isolated 4.79-ms pulsar with a DM of 158.2 pc cm^-3. The other, PSR J1227-6208, has a period of 34.53 ms, a DM of 362.6 pc cm^-3, is in a 6.7 day binary orbit, and was independently detected in an ongoing high-resolution Parkes survey by Thornton et al. and also in independent processing by Einstein@Home volunteers. These pulsars were likley missed in earlier processing efforts due to their high DMs and short periods. These serendipitous discoveries suggest that further pulsars are awaiting discovery in the multibeam survey data.

  15. Imprints of relic gravitational waves on pulsar timing

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Ming-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Shi; Gao, Feng; Yan, Bao-Rong; Yang, Ting-Gao; Gao, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Relic gravitational waves (RGWs) , a background originated during inflation, would give imprints on the pulsar timing residuals. This makes RGWs be one of important sources for detection using the method of pulsar timing. In this paper, we discuss the effects of RGWs on the single pulsar timing, and give quantitively the timing residuals caused by RGWs with different model parameters. In principle, if the RGWs are strong enough today, they can be detected by timing a single millisecond pulsar with high precision after the intrinsic red noise in pulsar timing residuals were understood, even though observing simultaneously multiple millisecond pulsars is a more powerful technique in extracting gravitational wave signals. We corrected the normalization of RGWs using observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which leads to the amplitudes of RGWs being reduced by two orders of magnitude or so compared to our previous works. We made new constraints on RGWs using the recent observations from the Parkes ...

  16. A stroboscopic method for phase resolved pulsar observations

    CERN Document Server

    Vidrih, S; Carramiñana, A; Vidrih, Simon; Cadez, Andrej; Carraminana, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We present a stroboscopic system developed for optical observations of pulsars and its application in the CLYPOS survey. The stroboscopic device is connected to a GPS clock and provides absolute timing to the stroboscopic shutter relative to the pulsar's radio ephemerides. By changing the phase we can examine the pulsar's light curve. The precisely timed stroboscope in front of the CCD camera can perform highly accurate time resolved pulsar photometry and offers the advantages of CCD cameras, which are high quantum efficiency as well as relatively large field of view, which is important for flux calibrations. CLYPOS (Cananea Ljubljana Young Pulsar Optical Survey) is an extensive search for optical counterparts of about 30 northern hemisphere radio pulsars. It is a collaboration between the INAOE, Mexico and the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the University of Ljubljana. Stroboscopic observations were done between December 1998 and November 2000 at the 2.12 m telescope of the Observatory Guillermo Haro ...

  17. High magnetic field pulsars and magnetars a unified picture

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B; Zhang, Bing; Harding, Alice K.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a unified picture of high magnetic field radio pulsars and magnetars by arguing that they are all rotating high-field neutron stars, but have different orientations of their magnetic axes with respective to their rotation axes. In strong magnetic fields where photon splitting suppresses pair creation near the surface, the high-field pulsars can have active inner accelerators while the anomalous X-ray pulsars cannot. This can account for the very different observed emission characteristics of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586 and the high field radio pulsar PSR J1814-1744. A predicted consequence of this picture is that radio pulsars having surface magnetic field greater than about $2\\times 10^{14}$ G should not exist.

  18. Pulsar polarisation below 200 MHz: Average profiles and propagation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Noutsos, A; Kondratiev, V I; Weltevrede, P; Verbiest, J P W; Karastergiou, A; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Alexov, A; Breton, R P; Bilous, A V; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Grießmeier, J -M; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Keane, E F; Osłowski, S; Pilia, M; Serylak, M; Stappers, B W; ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Zagkouris, K; Anderson, K; Bähren, L; Bell, M; Broderick, J; Carbone, D; Cendes, Y; Coenen, T; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Fender, R; Garsden, H; Jonker, P; Law, C; Marko, S; Masters, J; Miller-Jones, J; Molenaar, G; Osten, R; Pietka, M; Rol, E; Rowlinson, A; Scheers, B; Spreeuw, H; Staley, T; Stewart, A; Swinbank, J; Wijers, R; Wijnands, R; Wise, M; Zarka, P; van der Horst, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the highest-quality polarisation profiles to date of 16 non-recycled pulsars and four millisecond pulsars, observed below 200 MHz with the LOFAR high-band antennas. Based on the observed profiles, we perform an initial investigation of expected observational effects resulting from the propagation of polarised emission in the pulsar magnetosphere and the interstellar medium. The predictions of magnetospheric birefringence in pulsars have been tested using spectra of the pulse width and fractional polarisation from multifrequency data. The derived spectra offer only partial support for the expected effects of birefringence on the polarisation properties, with only about half of our sample being consistent with the model's predictions. It is noted that for some pulsars these measurements are contaminated by the effects of interstellar scattering. For a number of pulsars in our sample, we have observed significant variations in the amount of Faraday rotation as a function of pulse phase, which is possi...

  19. An analysis of the timing irregularities for 366 pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G; Kramer, M

    2009-01-01

    We provide an analysis of timing irregularities observed for 366 pulsars. Observations were obtained using the 76-m Lovell radio telescope at the Jodrell Bank Observatory over the past 36 years. These data sets have allowed us to carry out the first large-scale analysis of pulsar timing noise over time scales of > 10yr, with multiple observing frequencies and for a large sample of pulsars. Our sample includes both normal and recycled pulsars. The timing residuals for the pulsars with the smallest characteristic ages are shown to be dominated by the recovery from glitch events, whereas the timing irregularities seen for older pulsars are quasi-periodic. We emphasise that previous models that explained timing residuals as a low-frequency noise process are not consistent with observation.

  20. SKA-Japan Pulsar Science with the Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Iwata, Kengo; Kameya, Osamu; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Mikami, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shinpei; Terasawa, Toshio; Yonemaru, Naoyuki; Yoo, Chulmoon

    2016-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array will revolutionize pulsar studies with its wide field-of-view, wide-band observation and high sensitivity, increasing the number of observable pulsars by more than an order of magnitude. Pulsars are of interest not only for the study of neutron stars themselves but for their usage as tools for probing fundamental physics such as general relativity, gravitational waves and nuclear interaction. In this article, we summarize the activity and interests of SKA-Japan Pulsar Science Working Group, focusing on an investigation of modified gravity theory with the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Centre, gravitational-wave detection from cosmic strings and binary supermassive black holes, a study of the physical state of plasma close to pulsars using giant radio pulses and determination of magnetic field structure of Galaxy with pulsar pairs.

  1. Large area thin film CdTe and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Te heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.; Firszt, F.; Naseem, H. A.; Stawski, R.

    Thin film CdTe heterojunction solar cells have been prepared by the deposition of p-type CdTe films on CdS/SnO2:F/glass substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and close-spaced sublimation (CSS) techniques. The relative merits of the two techniques are discussed, and the characteristics of solar cells prepared by CVD and CSS techniques are compared. In addition, the properties of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Te have been investigated.

  2. XMM-Newton observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, J; Kong, A; Miller, J M; Rossi, S; Belloni, T; Lewin, W H G; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Kong, Albert; Miller, Jon M.; Rossi, Sabrina; Belloni, Tomaso; Lewin, Walter H.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report the result of an XMM-Newton observation of the black-hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500 in quiescence. The source was not detected and we set upper limits on the 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 0.9e31-1.0e31 erg/s (for a newly derived distance of 2.6 kpc). These limits are in line with the quiescent luminosities of black-hole X-ray binaries with similar orbital periods (~7-8 hr)

  3. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  4. A Ray-Tracing Model of the Vela Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, C

    2001-01-01

    In the relativistic plasma surrounding a pulsar, a subluminal ordinary-mode electromagnetic wave will propagate along a magnetic field line. After some distance, it can break free of the field line and escape the magnetosphere to reach an observer. We describe a simple model of pulsar radio emission based on this scenario and find that applying this model to the case of the Vela pulsar reproduces qualitative characteristics of the observed Vela pulse profile.

  5. Detecting nanohertz gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xing-Jiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M

    2015-01-01

    Complementary to ground-based laser interferometers, pulsar timing array experiments are being carried out to search for nanohertz gravitational waves. Using the world's most powerful radio telescopes, three major international collaborations have collected $\\sim$10-year high precision timing data for tens of millisecond pulsars. In this paper we give an overview on pulsar timing experiments, gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz regime, and recent results obtained by various timing array projects.

  6. Weak microlensing effect and stability of pulsar time scale

    CERN Document Server

    Pshirkov, M S

    2006-01-01

    An influence of the weak microlensing effect on the pulsar timing is investigated for pulsar B1937+21. Average residuals of Time of Arrival (TOA) due to the effect would be as large as 10 ns in 20 years observation span. These residuals can be much greater (up to 1 ms in 20 years span) if pulsar is located in globular cluster (or behind it).

  7. Pulsar timing noise and the minimum observation time to detect gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Lasky, Paul D; Ravi, Vikram; Hobbs, George

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays to gravitational waves is, at some level, limited by timing noise. Red timing noise - the stochastic wandering of pulse arrival times with a red spectrum - is prevalent in slow-spinning pulsars and has been identified in many millisecond pulsars. Phenomenological models of timing noise, such as from superfluid turbulence, suggest that the timing noise spectrum plateaus below some critical frequency, $f_c$, potentially aiding the hunt for gravitational waves. We examine this effect for individual pulsars by calculating minimum observation times, $T_{\\rm min}(f_c)$, over which the gravitational wave signal becomes larger than the timing noise plateau. We do this in two ways: 1) in a model-independent manner, and 2) by using the superfluid turbulence model for timing noise as an example to illustrate how neutron star parameters can be constrained. We show that the superfluid turbulence model can reproduce the data qualitatively from a number of pulsars observed as part of ...

  8. Timing analysis for 20 millisecond pulsars in the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    CERN Document Server

    Reardon, D J; Coles, W; Levin, Y; Keith, M J; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Kerr, M; Lasky, P D; Manchester, R N; Osłowski, S; Ravi, V; Shannon, R M; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J; Wen, L; You, X P; Zhu, X -J

    2015-01-01

    We present timing models for 20 millisecond pulsars in the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array. The precision of the parameter measurements in these models has been improved over earlier results by using longer data sets and modelling the non-stationary noise. We describe a new noise modelling procedure and demonstrate its effectiveness using simulated data. Our methodology includes the addition of annual dispersion measure (DM) variations to the timing models of some pulsars. We present the first significant parallax measurements for PSRs J1024-0719, J1045-4509, J1600-3053, J1603-7202, and J1730-2304, as well as the first significant measurements of some post-Keplerian orbital parameters in six binary pulsars, caused by kinematic effects. Improved Shapiro delay measurements have resulted in much improved pulsar mass measurements, particularly for PSRs J0437-4715 and J1909-3744 with $M_p=1.44\\pm0.07$ $M_\\odot$ and $M_p=1.47\\pm0.03$ $M_\\odot$ respectively. The improved orbital period-derivative measurement for PSR J043...

  9. Including the pulsar-term in continuous gravitational-wave searches using pulsar timing arrays: a blessing and a curse

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Stephen; Gair, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We describe several new techniques which accelerate Bayesian searches for continuous gravitational-wave emission from supermassive black-hole binaries using pulsar timing arrays. These techniques mitigate the problematic increase of search-dimensionality with the size of the pulsar array which arises from having to include an extra parameter per pulsar as the array is expanded. This extra parameter corresponds to searching over the phase of the gravitational-wave as it propagates past each pulsar so that we can coherently include the pulsar-term in our search strategies. Our techniques make the analysis tractable with powerful evidence-evaluation packages like MultiNest. We find good agreement of our techniques with the parameter-estimation and Bayes factor evaluation performed with full signal templates, and conclude that these techniques make excellent first-cut tools for detection and characterisation of continuous gravitational-wave signals with pulsar timing arrays. Crucially, at low to moderate signal-t...

  10. PEACE: Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction -- A software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K J; Jenet, F A; Martinez, J; Dartez, L P; Mata, A; Lunsford, G; Cohen, S; Biwer, C M; Rohr, M; Flanigan, J; Walker, A; Banaszak, S; Allen, B; Barr, E D; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P; Hessels, J W T; Karuppusamy, R; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Lyne, A; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, S; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Spitler, L; Stairs, I; Tan, M; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2013-01-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labor intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called PEACE (Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command enter programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68% of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17% of sorted candidates, 95% ...

  11. Characterization of a Precision Pulsar Timing Gravitational Wave Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    We aim to construct a Galactic-scale detector comprised of an array of pulsars distributed across the sky in an effort to detect low-frequency (nanohertz) gravitational waves. Even without a detection, observations of pulsar timing arrays have allowed us to begin to place impactful astrophysical constraints on dynamical processes occurring during galaxy mergers. Understanding the detector is necessary for improving our sensitivity to gravitational waves and making a detection. Therefore, our goal is to characterize the entire propagation path through the pulsar timing array detector. To do so, we must understand: what intrinsic noise processes occur at the pulsar, what effects the interstellar medium has on pulsed radio emission, and what errors we introduce when measuring the incident electromagnetic radiation at our observatories.In this work, we observed of one of the most spin-stable objects known for 24 hours to understand the fundamental limits of precision pulsar timing. We investigated the effect of non-simultaneous, multi-frequency sampling of pulsar dispersion measures on timing and analyzed the cause of deterministic and stochastic temporal variations seen in dispersion measure time series. We analyzed errors in pulse arrival times and determined the white noise budget for pulsars on the timescale of a single observation. Finally, we measured the excess noise beyond the white noise model in pulsar timing residuals and incorporated our results into a global model over all pulsar populations to improve excess noise scaling relations.

  12. MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON PULSAR POPULATIONS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, R. S.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (Puerto Rico); Lazio, T. J. W., E-mail: rwharton@astro.cornell.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, M/S 138-308, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    The detection of radio pulsars within the central few parsecs of the Galaxy would provide a unique probe of the gravitational and magneto-ionic environments in the Galactic center (GC) and, if close enough to Sgr A*, precise tests of general relativity in the strong-field regime. While it is difficult to find pulsars at radio wavelengths because of interstellar scattering, the payoff from detailed timing of pulsars in the GC warrants a concerted effort. To motivate pulsar surveys and help define search parameters for them, we constrain the pulsar number and spatial distribution using a wide range of multiwavelength measurements. These include the five known radio pulsars within 15' of Sgr A*, non-detections in high-frequency pulsar surveys of the central parsec, radio and gamma-ray measurements of diffuse emission, a catalog of radio point sources from an imaging survey, infrared observations of massive star populations in the central few parsecs, candidate pulsar wind nebulae in the inner 20 pc, and estimates of the core-collapse supernova rate based on X-ray measurements. We find that under current observational constraints, the inner parsec of the Galaxy could harbor as many as {approx}10{sup 3} active radio pulsars that are beamed toward Earth. Such a large population would distort the low-frequency measurements of both the intrinsic spectrum of Sgr A* and the free-free absorption along the line of sight of Sgr A*.

  13. Observing peculiar γ-ray pulsars with AGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilia, M.; Pellizzoni, A.

    2011-08-01

    The AGILE γ-ray satellite provides large sky exposure levels (>=109 cm2 s per year on the Galactic Plane) with sensitivity peaking at E ~100 MeV where the bulk of pulsar energy output is typically released. Its ~1 μs absolute time tagging capability makes it perfectly suited for the study of γ-ray pulsars. AGILE collected a large number of γ-ray photons from EGRET pulsars (>=40,000 pulsed counts for Vela) in two years of observations unveiling new interesting features at sub-millisecond level in the pulsars' high-energy light-curves, γ-ray emission from pulsar glitches and Pulsar Wind Nebulae. AGILE detected about 20 nearby and energetic pulsars with good confidence through timing and/or spatial analysis. Among the newcomers we find pulsars with very high rotational energy losses, such as the remarkable PSR B1509-58 with a magnetic field in excess of 1013 Gauss, and PSR J2229+6114 providing a reliable identification for the previously unidentified EGRET source 3EG2227+6122. Moreover, the powerful millisecond pulsar B1821-24, in the globular cluster M28, is detected during a fraction of the observations.

  14. Searching for sub-millisecond pulsars: A theoretical view

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, R

    2006-01-01

    Sub-millisecond pulsars should be triaxial (Jacobi ellipsoids), which may not spin down to super-millisecond periods via gravitation wave radiation during their lifetimes if they are extremely low mass bare strange quark stars. It is addressed that the spindown of sub-millisecond pulsars would be torqued dominantly by gravitational wave radiation (with braking index n ~ 5). The radio luminosity of sub-millisecond pulsars could be high enough to be detected in advanced radio telescopes. Sub-millisecond pulsars, if detected, should be very likely quark stars with low masses and/or small equatorial ellipticities.

  15. New algorithms for radio pulsar search

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Kendrick M

    2016-01-01

    The computational cost of searching for new pulsars is a limiting factor for upcoming radio telescopes such as SKA. We introduce four new algorithms: an optimal constant-period search, a coherent tree search which permits optimal searching with O(1) cost per model, a semicoherent search which combines information from coherent subsearches while preserving as much phase information as possible, and a hierarchical search which interpolates between the coherent and semicoherent limits. Taken together, these algorithms improve the computational cost of pulsar search by several orders of magnitude. In this paper, we consider the simple case of a constant-acceleration phase model, but our methods should generalize to more complex search spaces.

  16. Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, T M; Langer, N

    2012-01-01

    Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the (P,Pdot)-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the (P,Pdot)-diagram.

  17. Velocities of pulsars and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1996-01-01

    We show that two long-standing astrophysical puzzles may have a simultaneous solution. Neutrino oscillations, biased by the magnetic field, alter the shape of the neutrinosphere in a cooling protoneutron star emerging from the supernova collapse. The resulting anisotropy in the momentum of outgoing neutrinos can be the origin of the observed proper motions of pulsars. Since the birth velocities generated this way are proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, this may also explain the observed isotropy of the gamma-ray bursts if they originate from old neutron stars. The connection between the motion of pulsars and neutrino oscillations results in a prediction for the \\tau neutrino mass of m(\

  18. Pulsar searches in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Herrera, Eduardo; Maccarone, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We have been undertaking a comprehensive survey for pulsars and fast radio transients in the dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way using the Green Bank Radio Telescope operating at a central frequency of 350 MHz. Our search pipeline allows the detection of periodical signals and single dispersed pulses and it is optimized to search for millisecond radio pulsars. Here we present preliminary results of the searches we have conducted in the Ursa Minoris, Draco and Leo I dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. Our searches have revealed no periodic signals but a few unconfirmed millisecond single pulses at various dispersion measures, possibly related to neutron stars. Detecting neutron stars in these systems can potentially help to test the existence of haloes of dark matter surrounding these systems as predicted by Dehnen & King (2006).

  19. Centrifugal acceleration of plasma in pulsar magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Gangadhara; V Krishna

    2003-12-01

    We present a relativistic model for the centrifugal acceleration of plasma bunches and the coherent radio emission in pulsar magnetosphere. We find that rotation broadens the width of leading component compared to the width of trailing component. We explain this difference in the component widths using the nested cone emission geometry. We estimate the effect of pulsar spin on the Stokes parameters, and find that the inclination between the rotation and magnetic axes can introduce an asymmetry in the circular polarization of the conal components. We analyse the single pulse polarization data of PSR B0329+54 at 606 MHz, and find that in its conal components, one sense of circular polarization dominates in the leading component while the other sense dominates in the trailing component. Our simulation shows that changing the sign of the impact parameter changes the sense of circular polarization as well as the swing of polarization angle.

