WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulsar light curves

  1. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Light Curves as Probes of Magnetospheric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The large number of gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope since its launch in 2008 dwarfs the handful that were previously known. The variety of observed light curves makes possible a tomography of both the ensemble-averaged field structure and the high-energy emission regions of a pulsar magnetosphere. Fitting the gamma-ray pulsar light curves with model magnetospheres and emission models has revealed that most of the high-energy emission, and the particles acceleration, takes place near or beyond the light cylinder, near the current sheet. As pulsar magnetosphere models become more sophisticated, it is possible to probe magnetic field structure and emission that are self-consistently determined. Light curve modeling will continue to be a powerful tool for constraining the pulsar magnetosphere physics.

  2. Gamma-Ray Light Curves from Pulsar Magnetospheres with Finite Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A. K.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided an unprecedented database for pulsar emission studies that includes gamma-ray light curves for over 100 pulsars. Modeling these light curves can reveal and constrain the geometry of the particle accelerator, as well as the pulsar magnetic field structure. We have constructed 3D magnetosphere models with finite conductivity, that bridge the extreme vacuum and force-free solutions used in previous light curves modeling. We are investigating the shapes of pulsar gamma-ray light curves using these dissipative solutions with two different approaches: (l) assuming geometric emission patterns of the slot gap and outer gap, and (2) using the parallel electric field provided by the resistive models to compute the trajectories and . emission of the radiating particles. The light curves using geometric emission patterns show a systematic increase in gamma-ray peak phase with increasing conductivity, introducing a new diagnostic of these solutions. The light curves using the model electric fields are very sensitive to the conductivity but do not resemble the observed Fermi light curves, suggesting that some screening of the parallel electric field, by pair cascades not included in the models, is necessary

  3. On the mean profiles of radio pulsars - II. Reconstruction of complex pulsar light curves and other new propagation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, H. L.; Beskin, V. S.; Philippov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    Our previous paper outlined the general aspects of the theory of radio light curve and polarization formation for pulsars. We predicted the one-to-one correspondence between the tilt of the linear polarization position angle of the the circular polarization. However, some of the radio pulsars indicate a clear deviation from that correlation. In this paper, we apply the theory of the radio wave propagation in the pulsar magnetosphere for the analysis of individual effects leading to these deviations. We show that within our theory the circular polarization of a given mode can switch its sign, without the need to introduce a new radiation mode or other effects. Moreover, we show that the generation of different emission modes on different altitudes can explain pulsars, that presumably have the X-O-X light-curve pattern, different from what we predict. General properties of radio emission within our propagation theory are also discussed. In particular, we calculate the intensity patterns for different radiation altitudes and present light curves for different observer viewing angles. In this context we also study the light curves and polarization profiles for pulsars with interpulses. Further, we explain the characteristic width of the position angle curves by introducing the concept of a wide emitting region. Another important feature of radio polarization profiles is the shift of the position angle from the centre, which in some cases demonstrates a weak dependence on the observation frequency. Here we demonstrate that propagation effects do not necessarily imply a significant frequency-dependent change of the position angle curve.

  4. Probing Millisecond Pulsar Emission Geometry Using Light Curves From the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Christo; Harding, Alice; Guillemot, L.

    2009-01-01

    An interesting new high-energy pulsar sub-population is emerging following early discoveries of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We present results from 3D emission modeling, including the Special Relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and also rotational sweepback of 13-field lines, in the geometric context of polar cap (PC), slot gap (SG), outer gap (OG), and two-pole caustic (TPC) pulsar models. In contrast to the general belief that these very old, rapidly-rotating neutron stars (NSs) should have largely pair-starved magnetospheres due to the absence of significant pair production, we find that most of the light curves are best fit by SG and OG models, which indicates the presence of narrow accelerating gaps limited by robust pair production -- even in these pulsars with very low spin-down luminosities. The gamma-ray pulse shapes and relative phase lags with respect to the radio pulses point to high-altitude emission being dominant for all geometries. We also find exclusive differentiation of the current gamma-ray MSP population into two MSP sub-classes: light curve shapes and lags across wavebands impose either pair-starved PC (PSPC) or SG / OG-type geometries. In the first case, the radio pulse has a small lag with respect to the single gamma-ray pulse, while the (first) gamma-ray peak usually trails the radio by a large phase offset in the latter case. Finally, we find that the flux correction factor as a function of magnetic inclination and observer angles is typically of order unity for all models. Our calculation of light curves and flux correction factor f(_, _, P) for the case of MSPs is therefore complementary to the "ATLAS paper" of Watters et al. for younger pulsars.

  5. Light-Curve Modelling Constraints on the Obliquities and Aspect Angles of the Young Fermi Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierbattista, M.; Harding, A. K.; Grenier, I. A.; Johnson, T. J.; Caraveo, P. A.; Kerr, M.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2015-01-01

    In more than four years of observation the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite has identified pulsed gamma-ray emission from more than 80 young or middle-aged pulsars, in most cases providing light curves with high statistics. Fitting the observed profiles with geometrical models can provide estimates of the magnetic obliquity alpha and of the line of sight angle zeta, yielding estimates of the radiation beaming factor and radiated luminosity. Using different gamma-ray emission geometries (Polar Cap, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, One Pole Caustic) and core plus cone geometries for the radio emission, we fit gamma-ray light curves for 76 young or middle-aged pulsars and we jointly fit their gamma-ray plus radio light curves when possible. We find that a joint radio plus gamma-ray fit strategy is important to obtain (alpha, zeta) estimates that can explain simultaneously detectable radio and gamma-ray emission: when the radio emission is available, the inclusion of the radio light curve in the fit leads to important changes in the (alpha, gamma) solutions. The most pronounced changes are observed for Outer Gap and One Pole Caustic models for which the gamma-ray only fit leads to underestimated alpha or zeta when the solution is found to the left or to the right of the main alpha-zeta plane diagonal respectively. The intermediate-to-high altitude magnetosphere models, Slot Gap, Outer Gap, and One pole Caustic, are favored in explaining the observations. We find no apparent evolution of a on a time scale of 106 years. For all emission geometries our derived gamma-ray beaming factors are generally less than one and do not significantly evolve with the spin-down power. A more pronounced beaming factor vs. spin-down power correlation is observed for Slot Gap model and radio-quiet pulsars and for the Outer Gap model and radio-loud pulsars. The beaming factor distributions exhibit a large dispersion that is less pronounced for the Slot Gap case and that decreases from

  6. Light curve and pulse profile of the x-ray pulsar Vela X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Fumiaki; Hayakawa, Satio; Makino, Fumiyoshi; Sato, Naohisa; Makishima, Kazuo.

    1983-01-01

    The following properties of the X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1 are presented by reference to its observations in March 1980. The light curve shows a high state and a low state in the first and second halves of an orbital period, respectively, but they may rather be defined as a soft state and hard state, respectively, since the intensity above 9 keV does not appreciably change between these two states. The energy spectra in these states indicate the presence of circumstellar absorption. The pulse profiles at high (9-22 keV) and low (1-9 keV) energies are different, indicating the absorption by cold matter which is probably in the accretion column. The absorber which is responsible for the soft and hard states is attributed to the stellar wind whose flow pattern is consistent with that obtained from optical absorption spectra. The orbital period is obtained by a combined analysis of X-ray data since 1972. No appreciable change of the period gives a constraint on the dynamical behavior of the binary system. (author)

  7. Modelling gamma-ray light curves of phase-aligned millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shan; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Zejun

    2018-04-01

    Three gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs), PSR J1939+2134, PSR J1959+2048, and PSR J0034-0534, have been confirmed to have a common feature of phase-aligned in radio and gamma-ray bands. With a geometric (two-pole caustic) model and a physical outer gap model (revised 3D outer gap model) in a three dimensional (3D) retarded magnetic dipole with a perturbation magnetic field, the observed features of these MSPs are studied. In order to obtained the best-fitting model parameters, the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique is used and reasonable GeV band light curves for three MSPs are given. Our calculations indicate that MSPs emit high energy photons with smaller inclination angles (α ≈ 10°-50°), larger view angles (ζ ≈ 65°-100°), and smaller perturbation factor (ɛ ≈ -0.15-0.1). Note that the factor ɛ, describing the strength of the perturbed magnetic field, is all less than zero in these two models, so the magnetic field caused by current-induced play a leading role in the pulsed location of MSPs.

  8. Modeling Phase-Aligned Gamma-Ray and Radio Millisecond Pulsar Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Johnson, T.; Harding, A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first eight gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, this population has been steadily expanding. Four of the more recent detections, PSR J00340534, PSR J1939+2134 (B1937+21; the first MSP ever discovered), PSR J1959+2048 (B1957+20; the first discovery of a black widow system), and PSR J2214+3000, exhibit a phenomenon not present in the original discoveries: nearly phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray light curves (LCs). To account for the phase alignment, we explore models where both the radio and gamma-ray emission originate either in the outer magnetosphere near the light cylinder or near the polar caps. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to search for best-fit model parameters, we obtain reasonable LC fits for the first three of these MSPs in the context of altitude-limited outer gap (alOG) and two-pole caustic (alTPC) geometries (for both gamma-ray and radio emission). These models differ from the standard outer gap (OG)/two-pole caustic (TPC) models in two respects: the radio emission originates in caustics at relatively high altitudes compared to the usual conal radio beams, and we allow both the minimum and maximum altitudes of the gamma-ray and radio emission regions to vary within a limited range (excluding the minimum gamma-ray altitude of the alTPC model, which is kept constant at the stellar radius, and that of the alOG model, which is set to the position-dependent null charge surface altitude). Alternatively, phase-aligned solutions also exist for emission originating near the stellar surface in a slot gap scenario (low-altitude slot gap (laSG) models). We find that the alTPC models provide slightly better LC fits than the alOG models, and both of these give better fits than the laSG models (for the limited range of parameters considered in the case of the laSG models). Thus, our fits imply that the phase-aligned LCs are likely of caustic origin, produced in the outer magnetosphere, and

  9. Gamma-ray pulsar physics: gap-model populations and light-curve analyses in the Fermi era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierbattista, M.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis research focusses on the study of the young and energetic isolated ordinary pulsar population detected by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. We compared the model expectations of four emission models and the LAT data. We found that all the models fail to reproduce the LAT detections, in particular the large number of high E objects observed. This inconsistency is not model dependent. A discrepancy between the radio-loud/radio-quiet objects ratio was also found between the observed and predicted samples. The L γ α E 0.5 relation is robustly confirmed by all the assumed models with particular agreement in the slot gap (SG) case. On luminosity bases, the intermediate altitude emission of the two pole caustic SG model is favoured. The beaming factor f Ω shows an E dependency that is slightly visible in the SG case. Estimates of the pulsar orientations have been obtained to explain the simultaneous gamma and radio light-curves. By analysing the solutions we found a relation between the observed energy cutoff and the width of the emission slot gap. This relation has been theoretically predicted. A possible magnetic obliquity α alignment with time is rejected -for all the models- on timescale of the order of 10 6 years. The light-curve morphology study shows that the outer magnetosphere gap emission (OGs) are favoured to explain the observed radio-gamma lag. The light curve moment studies (symmetry and sharpness) on the contrary favour a two pole caustic SG emission. All the model predictions suggest a different magnetic field layout with an hybrid two pole caustic and intermediate altitude emission to explain both the pulsar luminosity and light curve morphology. The low magnetosphere emission mechanism of the polar cap model, is systematically rejected by all the tests done. (author) [fr

  10. The Effect of an Offset Polar Cap Dipolar Magnetic Field on the Modeling of the Vela Pulsar's Gamma-Ray Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, M.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We performed geometric pulsar light curve modeling using static, retarded vacuum, and offset polar cap (PC) dipole B-fields (the latter is characterized by a parameter epsilon), in conjunction with standard two-pole caustic (TPC) and outer gap (OG) emission geometries. The offset-PC dipole B-field mimics deviations from the static dipole (which corresponds to epsilon equals 0). In addition to constant-emissivity geometric models, we also considered a slot gap (SG) E-field associated with the offset-PC dipole B-field and found that its inclusion leads to qualitatively different light curves. Solving the particle transport equation shows that the particle energy only becomes large enough to yield significant curvature radiation at large altitudes above the stellar surface, given this relatively low E-field. Therefore, particles do not always attain the radiation-reaction limit. Our overall optimal light curve fit is for the retarded vacuum dipole field and OG model, at an inclination angle alpha equals 78 plus or minus 1 degree and observer angle zeta equals 69 plus 2 degrees or minus 1 degree. For this B-field, the TPC model is statistically disfavored compared to the OG model. For the static dipole field, neither model is significantly preferred. We found that smaller values of epsilon are favored for the offset-PC dipole field when assuming constant emissivity, and larger epsilon values favored for variable emissivity, but not significantly so. When multiplying the SG E-field by a factor of 100, we found improved light curve fits, with alpha and zeta being closer to best fits from independent studies, as well as curvature radiation reaction at lower altitudes.

  11. THE LIGHT CURVE AND INTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE MODE-SWITCHING PULSAR PSR B0943+10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, Natalia I.; Lai, Dong [Center for Space Research, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ho, Wynn C. G. [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Bogdanov, Slavko [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Heinke, Craig O. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-07-10

    A number of radio pulsars exhibit intriguing mode-switching behavior. Recent observations of PSR B0943+10 revealed correlated radio and X-ray mode switches, providing a new avenue for understanding this class of objects. The large X-ray pulse fraction observed during the radio-quiet phase (Q-mode) was previously interpreted as a result of changing obscuration of X-rays by dense magnetosphere plasma. We show that the large X-ray pulse fraction can be explained by including the beaming effect of a magnetic atmosphere, while remaining consistent with the dipole field geometry constrained by radio observations. We also explore a more extreme magnetic field configuration, where a magnetic dipole displaced from the center of the star produces two magnetic polar caps of different sizes and magnetic field strengths. These models are currently consistent with data in radio and X-rays and can be tested or constrained by future X-ray observations.

  12. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  13. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  14. New outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar NGC 6440 X-2 and discovery of a strong 1 Hz modulation in the light-curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Yang, Y.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Klis, M. Van Der; Watts, A.; Wijnands, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Markwardt, C.; Strohmayer, T.; Heinke, C.