  20. High Energy Processes in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2006-01-01

    Young pulsars produce relativistic winds which interact with matter ejected during the supernova explosion and the surrounding interstellar gas. Particles are accelerated to very high energies somewhere in the pulsar winds or at the shocks produced in collisions of the winds with the surrounding medium. As a result of interactions of relativistic leptons with the magnetic field and low energy radiation (of synchrotron origin, thermal, or microwave background), the non-thermal radiation is produced with the lowest possible energies up to $\\sim$100 TeV. The high energy (TeV) gamma-ray emission has been originally observed from the Crab Nebula and recently from several other objects. Recent observations by the HESS Cherenkov telescopes allow to study for the first time morphology of the sources of high energy emission, showing unexpected spectral features. They might be also interpreted as due to acceleration of hadrons. However, theory of particle acceleration in the PWNe and models for production of radiation ...

  1. Pulsar braking: Time dependent moment of inertia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanec, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars rotate with extremely stable rotational frequency enabling one to measure its first and second time derivatives. These observed values can be combined to the so-called braking index. However observed values of braking index differ from the theoretical value of 3 corresponding to braking by magnetic dipole radiation being the dominant theoretical model. Such a difference can be explained by contribution of other mechanism like pulsar wind or quadrupole radiation, or by time dependency of magnetic field or moment of inertia. In this presentation we focus on influence of time dependent moment of inertia on the braking index. We will also discuss possible physical models for time-dependence of moment of inertia.

  2. Crab pulsar timing 1982-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, A. G.; Pritchard, R. S.; Smith, F. G.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of the arrival times of pulses from the pulsar in the Crab Nebula over a six-year interval are presented. The data are intended to permit the investigation of the interior of the neutron star through the study of glitches and timing noise and to provide an ephemeris for high-energy observations. The first and second frequency derivatives provide a value for the braking index of n = 2.509 + or - 0.001, which is consistent with previous observations. The third frequency derivative can now be determined over an 18-yr span and is as expected for this braking index. The predominant deviations from a simple slow-down model form a sinusoid with a period of 20 months, attributable to an oscillation of the bulk of the neutron superfluid in the pulsar. One conspicuous glitch occurred in August, 1986 and the subsequent recovery was studied from only one hour after the event.

  3. 50 pico arcsecond astrometry of pulsar emission

    CERN Document Server

    Pen, Ue-Li; Deller, Adam; Brisken, Walter

    2013-01-01

    We use VLBI imaging of the interstellar scattering speckle pattern associated with the pulsar PSR 0834+06 to measure the astrometric motion of its emission. The ~ 5AU interstellar baselines, provided by interference between speckles spanning the scattering disk, enable us to detect motions with sub nanoarcsecond accuracy. We measure a small pulse deflection of ~8+/-2 km (not including geometric uncertainties), which is 100 times smaller than the native resolution of this interstellar interferometer. This implies that the emission region is small, and at an altitude of a few hundred km, with the exact value depending on field geometry. This is substantially closer to the star than to the light cylinder. Future VLBI measurements can improve on this finding. This new regime of ultra-precise astrometry may enable precision parallax distance determination of pulsar binary displacements.

  4. Theory of pulsar magnetosphere and wind

    CERN Document Server

    Pétri, J

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars are fascinating astrophysical objects immersed in strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields, at the edge of our current theories. These stars manifest themselves mostly as pulsars, emitting a timely very stable and regular electromagnetic signal. Even though discovered almost fifty years ago, they still remain mysterious compact stellar objects. In this review, we summarize the most fundamental theoretical aspects of neutron star magnetospheres and winds. The main competing models susceptible to explain their radiative properties like multi-wavelength pulse shapes and spectra and the underlying physical processes such as pair creation and radiation mechanisms are scrutinized. A global but still rather qualitative picture emerges slowly thanks to recent advances in numerical simulations on the largest scales. However considerations about pulsar magnetospheres remain speculative. For instance the exact composition of the magnetospheric plasma is not yet known. Is it solely filled with a mixt...

  5. Bayesian inference for pulsar timing models

    CERN Document Server

    Vigeland, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    The extremely regular, periodic radio emission from millisecond pulsars make them useful tools for studying neutron star astrophysics, general relativity, and low-frequency gravitational waves. These studies require that the observed pulse time of arrivals are fit to complicated timing models that describe numerous effects such as the astrometry of the source, the evolution of the pulsar's spin, the presence of a binary companion, and the propagation of the pulses through the interstellar medium. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of using Bayesian inference to obtain these timing solutions. These include the validation of linearized least-squares model fits when they are correct, and the proper characterization of parameter uncertainties when they are not; the incorporation of prior parameter information and of models of correlated noise; and the Bayesian comparison of alternative timing models. We describe our computational setup, which combines the timing models of tempo2 with the nested-sampling integ...

  6. Pulsar Scintillation and the Local Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, N D R; Rao, A P; Gupta, Yashwant

    1998-01-01

    We present here the results from an extensive scintillation study of twenty pulsars in the dispersion measure (DM) range 3 - 35 pc cm^-3 caried out using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) at 327 MHz, to investigate the distribution of ionized material in the local interstellar medium. Observations were made during the period January 1993 to August 1995, in which the dynamic scintillation spectra of these pulsars were regularly monitored over 10 - 90 epochs spanning 100 days. Reliable and accurate estimates of strengths of scattering have been deduced from the scintillation parameters averaged out for their long-term fluctuations arising from refractive scintillation (RISS) effects. Our analysis reveals several anomalies in the scattering strength, which suggest tht the distribution of scattering material in the Solar neighborhood is not uniform. We have modelled these anomalous scattering effects in terms of inhomogeneities in the distribution of electron dnsity fluctuations in the local interstellar medium (LIS...

  7. Pulsar Magnetospheres: Beyond the Flat Spacetime Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Philippov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of the pulsar magnetosphere have assumed a pure magnetic dipole in flat spacetime. However, recent work suggests that the effects of general relativity are in fact of vital importance and that realistic pulsar magnetic fields may have a significant nondipolar component. We introduce a general analytical method for studying the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a slowly-rotating star of arbitrary magnetic field, mass, radius and moment of inertia, including all the effects of general relativity. We confirm that spacelike current is generically present in the polar caps (suggesting a pair production region), irrespective of the stellar magnetic field. We show that general relativity introduces a ~60% correction to the formula for the dipolar component of the surface magnetic field inferred from spindown. Finally, we show that the location and size of the polar caps can be modified dramatically by even modestly strong higher moments. This can affect emission processes occurring near the star ...

  8. Are there two types of pulsars?

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the importance of dissipation in the pulsar magnetosphere we combined Force-Free with Aristotelian Electrodynamics. We obtain solutions that are ideal (non-dissipative) everywhere except in an equatorial current sheet where Poynting flux from both hemispheres converges and is dissipated into particle acceleration and radiation. We obtain significant dissipative losses similar to what is found in global PIC simulations in which particles are provided only on the stellar surface. We conclude that there might indeed exist two types of pulsars, strongly dissipative ones with particle injection only from the stellar surface, and ideal (weakly dissipative) ones with particle injection in the outer magnetosphere and in particular at the Y-point.

  9. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Probing Radio Pulsar Intermittency and Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Deneva, J S; McLaughlin, M A; Nice, D J; Lorimer, D R; Crawford, F; Bhat, N D R; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Freire, P C C; Edel, S; Kondratiev, V I; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Krämer, M; Lazarus, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Brazier, A; Venkataraman, A; Zollweg, J A

    2008-01-01

    We present radio transient search algorithms, results, and statistics from the ongoing Arecibo Pulsar ALFA (PALFA) Survey of the Galactic plane. We have discovered seven objects by detecting isolated dispersed pulses and one of the new discoveries has a duty cycle of 0.01%, the smallest known. The impact of selection effects on the detectability and classification of intermittent sources is discussed, and the relative efficiencies of periodicity vs. single pulse searches are compared for various pulsar classes. We find that scintillation, off-axis detection and few rotation periods within an observation may misrepresent normal periodic pulsars as intermittent sources. Finally, we derive constraints on transient pulse rate and flux density from the PALFA survey parameters and results.

  10. Geminga’s Puzzling Pulsar Wind Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Slane, P. O.; Romani, R.; Bucciantini, N.; Bykov, A. M.; Kargaltsev, O.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    We report on six new Chandra observations of the Geminga pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The PWN consists of three distinct elongated structures—two ≈ 0.2{d}250 pc long lateral tails and a segmented axial tail of ≈ 0.05{d}250 pc length, where {d}250=d/(250 {pc}). The photon indices of the power-law spectra of the lateral tails, {{Γ }}≈ 1, are significantly harder than those of the pulsar ({{Γ }}≈ 1.5) and the axial tail ({{Γ }}≈ 1.6). There is no significant diffuse X-ray emission between the lateral tails—the ratio of the X-ray surface brightness between the south tail and this sky area is at least 12. The lateral tails apparently connect directly to the pulsar and show indications of moving footpoints. The axial tail comprises time-variable emission blobs. However, there is no evidence for constant or decelerated outward motion of these blobs. Different physical models are consistent with the observed morphology and spectra of the Geminga PWN. In one scenario, the lateral tails could represent an azimuthally asymmetric shell whose hard emission is caused by the Fermi acceleration mechanism of colliding winds. In another scenario, the lateral tails could be luminous, bent polar outflows, while the blobs in the axial tail could represent a crushed torus. In a resemblance to planetary magnetotails, the blobs of the axial tail might also represent short-lived plasmoids, which are formed by magnetic field reconnection in the relativistic plasma of the pulsar wind tail.

  11. Pulsar PRS 0656 + 14 - Period and spindown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, D.; Rankin, J. M.; Weisberg, J. M.; Backus, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    Observations from various sources are used to explain the larger-than-expected period noted for pulsar 0656 + 14 on July 7, 1984 (Ashworth and Lyne, 1981). No indication of orbital motion was found, and most of the observations are consistent with a simple secular spindown. The derived period derivative of (54.3 + or - 1.3) x 10 to the -15th at epoch 2444300 is far greater than the previously reported value.

  12. The nature of pulsar radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyks, J.; Rudak, B.; Demorest, P.

    2010-01-01

    High-quality averaged radio profiles of some pulsars exhibit double, highly symmetric features both in emission and in absorption. It is shown that both types of feature are produced by a split fan beam of extraordinary-mode curvature radiation that is emitted/absorbed by radially extended streams of magnetospheric plasma. With no emissivity in the plane of the stream, such a beam produces bifurcated emission components (BFCs) when our line of sight passes through the plane. An example of a double component created in this way is present in the averaged profile of the 5-ms pulsar J1012+5307. We show that the component can indeed be very well fitted by the textbook formula for the non-coherent beam of curvature radiation in the polarization state that is orthogonal to the plane of electron trajectory. The observed width of the BFC decreases with increasing frequency at a rate that confirms the curvature origin. Likewise, the double absorption features (double notches) are produced by the same beam of the extraordinary-mode curvature radiation, when it is eclipsed by thin plasma streams. The intrinsic property of curvature radiation to create bifurcated fan beams explains the double features in terms of a very natural geometry and implies the curvature origin of pulsar radio emission. Similarly, the `double conal' profiles of class D result from a cut through a wider stream with finite extent in magnetic azimuth. Therefore, their width reacts very slowly to changes of viewing geometry resulting from geodetic precession. The stream-cut interpretation implies a highly non-orthodox origin of both the famous S-swing of polarization angle and the low-frequency pulse broadening in D profiles. The azimuthal structure of polarization modes in the curvature radiation beam provides an explanation for the polarized `multiple imaging' and the edge depolarization of pulsar profiles.

  13. Braking index of isolated pulsars. II. A novel two-dipole model of pulsar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, N. J.; Stone, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic dipole radiation model is currently the best approach we have to explain pulsar radiation. However, a most characteristic parameter of the observed radiation, the braking index nobs , shows deviations for all the eight best studied isolated pulsars, from the simple model prediction ndip=3 . The index depends upon the rotational frequency and its first and second time derivatives but also on the assumption that the magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle and the moment of inertia of the pulsar are constant in time. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 91, 063007 (2015)], we showed conclusively that changes in the moment of inertia with frequency alone cannot explain the observed braking indices. Possible observational evidence for the magnetic dipole moment migrating away from the rotational axis at a rate α ˙ ˜0.6 ° per 100 years over the lifetime of the Crab pulsar has been recently suggested by Lyne et al. In this paper, we explore the magnetic dipole radiation model with constant moment of inertia and magnetic dipole moment but variable inclination angle α . We first discuss the effect of the variation of α on the observed braking indices and show they all can be understood. However, no explanation for the origin of the change in α is provided. After discussion of the possible source(s) of magnetism in pulsars, we propose a simple mechanism for the change in α based on a toy model in which the magnetic structure in pulsars consists of two interacting dipoles. We show that such a system can explain the Crab observation and the measured braking indices.

  14. Highly-Magnetized Pulsars and Integral

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.

    1998-01-01

    The complete absence of radio pulsars with periods exceeding a few seconds has lead to the popular notion of the existence of a high period death line. We have recently postulated the existence of another radio quiescence boundary at high magnetic fields ($B\\gtrsim 4\\times 10^{13}$G) in the upper portion of the period-period derivative diagram, a domain where no radio pulsars are observed. The origin of this high B boundary is also due to the suppression of magnetic pair creation, $\\gamma\\to e^{\\pm}$, but mainly because of competition with the exotic QED process of magnetic photon splitting, $\\gamma\\to\\gamma\\gamma$, coupled with ground state pair creation. This mechanism could also explain the low spectral cutoff energy of the gamma-ray pulsar PSR1509-58, which lies near the high B death-line. In this paper, we summarize the hypothesis of this new ``death line,'' and discuss some subtleties of pair suppression that relate to photon polarization and positronium formation. We identify several ways in which Inte...

  15. Pulsar Magnetospheres: Beyond the Flat Spacetime Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Philippov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Most studies of the pulsar magnetosphere have assumed a pure magnetic dipole in flat spacetime. However, recent work suggests that the effects of general relativity are in fact of vital importance and that realistic pulsar magnetic fields will have a significant nondipolar component. We introduce a general analytical method for studying the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a slowly rotating star of arbitrary magnetic field, mass, radius, and moment of inertia, including all the effects of general relativity. We confirm that spacelike current is generically present in the polar caps (suggesting a pair production region), irrespective of the stellar magnetic field. We show that general relativity introduces a ∼ 60 % correction to the formula for the dipolar component of the surface magnetic field inferred from spindown. Finally, we show that the location and shape of the polar caps can be modified dramatically by even modestly strong higher moments. This can affect emission processes occurring near the star and may help explain the modified beam characteristics of millisecond pulsars.

  16. Multiwavelength analysis of four millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, L.; Cognard, I.; Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2011-08-01

    Radio timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in support of Fermi LAT observations of the gamma-ray sky enhance the sensitivity of high-energy pulsation searches. With contemporaneous ephemerides we have detected gamma-ray pulsations from PSR B1937+21, the first MSP ever discovered, and B1957+20, the first known black-widow system. The two MSPs share a number of properties: they are energetic and distant compared to other gamma-ray MSPs, and both of them exhibit aligned radio and gamma-ray emission peaks, indicating co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere of the pulsars. However, radio observations are also crucial for revealing MSPs in Fermi unassociated sources. In a search for radio pulsations at the position of such unassociated sources, the Nançay Radio Telescope discovered two MSPs, PSRs J2017+0603 and J2302+4442, increasing the sample of known Galactic disk MSPs. Subsequent radio timing observations led to the detection of gamma-ray pulsations from these two MSPs as well. We describe multiwavelength timing and spectral analysis of these four pulsars, and the modeling of their gamma-ray light curves in the context of theoretical models.

  17. LEAP: the large European array for pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Bassa, C G; Karuppusamy, R; Kramer, M; Lee, K J; Liu, K; McKee, J; Perrodin, D; Purver, M; Sanidas, S; Smits, R; Stappers, B W

    2015-01-01

    The Large European Array for Pulsars (LEAP) is an experiment that harvests the collective power of Europe's largest radio telescopes in order to increase the sensitivity of high-precision pulsar timing. As part of the ongoing effort of the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA), LEAP aims to go beyond the sensitivity threshold needed to deliver the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The five telescopes presently included in LEAP are: the Effelsberg telescope, the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, the Nan\\c cay radio telescope, the Sardinia Radio Telescope and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Dual polarization, Nyquist-sampled time-series of the incoming radio waves are recorded and processed offline to form the coherent sum, resulting in a tied-array telescope with an effective aperture equivalent to a 195-m diameter circular dish. All observations are performed using a bandwidth of 128 MHz centered at a frequency of 1396 MHz. In this paper, we present the design of the LEAP experiment, the ...

  18. High-energy radiation from old pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we study nonthermal high energy radiation from old rotation-powered pulsars with ages greater than 106 yr based on the revised outer gap model.In this model,the inclination angle and geometry of the magnetic field have been taken into account,and the fractional size f of the outer gap is determined by the electron/positron pair production process.The cascade process caused by the back-flowing particles moving from the outer gap to the star will produce the observed nonthermal X-ray emission,and the relativistic particles accelerated in the outer gap will produce gamma-rays via curvature radiation.For nine old pulsars which have been detected to have nonthermal X-rays,we first use the observed nonthermal X-ray emission to estimate reasonable inclination angles,and then estimate their gamma-ray emissions.We also study the possibilities of gamma-ray emissions from other old rotation-powered pulsars.We compare our predicted gamma-ray flux with the sensitivities of AGILE and Fermi.

  19. The nature of pulsar radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Dyks, J; Demorest, P

    2009-01-01

    High-quality averaged radio profiles of some pulsars exhibit double, highly symmetric features both in `absorption' and emission. Averaged profile of a 5-ms pulsar J1012+5307 hosts a distinct, extremely symmetric, and bifurcated emission component (BFC) with deep central minimum. We show that the component can be very well fitted by the textbook formula for the non-coherent beam of curvature radiation (CR) in the polarisation state that is orthogonal to the plane of electron trajectory. The separation Delta_bfc of maxima in the BFC is observed to decrease with increasing frequency nu_obs at the rate that is consistent with the curvature origin (Delta_bfc proportional to nu_obs^(-1/3)). With zero emissivity in the plane of electron trajectory, the extraordinary-mode beam can naturally produce deep double absorption features (double notches) observed in other pulsars. The bifurcated emission components are observed when the line of sight passes through splitted fan beams produced by radially-extended streams of...

  20. Topological crystalline insulator PbxSn1-xTe thin films on SrTiO3 (001 with tunable Fermi levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report a systematic study of topological crystalline insulator PbxSn1-xTe (0 < x < 1 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(001. Two domains of PbxSn1-xTe thin films with intersecting angle of α ≈ 45° were confirmed by reflection high energy diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES. ARPES study of PbxSn1-xTe thin films demonstrated that the Fermi level of PbTe could be tuned by altering the temperature of substrate whereas SnTe cannot. An M-shaped valance band structure was observed only in SnTe but PbTe is in a topological trivial state with a large gap. In addition, co-evaporation of SnTe and PbTe results in an equivalent variation of Pb concentration as well as the Fermi level of PbxSn1-xTe thin films.

  1. Evidence for a compact jet dominating the broad-band spectrum of the black hole accretor XTE J1550-564

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Maitra, D.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Markoff, S.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 was monitored extensively at X-ray, optical and infrared wavelengths throughout its outburst in 2000. We show that it is possible to separate the optical/near-infrared (OIR) jet emission from the OIR disc emission. Focussing on the jet component, we find tha

  2. Evidence for a compact jet dominating the broad-band spectrum of the black hole accretor XTE J1550-564

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Maitra, D.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Markoff, S.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564 was monitored extensively at X-ray, optical and infrared wavelengths throughout its outburst in 2000. We show that it is possible to separate the optical/near-infrared (OIR) jet emission from the OIR disc emission. Focussing on the jet component, we find

  3. Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots growth in a silicate glass matrix by the fusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Lima Fernandes, Guilherme de; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38408-100 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo; Gómez, Jorge Antônio [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-29

    In this study, we synthesized Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots (USQDs) in SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system using the fusion method. Growth of these Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs was confirmed by optical absorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The blueshift of absorption transition with increasing manganese concentration gives evidence of incorporation of manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) in CdTe USQDs. AFM, TEM, and MFM confirmed, respectively, the formation of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs with uniformly distributed size and magnetic phases. Furthermore, EPR spectra showed six lines associated to the S = 5/2 spin half-filled d-state, characteristic of Mn{sup 2+}, and confirmed that Mn{sup 2+} are located in the sites core and surface of the CdTe USQD. Therefore, synthesis of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs may allow the control of optical and magnetic properties.

  4. Radio pulsar death lines to SGRs/AXPs and white dwarfs pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, M. [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, ITA - DCTA, Vila das Acácias, São José dos Campos, 12228-900 SP (Brazil); Coelho, J. G. [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisão de Astrofísica, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    Recently, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain a class of pulsars known as Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGR) and Anomalus X-Ray Pulsars (AXP) [1], usually named as magnetars. In this model, the magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field B ∼ 10{sup 7} − 10{sup 10} G and rotate very fast with angular frequencies Ω ∼ 1 rad/s, allowing them to produce large electromagnetic (EM) potentials and generate electron-positron pairs. These EM potentials are comparable with the ones of neutron star pulsars with strong magnetic fields and even larger. In this study we consider two possible processes associated with the particle acceleration, both of them are common used to explain radio emission in neutron star pulsars: in the first process the pair production happens near to the star polar caps, i.e. inside of the light cylinder where magnetic field lines are closed; in the second one the creation of pair happens in the outer magnetosphere, i.e. far away of the star surface where magnetic field lines are open [2]. The analysis of the possibility of radio emission were done for 23 SGRs/AXPs of the McGill Online Magnetar Catalog [3] that contains the current information available on these sources. The results of this work show that the model where the particles production occur in the outer magnetosphere emission “o2” is the process compatible with the astronomical observations of absence of radio emission for almost all SGRs/AXPs when these sources are understood as white dwarf pulsars. Our work is a first attempted to find an explanation for the puzzle why for almost all the SGRs/AXPs was expected radio emission, but it was observed in only four of them. These four sources, as it was suggested recently [4], seem to belong to an high magnetic field neutron star pulsar category, different from all the others SGRs/AXPs that our work indicate to belong to a new class of white dwarf pulsars, very fast and magnetized.

  5. Radio pulsar death lines to SGRs/AXPs and white dwarfs pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Coelho, J. G.; Malheiro, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain a class of pulsars known as Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGR) and Anomalus X-Ray Pulsars (AXP) [1], usually named as magnetars. In this model, the magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107 - 1010 G and rotate very fast with angular frequencies Ω ˜ 1 rad/s, allowing them to produce large electromagnetic (EM) potentials and generate electron-positron pairs. These EM potentials are comparable with the ones of neutron star pulsars with strong magnetic fields and even larger. In this study we consider two possible processes associated with the particle acceleration, both of them are common used to explain radio emission in neutron star pulsars: in the first process the pair production happens near to the star polar caps, i.e. inside of the light cylinder where magnetic field lines are closed; in the second one the creation of pair happens in the outer magnetosphere, i.e. far away of the star surface where magnetic field lines are open [2]. The analysis of the possibility of radio emission were done for 23 SGRs/AXPs of the McGill Online Magnetar Catalog [3] that contains the current information available on these sources. The results of this work show that the model where the particles production occur in the outer magnetosphere emission "o2" is the process compatible with the astronomical observations of absence of radio emission for almost all SGRs/AXPs when these sources are understood as white dwarf pulsars. Our work is a first attempted to find an explanation for the puzzle why for almost all the SGRs/AXPs was expected radio emission, but it was observed in only four of them. These four sources, as it was suggested recently [4], seem to belong to an high magnetic field neutron star pulsar category, different from all the others SGRs/AXPs that our work indicate to belong to a new class of white dwarf pulsars, very fast and magnetized.

  6. Characterizing Intermittency of 4-Hz Quasi-periodic Oscillation in XTE J1550-564 using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yi-Hao; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We present the time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550 564. By adaptively decomposing the ~4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 Hz and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO's high and low amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ~4-Hz oscillations, respectively. ...

  7. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, Baokai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Neupane, Madhab; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Zahid Hasan, M.

    2016-02-01

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1-xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touching points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1-xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.

  8. Detection of a large Be circumstellar disk during X-ray quiescence of XTE J1946+274

    CERN Document Server

    Arabaci, M Ozbey; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Zurita, C; Nespoli, E; Suso, J; Kiaeerad, F; Garcia-Rojas, J; Kiziloglu, U

    2014-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Be/X-ray binary system XTE J1946+274 with the main goal of better characterizing its behavior during X-ray quiescence. We aim to shed light on the mechanism which triggers the X-ray activity for this source. XTE J1946+274 was observed by Chandra-ACIS during quiescence in 2013 March 12. In addition, this source has been monitored from the ground-based astronomical observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Spain), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) and Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain) since 2011 September, and from the TUBITAK National Observatory (Antalya, Turkey) since 2005 April. We have performed spectral and photometric temporal analyses in order to investigate the quiescent state and transient behavior of this binary system. In 2006, a long mass ejection event took place from the Be star, lasting for about seven years. We also found that a large Be circumstellar disk was present during quiescence, although major X-ray activity was not observed. We made an attempt t...

  9. Correlated X-ray Spectral and Timing Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, J; Van der Klis, M; Belloni, T; Van Paradijs, J; Klein-Wolt, M; Fender, R P; Méndez, M; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Klis, Michiel van der; Belloni, Tomaso; Paradijs, Jan van; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Fender, Robert P; Mendez, Mariano

    2000-01-01

    We present an analysis of data of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1550-564, taken with RXTE between 1998 Nov 22 and 1999 May 20. The source went through several different states, which were divided into soft and hard states, based on the relative strength of the high energy power law tail. The states showed up as distinct branches in the color-color diagram, connecting to form a structure with a comb-like topology, the branch corresponding to the soft state forming the spine and the branches corresponding to the various hard states forming the teeth of the comb. The power spectral properties of each branch were correlated with their spectral properties. Three types of QPOs were found: 1-18 Hz and 100-285 Hz QPOs on the hard branches, and 15-18 Hz QPOs on and near the soft branch. The frequency of the high and low frequency QPOs on the hard branches were correlated with each other, and with spectral hardness. The behavior of the XTE J1550-564 strongly favors a two-dimensional description of black hole beha...

  10. MAXI GSC observations of a spectral state transition in the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223

    CERN Document Server

    Nakahira, Satoshi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Daikyuji, Arata; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Isobe, Naoki; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyoshi, Sho; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E; Nakajima, Motoki; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suzuki, Motoko; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results on the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 from the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on-board the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station. Including the onset of the outburst reported by the Proportional Counter Array on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer on 2009 October 23, the MAXI/GSC has been monitoring this source approximately 10 times per day with a high sensitivity in the 2-20 keV band. XTE J1752-223 was initially in the low/hard state during the first 3 months. An anti-correlated behavior between the 2-4 keV and 4-20 keV bands were observed around January 20, 2010, indicating that the source exhibited the spectral transition to the high/soft state. A transient radio jet may have been ejected when the source was in the intermediate state where the spectrum was roughly explained by a power-law with a photon index of 2.5-3.0. The unusually long period in the initial low/hard state implies a slow variation in the mass accretion rate, and the dramatic s...

  11. Application of the Nonballistic Model to the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 and the Quasar NRAO 150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T. Y.; Gong, B. P.

    2017-02-01

    Optical and radio observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 have exhibited a slightly curved motion of the jet components, which is associated with its radio light curve. In addition, observations of the quasar NRAO 150 have revealed a core–jet structure wobbling with a high angular speed. In this paper, the phenomena displayed in these two different sources are interpreted as the precession of a bent jet. In such a scenario, hot spots reproduced at different separations from the core precess on the same precession cone, in which different components correspond to different propagation times to the observer. By fitting the kinematics of the components of XTE J1752-223 and its light curve with a curved pattern of precession period 314 days, we find that the propagation time can make an earlier event appear later, and the jet axis can oscillate during its precession. Simulating the quasar NRAO 150 with the same scenario reveals that the knots at larger separation from the core precess at a slower speed than those closer in. A possible mechanism relating to the cooling time of a component is proposed. These three new results are of importance in understanding the physics underlying the curved jet as well as the activity of the central engine of different black hole systems.

  12. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    CERN Document Server

    Fridriksson, Joel K; Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Edward M; Altamirano, Diego; Brown, Edward F; Degenaar, Nathalie; Mendez, Mariano; Belloni, Tomaso M

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of continued monitoring of the quiescent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and Swift. A new Chandra observation from 2010 October extends our tracking of the neutron star surface temperature from ~800 days to ~1160 days since the end of an exceptionally luminous 19 month outburst. This observation indicates that the neutron star crust may still be slowly cooling toward thermal equilibrium with the core; another observation further into quiescence is needed to verify this. The shape of the cooling curve is consistent with that of a broken power law, although an exponential decay to a constant level cannot be excluded with the present data. To investigate possible low-level activity we conducted a monitoring campaign of XTE J1701-462 with Swift during 2010 April-October. Short-term flares - presumably arising from episodic low-level accretion - were observed up to a luminosity of ~1e35 erg/s, ~20 times higher than the normal quiescent level. We conclude that fl...

  13. Radio polarimetry as a probe of unresolved jets: the 2013 outburst of XTE J1908+094

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, P A; Rushton, A P; Pawar, D D; Anderson, G E; Altamirano, D; Krimm, H A; Broderick, J W; Belloni, T M; Fender, R P; Kording, E G; Maitra, D; Markoff, S; Migliari, S; Rumsey, C; Rupen, M P; Russell, D M; Russell, T D; Sarazin, C L; Sivakoff, G R; Soria, R; Tetarenko, A J; Titterington, D; Tudose, V

    2015-01-01

    XTE J1908+094 is an X-ray transient black hole candidate in the Galactic plane that was observed in outburst in 2002 and 2013. Here we present multi-frequency radio and X-ray data, including radio polarimetry, spanning the entire period of the 2013 outburst. We find that the X-ray behaviour of XTE J1908+094 traces the standard black hole hardness-intensity path, evolving from a hard state, through a soft state, before returning to a hard state and quiescence. Its radio behaviour is typical of a compact jet that becomes quenched before discrete ejecta are launched during the late stages of X-ray softening. The radio and X-ray fluxes, as well as the light curve morphologies, are consistent with those observed during the 2002 outburst of this source. The polarisation angle during the rise of the outburst infers a jet orientation in agreement with resolved observations but also displays a gradual drift, which we associate with observed changes in the structure of the discrete ejecta. We also observe an unexpected...

  14. The Low Quiescent X-Ray Luminosity of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J2123-058

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, J A; Halpern, J P; Kaaret, Philip

    2004-01-01

    We report on the first X-ray observations of the neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) XTE J2123-058 in quiescence, made by Chandra and BeppoSAX, as well as contemporaneous optical observations. In 2002, the Chandra spectrum of XTE J2123-058 is consistent with a power-law model, or the combination of a blackbody plus a power-law, but it is not well-described by a pure blackbody. Using the interstellar column density, the power-law fit gives photon index of 3.1 (+0.7,-0.6) and indicates a 0.3-8 keV unabsorbed luminosity of 9(+4,-3)E31 (d/8.5 kpc)^2 ergs/s (90% confidence errors). Fits with models consisting of thermal plus power-law components indicate that the upper limit on the temperature of a 1.4 solar mass, 10 km radius neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere is kT_eff ~ 70 years.

  15. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO's sixth science run

    CERN Document Server

    Meadors, Grant David; Riles, Keith; Creighton, Teviet; Robinet, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) and X-ray transient (XTE) J1751-305 are Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) that may emit continuous gravitational waves detectable in the band of ground-based interferometric observatories. Neutron stars in LMXBs could reach a torque-balance steady-state equilibrium in which angular momentum addition from infalling matter from the binary companion is balanced by angular momentum loss, conceivably due to gravitational-wave emission. Torque-balance predicts a scale for detectable gravitational-wave strain based on observed X-ray flux. This paper describes a search for Sco X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO Science Run 6 data using the TwoSpect algorithm, based on searching for orbital modulations in the frequency domain. While no detections are claimed, the most stringent upper limits to date on continuous gravitational-wave emission from Sco X-1 are obtained, spanning gravitational wave frequencies from 40 to 2040 Hz and projected semi-major axes from 0.90 to 1.98 light-seconds. At optimal strai...

  16. Detection of 107 glitches in 36 southern pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, M; Hobbs, G; Johnston, S; Kaspi, V M; Keith, M; Lyne, A G; Qiao, G J; Ravi, V; Sarkissian, J M; Shannon, R; Xu, R X

    2012-01-01

    Timing observations from the Parkes 64-m radio telescope for 165 pulsars between 1990 and 2011 have been searched for period glitches. A total of 107 glitches were identified in 36 pulsars, where 61 have previously been reported and 46 are new discoveries. Glitch parameters were measured by fitting the timing residual data. Observed relative glitch sizes \\Delta\

  17. Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, V.I.; Pimenov, A.B.; Sokolov, V.A. [Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Denisova, I.P. [Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the corrections of vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed. (orig.)

  18. Detection and estimation of pulsar signals for navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabakchiev, Chr.; Behar, V.; Buist, P.; Heusdens, R.; Garvanov, I.; Kabakchieva, D.; Gaubitch, N.; Bentum, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on scientific issues related to new application of pulsar signals for airplane-based navigation. A possible algorithm for processing of pulsar signals that consists of epoch-folding, matched filtering and detection is proposed and evaluated in this paper. The algorithm proposed is

  19. Pulsar polarisation below 200 MHz: Average profiles and propagation effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noutsos, A.; Sobey, C.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Weltevrede, P.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Karastergiou, A.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Alexov, A.; Breton, R.P.; Bilous, A.V.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.M.; Hassall, T.E.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keane, E.F.; Osłowski, S.; Pilia, M.; Serylak, M.; Stappers, B.W.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zagkouris, K.; Anderson, K.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M.; Broderick, J.; Carbone, D.; Cendes, Y.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R.; Garsden, H.; Jonker, P.; Law, C.; Markoff, S.; Masters, J.; Miller-Jones, J.; Molenaar, G.; Osten, R.; Pietka, M.; Rol, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Scheers, B.; Spreeuw, H.; Staley, T.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.; van der Horst, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We present the highest-quality polarisation profiles to date of 16 non-recycled pulsars and four millisecond pulsars, observed below 200 MHz with the LOFAR high-band antennas. Based on the observed profiles, we perform an initial investigation of expected observational effects resulting from t

  20. Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. I.; Denisova, I. P.; Pimenov, A. B.; Sokolov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the corrections of vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed.

  1. Local pulsars : A note on the birth-velocity distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, A; Ramachandran, R

    1998-01-01

    We explore a simple model for the representation of the observed distributions of the motions, and the characteristic ages of the local population of pulsars. The principal difference from earlier models is the introduction of a unique value, S, for the kick velocity with which pulsars are born. We

  2. Navigation in space by X-ray pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Emadzadeh, Amir Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This book covers modeling of X-ray pulsar signals and explains how X-ray pulsar signals can be used to solve the relative navigation problem. It formulates the problem, proposes a recursive solution and analyzes different aspects of the navigation system.

  3. Multiwavelength Constraints on Pulsar Populations in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Wharton, R S; Cordes, J M; Deneva, J S; Lazio, T J W

    2011-01-01

    The detection of radio pulsars within the central few parsecs of the Galaxy would provide a unique probe of the gravitational and magneto-ionic environments in the Galactic Center (GC) and, if close enough to Sgr A*, precise tests of general relativity in the strong-field regime. While it is difficult to find pulsars at radio wavelengths because of interstellar scattering, the payoff from detailed timing of pulsars in the GC warrants a concerted effort. To motivate pulsar surveys and help define search parameters for them, we constrain the pulsar number and spatial distribution using a wide range of multiwavelength measurements. These include the five known radio pulsars within 15 arcmin of Sgr A*, radio and gamma-ray measurements of diffuse emission, non-detections in high frequency pulsar surveys of the central parsec, a catalog of radio point sources from an imaging survey, infrared observations of massive star populations in the central few parsecs, candidate pulsar wind nebulae in the inner 20 pc and est...

  4. THE PECULIAR PULSAR POPULATION OF THE CENTRAL PARSEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; O' Leary, Ryan M., E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu, E-mail: oleary@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Pulsars orbiting the Galactic center black hole, Sgr A*, would be potential probes of its mass, distance, and spin, and may even be used to test general relativity. Despite predictions of large populations of both ordinary and millisecond pulsars in the Galactic center, none have been detected within 25 pc by deep radio surveys. One explanation has been that hyperstrong temporal scattering prevents pulsar detections, but the recent discovery of radio pulsations from a highly magnetized neutron star (magnetar) within 0.1 pc shows that the temporal scattering is much weaker than predicted. We argue that an intrinsic deficit in the ordinary pulsar population is the most likely reason for the lack of detections to date: a ''missing pulsar problem'' in the Galactic center. In contrast, we show that the discovery of a single magnetar implies efficient magnetar formation in the region. If the massive stars in the central parsec form magnetars rather than ordinary pulsars, their short lifetimes could explain the missing pulsars. Efficient magnetar formation could be caused by strongly magnetized progenitors, or could be further evidence of a top-heavy initial mass function. Furthermore, current high-frequency surveys should already be able to detect bright millisecond pulsars, given the measured degree of temporal scattering.

  5. Observations of Binary and Millisecond Pulsars at Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingbo Wang; Na Wang; Jianping Yuan; Zhiyong Liu

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of radio timing observations of binary and millisecond pulsars in China. We have timed four binary pulsars for 9 years, using Nanshan 25-m radio telescope. The long time span has enabled us to determine their rotation and orbital parameters.

  6. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  7. Detecting dark matter with imploding pulsars in the galactic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph; Linden, Tim

    2014-11-07

    The paucity of old millisecond pulsars observed at the galactic center of the Milky Way could be the result of dark matter accumulating in and destroying neutron stars. In regions of high dark matter density, dark matter clumped in a pulsar can exceed the Schwarzschild limit and collapse into a natal black hole which destroys the pulsar. We examine what dark matter models are consistent with this hypothesis and find regions of parameter space where dark matter accumulation can significantly degrade the neutron star population within the galactic center while remaining consistent with observations of old millisecond pulsars in globular clusters and near the solar position. We identify what dark matter couplings and masses might cause a young pulsar at the galactic center to unexpectedly extinguish. Finally, we find that pulsar collapse age scales inversely with the dark matter density and linearly with the dark matter velocity dispersion. This implies that maximum pulsar age is spatially dependent on position within the dark matter halo of the Milky Way. In turn, this pulsar age spatial dependence will be dark matter model dependent.