    On June 11th, 2010, RXTE/PCA galactic bulge scan observations showed an increase in activity from the globular cluster NGC 6440. Two accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs) and 22 other X-ray binaries are known in NGC 6440 (see Pooley et al. 2002, ApJ 573, 184, Altarmirano et al. 2010, ApJL 712,

  15. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  16. Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Francis Graham

    1977-01-01

    The discovery of the pulsars ; techniques for search and for observation ; the identification with rotating neutron stars ; the X-ray pulsars ; the internal structure of neutron stars ; the magnetosphere of neutron stars ; pulse timing ; properties of the integrated radio pulses ; individual radio pulses ; the Crab nebula ; the Crab pulsar ; the interstellar medium as an indicator of pulsar distances ; the interstellar magnetic field ; interstellar scintillation ; radiation processes ; the emission mechanism I : analysis of observed particles ; the emission mechanism II : geometrical considerations ; the emission mechanism : discussion ; supernovae : the origin of the pulsars ; the distribution and the ages of pulsars ; high energies and condensed stars.

  17. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  18. Explosions and light curves of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffet, B.

    1975-01-01

    The models developed to explain supernovae explosions are reviewed. The first one is thermonuclear explosion (simple or preceded by an implosion phase); the neutrino emission which results of such an explosion can have an important dynamical effect, according as the star is opaque or transparent to them; another theory involves the radiation pressure of the pulsar which is formed in the center of the star. The origin of the supernovae brightness is also uncertain: the initial heat due to the explosion does not seem to be sufficient; the brightness can result from the diffusion of the heat through the ejected matter or can be transported more rapidly by a shock wave. A model in which the heat is produced by the pulsar seems compatible with most observations (shapes of the brightness curves and the continuum spectra, expansion velocities, temperature and luminosity at the peak, total kinetic energy) [fr

  19. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  20. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  1. Reflected Light Curves of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.; Matthews, J.; Kuschnig, R.; Seager, S.

    The planned launches of ultra-precise photometric satellites such as MOST, COROT and MONS should provide the first opportunity to study the reflected light curves from extrasolar planets. To predict the capabilities of these missions, we have constructed a series of models of such light curves, improving upon the Monte Carlo simulations by Seager et al. (2000). These models include more realistic features such limb darkening of the star and broad band photometry. For specific models, the resulting planet light curves exhibit unique behavior with the variation of radius, inclination and presence or absence of clouds.

  2. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  3. Light Curve Analysis of SAO23229

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We have made UBV light curves of a newly discovered eclipsing binary, SAO23229 at Sobaeksan Astronomy Observatory. We determined a minimum light time of HJD2448636.1170+/-0.0005 that is 3 minutes later than predicted time, and founda peculiar light variation at phase 0.75 that may not be secondary eclipse. Orbital period of SAO23229 would be 4.2 days rather than 2.1 days. Our analysis of the light curves shows that SAO23229 has a detached configuration consisting of two almost identical F type main sequence stars.

  4. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  5. a new approach of Analysing GRB light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, B.; Horvath, I.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated the T xx quantiles of the cumulative GRB light curves using our recalculated background. The basic information of the light curves was extracted by multivariate statistical methods. The possible classes of the light curves are also briefly discussed

  6. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...

  7. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  8. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  9. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  10. Light Curve Variations of AR Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Seong Nha

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen unitary Light curves of AR Lac in B and V are made at Yonsei University Observatory in the period of 1980-1988. Some overview findings of light variations are made. (1 The light variations outside eclipse follow none of the wave migration patterns reported by previous investigators. (2 Complicated shapes outside eclipse are apparently much reduced in the light curves of 1983-1984. This suggests that, in the future, AR Lac has a chance to attain a normal state with mo complicated interactions. (3 The depths of the primary and the secondary mid-eclipses are changing year-to-year. (4 The K0 star, the larger component, has brightened by 0.m14 V, while the G2 star has shown a fluctuation of about 0.m05 in V. (5 The B-V values at primary mid-eclipse have no correlation with the depth variations. (6 Independently of the increase of maximum brightness, the B-V colors in the non-eclipsed phases changed slightly over the years.

  11. Photoelectic BV Light Curves of Algol and the Interpretations of the Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Il Kim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized B and V photoelectric light curves of Algol are made with the observations obtained during 1982-84 with the 40-cm and the 61-cm reflectors of Yonsei University Observatory. These light curves show asymmetry between ascending and descending shoulders. The ascending shoulder is 0.02 mag brighter than descending shoulder in V light curve and 0.03 mag in B light curve. These asymmetric light curves are interpreted as the result of inhomogeneous energy distribution on the surface of one star of the eclipsing pair rather than the result of gaseous stream flowing from KOIV to B8V star. The 180-year periodicity, so called great inequality, are most likely the result proposed by Kim et al. (1983 that the abrupt and discrete mass losses of cooler component may be the cause of this orbital change. The amount of mass loss deduced from these discrete period changes turned out to be of the order of 10^(-6 - 10^(-5 Msolar.

  12. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  13. Infrared observations of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eales, S.A.; Becklin, E.E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1990-01-01

    We have taken 2.2-μm images, over the entire range of orbital phase, of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20. We show that the 2.2-μm flux from the pulsar system is variable, and that the infrared light curve is similar to the optical light curve. Four additional images at 1.2 μm show that there is a possible infrared excess from the system. (author)

  14. Fast pulsars, strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-02-01

    The initial motivation for this work was the reported discovery in January 1989 of a 1/2 millisecond pulsar in the remnant of the spectacular supernova, 1987A. The status of this discovery has come into grave doubt as of data taken by the same group in February, 1990. At this time we must consider that the millisecond signal does not belong to the pulsar. The existence of a neutron star in remnant of the supernova is suspected because of recent observations on the light curve of the remnant, and of course by the neutrino burst that announced the supernova. However its frequency is unknown. I can make a strong case that a pulsar rotation period of about 1 ms divides those that can be understood quite comfortably as neutron stars, and those that cannot. What we will soon learn is whether there is an invisible boundary below which pulsar periods do not fall, in which case, all are presumable neutron stars, or whether there exist sub- millisecond pulsars, which almost certainly cannot be neutron stars. Their most plausible structure is that of a self-bound star, a strange-quark-matter star. The existence of such stars would imply that the ground state of the strong interaction is not, as we usually assume, hadronic matter, but rather strange quark matter. Let us look respectively at stars that are bound only by gravity, and hypothetical stars that are self-bound, for which gravity is so to speak, icing on the cake

  15. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    doing much extra work." PSR J0108-1431 Chandra X-ray Image of PSR J0108-1431 The position of the pulsar seen by Chandra in X-rays in early 2007 is slightly different from the radio position observed in early 2001. This implies that the pulsar is moving at a velocity of about 440,000 miles per hour, close to a typical value for pulsars. Currently the pulsar is moving south from the plane of the Milky Way galaxy, but because it is moving more slowly than the escape velocity of the Galaxy, it will eventually curve back towards the plane of the Galaxy in the opposite direction. The detection of this motion has allowed Roberto Mignani of University College London, in collaboration with Pavlov and Kargaltsev, to possibly detect J0108 in optical light, using estimates of where it should be found in an image taken in 2000. Such a multi-wavelength study of old pulsars is critical for understanding the long-term evolution of neutron stars, such as how they cool with time, and how their powerful magnetic fields evolve. The team of astronomers that worked with Pavlov also included Gordon Garmire and Jared Wong at Penn State. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  16. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  17. Ultra Light Axionic Dark Matter: Galactic Halos and Implications for Observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Ivan; Broadhurst, Tom; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Chiueh, Tzihong; Shive, Hsi-Yu; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm successfully explains the cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshifts. However, it fails when probing the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. Moreover, the lack of experimental detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) favors alternative candidates such as light axionic dark matter that naturally arise in string theory. Cosmological N-body simulations have shown that axionic dark matter forms a solitonic core of size of ≃ 150 pc in the innermost region of the galactic halos. The oscillating scalar field associated to the axionic dark matter halo produces an oscillating gravitational potential that induces a time dilation of the pulse arrival time of ≃ 400 ns/(m_B/10^{-22} eV) for pulsar within such a solitonic core. Over the whole galaxy, the averaged predicted signal may be detectable with current and forthcoming pulsar timing array telescopes.

  18. Pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Fujimura, F.S.; Pellat, R.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of both the interior and exterior pulsar magnetospehere depends upon the strength of its plasma source near the surface of the star. We review magnetospheric models in the light of a vacuum pair-production source model proposed by Sturrock, and Ruderman and Sutherland. This model predicts the existence of a cutoff, determined by the neutron star's spin rate and magnetic field strength, beyond which coherent radio emission is no longer possible. The observed distribution of pulsar spin periods and period derivates, and the distribution of pulsars with missing radio pulses, is quantitatively consistent with the pair production threshold, when its variation of neutron star radius and moment of interia with mass is taken into account. All neutron stars observed as pulsars can have relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic wind exterior magnetospheres. The properties of the wind can be directly related to those of the pair production source. Radio pulsars cannot have relativistic plasma wave exterior magnetospheres. On the other hand, most erstwhile pulsars in the galaxy are probably halo objects that emit weak fluxes of energetic photons that can have relativistic wave exterior magnetospheres. Extinct pulsars have not been yet observed. (orig.)

  19. Interpretation of photometric observations of R Coronae Borealis. Light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugach, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The calculations confirm the 'reptive hypothesis' of light variations of R CrB. The central point of the hypothesis is an assertion of infinite expansion of an elementary dust cloud. The calculations for different masses of the dust cloud provide a set of elementary light curves. Superposition of the curves yields a complex light curve. The comparison with the observed minima of 1972 has been performed

  20. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2009-02-15

    An "optical ratchet" for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables observing rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  1. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2010-01-01

    An 'optical ratchet' for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables to observe rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically-curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  2. Light Curve and SED Modeling of the Gamma-Ray Binary 1FGL J1018.6–5856: Constraints on the Orbital Geometry and Relativistic Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongjun; Romani, Roger W., E-mail: hjan@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present broadband spectral energy distributions and light curves of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6−5856 measured in the X-ray and the gamma-ray bands. We find that the orbital modulation in the low-energy gamma-ray band is similar to that in the X-ray band, suggesting a common spectral component. However, above a GeV the orbital light curve changes significantly. We suggest that the GeV band contains significant flux from a pulsar magnetosphere, while the X-ray to TeV light curves are dominated by synchrotron and Compton emission from an intrabinary shock (IBS). We find that a simple one-zone model is inadequate to explain the IBS emission, but that beamed Synchrotron-self Compton radiation from adiabatically accelerated plasma in the shocked pulsar wind can reproduce the complex multiband light curves, including the variable X-ray spike coincident with the gamma-ray maximum. The model requires an inclination of ∼50° and an orbital eccentricity of ∼0.35, consistent with the limited constraints from existing optical observations. This picture motivates searches for pulsations from the energetic young pulsar powering the wind shock.

  3. The X-Ray Light Curve of the Very Luminous Supernova SN 1978K in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Petre, R.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We present the 0.5-2.0 keV light curve of the X-ray luminous supernova SN 1978K in NGC 1313, based on six ROSAT observations spanning 1990 July to t994 July. SN 1978K is one of a few supernovae or supernova remnants that are very luminous (˜1039-1040 ergs s-1) in the X-ray, optical, and radio bands, and the first, at a supernova age of 10-20 yr, for which sufficient data exist to create an X-ray light curve. The X-ray flux is approximately constant over the 4 yr sampled by our observations, which were obtained 12-16 yr after the initial explosion. Three models exist to explain the large X-ray luminosity: pulsar input, a reverse shock running back into the expanding debris of the supernova, and the outgoing shock crushing of cloudlets in the debris field. Based upon calculations of Chevalier & Fransson, a pulsar cannot provide sufficient energy to produce the soft X-ray luminosity. Based upon the models and the light curve to date, it is not possible to discern the evolutionary phase of the supernova.

  4. An Alternate Light Curve Solution of AR Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Suh Park

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectric UBV light curves of AR Lacertae made in one season during 1981-82 are presented. Although the shape of the light curves in the outside eclipses show a strong distortion, the scatter of observations as well as phase coverage are better than those previously available. Fourier coefficients are derived from the V-light curve and observed curve successfully rectified to the Russell model. Light curve solutions are computed and the geometrical and physical parameters of AR Lac are derived as as = 0.812, ag = 0.341, j = 86°3, Ls = 0.372, Lg = 0.628, k = 0.53, Xs = 0.85, Xg = 0.4.

  5. Light Curve Solution of the Contact Binary AW UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jeong

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1088 observations (272 in B,272 in V, 272 in R, and 272 in I were made from January to February in 1995 at Chungbuk National University observatory(CbNUO. We constructed BVRI light curves with our data. The photometric solution of these light curves was obtained by means of the Wilson-Devinney method. Our result was compared with those by previous investigators.

  6. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Agol, Eric; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-10-01

    We present EPIC Variability Extraction and Removal for Exoplanet Science Targets (EVEREST), an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft’s pointing error and a Gaussian process to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than {K}p≈ 13, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variability, asteroseismology, and other photometric studies. The EVEREST pipeline can also easily be applied to future surveys, such as the TESS mission, to correct for instrumental systematics and enable the detection of low signal-to-noise transiting exoplanets. The EVEREST light curves and the source code used to generate them are freely available online.

  7. Optical and IR light curves of VV Puppis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkody, P.; Bailey, J.A.; Hough, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present optical (0.36 to 0.6 μm) light curves with time resolutions of seconds and infrared (IR) (1.25 to 2.2 μm) light curves with time resolutions of minutes for VV Puppis during a high state. The optical light curves show a single hump with largest amplitude in the V filter, while the IR light curves show a double hump sinusoidal variation. Flickering is evident in both the optical and IR light curves, with the largest amplitude in optical B light. Through subtraction of the low state fluxes from our high state values, we obtain a flux distribution of the accretion column which peaks at 0.55 μm and becomes #betta# 2 in the IR, consistent with current cyclotron models. Comparison of the observed IR variations throughout the orbit with the expected variations due to an M4 star heated by an accretion column at an inclination of 66 0 suggests that the IR light is a combination of the secondary star plus contributions from two emitting poles. (author)

  8. Closed Paths of Light Trapped in a Closed Fermat Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Naiman, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Geometric constructions have previously been shown that can be interpreted as rays of light trapped either in polygons or in conics, by successive reflections. The same question, trapping light in closed Fermat curves, is addressed here. Numerical methods are used to study the behaviour of the reflection points of a triangle when the degree of the…

  9. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Every night in a remote clearing called Fenton Hill high in the Jemez Mountains of central New Mexico, a bank of robotically controlled telescopes tilt their lenses to the sky for another round of observation through digital imaging. Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Thinking Telescopes project is watching for celestial transients including high-power cosmic flashes called, and like all science, it can be messy work. To keep the project clicking along, Los Alamos scientists routinely install equipment upgrades, maintain the site, and refine the sophisticated machinelearning computer programs that process those images and extract useful data from them. Each week the system amasses 100,000 digital images of the heavens, some of which are compromised by clouds, wind gusts, focus problems, and so on. For a graduate student at the Lab taking a year’s break between master’s and Ph.D. studies, working with state-of-the-art autonomous telescopes that can make fundamental discoveries feels light years beyond the classroom.