  8. Discovery of Two New Pulsars in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhichen; Li, Di; Ridolfi, Alessandro; Wang, Pei; Freire, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new millisecond pulsars (PSRs J0024$-$7204aa and J0024$-$7204ab) in the globular cluster 47\\,Tucanae (NGC 104). Our results bring the total number of pulsars in 47\\,Tucanae to 25. These pulsars were discovered by reprocessing archival observations from the Parkes radio telescope. We reprocessed the data using a standard search procedure based on the PRESTO software package as well as using a new method in which we incoherently added the power spectra corresponding to $\\sim$1100\\,hr of observations. The newly discovered PSR~J0024$-$7204aa, has a pulse frequency of $\\rm \\sim$541\\,Hz (corresponding to a $\\rm \\sim$1.84 ms period), which is higher than any other pulsars currently known in the cluster and ranks 12$^{\\rm{th}}$ amongst all the currently known pulsars. The dispersion measure of this pulsar, 24.941(7)\\,cm$^{-3}$ pc, is the highest in the cluster. The second discovered pulsar, PSR~J0024$-$7204ab, is an isolated pulsar with a pulse frequency of $\\rm \\sim$270\\,Hz (correspond...

  9. Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae Passing Through Density Discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Doosoo

    2016-01-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae are a subset of pulsar wind nebulae that form when the pulsar has high velocity due to the natal kick during the supernova explosion. The interaction between the relativistic wind from the fast-moving pulsar and the interstellar medium produces a bow-shock and a trail, which are detectable in H$_{\\alpha}$ emission. Among such bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae, the Guitar Nebula stands out for its peculiar morphology, which consists of a prominent bow-shock head and a series of bubbles further behind. We present a scenario in which multiple bubbles can be produced when the pulsar encounters a series of density discontinuities in the ISM. We tested the scenario using 2-D and 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. The shape of the guitar nebula can be reproduced if the pulsar traversed a region of declining low density. We also show that if a pulsar encounters an inclined density discontinuity, it produces an asymmetric bow-shock head, consistent with observations of the bow-shock of the millise...

  10. Pulsar polarisation below 200 MHz: Average profiles and propagation effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noutsos, A.; Sobey, C.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Weltevrede, P.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Karastergiou, A.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Alexov, A.; Breton, R.P.; Bilous, A.V.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Hassall, T.E.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keane, E.F.; Oslowski, S.; Pilia, M.; Serylak, M.; Stappers, B.W.; Veen, S. ter; Leeuwen, J. van; Zagkouris, K.; Anderson, K.; Baehren, L.; Bell, M.E.; Broderick, J.; Carbone, D.; Cendes, Y.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eisloeffel, J.; Fender, R.P.; Garsden, H.; Jonker, P.; Law, C.J.; Markoff, S.; Masters, J.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Molenaar, G.; Osten, R.; Pietka, M.; Rol, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Scheers, L.H.A.; Spreeuw, H.; Staley, T.; Stewart, A.; Swinbank, J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Wise, M.W.; Zarka, P.; Horst, A. van der

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We present the highest-quality polarisation profiles to date of 16 non-recycled pulsars and four millisecond pulsars, observed below 200 MHz with the LOFAR high-band antennas. Based on the observed profiles, we perform an initial investigation of expected observational effects resulting from t

  11. Pulsar Timing for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D A; Camilo, F; Cognard, I; Dumora, D; Espinoza, C; Freire, P C C; Gotthelf, E V; Harding, A K; Hobbs, G B; Johnston, S; Kaspi, V M; Krämer, M; Livingstone, M A; Lyne, A G; Manchester, R N; Marshall, F E; McLaughlin, M A; Noutsos, A; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Romani, R W; Stappers, B W; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Wang, N; Weltevrede, P

    2008-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive pulsar monitoring campaign for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the {\\em Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} (formerly GLAST). The detection and study of pulsars in gamma rays give insights into the populations of neutron stars and supernova rates in the Galaxy, into particle acceleration mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres, and into the ``engines'' driving pulsar wind nebulae. LAT's unprecedented sensitivity between 20 MeV and 300 GeV together with its 2.4 sr field-of-view makes detection of many gamma-ray pulsars likely, justifying the monitoring of over two hundred pulsars with large spin-down powers. To search for gamma-ray pulsations from most of these pulsars requires a set of phase-connected timing solutions spanning a year or more to properly align the sparse photon arrival times. We describe the choice of pulsars and the instruments involved in the campaign. Attention is paid to verifications of the LAT pulsar software, using for example giant radio pulses from the Cra...

  12. Gravitational wave detection and data analysis for pulsar timing arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasteren, Rutger van

    2011-01-01

    Long-term precise timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars holds great promise for measuring long-period (months-to-years) astrophysical gravitational waves. In this work we develop a Bayesian data analysis method for projects called pulsar timing arrays; projects aimed to detect these gravitational w

  13. 1974: the discovery of the first binary pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    The 1974 discovery, by Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor, of the first binary pulsar PSR 1913+16, opened up new possibilities for the study of relativistic gravity. PSR 1913+16, as well as several other binary pulsars, provided {\\it direct} observational proofs that gravity propagates at the velocity of light and has a quadrupolar structure. Binary pulsars also provided accurate tests of the strong-field regime of relativistic gravity. General Relativity has passed all the binary pulsar tests with flying colors. The discovery of binary pulsars had also very important consequences for astrophysics: accurate measurement of neutron star masses, improved understanding of the possible evolution scenarios for the co-evolution of binary stars, proof of the existence of binary neutron stars emitting gravitational waves for hundreds of millions of years, before coalescing in catastrophic events probably leading to an important emission of electromagnetic radiation and neutrinos. This article reviews the history of...

  14. Binary Millisecond Pulsar Discovery via Gamma-Ray Pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Pletsch, H J; Fehrmann, H; Allen, B; Kramer, M; Aulbert, C; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; de Angelis, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hartog, P R den; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; de Palma, F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Raino, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Romoli, C; Sanchez, D A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schulz, A; Sgro, C; Silva, E do Couto e; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; 10.1126/science.1229054

    2012-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs), old neutron stars spun-up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled" rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found.

  15. Are there real orthogonal polarization modes in pulsar radio emission?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁新; 乔国俊

    2000-01-01

    The orthogonal polarization modes (OPM) have been reported observationally and widely accepted by pulsar researchers. However, no acceptable theory can explain the origin of the OPM, which becomes a mystery in pulsar research field. Here a possible way to solve this mystery is pre-sented. We ask a question: Does there exist any real so-called OPM in pulsar radiation? It is proposed that the ’observed OPM’ in individual pulses could be the results of depolarization of pulsar radiation and the observational uncertainties originated f rom polarimeter in observation. A possible method to check this idea is suggested. If the idea is verified, the pulsar research would be influenced significant-ly in theory and in observation.

  16. Are there real orthogonal polarization modes in pulsar radio emission?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The orthogonal polarization modes (OPM) have been reported observationally and widely accepted by pulsar researchers. However, no acceptable theory can explain the origin of the OPM, which becomes a mystery in pulsar research field. Here a possible way to solve this mystery is presented. We ask a question: Does there exist any real so-called OPM in pulsar radiation? It is proposed that the 'observed OPM' in individual pulses could be the results of depolarization of pulsar radiation and the observational uncertainties originated from polarimeter in observation. A possible method to check this idea is suggested. If the idea is verified, the pulsar research would be influenced significantly in theory and in observation.

  17. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar medium. A fraction of interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of relativistic flow we find that if a relatively small density of neutral hydrogen, as low as $10^{-4}$ cm$^{-3}$, penetrate inside the pulsar wind, this is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  18. Pulsar/CNS integrated navigation based on federated UKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Liu; Jie Ma; Jinwen Tian

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the autonomous navigation capability of satellite,a pulsar/CNS(celestial navigation system)integrated navigation method based on federated unscented Kalman filter(UKF)is proposed.The celestial navigation is a mature and stable navigation method.However,its position determination performance is not satisfied due to the low accuracy of horizon sensor.Single pulsar navigation is a new navigation method,which can provide highly accurate range measurements.The major drawback of single pulsar navigation is that the system is completely unobservabie.As two methods are complementary to each other,the federated UKF is used here for fusing the navigation data from single pulsar navigation and CNS.Compared to the traditional celestial navigation method and single pulsar navigation,the integrated navigation method can provide better navigation performance.The simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the navigation method.

  19. Solution to the Sigma-Problem of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Porth, Oliver; Keppens, Rony

    2012-01-01

    We present first results of three dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae. They show that the kink instability and magnetic dissipation inside these nebulae may be the key processes allowing to reconcile their observations with the theory of pulsar winds. In particular, the size of the termination shock, obtained in the simulations, agrees very well with the observations even for Poynting-dominated pulsar winds. Due to magnetic dissipation the total pressure in the simulated nebulae is particle-dominated and more or less uniform. While in the main body of the simulated nebulae the magnetic field becomes rather randomized, close to the termination shock, it is dominated by the regular toroidal field freshly injected by the pulsar wind. This field is responsible for driving polar outflows and may explain the high polarization observed in pulsar wind nebulae.

  20. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  1. Pulsar Search Results from the Arecibo Remote Command Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Miguel; Stovall, Kevin; Banaszak, Shawn A.; Becker, Alison; Biwer, Christopher M.; Boehler, Keith; Caballero, Keeisi; Christy, Brian; Cohen, Stephanie; Crawford, Fronefield; Cuellar, Andres; Danford, Andrew; Percy Dartez, Louis; Day, David; Flanigan, Joseph D.; Fonrouge, Aldo; Gonzalez, Adolfo; Gustavson, Kathy; Handzo, Emma; Hinojosa, Jesus; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Kaplan, David L. A.; Lommen, Andrea N.; Longoria, Chasity; Lopez, Janine; Lunsford, Grady; Mahany, Nicolas; Martinez, Jose; Mata, Alberto; Miller, Andy; Murray, James; Pankow, Chris; Ramirez, Ivan; Reser, Jackie; Rojas, Pablo; Rohr, Matthew; Rolph, Kristina; Rose, Caitlin; Rudnik, Philip; Siemens, Xavier; Tellez, Andrea; Tillman, Nicholas; Walker, Arielle; Wells, Bradley L.; Zaldivar, Jonathan; Zermeno, Adrienne; Gbncc Consortium, Palfa Consortium, Gbtdrift Consortium, Ao327 Consortium

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the pulsar discoveries made by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) program. The ARCC program was started at the University of Texas - Brownsville (UTB) within the Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA) as a group of scientists, faculty, graduate, undergraduate, and high school students interested in astrophysics. It has since expanded to form other ARCC programs at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and Franklin and Marshall College (F&M). The students in the ARCC group control the world's largest radio telescopes to search and discover pulsars. Pulsars are exotic neutron stars that emit beams of electromagnetic radiation. ARCC students use a web application to view and rate the images of radio pulsar candidates based on their signal characteristics. To date, ARCC students have searched through thousands of candidates and have discovered 61 pulsars to date.

  2. The Double Pulsar System J0737-3039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, D. R.

    The double pulsar system J0737 - 3039 - a 22.7 ms pulsar in a compact 2.4 hr orbit about a 2.7 s pulsar was one of the long-awaited "holy grails" of pulsar astronomy. After only two years of timing, the system is close to surpassing the original Hulse-Taylor binary as a test of general relativity. On-going timing should soon reveal second-order effects in the post-Newtonian parameters. In addition, the observed interactions of the radio beams of the two pulsars provide a unique laboratory for probing neutron star magnetospheres and relativistic winds. Finally, a revised estimate of the cosmic rate of double neutron star mergers including J0737 - 3039 boosts previous estimates by an order of magnitude and suggests a high detection rate for the advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector.

  3. Fluxes and Death Lines of Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 姜泽军

    2003-01-01

    We study the fluxes and the death lines of γ-ray emission of the pulsars with outer gaps. In a self-sustained outer gap, we derive that the fractional size of the outer gap is a function of period, period derivative, radial distance and magnetic inclination angle for a pulsar. Our results indicate that (i) averaged typical γ-ray energy and γ-ray flux of a pulsar with an outer gap increase with the magnetic inclination angle; we estimate the averaged γ-ray fluxes for observed canonical pulsars with outer gaps and compare them with the sensitivities of AGILE and GLAST, and (ii) ff the fractional size of the outer gap at the inner boundary of the outer gap is not greater than unity, then an outer gap exists; such a condition gives the death lines of the pulsars with outer gaps.

  4. Statistical Analysis of I Stokes Parameter of Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Panahi, Hossein; Monadi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and box counting method, we test spacial correlation and fractality of Polarization Pulse Profiles (PPPs) of 24 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) which were observed in Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. DFA analysis indicates that MSPs' PPPs are persistent and the results of box counting method confirm the fractality in the majority of PPPs. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicates that isolated MSPs have more complex PPPs than binary ones. Then we apply our analysis on a random sample of normal pulsars. Comparing the results of our analysis on MSPs and normal pulsars shows that MSPs have more complex PPPs which is resulted from smaller angular half-width of the emission cone and more peaks in MSPs PPPs. On the other hand, high values of Hurst exponent in MSPs confirm compact emission regions in these pulsars.

  5. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory: Discovery and Timing of Five New Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, R; McLaughlin, M A; Lorimer, D R; Yun, M; Heatherly, S; Boyles, J; Lynch, R; Kondratiev, V I; Scoles, S; Ransom, S M; Moniot, M L; Cottrill, A; Weaver, M; Snider, A; Thompson, C; Raycraft, M; Dudenhoefer, J; Allphin, L; Thorley, J; Meadows, B; Marchiny, G; Liska, A; O'Dwyer, A M; Butler, B; Bloxton, S; Mabry, H; Abate, H; Boothe, J; Pritt, S; Alberth, J; Green, A; Crowley, R J; Agee, A; Nagley, S; Sargent, N; Hinson, E; Smith, K; McNeely, R; Quigley, H; Pennington, A; Chen, S; Maynard, T; Loope, L; Bielski, N; McGough, J R; Gural, J C; Colvin, S; Tso, S; Ewen, Z; Zhang, M; Ciccarella, N; Bukowski, B; Novotny, C B; Gore, J; Sarver, K; Johnson, S; Cunningham, H; Collins, D; Gardner, D; Monteleone, A; Hall, J; Schweinhagen, R; Ayers, J; Jay, S; Uosseph, B; Dunkum, D; Pal, J; Dydiw, S; Sterling, M; Phan, E

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery and timing solutions of five new pulsars by students involved in the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), a NSF-funded joint program between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to excite and engage high-school students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and related fields. We encourage students to pursue STEM fields by apprenticing them within a professional scientific community doing cutting edge research, specifically by teaching them to search for pulsars. The students are analyzing 300 hours of drift-scan survey data taken with the Green Bank Telescope at 350 MHz. These data cover 2876 square degrees of the sky. Over the course of five years, more than 700 students have inspected diagnostic plots through a web-based graphical interface designed for this project. The five pulsars discovered in the data have spin periods ranging from 3.1 ms to 4.8 s. Among the new discoveries are - PSR J1926-1314, a long period, nulli...

  6. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey VIII: The Galactic millisecond pulsar population

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, L; Barsdell, B R; Bates, S D; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D J; Coster, P; D'Amico, N; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Milia, S; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B; Thornton, D; van Straten, W

    2013-01-01

    We have used millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the southern High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) intermediate latitude survey area to simulate the distribution and total population of MSPs in the Galaxy. Our model makes use of the scale factor method, which estimates the ratio of the total number of MSPs in the Galaxy to the known sample. Using our best fit value for the z-height, z=500 pc, we find an underlying population of MSPs of 8.3(\\pm 4.2)*10^4 sources down to a limiting luminosity of L_min=0.1 mJy kpc^2 and a luminosity distribution with a steep slope of d\\log N/d\\log L = -1.45(\\pm 0.14). However, at the low end of the luminosity distribution, the uncertainties introduced by small number statistics are large. By omitting very low luminosity pulsars, we find a Galactic population above L_min=0.2 mJy kpc^2 of only 3.0(\\pm 0.7)*10^4 MSPs. We have also simulated pulsars with periods shorter than any known MSP, and estimate the maximum number of sub-MSPs in the Galaxy to be 7.8(\\pm 5.0)*10^4 pulsars at L=0.1...

  7. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey IV: Discovery and polarimetry of millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Keith, M J; Bailes, M; Bates, S D; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; D'Amico, N; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Levin, L; Milia, S; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W; van Straten, W; Parent, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of six millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey for pulsars and fast transients carried out with the Parkes radio telescope. All six are in binary systems with approximately circular orbits and are likely to have white dwarf companions. PSR J1017-7156 has a high flux density and a narrow pulse width, making it ideal for precision timing experiments. PSRs J1446-4701 and J1125-5825 are coincident with gamma-ray sources, and folding the high-energy photons with the radio timing ephemeris shows evidence of pulsed gamma-ray emission. PSR J1502-6752 has a spin period of 26.7 ms, and its low period derivative implies that it is a recycled pulsar. The orbital parameters indicate it has a very low mass function, and therefore a companion mass much lower than usually expected for such a mildly recycled pulsar. In addition we present polarisation profiles for all 12 MSPs discovered in the HTRU survey to date. Similar to previous observations of MSPs, we find ...

  8. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars II: A novel two-dipole model of pulsar magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver Q; Stone, Jirina R

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) model is currently the best approach we have to explain pulsar radiation. However a most characteristic parameter of the observed radiation, the braking index n$_{\\rm obs}$ shows deviations for all the eight best studied isolated pulsars, from the simple model prediction n$_{\\rm dip}$ = 3. The index depends upon the rotational frequency and its first and second time derivatives, but also on the assumption of that the magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle, and the moment of inertia of the pulsar are constant in time. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 91, 063007 (2015)] we showed conclusively that changes in the moment of inertia with frequency alone, cannot explain the observed braking indices. Possible observational evidence for the magnetic dipole moment migrating away from the rotational axis at a rate $\\dot\\alpha$ $\\sim$ 0.6$^{\\circ}$ per 100 years over the life time of the Crab pulsar has been recently suggested by Lyne et al. In this paper, we explore the MDR mode...

  9. HST optical polarimetry of the Vela pulsar and nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.; Mignani, R. P.; Shearer, A.

    2014-11-01

    Polarization measurements of pulsars offer a unique insight into the geometry of the emission regions in the neutron star magnetosphere. Therefore, they provide observational constraints on the different models proposed for the pulsar emission mechanisms. Optical polarization data of the Vela pulsar was obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive. The data, obtained in two filters (F606W, central wavelength = 590.70 nm and F550M, central wavelength = 558.15 nm), consist of a series of observations of the pulsar taken with the HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys and cover a time span of 5 d. These data have been used to carry out the first high spatial resolution and multi-epoch study of the polarization of the pulsar. We produced polarization vector maps of the region surrounding the pulsar and measured the degree of linear polarization (P.D.) and the position angle (P.A.) of the pulsar's integrated pulse beam. We obtained P.D. = 8.1 ± 0.7 per cent and P.A. = 146.3° ± 2.4°, averaged over the time span covered by these observations. These results not only confirm those originally obtained by Wagner & Seifert and Mignani et al., both using the Very Large Telescope, but are of greater precision. Furthermore, we confirm that the P.A. of the pulsar polarization vector is aligned with the direction of the pulsar proper motion. The pulsar wind nebula is undetected in polarized light as is the case in unpolarized light, down to a flux limit of 26.8 mag arcsec-2.

  10. The noise properties of 42 millisecond pulsars from the European Pulsar Timing Array and their impact on gravitational wave searches

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, R N; Lentati, L; Desvignes, G; Champion, D J; Verbiest, J P W; Janssen, G H; Stappers, B W; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Possenti, A; Tiburzi, C; Perrodin, D; Osłowski, S; Babak, S; Bassa, C G; Brem, P; Burgay, M; Cognard, I; Gair, J R; Graikou, E; Guillemot, L; Hessels, J W T; Karuppusamy, R; Lassus, A; Liu, K; McKee, J; Mingarelli, C M F; Petiteau, A; Purver, M B; Rosado, P A; Sanidas, S; Sesana, A; Shaifullah, G; Smits, R; Taylor, S R; Theureau, G; van Haasteren, R; Vecchio, A

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays to gravitational waves depends critically on the noise present in the individual pulsar timing data. Noise may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the pulsar. Intrinsic sources of noise might come from rotational instabilities, for example. Extrinsic sources of noise include contributions from physical processes which are not sufficiently well modelled, for example, dispersion and scattering effects, analysis errors and instrumental instabilities. We present the results from a noise analysis for 42 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed with the European Pulsar Timing Array. For characterising the low-frequency, stochastic and achromatic noise component, or "timing noise", we employ two methods, based on Bayesian and frequentist statistics. For 25 MSPs, we achieve statistically significant measurements of their timing noise parameters and find that the two methods give consistent results. For the remaining 17 MSPs, we place upper limits on the timing noise amplitude at the...

  11. Corrections of rotation of the Galaxy to measured P of pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容建湘; 萧耐园; 陆埮

    1999-01-01

    The P of pulsars provides important information for studying their physical processes. In an all-round way the effect of the Galactic rotation on the measured P of pulsars is studied. It is shown that among 706 pulsars discovered so far there are 16 pulsars whose measured values of P have been affected by the Galactic rotation. So, it is necessary to make the corresponding corrections for those pulsars.

  12. Particle Acceleration in Dissipative Pulsar Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Z.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Harding, A.; Contopoulos, I.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsar magnetospheres represent unipolar inductor-type electrical circuits at which an EM potential across the polar cap (due to the rotation of their magnetic field) drives currents that run in and out of the polar cap and close at infinity. An estimate ofthe magnitude of this current can be obtained by dividing the potential induced across the polar cap V approx = B(sub O) R(sub O)(Omega R(sub O)/c)(exp 2) by the impedance of free space Z approx eq 4 pi/c; the resulting polar cap current density is close to $n {GJ} c$ where $n_{GJ}$ is the Goldreich-Julian (GJ) charge density. This argument suggests that even at current densities close to the GJ one, pulsar magnetospheres have a significant component of electric field $E_{parallel}$, parallel to the magnetic field, a condition necessary for particle acceleration and the production of radiation. We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents, charge densities, spin down rates and potential drops along the magnetic field lines of pulsar magnetospheres which do not obey the ideal MHD condition $E cdot B = 0$. By relating the current density along the poloidal field lines to the parallel electric field via a kind of Ohm's law $J = sigma E_{parallel}$ we study the structure of these magnetospheres as a function of the conductivity $sigma$. We find that for $sigma gg OmegaS the solution tends to the (ideal) Force-Free one and to the Vacuum one for $sigma 11 OmegaS. Finally, we present dissipative magnetospheric solutions with spatially variable $sigma$ that supports various microphysical properties and are compatible with the observations.

  13. Scattering analysis of LOFAR pulsar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Zagkouris, K.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Michilli, D.; Pilia, M.; Sobey, C.

    2017-09-01

    We measure the effects of interstellar scattering on average pulse profiles from 13 radio pulsars with simple pulse shapes. We use data from the LOFAR High Band Antennas, at frequencies between 110 and 190 MHz. We apply a forward fitting technique, and simultaneously determine the intrinsic pulse shape, assuming single Gaussian component profiles. We find that the constant τ, associated with scattering by a single thin screen, has a power-law dependence on frequency τ ∝ ν-α, with indices ranging from α = 1.50 to 4.0, despite simplest theoretical models predicting α = 4.0 or 4.4. Modelling the screen as an isotropic or extremely anisotropic scatterer, we find anisotropic scattering fits lead to larger power-law indices, often in better agreement with theoretically expected values. We compare the scattering models based on the inferred, frequency-dependent parameters of the intrinsic pulse, and the resulting correction to the dispersion measure (DM). We highlight the cases in which fits of extreme anisotropic scattering are appealing, while stressing that the data do not strictly favour either model for any of the 13 pulsars. The pulsars show anomalous scattering properties that are consistent with finite scattering screens and/or anisotropy, but these data alone do not provide the means for an unambiguous characterization of the screens. We revisit the empirical τ versus DM relation and consider how our results support a frequency dependence of α. Very long baseline interferometry, and observations of the scattering and scintillation properties of these sources at higher frequencies, will provide further evidence.

  14. Axisymmetric rotator models as pulsars: abject failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Michel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El bien conocido modelo de Goldreich & Julian (1969 postul o que a un una estrella de neutrones en rotaci on con un momento de campo magn etico dipolar alineado ser a un pulsar activo. Aunque se sospech o desde 1980 que este modelo no podr a funcionar como se propuso, hemos visto el resurgimiento de modelos que no perciben los problemas b asicos subyacentes. A menos que esos modelos identi quen expl citamente el vicio de la falla de los modelos GJ, no se les debe dedicar tanto esfuerzo te orico.

  15. Theory of pulsar magnetosphere and wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    > leptons or does it contain a non-negligible fraction of protons and/or ions? Is it almost entirely filled or mostly empty except for some small anecdotal plasma filled regions? Answers to these questions will strongly direct the description of the magnetosphere to seemingly contradictory results leading sometimes to inconsistencies. Nevertheless, accounts are given as to the latest developments in the theory of pulsar magnetospheres and winds, the existence of a possible electrosphere and physical insight obtained from related observational signatures of multi-wavelength pulsed emission.

  16. DA495 - an aging pulsar wind nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Kothes, R; Reich, W; Safi-Harb, S; Arzoumanian, Z

    2008-01-01

    We present a radio continuum study of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) DA 495 (G65.7+1.2), including images of total intensity and linear polarization from 408 to 10550 MHz based on the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and observations with the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope. Removal of flux density contributions from a superimposed \\ion{H}{2} region and from compact extragalactic sources reveals a break in the spectrum of DA 495 at 1.3 GHz, with a spectral index ${\\alpha}={-0.45 \\pm 0.20}$ below the break and ${\\alpha}={-0.87 \\pm 0.10}$ above it (${S}_\

  17. Magnetospheric structure of rotation powered pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arons, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) California Univ., Livermore, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1991-01-07

    I survey recent theoretical work on the structure of the magnetospheres of rotation powered pulsars, within the observational constraints set by their observed spindown, their ability to power synchrotron nebulae and their ability to produce beamed collective radio emission, while putting only a small fraction of their energy into incoherent X- and gamma radiation. I find no single theory has yet given a consistent description of the magnetosphere, but I conclude that models based on a dense outflow of pairs from the polar caps, permeated by a lower density flow of heavy ions, are the most promising avenue for future research. 106 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Pulsar population synthesis using palfa detections and pulsar search collaboratory discoveries including a wide DNS system and a nearby MSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiggum, Joseph Karl

    Using the ensemble of detections from pulsar surveys, we can learn about the sizes and characteristics of underlying populations. In this thesis, I analyze results from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) precursor and Green Bank Telescope 350 MHz Drift Scan surveys; I examine survey sensitivity to see how detections can inform pulsar population models, I look at new ways of including young scientists -- high school students -- in the discovery process and I present timing solutions for students' discoveries (including a nearby millisecond pulsar and a pulsar in a wide-orbit double neutron star system). The PALFA survey is on-going and uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver at 1400 MHz to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ?£? 77° and 168° ?£? 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ? 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA precursor survey observed a subset of this region, (|b| ? 1°) and detected 45 pulsars, including one known millisecond pulsar (MSP) and 11 previously unknown, long-period (normal) pulsars. I assess the sensitivity of the PALFA precursor survey and use the number of normal pulsar and MSP detections to infer the size of each underlying Galactic population. Based on 44 normal pulsar detections and one MSP, we constrain each population size to 107,000+36,000-25,000 and 15,000 +85,000-6,000 respectively with 95% confidence. Based on these constraints, we predict yields for the full PALFA survey and find a deficiency in normal pulsar detections, possibly due to radio frequency interference and/or scintillation, neither of which are currently accounted for in population simulations. The GBT 350 MHz Drift Scan survey collected data in the summer of 2007 while the GBT was stationary, undergoing track replacement. Results discussed here come from ~20% of the survey data, which were processed and donated to the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC). The PSC is a joint outreach program between WVU and NRAO, involving high school

  19. Towards Robust Gravitational Wave Detection with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Precision timing of highly stable milli-second pulsars is a promising technique for the detection of very low frequency sources of gravitational waves. In any single pulsar, a stochastic gravitational wave signal appears as an additional source of timing noise that can be absorbed by the noise model, and so it is only by considering the coherent response across a network of pulsars that the signal can be distinguished from other sources of noise. In the limit where there are many gravitational wave sources in the sky, or many pulsars in the array, the signals produce a unique tensor correlation pattern that depends only on the angular separation between each pulsar pair. It is this distinct fingerprint that is used to search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. Here we consider how the prospects for detection are diminished when the statistical isotropy of the timing array or the gravitational wave signal is broken by having a finite number of pulsars and a finite number of sources. We find the...

  20. Towards robust detection of gravitational waves by pulsar timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Sampson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Precision timing of highly stable milli-second pulsars is a promising technique for detecting very low frequency sources of gravitational waves. In any one pulsar, the gravitational wave signal appears as an additional source of timing noise, and it is only by considering the coherent response across a network of pulsars that the signal can be distinguished from other sources of noise. In the limit where there are many gravitational wave sources, or in the limit where there are many pulsars in the array, the waves produce a unique tensor correlation pattern that depends only on the angular separation of each pulsar pair. It is this distinct fingerprint that is used to search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. Here we consider how the prospects for detection are diminished when there are a finite number of signals and pulsars, which breaks the statistical isotropy of the timing array and of the gravitational wave sky. We also study the use of "sky-scrambles'' to break the signal correlations in the data as a way to increase confidence in a detection.

  1. Eight New Millisecond Pulsars in NGC 6440 and NGC 6441

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C; Begin, Steve; Stairs, Ingrid H; Hessels, Jason W T; Frey, Lucille H; Camilo, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of 30 new millisecond pulsars in Terzan 5, made using the Green Bank Telescope's S-band receiver and the Pulsar Spigot spectrometer, we have set out to use the same observing system in a systematic search for pulsars in other globular clusters. Here we report on the discovery of five new pulsars in NGC 6440 and three in NGC 6441; each cluster previously had one known pulsar. Using the most recent distance estimates to these clusters, we conclude that there are as many potentially observable pulsars in NGC 6440 and NGC 6441 as in Terzan 5. We present timing solutions for all of the pulsars in these globular clusters. Four of the new discoveries are in binary systems; one of them, PSR J1748-2021B (NGC 6440B), has a wide (P_b = 20.5 d) and eccentric (e = 0.57) orbit. This allowed a measurement of its rate of advance of periastron: 0.00391(18) degrees per year. If due to the effects of general relativity, the total mass of this binary system is 2.92 +/- 0.20 solar masses (1 sigma...

  2. Pulsar Populations and Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K; Grenier, I A; Perrot, C A

    2003-01-01

    The EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory detected over 200 sources and the majority of these are still unidentified. At least three subpopulations of EGRET sources have been associated with the Galaxy: bright sources lying along the Galactic plane, weaker sources spatially correlated with the Gould Belt and a high-latitude, halo population. Many of these sources may be pulsars and there are more than two-dozen radio pulsars in or near EGRET source error boxes, most of them recently discovered in the Parkes Multibeam Survey. We present results from several population synthesis studies of pulsars in the Galaxy, which predict the number of pulsars detected by gamma-ray and radio surveys assuming models for the high-energy emission beam and its relation to the radio beam. Future gamma-ray pulsar detections by AGILE and GLAST together with the recent large rise in the radio pulsar population will give greatly improved statistics. The relative numbers of radio and gamma-ray pulsars detected in the p...

  3. Pulsar emission in the very-high-energy regime

    CERN Document Server

    Breed, M; Harding, A K

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of the pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) display spectra with exponential cutoffs falling in a narrow range around a few GeV. Early spectral modelling predicted spectral cutoff energies of up to 100 GeV. More modern studies estimated spectral cutoff energies in the 1-20 GeV range. It was therefore not expected that pulsars would be visible in the very-high-energy (VHE; >100 GeV) regime. The VERITAS detection (confirmed by MAGIC) of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV (and now possibly up to 1 TeV) therefore raised important questions about our understanding of the electrodynamics and local environment of pulsars. H.E.S.S. has now detected pulsed emission from the Vela pulsar in the 20-120 GeV range, making this the second pulsar detected by a ground-based Cherenkov telescope. We will review the latest developments in VHE pulsar science, including an overview of recent observations and refinements to radiation models and magnetic field structures. This wi...

  4. ON DETECTING MILLISECOND PULSARS AT THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre [ICRAR/Curtin University, Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim, E-mail: J.Macquart@curtin.edu.au [Swarnajayanti Fellow, National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 (India)

    2015-06-01

    The lack of detected pulsars at the Galactic Center (GC) region is a long-standing mystery. We argue that the high stellar density in the central parsec around the GC is likely to result in a pulsar population dominated by millisecond pulsars (MSPs), similar to the situation in globular cluster environments. Earlier GC pulsar searches have been largely insensitive to such an MSP population, accounting for the lack of pulsar detections. We estimate the best search frequency for such an MSP population with present and upcoming broad-band radio telescopes for two possible scattering scenarios, the “weak-scattering” case suggested by the recent detection of a magnetar close to the GC, and the “strong-scattering” case, with the scattering screen located close to the GC. The optimal search frequencies are ≈8 GHz (weak-scattering) and ≈25 GHz (strong-scattering), for pulsars with periods 1–20 ms, assuming that GC pulsars have a luminosity distribution similar to that those in the rest of the Milky Way. We find that 10–30 hr integrations with the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope would be sufficient to detect MSPs at the GC distance in the weak-scattering case. However, if the strong-scattering case is indeed applicable to the GC, observations with the full Square Kilometre Array would be needed to detect the putative MSP population.

  5. Discovery of Two High-Magnetic-Field Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Camilo, F M; Lyne, A G; Manchester, R N; Bell, J F; D'Amico, N; McKay, N P F; Crawford, F

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of two young isolated radio pulsars with very high inferred magnetic fields. PSR J1119-6127 has period P = 0.407 s, and the largest period derivative known among radio pulsars, Pdot = 4.0e-12. Under standard assumptions these parameters imply a characteristic spin-down age of only tau = 1.6 kyr and a surface dipole magnetic field strength of B = 4.1e13 G. We have measured a stationary period-second-derivative for this pulsar, resulting in a braking index of n = 2.91+-0.05. We have also observed a glitch in the rotation of the pulsar, with fractional period change Delta_P/P = -4.4e-9. Archival radio imaging data suggest the presence of a previously uncataloged supernova remnant centered on the pulsar. The second pulsar, PSR J1814-1744, has P = 3.975 s and Pdot = 7.4e-13. These parameters imply tau = 85 kyr, and B = 5.5e13 G, the largest of any known radio pulsar. Both PSR J1119-6127 and PSR J1814-1744 show apparently normal radio emission in a regime of magnetic field strength where som...

  6. Timing of 29 Pulsars Discovered in the PALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lyne, A G; Bogdanov, S; Ferdman, R; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Lynch, R; Allen, B; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Cardoso, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Madsen, E; McKee, J; McLaughlin, M A; Parent, E; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Scholz, P; Seymour, A; Siemens, X; Spitler, L G; Stairs, I H; Stovall, K; Swiggum, J; Wharton, R S; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery and timing observations of 29 distant long-period pulsars discovered in the ongoing Arecibo PALFA pulsar survey. Following discovery with the Arecibo Telescope, confirmation and timing observations of these pulsars over several years at Jodrell Bank Observatory have yielded high-precision positions and measurements of rotation and radiation properties. We have used multi-frequency data to measure the interstellar scattering properties of some of these pulsars. Most of the pulsars have properties that mirror those of the previously known pulsar population, although four show some notable characteristics. PSRs J1907+0631 and J1925+1720 are young and are associated with supernova remnants or plerionic nebulae: J1907+0631 lies close to the center of SNR G40.5-0.5, while J1925+1720 is coincident with a high-energy Fermi gamma-ray source. One pulsar, J1932+1500, is in a surprisingly eccentric, 199-day binary orbit with a companion having a minimum mass of 0.33 solar masses. Several of the...

  7. A Search for X-ray Counterparts of Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Prinz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We describe a systematic search for X-ray counterparts of radio pulsars. The search was accomplished by cross-correlating the radio timing positions of all radio pulsars from the ATNF pulsar database (version 1.54) with archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations publicly released by August 1st 2015. In total, 171 of the archival XMM-Newton observations and 215 of the archival Chandra datasets where found to have a radio pulsar serendipitously in the field of view. From the 283 radio pulsars covered by these datasets we identified 19 previously undetected X-ray counterparts. For 6 of them the statistics was sufficient to model the energy spectrum with one- or two-component models. For the remaining new detections and for those pulsars for which we determined an upper limit to their counting rate we computed the energy flux by assuming a Crab-like spectrum. Additionally, we derived upper limits on the neutron stars' surface temperature and on the non-thermal X-ray efficiency for those pulsars for which the sp...

  8. Timing of 29 Pulsars Discovered in the PALFA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Bogdanov, S.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lynch, R.; Allen, B.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Madsen, E.; McKee, J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Parent, E.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J.; Wharton, R. S.; Zhu, W. W.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Fehrmann, H.; Machenschalk, B.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the discovery and timing observations of 29 distant long-period pulsars found in the ongoing Arecibo L-band Feed Array pulsar survey. Following discovery with the Arecibo Telescope, confirmation and timing observations of these pulsars over several years at Jodrell Bank Observatory have yielded high-precision positions and measurements of rotation and radiation properties. We have used multi-frequency data to measure the interstellar scattering properties of some of these pulsars. Most of the pulsars have properties that mirror those of the previously known pulsar population, although four show some notable characteristics. PSRs J1907+0631 and J1925+1720 are young and are associated with supernova remnants or plerionic nebulae: J1907+0631 lies close to the center of SNR G40.5‑0.5, while J1925+1720 is coincident with a high-energy Fermi γ-ray source. One pulsar, J1932+1500, is in a surprisingly eccentric, 199 day binary orbit with a companion having a minimum mass of 0.33 M⊙. Several of the sources exhibit timing noise, and two, PSRs J0611+1436 and J1907+0631, have both suffered large glitches, but with very different post-glitch rotation properties. In particular, the rotational period of PSR J0611+1436 will not recover to its pre-glitch value for about 12 years, a far greater recovery timescale than seen following any other large glitches.

  9. HST optical polarimetry of the Vela pulsar & nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, P; Shearer, A

    2014-01-01

    Polarisation measurements of pulsars offer an unique insight into the geometry of the emission regions in the neutron star magnetosphere. Therefore, they provide observational constraints on the different models proposed for the pulsar emission mechanisms. Optical polarisation data of the Vela pulsar was obtained from the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\em HST}) archive. The data, obtained in two filters (F606W; central wavelength = 590.70 nm, and F550M; central wavelength = 558.15 nm), consists of a series of observations of the pulsar taken with the {\\em HST}/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and covers a time span of 5 days. This data have been used to carry out the first high-spatial resolution and multi-epoch study of the polarisation of the pulsar. We produced polarisation vector maps of the region surrounding the pulsar and measured the degree of linear polarisation (P.D.) and the position angle (P.A.) of the pulsar's integrated pulse beam. %This yielded We obtained $\\rm P.D.=8.1\\%\\pm0.7\\%$ and $\\rm P....