  10. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis

  11. SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE MID-IR LIGHT CURVES OF NEPTUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences and Astrobiology Division, MS245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division (690.0), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H. [University of California, Department of Astronomy, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 μ m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 μ m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 μ m) and W2 (4.6 μ m) from the Wide-feld Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )/ NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010–2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler / K 2 in the visible (amplitude ∼0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude ∼0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune’s atmosphere than for K 2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune’s atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 μ m filters.

  12. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.

  13. Exploring Algorithms for Stellar Light Curves With TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The Kepler and K2 missions have produced tens of thousands of stellar light curves, which have been used to measure rotation periods, characterize photometric activity levels, and explore phenomena such as differential rotation. The quasi-periodic nature of rotational light curves, combined with the potential presence of additional periodicities not due to rotation, complicates the analysis of these time series and makes characterization of uncertainties difficult. A variety of algorithms have been used for the extraction of rotational signals, including autocorrelation functions, discrete Fourier transforms, Lomb-Scargle periodograms, wavelet transforms, and the Hilbert-Huang transform. In addition, in the case of K2 a number of different pipelines have been used to produce initial detrended light curves from the raw image frames.In the near future, TESS photometry, particularly that deriving from the full-frame images, will dramatically further expand the number of such light curves, but details of the pipeline to be used to produce photometry from the FFIs remain under development. K2 data offers us an opportunity to explore the utility of different reduction and analysis tool combinations applied to these astrophysically important tasks. In this work, we apply a wide range of algorithms to light curves produced by a number of popular K2 pipeline products to better understand the advantages and limitations of each approach and provide guidance for the most reliable and most efficient analysis of TESS stellar data.

  14. High-Energy Pulsar Models: Developments and New Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The past few years have seen a major advance in observational knowledge of high-energy (HE) pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and AGILE have increased the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude, its members being divided roughly equally among millisecond pulsars (MSPs), young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. Many new and diverse emission characteristics are being measured, while radio and X-ray follow-up observations increase the pulsar detection rate and enrich our multiwavelength picture of these extreme sources. The wealth of new data has provided impetus for further development and improvement of existing theoretical pulsar models. Geometric light curve (LC) modelling has uncovered three broad classes into which HE pulsars fall: those where the radio profile leads, is aligned with, or lags the gamma-ray profile. For example, the original MSP and original black widow system are members of the second class, requiring co-located emission regions and thereby breaking with traditional notions of radio emission origin. These models imply narrow accelerator gaps in the outer magnetosphere, indicating copious pair production even in MSP magnetospheres that were previously thought to be pair-starved. The increased quality and variety of the LCs necessitate construction of ever more sophisticated models. We will review progress in global magnetosphere solutions which specify a finite conductivity on field lines above the stellar surface, filling the gap between the standard vacuum and force-free (FF; plasma-filled) models. The possibility of deriving phase-resolved spectra for the brightest pulsars, coupled with the fact that the HE pulsar population is sizable enough to allow sampling of various pulsar geometries, will enable much more stringent testing of future radiation models. Reproduction of the observed phase-resolved behavior of this disparate group will be one of the next frontiers in pulsar science, impacting on

  15. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  16. QUEST1 Variability Survey. III. Light Curve Catalog Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Thompson, D. L.; Mufson, S. L.; Andrews, P.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Adams, B.; Bailyn, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceño, C.; Bruzual, G.; Coppi, P.; Della Prugna, F.; Emmet, W.; Ferrín, I.; Fuenmayor, F.; Gebhard, M.; Hernández, J.; Magris, G.; Musser, J.; Naranjo, O.; Oemler, A.; Rosenzweig, P.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sánchez, Ge.; Sánchez, Gu.; Schaefer, B.; Schenner, H.; Sinnott, J.; Snyder, J. A.; Sofia, S.; Stock, J.; van Altena, W.

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports an update to the QUEST1 (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team, Phase 1) Variability Survey (QVS) light curve catalog, which links QVS instrumental magnitude light curves to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) objects and photometry. In the time since the original QVS catalog release, the overlap between publicly available SDSS data and QVS data has increased by 8% in sky coverage and 16,728 in number of matched objects. The astrometric matching and the treatment of SDSS masks have been refined for the updated catalog. We report on these improvements and present multiple bandpass light curves, global variability information, and matched SDSS photometry for 214,941 QUEST1 objects. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory, operated by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Venezuela.

  17. Multiperiodicity in the light curve of Alpha Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Alpha Ori, a supergiant star classified as M2 Iab, is characterized by pronounced variability encompassing most of its observed parameters. Variability on two different time scales has been observed in the light and velocity curves: a long period variation of about 6 years and superposed on this, irregular fluctuations having a time scale of several hundred days. This paper reports the results of Fourier analysis of more than 60- years of AAVSO (American Association of Variable Stars Observers) data which suggest a multiperiodicity in the light curve of α Ori

  18. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  19. The Kepler Light Curves of AGN: A Detailed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Malkan, Matt; Howell, Steve B.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of 21 light curves of Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Kepler spacecraft. First, we describe the necessity and development of a customized pipeline for treating Kepler data of stochastically variable sources like AGN. We then present the light curves, power spectral density functions (PSDs), and flux histograms. The light curves display an astonishing variety of behaviors, many of which would not be detected in ground-based studies, including switching between distinct flux levels. Six objects exhibit PSD flattening at characteristic timescales that roughly correlate with black hole mass. These timescales are consistent with orbital timescales or free-fall accretion timescales. We check for correlations of variability and high-frequency PSD slope with accretion rate, black hole mass, redshift, and luminosity. We find that bolometric luminosity is anticorrelated with both variability and steepness of the PSD slope. We do not find evidence of the linear rms–flux relationships or lognormal flux distributions found in X-ray AGN light curves, indicating that reprocessing is not a significant contributor to optical variability at the 0.1%–10% level.

  20. Orbital Signatures from Observed Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Variability in active galactic nuclei is observed in UV to X-ray emission based light curves. This could be attributed to orbital signatures of the plasma that constitutes the accretion flow on the putative disk or in the developing jet close to the inner region of the central black hole. We discuss some theoretical ...

  1. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  2. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  3. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  4. The 1.4 GHZ light curve of GRB 970508

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Wijers, RAMJ; Groot, PJ; Strom, RG; De Bruyn, AG; Kouveliotou, C; Robinson, CR; van Paradus, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on Westerbork 1.4 GHz radio observations of the radio counterpart to gamma-ray burst GRB 970508, between 0.80 and 138 days after this event. The 1.4 GHz light curve shows a transition from optically thick to thin emission between 39 and 54 days after the event. We derive the slope p of the

  5. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Betancourt, M., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  6. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST

  7. Human Adolescent Phase Response Curves to Bright White Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2017-08-01

    Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home. Each session included phase assessments to measure the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before and after 3 days of free-running through an ultradian light-dark (wake-sleep) cycle (2 h dim [~20 lux] light, 2 h dark). In one session, intermittent bright white light (~5000 lux; four 20-min exposures) was alternated with 10 min of dim room light once per day for 3 consecutive days. The time of light varied among participants to cover the 24-h day. For each individual, the phase shift to bright light was corrected for the free-run derived from the other laboratory session with no bright light. One PRC showed phase shifts in response to light start time relative to the DLMO and another relative to home sleep. Phase delay shifts occurred around the hours corresponding to home bedtime. Phase advances occurred during the hours surrounding wake time and later in the afternoon. The transition from delays to advances occurred at the midpoint of home sleep. The adolescent PRCs presented here provide a valuable tool to time bright light in adolescents.

  8. Effects of gravitational lensing and companion motion on the binary pulsar timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Lai Dong

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsar systems with highly-inclined orbit can be affected both by the motion of the pulsar's companion because of the finite time it takes a photon to cross the binary, and by the gravitational light bending if the orbit is sufficiently edge-on relative to the line of sight. Here we calculate the effect of retardation due to the companion's motion on various time delays in pulsar binaries, including the Shaipro delay, the geometric lensing delay, and the lens-induced delays associated with the pulsar rotation. Our results can be applied to systems so highly inclined that near conjunction gravitational lensing of the pulsar radiation by the companion becomes important (the recently discovered double pulsar system J0737-3039 may exemplify such a system). To the leading order, the effect of retardation is to shift all the delay curves backward in time around the orbit conjunction, without affecting the shape and amplitude of the curves. The time shift is of order the photon orbit crossing time, and ranges from a second to a few minutes for the observed binary pulsar systems. In the double pulsar system J0737-3039, the motion of the companion may also affect the interpretation of the recent correlated interstellar scintillation measurements. Finally, we show that lensing sets an upper limit on the magnitude of the frame-dragging time delay caused by the companion's spin, and makes this delay unobservable in stellar-mass binary pulsar systems

  9. Pulsar Emission Geometry and Accelerating Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Harding, Alice K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Parent, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The high-quality Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray pulsars have opened a new window to understanding the generation mechanisms of high-energy emission from these systems, The high statistics allow for careful modeling of the light curve features as well as for phase resolved spectral modeling. We modeled the LAT light curves of the Vela and CTA I pulsars with simulated high-energy light curves generated from geometrical representations of the outer gap and slot gap emission models. within the vacuum retarded dipole and force-free fields. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method was used to explore the phase space of the magnetic inclination angle, viewing angle. maximum emission radius, and gap width. We also used the measured spectral cutoff energies to estimate the accelerating parallel electric field dependence on radius. under the assumptions that the high-energy emission is dominated by curvature radiation and the geometry (radius of emission and minimum radius of curvature of the magnetic field lines) is determined by the best fitting light curves for each model. We find that light curves from the vacuum field more closely match the observed light curves and multiwavelength constraints, and that the calculated parallel electric field can place additional constraints on the emission geometry

  10. Interpretation of eclipsing light curves of dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.; Yagola, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The method for interpretation of eclipsing light curves of dwarf novae is proposed, taking into account the influence of the hot spot situated in the outer part of the disk-like envelope surrounding a white dwarf. This method is applied to the analysis of the eclipsing light curves of the system Z Cha in the quiet and active stages. It is shown that the optical luminosity of the hot spot in the system Z Cha in the active stage is 3-5 times greater than that in the quiet stage. Radius of the disk-like envelope in the active stage is more than twice greater than that in the quiet stage

  11. Light and velocity curve bumps for BW Vulpeculae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesnell, W.D.; Cox, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Bumps in the light and radial velocity curves of the Beta Cephei star BW Vulpeculae were modeled. Two mechanisms, a resonance phenomena and non-linear pulsations, were investigated. The resonance condition was clearly not fulfilled, the calculated period ratio being approximately 0.60, where a value of 0.50 L +- 0.03 is required for resonance. In the non-linear calculation, the bump appears, with the correct phase, but was found at an amplitude that is too large. Further, the light curve does not show any bump-like feature. The cause of the bump is the large spurious boost given the star's velocity field by the solution methods. The calculated periods of the stellar models are shorter than those of previous calculations, enhancing the possibility that these stars pulsate in a radial fundamental mode

  12. Preparation of Kepler light curves for asteroseismic analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García, R.A.; Hekker, Saskia; Stello, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler mission is providing photometric data of exquisite quality for the asteroseismic study of different classes of pulsating stars. These analyses place particular demands on the pre-processing of the data, over a range of time-scales from minutes to months. Here, we describe processing...... procedures developed by the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium to prepare light curves that are optimized for the asteroseismic study of solar-like oscillating stars in which outliers, jumps and drifts are corrected....

  13. Candidate Binary Trojan and Hilda Asteroids from Rotational Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnett, Sarah M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Bauer, James M.; Kramer, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Jovian Trojans (hereafter, Trojans) are asteroids in stable orbits at Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points, and Hilda asteroids are inwards of the Trojans in 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Due to their special dynamical properties, observationally constraining the formation location and dynamical histories of Trojans and HIldas offers key input for giant planet migration models. A fundamental parameter in assessing formation location is the bulk density - with low-density objects associated with an ice-rich formation environment in the outer solar system and high-density objects typically linked to the warmer inner solar system. Bulk density can only be directly measured during a close fly-by or by determining the mutual orbits of binary asteroid systems. With the aim of determining densities for a statistically significant sample of Trojans and Hildas, we are undertaking an observational campaign to confirm and characterize candidate binary asteroids published in Sonnett et al. (2015). These objects were flagged as binary candidates because their large NEOWISE brightness variations imply shapes so elongated that they are not likely explained by a singular equilibrium rubble pile and instead may be two elongated, gravitationally bound asteroids. We are obtaining densely sampled rotational light curves of these possible binaries to search for light curve features diagnostic of binarity and to determine the orbital properties of any confirmed binary systems by modeling the light curve. We compare the We present an update on this follow-up campaign and comment on future steps.

  14. Pre-nebular Light Curves of SNe I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fryer, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matheson, Thomas [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We compare analytic predictions of supernova light curves with recent high-quality data from SN2011fe (Ia), KSN2011b (Ia), and the Palomar Transient Factory and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ) (Ia). Because of the steady, fast cadence of observations, KSN2011b provides unique new information on SNe Ia: the smoothness of the light curve, which is consistent with significant large-scale mixing during the explosion, possibly due to 3D effects (e.g., Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities), and provides support for a slowly varying leakage (mean opacity). For a more complex light curve (SN2008D, SN Ib), we separate the luminosity due to multiple causes and indicate the possibility of a radioactive plume. The early rise in luminosity is shown to be affected by the opacity (leakage rate) for thermal and non-thermal radiation. A general derivation of Arnett’s rule again shows that it depends upon all processes heating the plasma, not just radioactive ones, so that SNe Ia will differ from SNe Ibc if the latter have multiple heating processes.