  10. X-ray diffuse scattering study of local distortions in Fe1+xTe induced by excess Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Lee, C.-C.; Xu, Z. J.; Wen, J. S.; Gu, G.; Ku, W.; Tranquada, J. M.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    We report x-ray diffuse scattering studies of the iron chalcogenide Fe1+xTe as a function of doping and temperature for x=0.03, 0.08, and 0.12. In all cases, remarkably strong, characteristic diffuse scattering is observed. This scattering extends throughout the Brillouin zone and exhibits a nonmonotonic decay away from the fundamental Bragg peaks, with a peaklike structure at a reduced q≈(0.3,0,0.6). We interpret this scattering as Huang diffuse scattering resulting from distortions induced by the interaction between the excess Fe and the FeTe layers. The form of the scattering indicates that this interaction is strong and extends a number of unit cells away from the interstitial Fe site. Further, the diffuse scattering shows a sudden decrease on cooling through the structural and magnetic phase transition, reflecting the first-order change of the electronic structure of FeTe.

  11. X-ray Diffuse Scattering Study of Local Distortions in Fe1+xTe Induced by Excess Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.P.; Liu, X.; Lee, C.-C.; Xu, Z.J.; Wen, J.S.; Gu, G.; Ku, W.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2011-05-01

    We report x-ray diffuse scattering studies of the iron chalcogenide Fe{sub 1+x}Te as a function of doping and temperature for x = 0.03, 0.08, and 0.12. In all cases, remarkably strong, characteristic diffuse scattering is observed. This scattering extends throughout the Brillouin zone and exhibits a nonmonotonic decay away from the fundamental Bragg peaks, with a peaklike structure at a reduced q {approx} (0.3,0,0.6). We interpret this scattering as Huang diffuse scattering resulting from distortions induced by the interaction between the excess Fe and the FeTe layers. The form of the scattering indicates that this interaction is strong and extends a number of unit cells away from the interstitial Fe site. Further, the diffuse scattering shows a sudden decrease on cooling through the structural and magnetic phase transition, reflecting the first-order change of the electronic structure of FeTe.

  12. High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, J; Rossi, S; Miller, J M; Wijnands, R; Belloni, T; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Homan, Jeroen; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Rossi, Sabrina; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; Klis, Michiel van der; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of high frequency variability in the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500. A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was found at 250 Hz during a transition from the hard to the soft state. We also detected less coherent variability around 50 Hz, that disappeared when the 250 Hz QPO showed up. There are indications that when the energy spectrum hardened the QPO frequency increased from ~110 Hz to ~270 Hz, although the observed frequencies are also consistent with being 1:2:3 harmonics of each other. Interpreting the 250 Hz as the orbital frequency at the innermost stable orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole leads to a mass estimate of 8.2 Msun. The spectral results by Miller et al.(2002, ApJ, 570, L69), which suggest considerable black hole spin, would imply a higher mass.

  13. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Mendez, M.; Altamirano, D.; Brown, E. F.; Belloni, T. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the cooling of the neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and XMM-Newton since the source entered quiescence in 2007 after an exceptionally luminous 19-month outburst. A recent Chandra observation made almost 1200 days into quiescence indicates that the neutron star crust is likely still slowly cooling toward thermal equilibrium with the core. The current surface temperature is high compared to other quiescent neutron star transients, with an implied bolometric thermal flux of 5×1033 erg/s. The overall cooling curve seems to have followed a broken power-law shape as predicted by theoretical models, although the observed break is considerably earlier than what is expected from theory. After rapid cooling during the first 200 days of quiescence---strongly indicating a highly conductive neutron star crust---the source unexpectedly showed a large temporary increase in both thermal and non-thermal flux. Prompted by this we conducted a Swift monitoring program of the source during April-October 2010, with short observations taking place once every two weeks. During the program we detected short-term flares up to at least 1×1035 erg/s, a factor of 20 higher than the normal quiescent level. We compare this flaring---presumably arising from episodic low-level accretion---with the behavior observed from faint Galactic transients, and discuss whether flaring in XTE J1701-462 can significantly affect the cooling of the source and whether it can to some extent explain the high temperature of the neutron star core implied by our Chandra observations.

  14. XTE J1752-223 in outburst: a persistent radio jet, dramatic flaring, multiple ejections and linear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Tzioumis, A.; Broderick, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, J.; Fender, R. P.; Paragi, Z.

    2013-06-01

    The black hole candidate, XTE J1752-223, was discovered in 2009 October when it entered an outburst. We obtained radio data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array for the duration of the ˜9 month event. The light curves show that the radio emission from the compact jet persisted for the duration of an extended hard state and through the transition to the intermediate state. The flux then rose rapidly by a factor of 10 and the radio source entered a series of at least seven maxima, the first of which was likely to be emission associated with the compact jet. The subsequent six flares were accompanied by variable behaviour in terms of radio spectrum, degree of linear polarization, morphology and associated X-ray behaviour. They were, however, remarkably similar in terms of the estimated minimum power required to launch such an ejection event. We compare the timing of radio peaks with the location of the ejecta, imaged by contemporaneous Very Long Baseline Interferometry experiments. We then discuss the mechanism behind the events, in terms of whether discrete ejections are the most likely description of the behaviour. One ejection, at least, appears to be travelling with apparent superluminal motion. The range of properties, however, suggests that multiple mechanisms may be relevant and that at least some of the emission is coming from shocked interactions amongst the ejecta and between the ejecta and the interstellar medium. We also compare the radio flux density with the X-ray source during the hard state and conclude that XTE J1752-223 is a radio-weak/X-ray-bright outlier on the universal correlation for black hole transient sources.

  15. Pulsar Glitches: The Crust may be Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J; Horowitz, C J

    2014-01-01

    Pulsar glitches-the sudden spin-up in the rotational frequency of a neutron star-suggest the existence of an angular-momentum reservoir confined to the inner crust of the neutron star. Large and regular glitches observed in the Vela pulsar have originally constrained the fraction of the stellar moment of inertia that must reside in the solid crust to about 1.4%. However, crustal entrainment-which until very recently has been ignored-suggests that in order to account for the Vela glitches, the fraction of the moment of inertia residing in the crust must increase to about 7%. This indicates that the required angular momentum reservoir may exceed that which is available in the crust. We explore the possibility that uncertainties in the equation of state provide enough flexibility for the construction of models that predict a large crustal thickness and consequently a large crustal moment of inertia. Given that analytic results suggest that the crustal moment of inertia is sensitive to the transition pressure at ...

  16. Multiwavelength analysis of four millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemot, Lucas; Johnson, Tyrel J; Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice K

    2015-01-01

    Radio timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in support of Fermi LAT observations of the gamma-ray sky enhance the sensitivity of high-energy pulsation searches. With contemporaneous ephemerides we have detected gamma-ray pulsations from PSR B1937+21, the first MSP ever discovered, and B1957+20, the first known black-widow system. The two MSPs share a number of properties: they are energetic and distant compared to other gamma-ray MSPs, and both of them exhibit aligned radio and gamma-ray emission peaks, indicating co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere of the pulsars. However, radio observations are also crucial for revealing MSPs in Fermi unassociated sources. In a search for radio pulsations at the position of such unassociated sources, the Nan\\c{c}ay Radio Telescope discovered two MSPs, PSRs J2017+0603 and J2302+4442, increasing the sample of known Galactic disk MSPs. Subsequent radio timing observations led to the detection of gamma-ray pulsations from these two MSPs as well. W...

  17. A LOFAR Census of Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, V I; Hessels, J W T; Bilous, A V; Stappers, B W; Kramer, M; Keane, E F; Noutsos, A; Osłowski, S; Breton, R P; Hassall, T E; Alexov, A; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Grießmeier, J -M; Karastergiou, A; Kuniyoshi, M; Pilia, M; Sobey, C; ter Veen, S; Weltevrede, P; Bell, M E; Broderick, J W; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Markoff, S; Rowlinson, A; Swinbank, J D; Wijers, R A M J; Wijnands, R; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOFAR in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at these low frequencies, and half of the detected MSPs were observed for the first time at frequencies below 200 MHz. We present the average pulse profiles of the detected MSPs, their effective pulse widths and flux densities, and compare these with higher observing frequencies. The LOFAR pulse profiles will be publicly available via the EPN Database of Pulsar Profiles. We also present average values of dispersion measures (DM) and discuss DM and profile variations. About 35% of the MSPs show strong narrow profiles, another 25% exhibit scattered profiles, and the rest are only weakly detected. A qualitative comparison of the LOFAR MSP profiles with those at higher radio frequencies shows constant separation between profile components. Simi...

  18. Pulsar Emission Geometry and Accelerating Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Harding, Alice K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Parent, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The high-quality Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray pulsars have opened a new window to understanding the generation mechanisms of high-energy emission from these systems, The high statistics allow for careful modeling of the light curve features as well as for phase resolved spectral modeling. We modeled the LAT light curves of the Vela and CTA I pulsars with simulated high-energy light curves generated from geometrical representations of the outer gap and slot gap emission models. within the vacuum retarded dipole and force-free fields. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method was used to explore the phase space of the magnetic inclination angle, viewing angle. maximum emission radius, and gap width. We also used the measured spectral cutoff energies to estimate the accelerating parallel electric field dependence on radius. under the assumptions that the high-energy emission is dominated by curvature radiation and the geometry (radius of emission and minimum radius of curvature of the magnetic field lines) is determined by the best fitting light curves for each model. We find that light curves from the vacuum field more closely match the observed light curves and multiwavelength constraints, and that the calculated parallel electric field can place additional constraints on the emission geometry

  19. Electron Acceleration at Pulsar Wind Termination Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacchè, S.; Kirk, John G.

    2017-02-01

    We study the acceleration of electrons and positrons at an electromagnetically modified, ultrarelativistic shock in the context of pulsar wind nebulae. We simulate the outflow produced by an obliquely rotating pulsar in proximity of its termination shock with a two-fluid code that uses a magnetic shear wave to mimic the properties of the wind. We integrate electron trajectories in the test-particle limit in the resulting background electromagnetic fields to analyze the injection mechanism. We find that the shock-precursor structure energizes and reflects a sizable fraction of particles, which becomes available for further acceleration. We investigate the subsequent first-order Fermi process sustained by small-scale magnetic fluctuations with a Monte Carlo code. We find that the acceleration proceeds in two distinct regimes: when the gyroradius {r}{{g}} exceeds the wavelength of the shear λ, the process is remarkably similar to first-order Fermi acceleration at relativistic, parallel shocks. This regime corresponds to a low-density wind that allows the propagation of superluminal waves. When {r}{{g}}< λ , which corresponds to the scenario of driven reconnection, the spectrum is softer.

  20. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  1. Rotation measure variations for 20 millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Wenming; van Straten, Willem; Reynolds, John; Hobbs, George; Wang, Na; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Champion, David; Chaudhary, Ankur; Coles, William; Hotan, Aidan; Khoo, Jonathan; Oslowski, Stefan; Sarkissian, John; Yardley, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We report on variations in the mean position angle of the 20 millisecond pulsars being observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. It is found that the observed variations are dominated by changes in the Faraday rotation occurring in the Earth's ionosphere. Two ionospheric models are used to correct for the ionospheric contribution and it is found that one based on the International Reference Ionosphere gave the best results. Little or no significant long-term variation in interstellar RM was found with limits typically about 0.1 rad m$^{-2}$ yr$^{-1}$ in absolute value. In a few cases, apparently significant RM variations over timescales of a few 100 days or more were seen. These are unlikely to be due to localised magnetised regions crossing the line of sight since the implied magnetic fields are too high. Most probably they are statistical fluctuations due to random spatial and temporal variations in the interstellar electron density and magnetic field along the line of sight.

  2. Pulsar Observations of Extreme Scattering Events

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, W A; Shannon, R M; Hobbs, G; Manchester, R N; You, X P; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Levin, Y; Oslowski, S; Ravi, V; Reardon, D; Toomey, L; van Straten, W; Wang, J B; Wen, L; Zhu, X J

    2015-01-01

    Extreme scattering events (ESEs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) were first observed in regular flux measurements of compact extragalactic sources. They are characterized by a flux variation over a period of weeks, suggesting the passage of a "diverging plasma lens" across the line of sight. Modeling the refraction of such a lens indicates that the structure size must be of order AU and the electron density of order 10s of cm^{-3}. Similar structures have been observed in measurements of pulsar intensity scintillation and group delay. Here we report observations of two ESEs showing increases in both intensity scintillation and dispersion made with the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA). These allow us to make more complete models of the ESE, including an estimate of the "outer-scale" of the turbulence in the plasma lens. These observations show clearly that the ESE structure is fully turbulent on an AU scale. They provide some support for the idea that the structures are extended along the line of sight, such...

  3. Elementary Wideband Timing of Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Pennucci, Timothy T; Ransom, Scott M

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the simultaneous measurement of a pulse time-of-arrival (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM) from folded wideband pulsar data. We extend the prescription put forth by Taylor (1992) to accommodate a general two-dimensional template ``portrait'', the alignment of which can be used to measure a pulse phase and DM. We show that there is a dedispersion reference frequency that removes the covariance between the two measured quantities, and note that the recovered pulse profile scaling amplitudes can provide useful information. We experiment with pulse modeling by using Gaussian-component scheme that allows for independent component evolution with frequency, a ``fiducial component'', and the inclusion of scattering. A demonstration on three years of wideband data on the bright millisecond pulsar J1824-2452A (M28A) from the Green Bank Telescope, and a suite of Monte Carlo analyses showcase and validate the algorithm. By using a simple model portrait of M28A we obtain DM trends comparable to ...

  4. Prospects for High-Precision Pulsar Timing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, K; Kramer, M; Stappers, B W; van Straten, W; Cordes, J M

    2011-01-01

    Timing pulses of pulsars has proved to be a most powerful technique useful to a host of research areas in astronomy and physics. Importantly, the precision of this timing is not only affected by radiometer noise, but also by intrinsic pulse shape changes, interstellar medium (ISM) evolution, instrumental distortions, etc. In this paper we review the known causes of pulse shape variations and assess their effect on the precision and accuracy of a single measurement of pulse arrival time with current instrumentation. Throughout this analysis we use the brightest and most precisely timed millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J0437-4715, as a case study, and develop a set of diagnostic tools to evaluate profile stability in timing observations. We conclude that most causes of distortion can be either corrected by state-of-the-art techniques or taken into account in the estimation of time-of-arrival (TOA) uncertainties. The advent of a new generation of radio telescopes (e.g. the Square Kilometre Array, SKA), and their in...

  5. SQM stars around pulsar PSR B1257+12

    CERN Document Server

    Kutschera, Marek; Kubis, Sebastian; Bratek, Łukasz

    2010-01-01

    Following Wolszczan's landmark discovery of planets in orbit around pulsar PSR B1257+12 in 1991, over 300 planets in more than 200 planetary systems have been found. Therefore, the meaning of Wolszczan's discovery cannot be overestimated. In this paper we aim to convince the reader that the objects accompanying pulsar PSR B1257+12 are more exotic than thought so far. They might not be ordinary planets but dwarf strange quark stars, whereas the pulsar might be a quark star with standard mass, not a neutron star. If this was the case, it would indicate that strange quark matter is the ground state of matter.

  6. Pulsar Search Results from the Arecibo Remote Command Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alejandro; Stovall, K.; Banaszak, S. A.; Becker, A.; Biwer, C. M.; Boehler, K.; Caballero, K.; Christy, B.; Cohen, S.; Crawford, F.; Cuellar, A.; Danford, A.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J. D.; Gonzalez, A.; Gustavson, K.; Handzo, E.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kayal, K.; Lommen, A. N.; Longoria, C.; Lopez, J.; Lunsford, G.; Mahany, N.; Martinez, J.; Mata, A.; Miller, A.; Murray, J.; Pankow, C.; Ramirez, I.; Reser, J.; Rojas, P.; Rohr, M.; Rolph, K.; Rose, C.; Rudnik, P.; Siemens, X.; Tellez, A.; Tillman, N.; Walker, A.; Wells, B. L.; Zermeno, A.; Consortium, GBNCC; Consortium, PALFA; Consortium, GBTDrift; Consortium, AO327

    2014-01-01

    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) at the University of Texas at Brownsville, in collaboration with various Universities, is currently engaged in searching through ongoing radio telescope surveys for radio pulsars. ARCC is an integrated research/education program that allows students at the high school and undergraduate level to be directly involved with the research at the Arecibo and Green Bank radio telescopes. We discuss the progress of our search effort with PRESTO pulsar search pipelines. Web based tools have been developed so that high school, undergraduate, and graduate students could rank the pulsar candidates created by PRESTO pipelines. We describe these tools and present our current discoveries.

  7. Pulsar coherent de-dispersion system of Urumqi Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyong, Liu; Esamdin, Ali; Jin, Zhang

    Pulsar coherent de-dispersion experiment has been carried by using the 25-m Nanshan radio telescope of Urumqi Observatory It uses a dual polarization receiver operating at 18cm and a VLBI back-end Mark5A The data processing system is based on a C program on Linux and a 4-node Beowulf cluster A high quality data acquisition system and a cluster with more processors are needed to build an on-line pulsar coherent de-dispersion system in future Key words Astronomical instrument Pulsar Coherent de-dispersion Parallel computing Cluster Mark5A

  8. Magnetorotational and Tayler Instabilities in the Pulsar Magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vadim Urpin

    2017-09-01

    The magnetospheres around neutron stars should be very particular because of their strong magnetic field and rapid rotation. A study of the pulsar magnetospheres is of crucial importance since it is the key issue to understand how energy outflow to the exterior is produced. In this paper, we discuss magnetohydrodynamic processes in the pulsar magnetosphere. We consider in detail the properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves that can exist in the magnetosphere and their instabilities. These instabilities lead to formation of magnetic structures and can be responsible for short-term variability of the pulsar emission.

  9. Analytical model of massive Pulsar J0348+0432

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayum Jafry, M. Abdul; Molla, Sajahan; Islam, Rabiul; Kalam, Mehedi

    2017-10-01

    In this article we propose a model for the Pulsar J0348+0432 (Antoniadis et al. in Science 340:1233232, 2013) in a compact relativistic binary. Here we investigate the physical properties of the Pulsar J0348+0432 by using the Finch and Skea (Class. Quantum Gravity 4:467, 1989) metric. Using our model, we evaluate central density (ρ0), surface density (ρb), central pressure (p 0), surface redshift (Z s) and probable radius of the above mentioned compact object, which is very much consistent with reported data. We also obtain a possible equation of state (EoS) of the pulsar which is physically acceptable.

  10. Pulsar Coherent De-dispersion Experiment at Urumqi Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yong; Ali, Esamdin; Zhang, Jin

    2006-12-01

    A Pulsar coherent de-dispersion experiment has been carried out using the 25-m Nanshan radio telescope at Urumqi Observatory. It uses a dual polarization receiver operating at 18 cm and a VLBI back-end: Mark5A, the minimum sampling time is 5 ns. The data processing system is based on a C program on Linux and a 4-node Beowulf cluster. A high quality data acquisition system and a cluster with more processors are needed to build an on-line pulsar coherent de-dispersion system in future. The main directions for the instrument are studies of pulsar timing, scintillation monitoring, etc.