  15. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1978-01-01

    A new general expression for the theoretical moments Asub(2m) of the light curves of eclipsing systems has been presented in the form of infinite series expansion. In this expansion, the terms have been given as the product of two different polynomials which satisfy certain three-term recursion formulae, and the coefficients diminish rapidly with increasing number of terms. Thus, the numerical values of the theoretical moments Asub(2m) can be generated recursively up to four significant figures for any given set of eclipse elements. This can be utilized to solve the eclipse elements in two ways: (i) with an indirect method, (ii) with a direct method as minimization to the observational moments Asub(2m) (area fitting). The procedures for obtaining the elements of any eclipsing system consisting of spherical stars have been automated by making use of the new expression for the moments Asub(2m) of the light curves. The theoretical functions f 0 , f 2 , f 4 , f 6 , g 2 and g 4 which are the functions of a and c 0 , have been used to solve the eclipse elements from the observed photometric data. The closed-form expressions for the functions f 2 , f 4 and f 6 have also been derived in terms of Kopal's I-integrals. The automated methods for obtaining the eclipse elements from one minimum alone have been tested on the light curves of YZ (21) Cassiopeiae under the spherical model assumptions. The results of these applications are given. (Auth.)

  16. Early light curves for Type Ia supernova explosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer, U. M.; Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Baklanov, P.; Blinnikov, S.; Sorokina, E.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2017-12-01

    Upcoming high-cadence transient survey programmes will produce a wealth of observational data for Type Ia supernovae. These data sets will contain numerous events detected very early in their evolution, shortly after explosion. Here, we present synthetic light curves, calculated with the radiation hydrodynamical approach STELLA for a number of different explosion models, specifically focusing on these first few days after explosion. We show that overall the early light curve evolution is similar for most of the investigated models. Characteristic imprints are induced by radioactive material located close to the surface. However, these are very similar to the signatures expected from ejecta-CSM or ejecta-companion interaction. Apart from the pure deflagration explosion models, none of our synthetic light curves exhibit the commonly assumed power-law rise. We demonstrate that this can lead to substantial errors in the determination of the time of explosion. In summary, we illustrate with our calculations that even with very early data an identification of specific explosion scenarios is challenging, if only photometric observations are available.

  17. PAIR INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE: LIGHT CURVES, SPECTRA, AND SHOCK BREAKOUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For the initial mass range (140 M sun sun ) stars die in a thermonuclear runaway triggered by the pair-production instability. The supernovae they make can be remarkably energetic (up to ∼10 53 erg) and synthesize considerable amounts of radioactive isotopes. Here we model the evolution, explosion, and observational signatures of representative pair instability supernovae (PI SNe) spanning a range of initial masses and envelope structures. The predicted light curves last for hundreds of days and range in luminosity from very dim to extremely bright (L ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 ). The most massive events are bright enough to be seen at high redshift, but the extended light curve duration (∼1 yr)-prolonged by cosmological time-dilation-may make it difficult to detect them as transients. A more promising approach may be to search for the brief and luminous outbreak occurring when the explosion shock wave first reaches the stellar surface. Using a multi-wavelength radiation-hydrodynamics code we calculate that, in the rest frame, the shock breakout transients of PI SNe reach luminosities of 10 45 -10 46 erg s -1 , peak at wavelengths ∼30-170 A, and last for several hours. We discuss how observations of the light curves, spectra, and breakout emission can be used to constrain the mass, radius, and metallicity of the progenitor.

  18. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; Krisciunas, Kevin; Krzeminski, Wojtek; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values

  19. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 60, La Serena (Chile); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Krisciunas, Kevin [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); McCarthy, Patrick [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: lgalbany@das.uchile.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP, CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  20. Marginalizing Instrument Systematics in HST WFC3 Transit Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Sing, D. K.; Evans, T.; Deming, D.; Mandell, A.

    2016-03-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) infrared observations at 1.1-1.7 μm probe primarily the H2O absorption band at 1.4 μm, and have provided low-resolution transmission spectra for a wide range of exoplanets. We present the application of marginalization based on Gibson to analyze exoplanet transit light curves obtained from HST WFC3 to better determine important transit parameters such as Rp/R*, which are important for accurate detections of H2O. We approximate the evidence, often referred to as the marginal likelihood, for a grid of systematic models using the Akaike Information Criterion. We then calculate the evidence-based weight assigned to each systematic model and use the information from all tested models to calculate the final marginalized transit parameters for both the band-integrated and spectroscopic light curves to construct the transmission spectrum. We find that a majority of the highest weight models contain a correction for a linear trend in time as well as corrections related to HST orbital phase. We additionally test the dependence on the shift in spectral wavelength position over the course of the observations and find that spectroscopic wavelength shifts {δ }λ (λ ) best describe the associated systematic in the spectroscopic light curves for most targets while fast scan rate observations of bright targets require an additional level of processing to produce a robust transmission spectrum. The use of marginalization allows for transparent interpretation and understanding of the instrument and the impact of each systematic evaluated statistically for each data set, expanding the ability to make true and comprehensive comparisons between exoplanet atmospheres.

  1. Orbital Light Curves of UU Aquarii in Stunted Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Henden, A. A.; Campbell, R. T.

    2018-02-01

    Stunted outbursts are ∼0.ͫ6 eruptions, typically lasting 5–10 days, which are found in some novalike cataclysmic variables, including UU Aqr. The mechanism responsible for stunted outbursts is uncertain but is likely related to an accretion disk instability or to variations in the mass transfer rate. A campaign to monitor the eclipse light curves in UU Aqr has been conducted in order to detect any light curve distortions due to the appearance of a hot spot on the disk at the location of the impact point of the accretion stream. If stunted outbursts are due to a temporary mass transfer enhancement, then predictable deformations of the orbital light curve are expected to occur during such outbursts. This study used 156 eclipses on 135 nights during the years 2000–2012. During this interval, random samples found the system to be in stunted outbursts 4%–5% of the time, yielding ∼7 eclipses obtained during some stage of stunted outburst. About half of the eclipses obtained during stunted outbursts showed clear evidence for hot spot enhancement, providing strong evidence that the stunted outbursts in UU Aqr are associated with mass transfer variations. The other half of the eclipses during stunted outburst showed little or no evidence for hot spot enhancement. Furthermore, there were no systematic changes in the hot spot signature as stunted outbursts progressed. Therefore, we have tentatively attributed the changes in hot spot visibility during stunted outburst to random blobby accretion, which likely further modulates the strength of the accretion stream on orbital timescales.

  2. DETERMINISTIC COMPONENTS IN THE LIGHT CURVE AMPLITUDE OF Y OPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Alexandru; Turcu, Vlad; Vamos, Calin

    2010-01-01

    About two decades after the discovery of the amplitude decline of the light curve of the classical Cepheid Y Oph, its study is resumed using an increased amount of homogenized data and an extended time base. In our approach, the investigation of different time series concerning the light curve amplitude of Y Oph is not only the reason for the present study, but also a stimulus for developing a coherent methodology for studying long- and short-term variability phenomena in variable stars, taking into account the details of concrete observing conditions: amount of data, data sampling, time base, and individual errors of observational data. The statistical significance of this decreasing trend was estimated by assuming its linearity. We approached the decision-making process by formulating adequate null and alternative hypotheses, and testing the value of the regression line slope for different data sets via Monte Carlo simulations. A variability analysis, through various methods, of the original data and of the residuals obtained after removing the linear trend was performed. We also proposed a new statistical test, based on amplitude spectrum analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, intended to evaluate how detectible is a given (linear) trend in well-defined observing conditions: the trend detection probability. The main conclusion of our study on Y Oph is that, even if the false alarm probability is low enough to consider the decreasing trend to be statistically significant, the available data do not allow us to obtain a reasonably powerful test. We are able to confirm the light curve amplitude decline, and the order of magnitude of its slope with a better statistical substantiation. According to the obtained values of the trend detection probability, it seems that the trend we are dealing with is marked by a low detectibility. Our attempt to find signs of possible variability phenomena at shorter timescales ended by emphasizing the relative constancy of our data

  3. Testing the stationarity of white dwarf light-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, L; Kollath, Z; Plachy, E; Paparo, M

    2009-01-01

    Long period white dwarfs show changes in their frequency spectra from one observing season to another, i.e. their light-curves cannot be considered as stationary multiperiodic variations on long timescales. However, due to the complex frequency spectra of these stars and the narrow frequency spacing, it is still unknown, what the shortest time scale is, where real physical modulation exists. We present tests on artificial data, resembling the observations, using time-frequency distributions (TFDs), Fourier-analysis and the analytical signal method.

  4. Dependence on supernovae light-curve processing in void models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Rossi, Maria E., E-mail: derossi@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-02

    In this work, we show that when supernova Ia (SN Ia) data sets are used to put constraints on the free parameters of inhomogeneous models, certain extra information regarding the light-curve fitter used in the supernovae Ia luminosity fluxes processing should be taken into account. We found that the size of the void as well as other parameters of these models might be suffering extra degenerations or additional systematic errors due to the fitter. A recent proposal to relieve the tension between the results from Planck satellite and SNe Ia is re-analyzed in the framework of these subjects.

  5. Statistical analysis of the W Cyg light curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyus, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the light curve of W Cygni has been carried out. The process of brightness variations brightness of the star is shown to be a stationary stochastic one. The hypothesis of stationarity of the process was checked at the significance level of α=0.05. Oscillations of the brightness with average durations of 131 and 250 days have been found. It is proved that oscillations are narrow-band noise, i.e. cycles. Peaks on the power spectrum corresponding to these cycles exceed 99% confidence interval. It has been stated that the oscillations are independent

  6. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennessier, M.O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules

  7. Flare Characteristics from X-ray Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryciuk, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Podgorski, P.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, B.; Mrozek, T.

    2017-06-01

    A new methodology is given to determine basic parameters of flares from their X-ray light curves. Algorithms are developed from the analysis of small X-ray flares occurring during the deep solar minimum of 2009, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24, observed by the Polish Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) on the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon (CORONAS- Photon) spacecraft. One is a semi-automatic flare detection procedure that gives start, peak, and end times for single ("elementary") flare events under the assumption that the light curve is a simple convolution of a Gaussian and exponential decay functions. More complex flares with multiple peaks can generally be described by a sum of such elementary flares. Flare time profiles in the two energy ranges of SphinX (1.16 - 1.51 keV, 1.51 - 15 keV) are used to derive temperature and emission measure as a function of time during each flare. The result is a comprehensive catalogue - the SphinX Flare Catalogue - which contains 1600 flares or flare-like events and is made available for general use. The methods described here can be applied to observations made by Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and other broad-band spectrometers.

  8. SIMULATED PERFORMANCE OF TIMESCALE METRICS FOR APERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie, E-mail: krzys@astro.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Aperiodic variability is a characteristic feature of young stars, massive stars, and active galactic nuclei. With the recent proliferation of time-domain surveys, it is increasingly essential to develop methods to quantify and analyze aperiodic variability. We develop three timescale metrics that have been little used in astronomy—Δm-Δt plots, peak-finding, and Gaussian process regression—and present simulations comparing their effectiveness across a range of aperiodic light curve shapes, characteristic timescales, observing cadences, and signal to noise ratios. We find that Gaussian process regression is easily confused by noise and by irregular sampling, even when the model being fit reflects the process underlying the light curve, but that Δm-Δt plots and peak-finding can coarsely characterize timescales across a broad region of parameter space. We make public the software we used for our simulations, both in the spirit of open research and to allow others to carry out analogous simulations for their own observing programs.

  9. Machine Learning Techniques for Stellar Light Curve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinners, Trisha A.; Tat, Kevin; Thorp, Rachel

    2018-07-01

    We apply machine learning techniques in an attempt to predict and classify stellar properties from noisy and sparse time-series data. We preprocessed over 94 GB of Kepler light curves from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to classify according to 10 distinct physical properties using both representation learning and feature engineering approaches. Studies using machine learning in the field have been primarily done on simulated data, making our study one of the first to use real light-curve data for machine learning approaches. We tuned our data using previous work with simulated data as a template and achieved mixed results between the two approaches. Representation learning using a long short-term memory recurrent neural network produced no successful predictions, but our work with feature engineering was successful for both classification and regression. In particular, we were able to achieve values for stellar density, stellar radius, and effective temperature with low error (∼2%–4%) and good accuracy (∼75%) for classifying the number of transits for a given star. The results show promise for improvement for both approaches upon using larger data sets with a larger minority class. This work has the potential to provide a foundation for future tools and techniques to aid in the analysis of astrophysical data.

  10. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables, XXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present paper will be to evaluate numerically Jacobian and other functions which have been discussed in more detail in a previous paper of this series, and also choose the most convenient moments to obtain a good determination for the unknown eclipse parameters a and c 0 . More than 12 different pairs of g-functions for real values of m have been investigated numerically and diagrammatically. The behaviour of g-functions depends but very little on different combination of the moments, and related diagrams are approximately the same as g 2 and g 4 . The behaviour of the vanishing Jacobian, arising from different pairs of g-functions for real values of m>= 0 . Accordingly, the author obtains the optimum combination of the moments (i.e., A 6 , A 7 , A 8 and A 9 ) in g-functions g 7 and g 8 . It has been noted that the behaviour of the g-functions which depend on the combinations of the higher order moments (i.e., m>= 5) have been ruled out, because the proportional error of the moments Asub(2m) increases with increasing values of real m. The automated method has been tested successfully on the light curve of RT Per. Finally, a comparison is given of the elements of RT Per arising from two different pairs of g-functions, i.e. g 2 , g 4 and g 7 , g 8 for the light curves analysis. (Auth.)

  11. A Semiautomatic Pipeline for Be Star Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rímulo, L. R.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, T.; Okazaki, A.