  11. A Framework for Assessing the Performance of Pulsar Search Pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    van Heerden, E; Roberts, S J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for assessing the effect of non-stationary Gaussian noise and radio frequency interference (RFI) on the signal to noise ratio, the number of false positives detected per true positive and the sensitivity of standard pulsar search pipelines. The results highlight the necessity to develop algorithms that are able to identify and remove non-stationary variations from the data before RFI excision and searching is performed in order to limit false positive detections. The results also show that the spectrum whitening algorithms currently employed, severely affect the efficiency of pulsar search pipelines by reducing their sensitivity to long period pulsars.

  12. Computer optimization of multispectral solar cells based on GaAs Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, D.; Esteve, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Rouhani, D. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Sylla, A.; Kouadja, K. [Abidjan Univ. (Cote d`Ivoire)

    1995-12-31

    The performances of the monolithic two solar cells tandem is studied. The geometrical and physical parameters of the two cells connected in series are determined for the optimal operation of the device. The chemical composition of the infra red sensitive Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te solar cell is for x = 0.53 with an energy gap of 0.6 eV. The maximum efficiency of the tandem under AM1 solar radiation has been found to be 30 % with contributions of 25 % and 5% for the GaAs and Hg{sub 1-w}Cd{sub x}Te solar cells, respectively. However, sophisticated technologies are needed to achieve this efficiency. (author) 12 refs.

  13. Computer optimization of multispectral solar cells based on GaAs Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, D.; Esteve, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Rouhani, D. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Sylla, A.; Kouadja, K. [Abidjan Univ. (Cote d`Ivoire)

    1995-12-31

    The performances of the monolithic two solar cells tandem is studied. The geometrical and physical parameters of the two cells connected in series are determined for the optimal operation of the device. The chemical composition of the infra red sensitive Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te solar cell is for x = 0.53 with an energy gap of 0.6 eV. The maximum efficiency of the tandem under AM1 solar radiation has been found to be 30 % with contributions of 25 % and 5% for the GaAs and Hg{sub 1-w}Cd{sub x}Te solar cells, respectively. However, sophisticated technologies are needed to achieve this efficiency. (author) 12 refs.

  14. Movement of the pulsars and neutrino oscillations; Movimiento de los pulsares y oscilaciones de neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkovich, M.A

    2005-07-01

    The astronomical observations show that the pulsars are not in the center of the remainder of the supernovae that gave its origin, but rather are displaced of the same one and moving to a speed of about 500 km/s, which is much bigger that of the progenitor star. This fact constitutes a strong evidence that the pulsars is accelerated in the moment of its birth and by this it is denominated to this phenomenon 'pulsars kick'. They exist numerous and varied mechanisms to explain this effect, but none makes it in way completely satisfactory. In this thesis we will study in detail a mechanism proposed originally by Kusenko and Segre and that is based on an asymmetric emission of the neutrinos flow induced by the oscillations of the same ones when its spread in a magnetized media. For this end we will develop, in first instance, the Eddington model. This is based on the transport of the neutrino flux and it describes in a reasonable way the atmosphere of a neutron protostar, place where take place the oscillations. Next we will study the problem of the emission of a neutrino gas from a resonance volume. These results will be applied to the study of the kick in the cases of oscillations among active neutrinos and actives with sterile to determine the magnetic field and the oscillation parameters (difference of the square of the masses of those neutrinos and mixture angle in vacuum) required. Finally we will analyze those neutrino oscillations induced by a possible violation of the Equivalence principle and it implication in the pulsars dynamics. (Author)

  15. High-precision timing of 42 millisecond pulsars with the European Pulsar Timing Array

    CERN Document Server

    Desvignes, G; Lentati, L; Verbiest, J P W; Champion, D J; Stappers, B W; Janssen, G H; Lazarus, P; Osłowski, S; Babak, S; Bassa, C G; Brem, P; Burgay, M; Cognard, I; Gair, J R; Graikou, E; Guillemot, L; Hessels, J W T; Jessner, A; Jordan, C; Karuppusamy, R; Kramer, M; Lassus, A; Lazaridis, K; Lee, K J; Liu, K; Lyne, A G; McKee, J; Mingarelli, C M F; Perrodin, D; Petiteau, A; Possenti, A; Purver, M B; Rosado, P A; Sanidas, S; Sesana, A; Shaifullah, G; Smits, R; Taylor, S R; Theureau, G; Tiburzi, C; van Haasteren, R; Vecchio, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the high-precision timing of 42 radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed by the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). This EPTA Data Release 1.0 extends up to mid-2014 and baselines range from 7-18 years. It forms the basis for the stochastic gravitational-wave background, anisotropic background, and continuous-wave limits recently presented by the EPTA elsewhere. The Bayesian timing analysis performed with TempoNest yields the detection of several new parameters: seven parallaxes, nine proper motions and, in the case of six binary pulsars, an apparent change of the semi-major axis. We find the NE2001 Galactic electron density model to be a better match to our parallax distances (after correction from the Lutz-Kelker bias) than the M2 and M3 models by Schnitzeler (2012). However, we measure an average uncertainty of 80\\% (fractional) for NE2001, three times larger than what is typically assumed in the literature. We revisit the transverse velocity distribution for a set of 19 isolated and 57 bina...

  16. The SMC X-ray transient XTE J0111.2-7317 a Be/X-ray binary in a SNR?

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, M J; Reig, P

    1999-01-01

    We report observations which confirm the identity of the optical/IR counterpart to the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer transient source XTE J0111.2-7317. The counterpart is suggested to be a B0-B2 star (luminosity class III--V) showing an IR excess and strong Balmer emission lines. The distance derived from reddening and systemic velocity measurements puts the source in the SMC. Unusually, the source exhibits an extended asymetric H alpha structure.

  17. A study of the cross-correlation and time lag in black hole X-ray binary XTE J1859+226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Songpeng; Ding, Guoqiang; Li, Zhibing; Lei, Yajuan; Yuen, Rai; Qu, Jinlu

    2017-07-01

    With Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we systematically study the cross-correlation and time lag in all spectral states of black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) XTE J1859+226 in detail during its entire 1999-2000 outburst that lasted for 166 days. Anti-correlations and positive correlations and their respective soft and hard X-ray lags are only detected in the first 100 days of the outburst when the luminosity is high. This suggests that the cross-correlations may be related to high luminosity. Positive correlations are detected in every state of XTE J1859+226, viz., hard state, hard-intermediate state (HIMS), soft-intermediate state (SIMS) and soft state. However, anti-correlations are only detected in HIMS and SIMS, anti-correlated hard lags are only detected in SIMS, while anti-correlated soft lags are detected in both HIMS and SIMS. Moreover, the ratio of the observations with anti-correlated soft lags to hard lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is significantly different from that in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs). So far, anti-correlations are never detected in the soft state of BHXBs but detected in every branch or state of NS LMXBs. This may be due to the origin of soft seed photons in BHXBs is confined to the accretion disk and, for NS LMXBs, from both accretion disk and the surface of the NS. We notice that the timescale of anti-correlated time lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is similar with that of other BHXBs and NS LMXBs. We suggest that anti-correlated soft lag detected in BHXB may result from fluctuation in the accretion disk as well as NS LMXB.

  18. Stimulated emission of free excitons in Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te under nonresonant two-photon excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: joon-jang@northwestern.edu; Mani, S.; Ketterson, J.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Park, H.Y. [Department of Semiconductor Applications, Ulsan College, San 29 Mugeo Dong, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hypark@mail.uc.ac.kr

    2008-08-25

    We report on free excitons coexisting with exciton magnetic polarons (EMPs) in bulk semimagnetic semiconductors of Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te for 0.04{<=}x{<=}0.36 at 2 K under nonresonant two-photon excitation. This two-photon excitation not only generates free excitons but also more efficiently creates EMPs compared with ordinary one-photon excitation. Stimulated emission from free excitons is demonstrated under strong two-photon excitation.

  19. Intrinsic Instrumental Polarization and High-Precision Pulsar Timing

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Griffin; Paulin, Remi; Carozzi, Tobia; Johnston, Simon; van Straten, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Radio telescopes are used to accurately measure the time of arrival (ToA) of radio pulses in pulsar timing experiments that target mostly millisecond pulsars (MSPs) due to their high rotational stability. This allows for detailed study of MSPs and forms the basis of experiments to detect gravitational waves. Apart from intrinsic and propagation effects, such as pulse-to-pulse jitter and dispersion variations in the interstellar medium, timing precision is limited in part by the following: polarization purity of the telescope's orthogonally polarized receptors, the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the pulsar profile, and the polarization fidelity of the system. Using simulations, we present how fundamental limitations in recovering the true polarization reduce the precision of ToA measurements. Any real system will respond differently to each source observed depending on the unique pulsar polarization profile. Using the profiles of known MSPs we quantify the limits of observing system specifications that yield s...

  20. An Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, David J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cess; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Nice, David J.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; vanLeeuwen, Joeri; Stappers, Ben W.; Cordes, James M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Backer, Don C.; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Chatterjee, Shami; Cognard, Ismael; Deneva, Julia S.; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Han, JinLin; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Kasian, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M.) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 Solar Mass, an unusually high value.

  1. Giant pulsar glitches and the inertia of neutron star crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsate, T.; Chamel, N.; Gürlebeck, N.; Fantina, A. F.; Pearson, J. M.; Ducoin, C.

    2016-07-01

    Giant pulsar frequency glitches as detected in the emblematic Vela pulsar have long been thought to be the manifestation of a neutron superfluid permeating the inner crust of a neutron star. However, this superfluid has been recently found to be entrained by the crust, and as a consequence it does not carry enough angular momentum to explain giant glitches. The extent to which pulsar-timing observations can be reconciled with the standard vortex-mediated glitch theory is studied considering the current uncertainties on dense-matter properties. To this end, the crustal moment of inertia of glitching pulsars is calculated employing a series of different unified dense-matter equations of state.

  2. The Crab Pulsar at Centimeter Wavelengths: I. Ensemble Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Hankins, T H; Eilek, J A

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the pulsar in the Crab Nebula at high radio frequencies and high time resolution. We present continuously sampled data at 640-ns time resolution, and individual bright pulses recorded at down to 0.25-ns time resolution. Combining our new data with previous data from our group and from the literature shows the dramatic changes in the pulsar's radio emission between low and high radio frequencies. Below about 5 GHz the mean profile is dominated by the bright Main Pulse and Low-Frequency Interpulse. Everything changes, however, above about 5 GHz; the Main Pulse disappears, the mean profile of the Crab pulsar is dominated by the High-Frequency Interpulse (which is quite different from its low-frequency counterpart) and the two High-Frequency Components. We present detailed observational characteristics of these different components which future models of the pulsar's magnetosphere must explain.

  3. Public List of LAT-Detected Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following is a compilation of all publicly-announced gamma-ray pulsars detected using the Fermi LAT. Each of the detections has been vetted by the LAT team,...

  4. Photon Attenuation and Pair Creation in Highly-Magnetized Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.

    1999-01-01

    Developments over the last couple of years have supported the interpretation that anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) possess unusually high magnetic fields, and furthermore may represent a class or classes of neutron stars distinct from the population of conventional radio pulsars. We have recently suggested that such a dichotomization of the pulsar population may naturally arise due to the inherently different conditions in subcritical and supercritical magnetic fields. In this paper, we summarize, within the polar gap model, expectations for observable properties of highly magnetized pulsars, conventional or anomalous. This includes a discussion of the potential suppression of pair production and cascade generation in very strong fields by photon splitting and by threshold pair creation, which might explain radio quiescence in AXPs and SGRs. X-ray and hard gamma-ray spectral properties and trends are identified, with a view to establishing goals for future high energy experimenta...

  5. The role of multipolar magnetic fields in pulsar magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Asséo, E; Asseo, Estelle; Khechinashvili, David

    2002-01-01

    We explore the role of complex multipolar magnetic fields in determining physical processes near the surface of rotation powered pulsars. We model the actual magnetic field as the sum of global dipolar and star-centered multipolar fields. In configurations involving axially symmetric and uniform multipolar fields, 'neutral points' and 'neutral lines' exist close to the stellar surface. Also, the curvature radii of magnetic field lines near the stellar surface can never be smaller than the stellar radius, even for very high order multipoles. Consequently, such configurations are unable to provide an efficient pair creation process above pulsar polar caps, necessary for plasma mechanisms of generation of pulsar radiation. In configurations involving axially symmetric and non-uniform multipoles, the periphery of the pulsar polar cap becomes fragmented into symmetrically distributed narrow sub-regions where curvature radii of complex magnetic field lines are less than the radius of the star. The pair production p...

  6. X-Ray Emission from Rotation-Powered Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gui-Fang; ZHANG Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study the properties of pulsed component of hard (2-10keV) x-ray emission from pulsars based on the new version of outer gap model we proposed previously [Astrophys.J.604 (2004) 317].On the frame of this outer gap model, we derive an expression of non-thermal pulsed x-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars, and then apply it to the pulsars whose pulsed x-rays are detected by ASCA.Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test,we determine the model parameter.The present results indicate LX ∝ L1.15sd for these x-ray pulsars, which is consistent with the observed data.

  7. Too much "pasta" for pulsars to spin down

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, Jose A; Rea, Nanda

    2013-01-01

    The lack of X-ray pulsars with spin periods > 12 s raises the question about where the population of evolved high magnetic field neutron stars has gone. Unlike canonical radio-pulsars, X-ray pulsars are not subject to physical limits to the emission mechanism nor observational biases against the detection of sources with longer periods. Here we show that a highly resistive layer in the innermost part of the crust of neutron stars naturally limits the spin period to a maximum value of about 10-20 s. This high resistivity is one of the expected properties of the nuclear pasta phase, a proposed state of matter having nucleons arranged in a variety of complex shapes. Our findings suggest that the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars can be the first observational evidence of the existence of such phase, which properties can be constrained by future X-ray timing missions combined with more detailed models.

  8. On the high frequency polarization of pulsar radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hoensbroech, A; Krawczyk, A

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed the polarization properties of pulsars at an observing frequency of 4.9 GHz. Together with low frequency data, we are able to trace polarization profiles over more than three octaves into an interesting frequency regime. At those high frequencies the polarization properties often undergo important changes such as significant depolarization. A detailed analysis allowed us to identify parameters, which regulate those changes. A significant correlation was found between the integrated degree of polarization and the loss of rotational energy E^dot. The data were also used to review the widely established pulsar profile classification scheme of core- and cone-type beams. We have discovered the existence of pulsars which show a strongly increasing degree of circular polarization towards high frequencies. Previously unpublished average polarization profiles, recorded at the 100m Effelsberg radio telescope, are presented for 32 radio pulsars at 4.9 GHz. The data were used to derive polarimetric param...

  9. Effects of phase transition induced density fluctuations on pulsar dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bagchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that density fluctuations during phase transitions in pulsar cores may have non-trivial effects on pulsar timings, and may also possibly account for glitches and anti-glitches. These density fluctuations invariably lead to non-zero off-diagonal components of the moment of inertia, leading to transient wobbling of star. Thus, accurate measurements of pulsar timing and intensity modulations (from wobbling may be used to identify the specific pattern of density fluctuations, hence the particular phase transition, occurring inside the pulsar core. Changes in quadrupole moment from rapidly evolving density fluctuations during the transition, with very short time scales, may provide a new source for gravitational waves.

  10. The Aid of Optical Studies in Understanding Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A large number of new "black widow" and "redback" energetic millisecond pulsars with irradiated stellar companions have been discovered through radio and optical searches of unidentified \\textit{Fermi} sources. Synchrotron emission, from particles accelerated up to several TeV in the intrabinary shock, exhibits modulation at the binary orbital period. Our simulated double-peaked X-ray light curves modulated at the orbital period, produced by relativistic Doppler-boosting along the intrabinary shock, are found to qualitatively match those observed in many sources. In this model, redbacks and transitional pulsar systems where the double-peaked X-ray light curve is observed at inferior conjunction have intrinsically different shock geometry than other millisecond pulsar binaries where the light curve is centered at superior conjunction. We discuss, and advocate, how current and future optical observations may aid in constraining the emission geometry, intrabinary shock and the unknown physics of pulsar winds.

  11. Pulsar radiation in post-Maxwellian vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. I.; Shvilkin, B. N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Vasili'ev, M. I.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics are most clearly pronounced in a strong electromagnetic field close to Schwinger limit. Electromagnetic fields of such intensity can be obtained in laboratory conditions only on very few extreme laser facilities and during a short time interval. At the same time, the astrophysical compact objects with a strong electromagnetic field such as pulsars and magnetars are the best suited to study the effects of nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics. We present analytical calculations for pulsar proper radiation in parametrized post-Maxwellian nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics. Based on the obtained solutions, the effect of nonlinear vacuum corrections to pulsar spin down is being investigated. The analysis of torque functions show that the nonlinear vacuum electrodynamics corrections to the electromagnetic radiation for some pulsars may be comparable to the energy loss by gravitational radiation.

  12. Pulsar Pair Cascades in a Distorted Magnetic Dipole Field

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Alice K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap, we derive the accelerating electric field above the polar cap in space charge limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the polar cap and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P-Pdot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.

  13. Are Superfluid Vortices in Pulsars Violating the Weak Equivalence Principle?

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we argue that timing irregularities in pulsars, like glitches and timing noise, could be associated with the violation of the weak equivalence principle for vortices in the superfluid core of rotating neutron stars.

  14. Pulsar Science with the Green Bank 43m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mickaliger, M B; Lorimer, D R; Langston, G I; Bilous, A V; Kondratiev, V I; Ransom, S M; Crawford, F

    2011-01-01

    The 43m telescope at the NRAO site in Green Bank, WV has recently been outfitted with a clone of the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI \\cite{Ransom:2009}) backend, making it very useful for a number of pulsar related studies in frequency ranges 800-1600 MHz and 220-440 MHz. Some of the recent science being done with it include: monitoring of the Crab pulsar, a blind search for transient sources, pulsar searches of targets of opportunity, and an all-sky mapping project. For the Crab monitoring project, regular observations are searched for giant pulses (GPs), which are then correlated with $\\gamma$-ray photons from the \\emph{Fermi} spacecraft. Data from the all-sky mapping project are first run through a pipeline that does a blind transient search, looking for single pulses over a DM range of 0-500 pc~cm$^{-3}$. These projects are made possible by MIT Lincoln Labs.

  15. PSRPI Mapping the Galactic distribution of pulsars with the VLBA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Observations for the initial PSRPI sample of 60 pulsars have now concluded. 84.7 hours were observed on the VLBA (plus 12 hours from a pilot project) searching for...

  16. AB INITIO PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE: THE ROLE OF GENERAL RELATIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Cerutti, Benoit; Spitkovsky, Anatoly [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tchekhovskoy, Alexander, E-mail: sashaph@princeton.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    It has recently been demonstrated that self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations of low-obliquity pulsar magnetospheres in flat spacetime show weak particle acceleration and no pair production near the poles. We investigate the validity of this conclusion in a more realistic spacetime geometry via general-relativistic particle-in-cell simulations of the aligned pulsar magnetosphere with pair formation. We find that the addition of the frame-dragging effect makes the local current density along the magnetic field larger than the Goldreich–Julian value, which leads to unscreened parallel electric fields and the ignition of a pair cascade. When pair production is active, we observe field oscillations in the open field bundle, which could be related to pulsar radio emission. We conclude that general-relativistic effects are essential for the existence of the pulsar mechanism in low-obliquity rotators.