    2016-11-01

    Observational and theoretical studies from the last decade have shown that the Viscous Decretion Disk (VDD) scenario, in which turbulent viscosity is the physical mechanism responsible for the transport of material and angular momentum ejected from the star to the outer regions of the disk, is the only viable model for explaining the circumstellar disks of Be stars. In the α-disk approach applied to the VDD, the dimensionless parameter α is a measure of the turbulent viscosity. Recently, combining the time-dependent evolution of a VDD α-disk with non-LTE radiative transfer calculations, the first measurement of the α parameter was made, for the disk dissipation of the Be star ω CMa. It was found that α≍ 1 for that Be disk. The main motivation of this present work is the statistical determination of the α parameter. For this purpose, we present a pipeline that will allow the semiautomatic determination of the α parameter of several dozens of light curves of Be stars available from photometric surveys, In this contribution, we describe the pipeline, outlining the main staps required for the semiautomatic analysis of light curves

  12. SIMULATED PERFORMANCE OF TIMESCALE METRICS FOR APERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Cody, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    Aperiodic variability is a characteristic feature of young stars, massive stars, and active galactic nuclei. With the recent proliferation of time-domain surveys, it is increasingly essential to develop methods to quantify and analyze aperiodic variability. We develop three timescale metrics that have been little used in astronomy—Δm-Δt plots, peak-finding, and Gaussian process regression—and present simulations comparing their effectiveness across a range of aperiodic light curve shapes, characteristic timescales, observing cadences, and signal to noise ratios. We find that Gaussian process regression is easily confused by noise and by irregular sampling, even when the model being fit reflects the process underlying the light curve, but that Δm-Δt plots and peak-finding can coarsely characterize timescales across a broad region of parameter space. We make public the software we used for our simulations, both in the spirit of open research and to allow others to carry out analogous simulations for their own observing programs

  13. Common Envelope Light Curves. I. Grid-code Module Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaviz, Pablo; Marco, Orsola De; Staff, Jan E.; Iaconi, Roberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Passy, Jean-Claude, E-mail: Pablo.Galaviz@me.com [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    The common envelope (CE) binary interaction occurs when a star transfers mass onto a companion that cannot fully accrete it. The interaction can lead to a merger of the two objects or to a close binary. The CE interaction is the gateway of all evolved compact binaries, all stellar mergers, and likely many of the stellar transients witnessed to date. CE simulations are needed to understand this interaction and to interpret stars and binaries thought to be the byproduct of this stage. At this time, simulations are unable to reproduce the few observational data available and several ideas have been put forward to address their shortcomings. The need for more definitive simulation validation is pressing and is already being fulfilled by observations from time-domain surveys. In this article, we present an initial method and its implementation for post-processing grid-based CE simulations to produce the light curve so as to compare simulations with upcoming observations. Here we implemented a zeroth order method to calculate the light emitted from CE hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the 3D hydrodynamic code Enzo used in unigrid mode. The code implements an approach for the computation of luminosity in both optically thick and optically thin regimes and is tested using the first 135 days of the CE simulation of Passy et al., where a 0.8  M {sub ⊙} red giant branch star interacts with a 0.6  M {sub ⊙} companion. This code is used to highlight two large obstacles that need to be overcome before realistic light curves can be calculated. We explain the nature of these problems and the attempted solutions and approximations in full detail to enable the next step to be identified and implemented. We also discuss our simulation in relation to recent data of transients identified as CE interactions.

  14. Ultraviolet light curves of U Geminorum and VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Panek, R.J.; Holm, A.V.; Schiffer, F.H. III

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet light curves have been obtained for the quiescent dwarf novae U Gem and VW Hyi. The amplitude of the hump associated with the accretion hot spot is much smaller in the UV than in the visible. This implies that the bright spot temperature is roughly 12000 K if it is optically thick. A hotter spot would have to be optically thin in the near UV. The flux distribution of U Gem in quiescence cannot be fitted by model spectra of steady state, viscous accretion disks. The absolute luminosity, the flux distribution, and the far UV spectrum suggest that the primary star is visible in the far UV. The optical-UV flux distribution of VW Hyi could be matched roughly by the authors' model accretion disks, but the fitting is poorly constrained due to the uncertainty in its distance. (Auth.)

  15. Supernova light-curve fitters and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-24

    We show that when a procedure is made to remove the tension between a supernova Ia (SN Ia) data set and observations from BAO and CMB, there might be the case where the same SN Ia set built with two different light-curve fitters behaves as two separate and distinct supernova sets, and the tension found by some authors between supernova sets actually could be due to tension or inconsistency between fitters. We also show that the information of the fitter used in an SN Ia data set could be relevant to determine whether phantom type models are favored or not when such a set is combined with the BAO/CMB joint parameter.

  16. Secondary eclipses in the CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmonte Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We identify and characterize secondary eclipses in the original light curves of published CoRoT planets using uniform detection and evaluation criteria. Our analysis is based on a Bayesian statistics: the eclipse search is carried out using Bayesian model selection, and the characterization of the plausible eclipse candidates using Bayesian parameter estimation. We discover statistically significant eclipse events for two planets, CoRoT-6b and CoRoT-11b, and for one brown dwarf, CoRoT-15b. We also find marginally significant eclipse events passing our plausibility criteria for CoRoT-3b, 13b, 18b, and 21b, and confirm the previously published CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b eclipses.

  17. Supernova light-curve fitters and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R.

    2011-01-01

    We show that when a procedure is made to remove the tension between a supernova Ia (SN Ia) data set and observations from BAO and CMB, there might be the case where the same SN Ia set built with two different light-curve fitters behaves as two separate and distinct supernova sets, and the tension found by some authors between supernova sets actually could be due to tension or inconsistency between fitters. We also show that the information of the fitter used in an SN Ia data set could be relevant to determine whether phantom type models are favored or not when such a set is combined with the BAO/CMB joint parameter.

  18. Low mass SN Ia and the late light curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Fryer, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The late bolometric light curves of type Ia supernovae, when measured accurately over several years, show an exponential decay with a 56d half-life over a drop in luminosity of 8 magnitudes (10 half-lives). The late-time light curve is thought to be governed by the decay of Co 56 , whose 77d half-life must then be modified to account for the observed decay time. Two mechanisms, both relying upon the positron fraction of the Co 56 decay, have been proposed to explain this modification. One explanation requires a large amount of emission at infra-red wavelengths where it would not be detected. The other explanation has proposed a progressive transparency or leakage of the high energy positrons (Colgate, Petschek and Kriese, 1980). For the positrons to leak out of the expanding nebula at the required rate necessary to produce the modified 56d exponential, the mass of the ejecta from a one foe (10 51 erg in kinetic energy) explosion must be small, M ejec = 0.4M circle-dot with M ejec ∝ KE 0.5 . Thus, in this leakage explanation, any reasonable estimate of the total energy of the explosion requires that the ejected mass be very much less than the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4M circle-dot . This is very difficult to explain with the ''canonical'' Chandrasekhar-mass thermonuclear explosion that disintegrates the original white dwarf star. This result leads us to pursue alternate mechanisms of type Ia supernovae. These mechanisms include sub-Chandrasekhar thermonuclear explosions and the accretion induced collapse of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We will summarize the advantages and disadvantages of both mechanisms with considerable detail spent on our new accretion induced collapse simulations. These mechanisms lead to lower Ni 56 production and hence result in type Ia supernovae with luminosities decreased down to ∼ 50% that predicted by the ''standard'' model

  19. Testing the nature of the supermassive black hole candidate in SgrA* with light curves and images of hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zilong; Kong, Lingyao; Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    General relativity makes clear predictions about the spacetime geometry around black holes. In the near future, new facilities will have the capability to explore the metric around SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of our Galaxy, and to open a new window to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, we compute light curves and images associated with compact emission regions (hot spots) orbiting around Kerr and non-Kerr black holes. We study how the analysis of the properties of the radiation emitted by a hot spot can be used to test the Kerr nature of SgrA*. We find that the sole observation of the hot spot light curve can at most constrain a combination of the black hole spin and of possible deviations from the Kerr solution. This happens because the same orbital frequency around a Kerr black hole can be found for a non-Kerr object with a different spin parameter. Second order corrections in the light curve due to the background geometry are typically too small to be identified. While the observation of the hot spot centroid track can potentially bound possible deviations from the Kerr solution, that is out of reach for the near future for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. The Kerr black hole hypothesis could really be tested in the case of the discovery of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit around SgrA*. Radio observations of such a pulsar would provide precise estimates of the mass and the spin of SgrA*, and the combination of these measurements (probing the weak field) with the hot spot light curve information (probing the strong field) may constrain/find possible deviations from the Kerr solution with quite good precision.

  20. Testing the nature of the supermassive black hole candidate in SgrA* with light curves and images of hot spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zilong; Kong, Lingyao; Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01

    General relativity makes clear predictions about the spacetime geometry around black holes. In the near future, new facilities will have the capability to explore the metric around SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of our Galaxy, and to open a new window to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, we compute light curves and images associated with compact emission regions (hot spots) orbiting around Kerr and non-Kerr black holes. We study how the analysis of the properties of the radiation emitted by a hot spot can be used to test the Kerr nature of SgrA*. We find that the sole observation of the hot spot light curve can at most constrain a combination of the black hole spin and of possible deviations from the Kerr solution. This happens because the same orbital frequency around a Kerr black hole can be found for a non-Kerr object with a different spin parameter. Second order corrections in the light curve due to the background geometry are typically too small to be identified. While the observation of the hot spot centroid track can potentially bound possible deviations from the Kerr solution, that is out of reach for the near future for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. The Kerr black hole hypothesis could really be tested in the case of the discovery of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit around SgrA*. Radio observations of such a pulsar would provide precise estimates of the mass and the spin of SgrA*, and the combination of these measurements (probing the weak field) with the hot spot light curve information (probing the strong field) may constrain/find possible deviations from the Kerr solution with quite good precision.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: V346 Cen multiwavelength light curves (Mayer+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Nemravova, J.; Prsa, A.; Fremat, Y.; Zejda, M.; Liska, J.; Jurysek, J.; Honkova, K.; Masek, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present photographic light curves from O'Connell (1939, Publications of the Riverview College Observatory, 2, 5), uvby light curves from Gimenez et al. (1986A&AS...66...45G), BVR light curves from 0.6 m reflector with a CCD camera, Mt. John, New Zealand, green light curve from Sonnar 4/135mm telephoto lens with a CCD ATIK16IC camera, Sutherland, South Africa and BVRI light curves from 0.3m Meade Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector with a CCD camera. (5 data files).

  2. RXTE observations of the Vela Pulsar: The pulsar rosetta stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickman, M.S.; Harding, A.K.; Gwinn, C.; McCulloch, P.; Moffett, D.

    2001-01-01

    We report on our analysis of a 274 ks observation of the Vela Pulsar with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The double-peaked, pulsed emission at 2-30 keV, which we had previously detected during a 93 ks observation, is confirmed with much improved statistics. There is now clear evidence, both in the spectrum and the light curve, that the emission in the RXTE band is a blend of two separate components. The spectrum of the harder component connects smoothly with the OSSE, COMPTEL and EGRET spectra and the peaks in the light curve are in phase coincidence with those of the high-energy light curve. The spectrum of the softer component is consistent with an extrapolation to the pulsed optical flux and the soft component of the second RXTE peak is in phase coincidence with the second optical peak. In addition, we see a peak in the 2-8 keV RXTE light curve at the radio peak phase

  3. Pulsar Magnetospheres and Pulsar Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Beskin, Vasily S.

    2016-01-01

    Surprisingly, the chronology of nearly 50 years of the pulsar magnetosphere and pulsar wind research is quite similar to the history of our civilization. Using this analogy, I have tried to outline the main results obtained in this field. In addition to my talk, the possibility of particle acceleration due to different processes in the pulsar magnetosphere is discussed in more detail.

  4. Polarization and emission geometry of the Crab pulsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiyou Chen; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    Optical emission of the Crab pulsar can best be understood as synchrotron radiation of relativistic particles from the outer magnetosphere of the neutron star. The outer gap model was developed specifically to address energy balance and double-pulsed emission (from optical to high-energy gamma-ray) of young pulsars like the Crab. In this paper, we present the polarization properties of the optical pulses calculated from the outer gap model. We found that the theoretical light curves exhibit the same qualitative behavior as observations

  5. Supervised detection of anomalous light curves in massive astronomical catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nun, Isadora; Pichara, Karim; Protopapas, Pavlos; Kim, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    The development of synoptic sky surveys has led to a massive amount of data for which resources needed for analysis are beyond human capabilities. In order to process this information and to extract all possible knowledge, machine learning techniques become necessary. Here we present a new methodology to automatically discover unknown variable objects in large astronomical catalogs. With the aim of taking full advantage of all information we have about known objects, our method is based on a supervised algorithm. In particular, we train a random forest classifier using known variability classes of objects and obtain votes for each of the objects in the training set. We then model this voting distribution with a Bayesian network and obtain the joint voting distribution among the training objects. Consequently, an unknown object is considered as an outlier insofar it has a low joint probability. By leaving out one of the classes on the training set, we perform a validity test and show that when the random forest classifier attempts to classify unknown light curves (the class left out), it votes with an unusual distribution among the classes. This rare voting is detected by the Bayesian network and expressed as a low joint probability. Our method is suitable for exploring massive data sets given that the training process is performed offline. We tested our algorithm on 20 million light curves from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. After analysis, we divided the candidates into two main classes of outliers: artifacts and intrinsic outliers. Artifacts were principally due to air mass variation, seasonal variation, bad calibration, or instrumental errors and were consequently removed from our outlier list and added to the training set. After retraining, we selected about 4000 objects, which we passed to a post-analysis stage by performing a cross-match with all publicly available catalogs. Within these candidates we identified certain known

  6. Supervised Detection of Anomalous Light Curves in Massive Astronomical Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nun, Isadora; Pichara, Karim; Protopapas, Pavlos; Kim, Dae-Won

    2014-09-01

    The development of synoptic sky surveys has led to a massive amount of data for which resources needed for analysis are beyond human capabilities. In order to process this information and to extract all possible knowledge, machine learning techniques become necessary. Here we present a new methodology to automatically discover unknown variable objects in large astronomical catalogs. With the aim of taking full advantage of all information we have about known objects, our method is based on a supervised algorithm. In particular, we train a random forest classifier using known variability classes of objects and obtain votes for each of the objects in the training set. We then model this voting distribution with a Bayesian network and obtain the joint voting distribution among the training objects. Consequently, an unknown object is considered as an outlier insofar it has a low joint probability. By leaving out one of the classes on the training set, we perform a validity test and show that when the random forest classifier attempts to classify unknown light curves (the class left out), it votes with an unusual distribution among the classes. This rare voting is detected by the Bayesian network and expressed as a low joint probability. Our method is suitable for exploring massive data sets given that the training process is performed offline. We tested our algorithm on 20 million light curves from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. After analysis, we divided the candidates into two main classes of outliers: artifacts and intrinsic outliers. Artifacts were principally due to air mass variation, seasonal variation, bad calibration, or instrumental errors and were consequently removed from our outlier list and added to the training set. After retraining, we selected about 4000 objects, which we passed to a post-analysis stage by performing a cross-match with all publicly available catalogs. Within these candidates we identified certain known

  7. Discovery of the optical counterparts to four energetic Fermi millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Van Kerkwijk, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Roberts, M. S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West, 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, White Hall, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ray, P. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7655, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Stairs, I. H., E-mail: r.breton@soton.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, over 43 millisecond radio pulsars have been discovered by targeted searches of unidentified γ-ray sources found by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A large fraction of these millisecond pulsars are in compact binaries with low-mass companions. These systems often show eclipses of the pulsar signal and are commonly known as black widows and redbacks because the pulsar is gradually destroying its companion. In this paper, we report on the optical discovery of four strongly irradiated millisecond pulsar companions. All four sources show modulations of their color and luminosity at the known orbital periods from radio timing. Light curve modeling of our exploratory data shows that the equilibrium temperature reached on the companion's dayside with respect to their nightside is consistent with about 10%-30% of the available spin-down energy from the pulsar being reprocessed to increase the companion's dayside temperature. This value compares well with the range observed in other irradiated pulsar binaries and offers insights about the energetics of the pulsar wind and the production of γ-ray emission. In addition, this provides a simple way of estimating the brightness of irradiated pulsar companions given the pulsar spin-down luminosity. Our analysis also suggests that two of the four new irradiated pulsar companions are only partially filling their Roche lobe. Some of these sources are relatively bright and represent good targets for spectroscopic follow-up. These measurements could enable, among other things, mass determination of the neutron stars in these systems.

  8. Vaporization of comet nuclei: Light curves and life times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, J J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Center for Astrophysics; A' Hearn, M F [Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)

    1979-10-01

    The authors have examined the effects of vaporization from the nucleus of a comet and show that a latitude dependence of vaporization can, in some cases, explain asymmetries in commetary light curves. They also find that a non-uniform distribution of solar radiation over a comet can considerably shorten the vaporization lifetime compared to the results normally obtained by assuming that the nuclear surface is isothermal. Independent of any latitude effects, comets with CO/sub 2/-dominated nuclei and with periherlion distances less than 0.5 AU have vaporization lifetimes less than or comparable to their dynamical ejection times. This may explain the observed deficit of comets with small perihelion distances. Similarly comets with CO/sub 2/-dominated nuclei and perihelia near Jupiter's orbit have vaporization lifetimes that are shorter than the time for capture into short-period orbits. They suggest, therefore, that at least some new comets are composed in large part of CO/sub 2/, while only H/sub 2/O-dominated comets, with lower vaporization rates, can survive to be captured into short-period orbits.

  9. Pulsar astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Graham-Smith, F.

    1990-01-01

    This account of the properties of pulsars tells an exciting story of discovery in modern astronomy. Pulsars, discovered in 1967, now take their place in a very wide range of astrophysics. They are one of the endpoints of stellar evolution, in which the core of a star collapses to a rapidly spinning neutron star a few kilometres in size. This book is an introductory account for those entering the field. It introduces the circumstances of the discovery and gives an overview of pulsar astrophysics. There are chapters on search techniques, distances, pulse timing, the galactic population of pulsars, binary and millisecond pulsars, geometry and physics of the emission regions, and applications to the interstellar medium. An important feature of this book is the inclusion of an up-to-date catalogue of all known pulsars. (author)

  10. RADIOACTIVELY POWERED RISING LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    The rising luminosity of the recent, nearby supernova 2011fe shows a quadratic dependence with time during the first ≈0.5-4 days. In addition, studies of the composite light curves formed from stacking together many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found similar power-law indices for the rise, but may also show some dispersion that may indicate diversity. I explore what range of power-law rises are possible due to the presence of radioactive material near the surface of the exploding white dwarf (WD). I summarize what constraints such a model places on the structure of the progenitor and the distribution and velocity of ejecta. My main conclusion is that for the inferred explosion time for SN 2011fe, its rise requires an increasing mass fraction X 56 ≈ (4-6) × 10 –2 of 56 Ni distributed between a depth of ≈10 –2 and 0.3 M ☉ below the WD's surface. Radioactive elements this shallow are not found in simulations of a single C/O detonation. Scenarios that may produce this material include helium-shell burning during a double-detonation ignition, a gravitationally confined detonation, and a subset of deflagration to detonation transition models. In general, the power-law rise can differ from quadratic depending on the details of the velocity, density, and radioactive deposition gradients in a given event. Therefore, comparisons of this work with observed bolometric rises of SNe Ia would place strong constraints on the properties of the shallow outer layers, providing important clues for identifying the elusive progenitors of SNe Ia.

  11. Intensive Monitoring Survey of Nearby Galaxies (IMSNG): Catching Early Light Curves of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; IMSNG Team

    2018-01-01

    SNe light curves have been used to study the expansion history of the universe, and a lot of efforts have gone into understanding the overall shape of the radioactively powered light curve. However, we still have little direct observational evidence for the theorized SN progenitor systems. Recent studies suggest that the light curve of a supernova shortly after its explosion (world. Through this survey, we expect to catch the very early precursor emission as faint as R=21 mag (~0.1 Rsun for the progenitor). This poster outlines this project, and present a few scientific highlights, such as the early light curve of SN 2015F in NGC 2442.

  12. When will a pulsar in supernova 1987a be seen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. Curtis; Kennel, C. F.; Fowler, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The means by which a pulsar might be detected in the remnant of supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud is examined. One possibility is that the slower-than-radioactive decay typically seen in the type II light curves is itself the sign of powering by the underlying pulsar, with the decline representing not the spinning down of the pulsar but rather the declining nebular opacity that would allow increasing amounts of the energy to escape as gamma rays. The test of this hypothesis (if the supernova conforms to type II expectations) would be to look for the 'missing' energy in the form of those gamma rays that escape from the remnant instead of powering it.

  13. Exquisite Nova Light Curves from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    OpenAIRE

    Hounsell, R.; Bode, M. F.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.; Darnley, M. J.; Mawson, N. R.; Steele, I. A.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; O'Brien, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present light curves of three classical novae (KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete sky-map coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102-minute cadence. The light curves derived from these sky maps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the nova eruption n...

  14. Fourier techniques for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves. Pt. 6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1980-01-01

    This is a continuation of a previous paper which appeared in this journal (Demircan, 1980b) and aims at ascertaining some other relations between the integral transforms of the light curves of eclipsing binary systems. The appropriate use of these relations should facilitate the numerical computations for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves by different Fourier techniques. (orig.)

  15. Infrared and optical light curves of EX Hydrae and VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrington, M.R.; Lawson, P.A.; King, A.R.; Jameson, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Optical and infrared light curves of EX Hya (V and K) and VW Hyi (J and K) are presented. The infrared colours imply very large discs for these systems. It is also found for EX Hya that the structure of the light curves is non-repeatable. (author)

  16. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  17. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XXXII. Light curves of V1031 Orionis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J V; Nordstroem, B; Andersen, J [Copenhagen Univ. Observatory, (DK); Nordstroem, B; Andersen, J [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (US)

    1989-12-01

    Complete uvby light curves are presented for the bright, southern, A-type triple system V1031 Orionis which consists of two well-separated eclipsing components in a circular orbit and a third component at an angular distance of about 0.16 sec. The light curves contain 1280 points in each colour, obtained from 1980 to 1983.

  18. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XXXII. Light curves of V1031 Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J.V.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Complete uvby light curves are presented for the bright, southern, A-type triple system V1031 Orionis which consists of two well-separated eclipsing components in a circular orbit and a third component at an angular distance of about 0.16 sec. The light curves contain 1280 points in each colour, obtained from 1980 to 1983

  19. Pulsars today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham-Smith, F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory concerning pulsars is reviewed, with particular attention to possible evolution, life cycle, and rejuvenation of these bodies. Quantum liquids, such as neutron superfluids, and evidence for the existence of superfluid vortices and other internal phenomena are considered with particular attention to the Crab pulsar. Rate of change of the rotation rate is measured and analyzed for the Crab pulsar and the implications of deviations in the pulse times from those of a perfect rotator are examined. Glitches, the sudden increase in rotation rate of a pulsar that has previously exhibited a steady slowdown, are discussed and it is suggested that the movement of the superfluid core relative to the crust is responsible for this phenomenon. It is noted that radio waves from pulsars can be used to determine the intensity and structure of interplanetary and interstellar gas turbulence and to provide a direct measure of the strength of the interstellar magnetic field

  20. X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE RADIO-QUIET GAMMA-RAY PULSAR IN CTA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraveo, P. A.; De Luca, A.; Marelli, M.; Bignami, G. F.; Ray, P. S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Kanbach, G.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by the Fermi-LAT discovery of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar inside the CTA 1 supernova remnant, we obtained a 130 ks XMM-Newton observation to assess the timing behavior of this pulsar. Exploiting both the unprecedented photon harvest and the contemporary Fermi-LAT timing measurements, a 4.7σ single-peak pulsation is detected, making PSR J0007+7303 the second example, after Geminga, of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar also seen to pulsate in X-rays. Phase-resolved spectroscopy shows that the off-pulse portion of the light curve is dominated by a power-law, non-thermal spectrum, while the X-ray peak emission appears to be mainly of thermal origin, probably from a polar cap heated by magnetospheric return currents, pointing to a hot spot varying throughout the pulsar rotation.

  1. Generalized Fermat's principle and action for light rays in a curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-09-01

    We start with formulation of the generalized Fermat’s principle for light propagation in a curved spacetime. We apply Pontryagin’s minimum principle of the optimal control theory and obtain an effective Hamiltonian for null geodesics in a curved spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical equations for this Hamiltonian correctly reproduce null geodesic equations. Other forms of the action for light rays in a curved spacetime are also discussed.

  2. Discovery of an Unidentified Fermi Object as a Black Widow-Like Millisecond Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Takata, J.; Yatsu, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Donato, D.; Lin, L. C. C.; Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has revolutionized our knowledge of the gamma-ray pulsar population, leading to the discovery of almost 100 gamma-ray pulsars and dozens of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Although the outer-gap model predicts different sites of emission for the radio and gamma-ray pulsars, until now all of the known gamma-ray MSPs have been visible in the radio. Here we report the discovery of a radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting MSP candidate by using Fermi, Chandra, Swift, and optical observations. The X-ray and gamma-ray properties of the source are consistent with known gamma-ray pulsars. We also found a 4.63-hr orbital period in optical and X-ray data. We suggest that the source is a black widow-like MSP with a approx. 0.1 Stellar Mass late-type companion star. Based on the profile of the optical and X-ray light-curves, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar while the X-ray emissions originate from pulsar magnetosphere and/or from intra-binary shock. No radio detection of the source has been reported yet and although no gamma-ray/radio pulsation has been found, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is approx. 3-5 ms based on the inferred gamma-ray luminosity.

  3. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH STOCHASTICALLY VARYING LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Kepler Science Office, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, Maria [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, P.O. BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Alencar, Silvia H. P.; McGinnis, Pauline; Sousa, Alana [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI:48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    We provide CoRoT and Spitzer light curves and other supporting data for 17 classical T Tauri stars in NGC 2264 whose CoRoT light curves exemplify the “stochastic” light curve class as defined in 2014 by Cody et al. The most probable physical mechanism to explain the optical variability within this light curve class is time-dependent mass accretion onto the stellar photosphere, producing transient hot spots. Where we have appropriate spectral data, we show that the veiling variability in these stars is consistent in both amplitude and timescale with the optical light curve morphology. The veiling variability is also well-correlated with the strength of the He i 6678 Å emission line, predicted by models to arise in accretion shocks on or near the stellar photosphere. Stars with accretion burst light curve morphology also have variable mass accretion. The stochastic and accretion burst light curves can both be explained by a simple model of randomly occurring flux bursts, with the stochastic light curve class having a higher frequency of lower amplitude events. Members of the stochastic light curve class have only moderate mass accretion rates. Their Hα profiles usually have blueshifted absorption features, probably originating in a disk wind. The lack of periodic signatures in the light curves suggests that little of the variability is due to long-lived hot spots rotating into or out of our line of sight; instead, the primary driver of the observed photometric variability is likely to be instabilities in the inner disk that lead to variable mass accretion.

  4. A transient, flat spectrum radio pulsar near the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, J.; Degenaar, N.; Kerr, M.; Deller, A.; Deneva, J.; Lazarus, P.; Kramer, M.; Champion, D.; Karuppusamy, R.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown possible connections between highly magnetized neutron stars ('magnetars'), whose X-ray emission is too bright to be powered by rotational energy, and ordinary radio pulsars. In addition to the magnetar SGR J1745-2900, one of the radio pulsars in the Galactic Centre (GC) region, PSR J1746-2850, had timing properties implying a large magnetic field strength and young age, as well as a flat spectrum. All characteristics are similar to those of rare, transient, radio-loud magnetars. Using several deep non-detections from the literature and two new detections, we show that this pulsar is also transient in the radio. Both the flat spectrum and large amplitude variability are inconsistent with the light curves and spectral indices of three radio pulsars with high magnetic field strengths. We further use frequent, deep archival imaging observations of the GC in the past 15 yr to rule out a possible X-ray outburst with a luminosity exceeding the rotational spin-down rate. This source, either a transient magnetar without any detected X-ray counterpart or a young, strongly magnetized radio pulsar producing magnetar-like radio emission, further blurs the line between the two categories. We discuss the implications of this object for the radio emission mechanism in magnetars and for star and compact object formation in the GC.

  5. GAMMA-RAY SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR WIND IN THE BINARY PULSAR SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangulyan, Dmitry [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Aharonian, Felix A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Bogovalov, Sergey V. [National Research Nuclear University-MEPHI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ribo, Marc, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie, E-mail: svbogovalov@mephi.ru, E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Binary pulsar systems emit potentially detectable components of gamma-ray emission due to Comptonization of the optical radiation of the companion star by relativistic electrons of the pulsar wind, both before and after termination of the wind. The recent optical observations of binary pulsar system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 revealed radiation properties of the companion star which differ significantly from previous measurements. In this paper, we study the implications of these observations for the interaction rate of the unshocked pulsar wind with the stellar photons and the related consequences for fluxes of high energy and very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. We show that the signal should be strong enough to be detected with Fermi close to the periastron passage, unless the pulsar wind is strongly anisotropic or the Lorentz factor of the wind is smaller than 10{sup 3} or larger than 10{sup 5}. The higher luminosity of the optical star also has two important implications: (1) attenuation of gamma rays due to photon-photon pair production and (2) Compton drag of the unshocked wind. While the first effect has an impact on the light curve of VHE gamma rays, the second effect may significantly decrease the energy available for particle acceleration after termination of the wind.