  17. Pulsar H(alpha) Bowshocks probe Neutron Star Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a KOALA/AAOmega study of southern pulsar bow shocks. These rare, Balmer-dominated, non-radiative shocks provide an ideal laboratory to study the interaction of the relativistic pulsar wind with the ISM. We will cover H(alpha) at high spectral resolution to measure the kinematics of the upstream ISM and the post-shock flow, while the blue channel measures the Balmer decrement and probes for a faint cooling component. These data, with MHD models, allow us to extract the 3D flow geometry and the orientation and asymmetry of the pulsar wind. These data can also measure the pulsar spindown power, thus estimating the neutron star moment of inertia and effecting a fundamental test of dense matter physics.

  18. On the polar cap cascade pair multiplicity of young pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Timokhin, A N

    2015-01-01

    We study the efficiency of pair production in polar caps of young pulsars under a variety of conditions to estimate the maximum possible multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres. We develop a semi-analytic model for calculation of cascade multiplicity which allows efficient exploration of the parameter space and corroborate it with direct numerical simulations. Pair creation processes are considered separately from particle acceleration in order to assess different factors affecting cascade efficiency, with acceleration of primary particles described by recent self-consistent non-stationary model of pair cascades. We argue that the most efficient cascades operate in the curvature radiation/synchrotron regime, the maximum multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres is ~few x 10^5. The multiplicity of pair plasma in magnetospheres of young energetic pulsars weakly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of magnetic field lines and has a stronger dependence ...

  19. X-Ray Pulsar Based Navigation and Time Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm will build on the Phase I X-ray pulsar-based navigation and timing (XNAV) feasibility assessment to develop a detailed XNAV simulation capability to...

  20. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar. A fraction of interstellar neutrals penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of both non-relativistic and relativistic flow, and focusing on scales much larger than the stand-off distance, we find that a relatively small density of neutrals, as low as $n_{\\rm ISM}=10^{-4}\\,\\text{cm}^{-3}$, is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  1. JPL pulsar timing observations. IV - Excess phase noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, G. S.; Krause-Polstorff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Previously published tables of geocentric arrival times for 24 pulsars covering a 12 year span are extended here to 14.5 years. The list of pulsars is extended by nine, most of which were observed for about 4 years. Known positins of these new objects are confirmed, and limits on the proper motions are obtained. Large phase excursions in PSR 0525 + 21 are found. The orbital parameters of the binary pulsar 0820 + 02 are tentatively confirmed. Short-term timing noise in excess of that expected from receiver considerations alone is established. Variations in the timing residuals for the original 24 pulsars are analyzed for correlations with other observable parameters. Little significant correlation with changes in pulse shape or energy or with the drift correction is found on time scales of 500 pulses or longer.

  2. Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M; Bayer, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogenstahl, J; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkey, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chiadini, F; Christensen, N; Clark, J; Cochrane, P; Cokelaer, T; Coldwell, R; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Croce, R P; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; D'Ambrosio, E; Dalrymple, J; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Bra, D; DeSalvo, R; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Demma, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Dickson, J; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Díaz, M; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fiumara, V; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R E; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Gustafson, R; Günther, M; Hage, B; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Innerhofer, E; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Krämer, M; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leiner, J; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Longo, M; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyne, A G; MacInnis, M; Machenschalk, B; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marano, S; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Matta, V; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McWilliams, S; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mukherjee, S; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Müller, G; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pierro, V; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Rüdiger, A; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Sidles, J A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Somiya, K; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Van Den Broeck, C; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C

    2007-01-01

    We present upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars based on data from the third and fourth science runs of the LIGO and GEO600 gravitational wave detectors. The data from both runs have been combined coherently to maximise sensitivity. For the first time pulsars within binary (or multiple) systems have been included in the search by taking into account the signal modulation due to their orbits. Our upper limits are therefore the first measured for 56 of these pulsars. For the remaining 22, our results improve on previous upper limits by up to a factor of 10. For example, our tightest upper limit on the gravitational strain is 3.2e-25 for PSRJ1603-7202, and the equatorial ellipticity of PSRJ2124-3358 is less than 10e-6. Furthermore, our strain upper limit for the Crab pulsar is only three times greater than the fiducial spin-down limit.

  3. Nanohertz gravitational wave searches with interferometric pulsar timing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo

    2011-05-13

    We estimate the sensitivity to nano-Hertz gravitational waves of pulsar timing experiments in which two highly stable millisecond pulsars are tracked simultaneously with two neighboring radio telescopes that are referenced to the same timekeeping subsystem (i.e., "the clock"). By taking the difference of the two time-of-arrival residual data streams we can exactly cancel the clock noise in the combined data set, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to gravitational waves. We estimate that, in the band (10(-9)-10(-8))  Hz, this "interferometric" pulsar timing technique can potentially improve the sensitivity to gravitational radiation by almost 2 orders of magnitude over that of single-telescopes. Interferometric pulsar timing experiments could be performed with neighboring pairs of antennas of the NASA's Deep Space Network and the forthcoming large arraying projects.

  4. Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommen, Andrea N

    2015-12-01

    We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves.

  5. Pulsar acceleration by asymmetric emission of sterile neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Nardi, E; Nardi, Enrico; Zuluaga, Jorge I.

    2001-01-01

    A convincing explanation for the observed pulsar large peculiar velocities is still missing. We argue that any viable particle physics solution would most likely involve the resonant production of a non-interacting neutrino $\

  6. An Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, D J; Lazarus, P; Camilo, F; Bassa, C; Kaspi, V M; Nice, D J; Freire, P C C; Stairs, I H; Van Leeuwen, J; Stappers, B W; Cordes, J M; Hessels, J W T; Lorimer, D R; Arzoumanian, Z; Backer, D C; Bhat, N D R; Chatterjee, S; Cognard, I; Deneva, J S; Faucher-Giguere, C -A; Gaensler, B M; Han, J L; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kondratiev, V I; Krämer, M; Lazio, J; McLaughlin, M A; Venkataraman, A; Vlemmings, W

    2008-01-01

    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 ms in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster then ejecting it into the Galactic disk or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74+/-0.04 Msun, an unusually high value.

  7. Observations of the optical counterpart to XTE J1118+480 during outburst by the robotic optical transient search experiment In telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wren, J; Balsano, R; Bloch, J; Borozdin, K N; Casperson, D E; Gisler, G; Kehoe, R; Lee Byung Cheol; Marshall, S; McKay, T; Priedhorsky, W; Rykoff, E S; Smith, D; Trudolyubov, S P; Vestrand, W T

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray nova XTE J1118+480 exhibited two outbursts in the early part of 2000. As detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the first outburst began in early January and the second began in early March. Routine imaging of the northern sky by the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) shows the optical counterpart to XTE J1118+480 during both outbursts. These data include over 60 epochs from January to June 2000. A search of the ROTSE data archives reveal no previous optical outbursts of this source in selected data between April 1998 and January 2000. While the X-ray to optical flux ratio of XTE J1118+480 was low during both outbursts, we suggest that they were full X-ray novae and not mini-outbursts based on comparison with similar sources. The ROTSE measurements taken during the March 2000 outburst also indicate a rapid rise in the optical flux that preceded the X-ray emission measured by the RXTE by approximately 10 days. Using these results, we estimate a pre-outburst accretion dis...

  8. Charge Mediated Reversible Metal-Insulator Transition in Monolayer MoTe2 and WxMo1-xTe2 Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Kc, Santosh; Nie, Yifan; Liang, Chaoping; Vandenberghe, William G; Longo, Roberto C; Zheng, Yongping; Kong, Fantai; Hong, Suklyun; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-08-23

    Metal-insulator transitions in low-dimensional materials under ambient conditions are rare and worth pursuing due to their intriguing physics and rich device applications. Monolayer MoTe2 and WTe2 are distinguished from other TMDs by the existence of an exceptional semimetallic distorted octahedral structure (T') with a quite small energy difference from the semiconducting H phase. In the process of transition metal alloying, an equal stability point of the H and the T' phase is observed in the formation energy diagram of monolayer WxMo1-xTe2. This thermodynamically driven phase transition enables a controlled synthesis of the desired phase (H or T') of monolayer WxMo1-xTe2 using a growth method such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Furthermore, charge mediation, as a more feasible method, is found to make the T' phase more stable than the H phase and induce a phase transition from the H phase (semiconducting) to the T' phase (semimetallic) in monolayer WxMo1-xTe2 alloy. This suggests that a dynamic metal-insulator phase transition can be induced, which can be exploited for rich phase transition applications in two-dimensional nanoelectronics.

  9. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray - radio observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, E M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Torres, M A P; Homan, J; Markoff, S; Tomsick, J A; Kaaret, P; Wijnands, R; Gallo, E; Ozel, F; Steeghs, D T H; Fender, R P

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752-223 is fainter than 24.4 magnitudes in the i'-band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-2010 outburst shows that the outburst amplitude is more than 8 magnitudes in the i'-band. Known X-ray properties of the source combined with the faintness of the quiescence optical counterpart and the large outburst optical amplitude point towards a short orbital period system (Porb<~6.8 h) with an M type (or later) mass donor, at a distance of 3.5<~d<~8 kpc. Simultaneous X-ray and radio data were collected with Chandra and the EVLA, allowing constraints to be placed on the quiescent X-ray and radio flux of XTE J1752-223. Furthermore, using data covering the final stage of the outburst decay, we investigated the low luminosity end of the X-ray - radio correlation for this source and compared it with ot...

  10. Discovery of twin kHz quasi periodic oscillations in the low mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-407

    CERN Document Server

    Pawar, Devraj D; Altamirano, Diego; Linares, Manuel; Shanthi, K; Strohmayer, Tod; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; van der Klis, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of kHz quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) in three Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) XTE J1701-407. In one of the observations we detect a kHz QPO with a characteristic frequency of 1153 +/- 5 Hz, while in the other two observations we detect twin QPOs at characteristic frequencies of 740 +/- 5 Hz, 1112 +/- 17 Hz and 740 +/- 11 Hz, 1098 +/- 5 Hz. All detections happen when XTE J1701-407 was in its high intensity soft state, and their single trial significance are in the 3.1-7.5 sigma range. The frequency difference in the centroid frequencies of the twin kHz QPOs (385 +/- 13 Hz) is one of the largest seen till date. The 3-30 keV fractional rms amplitude of the upper kHz QPO varies between ~18 % and ~30 %. XTE J1701-407, with a persistent luminosity close to 1 % of the Eddington limit, is among the small group of low luminosity kHz QPO sources and has the highest rms for the upper kHz QPO detected in any source. The X-ray spectral and variabili...

  11. The kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations during the Z and atoll phases of the unique transient XTE J1701--462

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, A; Altamirano, D; Homan, J; Casella, P; Belloni, T; Lin, D; van der Klis, M; Wijnands, R

    2010-01-01

    We analysed 866 observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 during its 2006-2007 outburst. XTE J1701-462 is the only example so far of a source that during an outburst showed, beyond any doubt, spectral and timing characteristics both of the Z and atoll type. We found that the lower kHz QPO in the atoll phase has a significantly higher coherence and fractional rms amplitude than any of the kHz QPOs seen during the Z phase, and that in the same frequency range, atoll lower kHz QPOs show coherence and fractional rms amplitude, respectively, 2 and 3 times larger than the Z kHz QPOs. Out of the 707 observations in the Z phase, there is no single observation in which the kHz QPOs have a coherence or rms amplitude similar to those seen when XTE J1701-462 was in the atoll phase, even though the total exposure time was about 5 times longer in the Z than in the atoll phase. Since it is observed in the same source, the difference in QPO coherence and rms amplitude between the Z and atoll phase ...

  12. Photovoltaic performances of Cu2-xTe sensitizer based on undoped and indium(3+)-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes and assembled counter electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srathongluan, Pornpimol; Kuhamaneechot, Rattanakorn; Sukthao, Prapatsawan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2016-02-01

    Novel binary Cu2-xTe nanoparticles based on undoped and indium-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique as a sensitizer for liquid-junction solar cells. A larger diameter of TiO2 promoted a narrower energy band gap after indium doping, attributing to yield a broader absorption range of nanoparticle sensitizer due to the increasing amount of Cu2-xTe NPs on TiO2 surface. The atomic percentages showed the stoichiometric formation of Cu2Te incorporated in a Cu2-xTe structure. The best photovoltaic performance with the lower SILAR cycle, i.e., n=13 was performed after indium doping in both of carbon and Cu2S CEs and revealed that the efficiency of 0.73% under the radiant 100mW/cm(2) (AM 1.5G). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the electrical properties via effect of material doping and counter electrodes with a lower charge-transfer resistance (Rct) and it was also found that the electron lifetime was improved after the sample doped with indium and assembled with carbon CE.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATNF Pulsar Catalogue (Manchester+, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G. B.; Teoh, A.; Hobbs, M.

    2016-05-01

    The catalogue is a compilation of the principal observed parameters of pulsars, including positions, timing parameters, pulse widths, flux densities, proper motions, distances, and dispersion, rotation, and scattering measures. It also lists the orbital elements of binary pulsars, and some commonly used parameters derived from the basic measurements. The catalogue includes all published rotation-powered pulsars, including those detected only at high energies. It also includes Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) for which coherent pulsations have been detected. However, it excludes accretion-powered pulsars such as Her X-1 and the recently discovered X-ray millisecond pulsars. (2 data files).

  14. Towards robust gravitational wave detection with pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Sampson, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Precision timing of highly stable millisecond pulsars is a promising technique for the detection of very low frequency sources of gravitational waves. In any single pulsar, a stochastic gravitational wave signal appears as an additional source of timing noise that can be absorbed by the noise model, and so it is only by considering the coherent response across a network of pulsars that the signal can be distinguished from other sources of noise. In the limit where there are many gravitational wave sources in the sky, or many pulsars in the array, the signals produce a unique tensor correlation pattern that depends only on the angular separation between each pulsar pair. It is this distinct fingerprint that is used to search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. Here we consider how the prospects for detection are diminished when the statistical isotropy of the timing array or the gravitational wave signal is broken by having a finite number of pulsars and a finite number of sources. We find the standard tensor-correlation analysis to be remarkably robust, with a mild impact on detectability compared to the isotropic limit. Only when there are very few sources and very few pulsars does the standard analysis begin to fail. Having established that the tensor correlations are a robust signature for detection, we study the use of "sky scrambles" to break the correlations as a way to increase confidence in a detection. This approach is analogous to the use of "time slides" in the analysis of data from ground-based interferometric detectors.

  15. MeV Pulsars: Modeling Spectra and Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust Harding, Alice; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos

    2017-08-01

    A sub-population of energetic rotation-powered pulsars show high fluxes of pulsed non-thermal hard X-ray emission. While this ‘MeV pulsar’ population includes some radio-loud pulsars like the Crab and PSR B1509-58, a significant number have no detected radio or GeV emission, a mystery since gamma-ray emission is a common characteristic of pulsars with high spin-down power. Their steeply rising hard X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggest peaks at 0.1 - 1 MeV but they have not been detected above 200 keV. Several upcoming and planned telescopes may shed light on the MeV pulsars. The Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) will observe pulsars in the 0.2 - 12 keV band and may discover additional MeV pulsars. The All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Observatory (AMEGO), in a study phase, can detect emission above 0.2 MeV and polarization in the 0.2 - 10 MeV band. We present a model for the spectrum and polarization of MeV pulsars where the X-ray emission comes from electron-positron pairs radiating in the outer magnetosphere and current sheet. This model predicts that the peak of the SED increases with surface magnetic field strength if the pairs are produced in polar cap cascades. For small inclination angles, viewing at large angles to the rotation axis can miss both the radio pulse and the GeV pulse from particles accelerating near the current sheet. Characterizing the emission and geometry of MeV pulsars can thus provide clues to the source of pairs and acceleration in the magnetosphere.

  16. X-Ray Observations of Black Widow Pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentile, P.A.; Roberts, M.S.E.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Camilo, F.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Kerr, M.; Ransom, S.M.; Ray, P.S.; Stairs, I.H.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first X-ray observations of five short orbital period (PB < 1 day), γ-ray emitting, binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Four of these—PSRs J0023+0923, J1124-3653, J1810+1744, and J2256-1024—are "black-widow" pulsars, with degenerate companions of mass Lt0.1 M ☉, three of which exhibit

  17. On binary pulsars and the force of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Palle, D

    2002-01-01

    We reanalyze a binary pulsar system and show that the orbital period change rate can be completely understood as a curvature backreaction process. Appreciating a detailed theoretical and observational study of relativistic binary pulsar systems, especially the system of Hulse and Taylor, we conclude that general relativity and astrophysical observations rule out the existence of gravitational radiation. Thus, the force of gravity is not a local gauge force.

  18. The Arrival Directions of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, A.A. [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Ave., 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    The arrival directions of extensive air showers by Yakutsk data are analyzed. We found that fluxes of particles (clusters) with ultrahigh energy from the side of the galactic plane and the plane of Local group of Virgo galactic correlate with pulsars of the galactic plane. It is shown that the all 3 particles with the energy E>10{sup 20} eV by Yakutsk data correlate with a nearest pulsars.

  19. The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey: VII. Timing of four millisecond pulsars and the underlying spin period distribution of the Galactic millisecond pulsar population

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, D R; Manchester, R N; Possenti, A; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Kramer, M; Hobbs, G; Stairs, I H; Burgay, M; Eatough, R P; Keith, M J; Faulkner, A J; D'Amico, N; Camilo, F; Corongiu, A; Crawford, F

    2015-01-01

    We present timing observations of four millisecond pulsars discovered in the Parkes 20-cm multibeam pulsar survey of the Galactic plane. PSRs J1552-4937 and J1843-1448 are isolated objects with spin periods of 6.28 and 5.47 ms respectively. PSR J1727-2946 is in a 40-day binary orbit and has a spin period of 27 ms. The 4.43-ms pulsar J1813-2621 is in a circular 8.16-day binary orbit around a low-mass companion star with a minimum companion mass of 0.2 solar masses. Combining these results with detections from five other Parkes multibeam surveys, gives a well-defined sample of 56 pulsars with spin periods below 20 ms. We develop a likelihood analysis to constrain the functional form which best describes the underlying distribution of spin periods for millisecond pulsars. The best results were obtained with a log-normal distribution. A gamma distribution is less favoured, but still compatible with the observations. Uniform, power-law and Gaussian distributions are found to be inconsistent with the data. Galactic...

  20. XMM-Newton Observations of Four Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2005-01-01

    I present an analysis of the XMM-Newton observations of four millisecond pulsars, J0437-4715, J2124-3358, J1024-0719, and J0034-0534. The new data provide strong evidence of thermal emission in the X-ray flux detected from the first three objects. This thermal component is best interpreted as radiation from pulsar polar caps covered with a nonmagnetic hydrogen atmosphere. A nonthermal power-law component, dominating at energies E greater than or equal to 3 keV, can also be present in the detected X-ray emission. For PSR J0437-4715, the timing analysis reveals that the shape and pulsed fraction of the pulsar light curves are energy dependent. This, together with the results obtained from the phase-resolved spectroscopy, supports the two-component (thermal plus nonthermal) interpretation of the pulsar's X-ray radiation. Highly significant pulsations have been found in the X-ray flux of PSRs 52124-3358 and 51024-0719. For PSR 50034-0534, a possible X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar has been suggested. The inferred properties of the detected thermal emission are compared with predictions of radio pulsar models.