  6. X-ray pulsars in nearby irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Irregular Galaxy IC 10 are valuable laboratories to study the physical, temporal and statistical properties of the X-ray pulsar population with multi-satellite observations, in order to probe fundamental physics. The known distance of these galaxies can help us easily categorize the luminosity of the pulsars and their age difference can be helpful for for studying the origin and evolution of compact objects. Therefore, a complete archive of 116 XMM-Newton PN, 151 Chandra (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) ACIS, and 952 RXTE PCA observations for the pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) were collected and analyzed, along with 42 XMM-Newton and 30 Chandra observations for the Large Magellanic Cloud, spanning 1997-2014. From a sample of 67 SMC pulsars we generate a suite of products for each pulsar detection: spin period, flux, event list, high time-resolution light-curve, pulse-profile, periodogram, and X-ray spectrum. Combining all three satellites, I generated complete histories of the spin periods, pulse amplitudes, pulsed fractions and X-ray luminosities. Many of the pulsars show variations in pulse period due to the combination of orbital motion and accretion torques. Long-term spin-up/down trends are seen in 28/25 pulsars respectively, pointing to sustained transfer of mass and angular momentum to the neutron star on decadal timescales. The distributions of pulse detection and flux as functions of spin period provide interesting findings: mapping boundaries of accretion-driven X-ray luminosity, and showing that fast pulsars (P<10 s) are rarely detected, which yet are more prone to giant outbursts. In parallel we compare the observed pulse profiles to our general relativity (GR) model of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars.In addition, we conduct a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in the local dwarf galaxy IC 10 to form a comparison

  7. UBV Light Curves of ζ AUR Star 32 Cygni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Seong Nha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available UBV ovservation of ζ Aur star 32 Cyg have been at the Yonsei University Observatory suing the 60-cm Goto reflector and five years, 1988-1992. Observations made during these years cover outside of eclipse phase only. No significant light variation which would represent the secondary eclipse of red supergiant by a hot main sequence star is found. The light levels in three passbands do not show any evidence of the proximate effect of this binary system. Some strong light variations, particularly in U, are discussed with no successful explanation.

  8. LONG-TERM LIGHT CURVE OF HIGHLY VARIABLE PROTOSTELLAR STAR GM CEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Limin; Kroll, Peter; Henden, Arne A.

    2010-01-01

    We present data from the archival plates at Harvard College Observatory and Sonneberg Observatory showing the field of the solar-type pre-main-sequence star GM Cep. A total of 186 magnitudes of GM Cep have been measured on these archival plates, with 176 in blue sensitivity, six in visible, and four in red. We combine our data with data from the literature and from the American Association of Variable Star Observers to depict the long-term light curves of GM Cep in both B and V wavelengths. The light curves span from 1895 until now, with two densely sampled regions (1935-1945 in the B band, and 2006 until now in the V band). The long-term light curves do not show any fast rise behavior as predicted by an accretion mechanism. Both the light curves and the magnitude histograms confirm the conclusion that the light curves are dominated by dips (possibly from extinction) superposed on some quiescence state, instead of outbursts caused by accretion flares. Our result excludes the possibility of GM Cep being a FUor, EXor, or McNeil's Nebula-type star. Several special cases of T Tauri stars were checked, but none of these light curves were compatible with that of GM Cep. The lack of periodicity in the light curve excludes the possibility of GM Cep being a KH 15D system.

  9. NEPTUNE'S DYNAMIC ATMOSPHERE FROM KEPLER K2 OBSERVATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BROWN DWARF LIGHT CURVE ANALYSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A; Rowe, Jason F; Gaulme, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi B; Casewell, Sarah L; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gizis, John E; Lissauer, Jack J; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Orton, Glenn S; Wong, Michael H; Marley, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    Observations of Neptune with the Kepler Space Telescope yield a 49 day light curve with 98% coverage at a 1 minute cadence. A significant signature in the light curve comes from discrete cloud features. We compare results extracted from the light curve data with contemporaneous disk-resolved imaging of Neptune from the Keck 10-m telescope at 1.65 microns and Hubble Space Telescope visible imaging acquired nine months later. This direct comparison validates the feature latitudes assigned to the K2 light curve periods based on Neptune's zonal wind profile, and confirms observed cloud feature variability. Although Neptune's clouds vary in location and intensity on short and long timescales, a single large discrete storm seen in Keck imaging dominates the K2 and Hubble light curves; smaller or fainter clouds likely contribute to short-term brightness variability. The K2 Neptune light curve, in conjunction with our imaging data, provides context for the interpretation of current and future brown dwarf and extrasolar planet variability measurements. In particular we suggest that the balance between large, relatively stable, atmospheric features and smaller, more transient, clouds controls the character of substellar atmospheric variability. Atmospheres dominated by a few large spots may show inherently greater light curve stability than those which exhibit a greater number of smaller features.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE LIGHT CURVE OF THE ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE BY ITS ROTATION PATH AS PREPARATION TO THE INVERSE PROBLEM SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlenko, Daniil

    2012-01-01

    Developing the algorithm of estimation of the rotational parameters of the artificial satellite by its light curve, we face the necessity to compute test light curves for various initially given types of rotation and specific features of lighting of the satellite. In the present study the algorithm of creation of such light curves with the simulation method and the obtained result are described.

  11. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT-CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN ANALYSIS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHK s SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(M J ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(M H ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(M Ks ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms -1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  12. Characterization of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves Using Principal Component Analysis of Sparse Functional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiyuan; Wang, Lifan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2018-04-01

    With growing data from ongoing and future supernova surveys, it is possible to empirically quantify the shapes of SNIa light curves in more detail, and to quantitatively relate the shape parameters with the intrinsic properties of SNIa. Building such relationships is critical in controlling systematic errors associated with supernova cosmology. Based on a collection of well-observed SNIa samples accumulated in the past years, we construct an empirical SNIa light curve model using a statistical method called the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for sparse and irregularly sampled functional data. Using this method, the entire light curve of an SNIa is represented by a linear combination of principal component functions, and the SNIa is represented by a few numbers called “principal component scores.” These scores are used to establish relations between light curve shapes and physical quantities such as intrinsic color, interstellar dust reddening, spectral line strength, and spectral classes. These relations allow for descriptions of some critical physical quantities based purely on light curve shape parameters. Our study shows that some important spectral feature information is being encoded in the broad band light curves; for instance, we find that the light curve shapes are correlated with the velocity and velocity gradient of the Si II λ6355 line. This is important for supernova surveys (e.g., LSST and WFIRST). Moreover, the FPCA light curve model is used to construct the entire light curve shape, which in turn is used in a functional linear form to adjust intrinsic luminosity when fitting distance models.

  13. Pulsar magnetosphere-wind or wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of both the interior and exterior pulsar magnetosphere depends upon the strength of its plasma source near the surface of the star. We review wave models of exterior pulsar magnetospheres in the light of a vacuum pair-production source model proposed by Sturrock, and Ruderman and Sutherland. This model predicts the existence of a cutoff, determined by the neutron star's spin rate and magnetic field strenght, beyond which coherent radio emission is no longer possible. Since the observed distribution of pulsar spin periods and period derivatives, and the distribution of pulsars with missing radio pulses, is consistent with the pair production threshold, those neutron stars observed as radio pulsars can have relativistic magnetohydrodynamic wind exterior magnetospheres, and cannot have relativistic plasma wave exterior magnetospheres. On the other hand, most erstwhile pulsars in the galaxy are probably halo objects that emit weak fluxes of energetic photons that can have relativistic wave exterior magnetospheres. Extinct pulsars have not been yet observed

  14. Light-Curve Diagnosis of a Hot Spot for Accretion-Disk Models

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUE, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Light curves of a hot spot rotating in a relativistic Keplerian disk were found to be periodic with typically two peaks, originating from a gravitational focusing effect and a Doppler boost. On the other hand, we found that light curves of a hot spot spirally infalling in a sub-Keplerian advective disk are aperiodic with typically a single peak, originating from a gravitational focusing effect or a Doppler boost. Such a difference in the light curves of a hot spot can discriminate background ...

  15. New Light Curves and Analysis of the Overcontact Binaries PP Lac and DK Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    As a by-product of the ongoing work with the Catalog and AtLas of Eclipsing Binaries database (CALEB; Bradstreet et al. 2004), several hundred eclipsing binary systems have been identified that have either unpublished or poor quality light curves. We present new V & Rc light curves for the overcontact systems PP Lac and DK Sge, both chosen because their deep eclipses (peak-to-peak amplitudes of nearly 0.7 mag) help constrain the light curve modelling. Data were obtained using the 41-cm telescope at the Eastern University Observatory equipped with an SBIG ST-10XME CCD. PP Lac (P= 0.40116 d) is a W-type contact binary with only one previously published light curve (Dumont & Maraziti 1990), but the data are sparse and almost non-existent at primary eclipse. Modelling of these data gave varying results; the published mass ratios differ by nearly 0.3. Our data confirms the noted differing eclipse depths but we find the primary eclipse to be total. We present a new light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 (Bradstreet & Steelman 2002) and Wilson-Devinney, finding the mass ratio to be well-constrained by the duration of total eclipse. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light. DK Sge (P=0.62182 d) appears to be an A-type contact binary with no published light curve. The eclipses are partial, with the primary eclipse being deeper by about 0.08 mag. The maxima show evidence of a slight asymmetry, although the light curve appears to be repeatable over the 1 month of observations. We present the first light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 and Wilson-Devinney, but have limited mass ratio constraints due to the absence of radial velocity data. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light.

  16. Relativistic solitons and pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N

    1975-05-01

    A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)

  17. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to introduce a new definition of the loss of light suffered by mutual eclipses of the components of close binary systems: namely, as a cross-correlation of two apertures representing the eclipsing and eclipsed discs. The advantages of such a strategy over the more conventional (geometrical) approach are (a) greater symmetry of the respective expressions; (b) greater affinity of expressions arising from distortion with those expressing the light changes due to eclipses of spherical stars; and (c) greater freedom in dealing with the effects of particular distribution of brightness over the disc of the star undergoing eclipse (generalized limb-darkening), as well as of possible semi-transparency of the eclipsing component (Wolf-Rayet stars). In point of fact, none of these tasks could be handled with equal ease by any other technique; nor could the corresponding loss of light be so automated by any other approach. (Auth.)

  18. A method for the rapid generation of nonsequential light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, João; Ezequiel, João; Frommlet, Jörg; Laviale, Martin; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-11-01

    Light-response curves (LCs) of chlorophyll fluorescence are widely used in plant physiology. Most commonly, LCs are generated sequentially, exposing the same sample to a sequence of distinct actinic light intensities. These measurements are not independent, as the response to each new light level is affected by the light exposure history experienced during previous steps of the LC, an issue particularly relevant in the case of the popular rapid light curves. In this work, we demonstrate the proof of concept of a new method for the rapid generation of LCs from nonsequential, temporally independent fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the combined use of sample illumination with digitally controlled, spatially separated beams of actinic light and a fluorescence imaging system. It allows the generation of a whole LC, including a large number of actinic light steps and adequate replication, within the time required for a single measurement (and therefore named "single-pulse light curve"). This method is illustrated for the generation of LCs of photosystem II quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, and nonphotochemical quenching on intact plant leaves exhibiting distinct light responses. This approach makes it also possible to easily characterize the integrated dynamic light response of a sample by combining the measurement of LCs (actinic light intensity is varied while measuring time is fixed) with induction/relaxation kinetics (actinic light intensity is fixed and the response is followed over time), describing both how the response to light varies with time and how the response kinetics varies with light intensity.

  19. Pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asseo, Estelle

    2003-01-01

    The main features of radiation received from pulsars imply that they are neutron stars which contain an extremely intense magnetic field and emit coherently in the radio domain. Most recent studies attribute the origin of the coherence to plasma instabilities arising in pulsar magnetospheres; they mainly concern the linear, or the nonlinear, character of the involved unstable waves. We briefly introduce radio pulsars and specify physical conditions in pulsar emission regions: geometrical properties, magnetic field, pair creation processes and repartition of relativistic charged particles. We point to the main ingredients of the linear theory, extensively explored since the 1970s: (i) a dispersion relation specific to the pulsar case; (ii) the characteristics of the waves able to propagate in relativistic pulsar plasmas; (iii) the different ways in which a two-humped distribution of particles may arise in a pulsar magnetosphere and favour the development of a two-stream instability. We sum up recent improvements of the linear theory: (i) the determination of a 'coupling function' responsible for high values of the wave field components and electromagnetic energy available; (ii) the obtention of new dispersion relations for actually anisotropic pulsar plasmas with relativistic motions and temperatures; (iii) the interaction between a plasma and a beam, both with relativistic motions and temperatures; (iv) the interpretation of observed 'coral' and 'conal' features, associated with the presence of boundaries and curved magnetic field lines in the emission region; (v) the detailed topology of the magnetic field in the different parts of the emission region and its relation to models recently proposed to interpret drifting subpulses observed from PSR 0943+10, showing 20 sub-beams of emission. We relate the nonlinear evolution of the two-stream instability and development of strong turbulence in relativistic pulsar plasmas to the emergence of relativistic solitons, able

  20. Light curves for ''bump Cepheids'' computed with a dynamically zoned pulsation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.F.; Castor, J.E.; Davis, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamically zoned pulsation code developed by Castor, Davis, and Davison has been used to recalculate the Goddard model and to calculate three other Cepheid models with the same period (9.8 days). This family of models shows how the bumps and other features of the light and velocity curves change as the mass is varied at constant period. This study, with a code that is capable of producing reliable light curves, shows again that the light and velocity curves for 9.8-day Cepheid models with standard homogeneous compositions do not show bumps like those that are observed unless the mass is significantly lower than the ''evolutionary mass.'' The light and velocity curves for the Goddard model presented here are similar to those computed independently by Fischel, Sparks, and Karp. They should be useful as standards for future investigators

  1. Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The O’Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.

  2. DIVERSITY OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS FROM COMPACT BINARY MERGERS HOSTING PULSARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (≈20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves

  3. REFLECTED LIGHT CURVES, SPHERICAL AND BOND ALBEDOS OF JUPITER- AND SATURN-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyudina, Ulyana; Kopparla, Pushkar; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Yung, Yuk L. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 150-21 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zhang, Xi [University of California Santa Cruz 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Li, Liming [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Dones, Luke [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder CO 80302 (United States); Verbiscer, Anne, E-mail: ulyana@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Reflected light curves observed for exoplanets indicate that a few of them host bright clouds. We estimate how the light curve and total stellar heating of a planet depends on forward and backward scattering in the clouds based on Pioneer and Cassini spacecraft images of Jupiter and Saturn. We fit analytical functions to the local reflected brightnesses of Jupiter and Saturn depending on the planet’s phase. These observations cover broadbands at 0.59–0.72 and 0.39–0.5 μ m, and narrowbands at 0.938 (atmospheric window), 0.889 (CH4 absorption band), and 0.24–0.28 μ m. We simulate the images of the planets with a ray-tracing model, and disk-integrate them to produce the full-orbit light curves. For Jupiter, we also fit the modeled light curves to the observed full-disk brightness. We derive spherical albedos for Jupiter and Saturn, and for planets with Lambertian and Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres. Jupiter-like atmospheres can produce light curves that are a factor of two fainter at half-phase than the Lambertian planet, given the same geometric albedo at transit. The spherical albedo is typically lower than for a Lambertian planet by up to a factor of ∼1.5. The Lambertian assumption will underestimate the absorption of the stellar light and the equilibrium temperature of the planetary atmosphere. We also compare our light curves with the light curves of solid bodies: the moons Enceladus and Callisto. Their strong backscattering peak within a few degrees of opposition (secondary eclipse) can lead to an even stronger underestimate of the stellar heating.

  4. Searching for transits in the Wide Field Camera Transit Survey with difference-imaging light curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendejas, Dominguez J.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Saglia, R.; Birkby, J.L.; Hodgkin, S.; Kovács, G.; Pinfield, D.; Sipocz, B.; Barrado, D.; Bender, R.; Burgo, del C.; Cappetta, M.; Martín, E.; Nefs, B.; Riffeser, A.; Steele, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera Transit Survey is a pioneer program aiming at for searching extra-solar planets in the near-infrared. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. We produce an alternative set of light

  5. Pulsars and Acceleration Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for the studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. But even forty years after their discovery, we still do not understand their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review both the basic physics of pulsars as well as the latest developments in understanding their high-energy emission. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. Fortunately the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), with launch in May 2008 will detect many new gamma-ray pulsars and test the predictions of these models with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 300 GeV.

  6. X-ray heating and the optical light curve of HZ Herculis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrenod, S.C.; Shields, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss theoretically the optical light curve of HZ Her, the binary companion of the pulsed X-ray source Her X-1. Using model stellar atmospheres, we construct light curves that are in agreement with UBV photometry of HZ Her except for the sharpness of the minimum. Unlike previous authors, we find that heating of the photosphere of HZ Her by the observed X-ray flux is sufficient to explain the amplitude of the light variations in each color, if the X-ray emission persists at HZ Her throughout the 35-day ON-OFF CYCLE. We rule out a corona surrounding HZ Her as the source of the extra light near minimum, and we also rule out a model wherein the extra light is caused by a stellar wind that electron-scatters optical light emitted by the photosphere of the hot side of the star

  7. Timescale stretch parameterization of Type Ia supernova B-band light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.; York, T.

    2001-01-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ''composite curve.'' The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF ∼ 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects

  8. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. III. CLASSIFICATION OF KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY LIGHT CURVES WITH LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevič, Gal; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Bloemen, Steven; Barclay, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated classification of 2165 Kepler eclipsing binary (EB) light curves that accompanied the second Kepler data release. The light curves are classified using locally linear embedding, a general nonlinear dimensionality reduction tool, into morphology types (detached, semi-detached, overcontact, ellipsoidal). The method, related to a more widely used principal component analysis, produces a lower-dimensional representation of the input data while preserving local geometry and, consequently, the similarity between neighboring data points. We use this property to reduce the dimensionality in a series of steps to a one-dimensional manifold and classify light curves with a single parameter that is a measure of 'detachedness' of the system. This fully automated classification correlates well with the manual determination of morphology from the data release, and also efficiently highlights any misclassified objects. Once a lower-dimensional projection space is defined, the classification of additional light curves runs in a negligible time and the method can therefore be used as a fully automated classifier in pipeline structures. The classifier forms a tier of the Kepler EB pipeline that pre-processes light curves for the artificial intelligence based parameter estimator.

  9. Pulsars Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Current density determines the plasma flow regime. Cascades are non-stationary. ALWAYS. All flow regimes look different: multiple components (?) Return current regions should have particle accelerating zones in the outer magnetosphere: y-ray pulsars (?) Plasma oscillations in discharges: direct radio emission (?)

  10. VHE gamma-rays from radio pulsars and cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, O.C.; Brink, C.; Meintjies, P.J.; Nel, H.I.; North, A.R.; Raubenheimer, B.C.; Van der Walt, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of observations (above 1 TeV) of radio pulsars and cataclysmic variables with the Potchefstroom air Cerenkov facility. We were able to confirm our previous detection of PSR 1509-58 and the final significance is 1.7x10 -5 . A DC enhancement at the 10 -3 significance level was seen from the L 4 Lagrange position in the PSR 1957+20 system. This result was confirmed by COS-B data. We were also able to detect the 5.4 ms pulsar PSR 1855+09 at a marginal significance level of 5%. However, the best and longest observation indicates non-uniformity at the 0.005 significance level. The TeV light curve resembles the radio light curve. The latter is also reminiscent of other millisecond pulsar observed above 1 TeV. The intermediate polar AEAQR (P = 33.08s) shows a period shift which is consistent with recent model predictions. However, the present significance of this results does not allow an unambiguous claim. (orig.)

  11. Human phase response curve to a 1 h pulse of bright white light

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Hilaire, Melissa A; Gooley, Joshua J; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    The phase resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light depends on the timing of exposure and is described by a phase response curve (PRC). The current study aimed to construct a PRC for a 1 h exposure to bright white light (∼8000 lux) and to compare this PRC to a dim background light PRC. These data were also compared to a previously completed 6.7 h bright white light PRC and a dim background light PRC constructed under similar conditions. Participants were randomized for exposure to 1 h of either bright white light (n= 18) or dim background light (n= 18) scheduled at 1 of 18 circadian phases. Participants completed constant routine (CR) procedures in dim light (light exposure to assess circadian phase. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) during pre- and post-stimulus CRs. Exposure to 1 h of bright white light induced a Type 1 PRC with a fitted peak-to-trough amplitude of 2.20 h. No discernible PRC was observed in the dim background light PRC. The fitted peak-to-trough amplitude of the 1 h bright light PRC was ∼40% of that for the 6.7 h PRC despite representing only 15% of the light exposure duration, consistent with previous studies showing a non-linear duration–response function for the effects of light on circadian resetting. PMID:22547633

  12. Observations of Pulsars with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, D.

    2009-11-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi, launched on 2008 June 11, is a space telescope to explore the high energy γ-ray universe. The instrument covers the energy range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV with greatly improved sensitivity and ability to localize γ-ray point sources. It detects γ-rays through conversion to electron-positron pairs and measurement of their direction in a tracker and their energy in a calorimeter. This thesis presents the γ-ray light curves and the phase-resolved spectral measurements of radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars detected by the LAT. The measurement of pulsar spectral parameters (i.e. integrated flux, spectral index, and energy cut-off) depends on the instrument response functions (IRFs). A method developed for the on-orbit validation of the effective area is presented using the Vela pulsar. The cut efficiencies between the real data and the simulated data are compared at each stage of the background rejection. The results are then propagated to the IRFs, allowing the systematic uncertainties of the spectral parameters to be estimated. The last part of this thesis presents the discoveries, using both the LAT observations and the radio and X ephemeris, of new individual γ-ray pulsars such as PSR J0205+6449, and the Vela-like pulsars J2229+6114 and J1048-5832. Timing and spectral analysis are investigated in order to constrain the γ-ray emission model. In addition, we discuss the properties of a large population of γ-ray pulsars detected by the LAT, including normal pulsars, and millisecond pulsars. (author)

  13. Pulsars for the Beginner

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLavore, Phillip; Wayland, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history of the discovery of pulsars, observations that have been made on pulsar radiation, and theories that have been presented for its presence and origin. Illustrations using pulsar's properties are presented in mechanics, electromagnetic radiation and thermodynamics. (DS)

  14. A Composite Light Curve Model of the Symbiotic Nova PU Vul (1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PU Vul (1979 is a symbiotic nova that shows a long-lasting flat optical peak followed by a slow decline. We made a quasi-evolution model for outbursts on a 0.6 M⊙ white dwarf consisting of a series of static solutions with optically-thin winds. Our theoretical models reproduce well the observed visual/UV light curves as well as the new estimates of the temperature and radius of the hot component. We also modeled the light curve of the 1980 and 1994 eclipses as the total eclipse occulted by a pulsating M-giant companion star. In the second eclipse, the visual magnitude is dominated by nebular emission which is possibly ejected from the hot component between 1990 to 2000. We have quantitatively estimated three components of emission, i.e., the white dwarf, companion and nebular, and made a composite light curve that represents well the evolution of the PU Vul outburst.

  15. Light Curve Simulation Using Spacecraft CAD Models and Empirical Material Spectral BRDFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, A.; Bedard, D.

    This paper presents a Matlab-based light curve simulation software package that uses computer-aided design (CAD) models of spacecraft and the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (sBRDF) of their homogenous surface materials. It represents the overall optical reflectance of objects as a sBRDF, a spectrometric quantity, obtainable during an optical ground truth experiment. The broadband bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), the basis of a broadband light curve, is produced by integrating the sBRDF over the optical wavelength range. Colour-filtered BRDFs, the basis of colour-filtered light curves, are produced by first multiplying the sBRDF by colour filters, and integrating the products. The software package's validity is established through comparison of simulated reflectance spectra and broadband light curves with those measured of the CanX-1 Engineering Model (EM) nanosatellite, collected during an optical ground truth experiment. It is currently being extended to simulate light curves of spacecraft in Earth orbit, using spacecraft Two-Line-Element (TLE) sets, yaw/pitch/roll angles, and observer coordinates. Measured light curves of the NEOSSat spacecraft will be used to validate simulated quantities. The sBRDF was chosen to represent material reflectance as it is spectrometric and a function of illumination and observation geometry. Homogeneous material sBRDFs were obtained using a goniospectrometer for a range of illumination and observation geometries, collected in a controlled environment. The materials analyzed include aluminum alloy, two types of triple-junction photovoltaic (TJPV) cell, white paint, and multi-layer insulation (MLI). Interpolation and extrapolation methods were used to determine the sBRDF for all possible illumination and observation geometries not measured in the laboratory, resulting in empirical look-up tables. These look-up tables are referenced when calculating the overall sBRDF of objects, where

  16. Light curve analysis of the late type binary V523 Cassiopeiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of V and R light curves of the late type contact binary V523 Cas for the season of 2006. These observations make part of the monitoring program aimed at studying the long-term light curve variability in this system. Our results confirm that the system is in an over contact configuration, and include a bright spot in the neck region of the cooler and larger primary. We compare these results with the previous solution, obtained for the season 2005 dataset and discuss the differences.

  17. Using Light Curves to Characterize Size and Shape of Pseudo-Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Heather M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Barker, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Photometric measurements were collected for a new study aimed at estimating orbital debris sizes based on object brightness. To obtain a size from optical measurements the current practice is to assume an albedo and use a normalized magnitude to calculate optical size. However, assuming a single albedo value may not be valid for all objects or orbit types; material type and orientation can mask an object s true optical cross section. This experiment used a CCD camera to record data, a 300 W Xenon, Ozone Free collimated light source to simulate solar illumination, and a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom to move the piece of simulated debris through various orientations. The pseudo-debris pieces used in this experiment originate from the European Space Operations Centre s ESOC2 ground test explosion of a mock satellite. A uniformly illuminated white ping-pong ball was used as a zero-magnitude reference. Each debris piece was then moved through specific orientations and rotations to generate a light curve. This paper discusses the results of five different object-based light curves as measured through an x-rotation. Intensity measurements, from which each light curve was generated, were recorded in five degree increments from zero to 180 degrees. Comparing light curves of different shaped and sized pieces against their characteristic length establishes the start of a database from which an optical size estimation model will be derived in the future.

  18. The Extended Pulsar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinos, Kalapotharakos; Demosthenes, Kazanas; Ioannis, Contopoulos

    2012-01-01

    We present the structure of the 3D ideal MHD pulsar magnetosphere to a radius ten times that of the light cylinder, a distance about an order of magnitude larger than any previous such numerical treatment. Its overall structure exhibits a stable, smooth, well-defined undulating current sheet which approaches the kinematic split monopole solution of Bogovalov 1999 only after a careful introduction of diffusivity even in the highest resolution simulations. It also exhibits an intriguing spiral region at the crossing of two zero charge surfaces on the current sheet, which shows a destabilizing behavior more prominent in higher resolution simulations. We discuss the possibility that this region is physically (and not numerically) unstable. Finally, we present the spiral pulsar antenna radiation pattern.

  19. LATE-TIME LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Meixner, Margaret; Panagia, Nino [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fabbri, Joanna; Barlow, Michael J.; Wesson, Roger [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, Jennifer E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Gallagher, Joseph S. [Department of Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science, Raymond Walters College, 9555 Plain field Rd., Blue Ash, OH 45236 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Road, Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Ercolano, Barbara [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Welch, Douglas, E-mail: otsuka@stsci.edu, E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    We present BVRIJHK-band photometry of six core-collapse supernovae, SNe 1999bw, 2002hh, 2003gd, 2004et, 2005cs, and 2006bc, measured at late epochs (>2 yr) based on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Gemini North, and WIYN telescopes. We also show the JHK light curves of supernova impostor SN 2008S up to day 575 because it was serendipitously in our SN 2002hh field of view. Of our 43 HST observations in total, 36 observations are successful in detecting the light from the SNe alone and measuring magnitudes of all the targets. HST observations show a resolved scattered light echo around SN 2003gd at day 1520 and around SN 2002hh at day 1717. Our Gemini and WIYN observations detected SNe 2002hh and 2004et as well. Combining our data with previously published data, we show VRIJHK-band light curves and estimate decline magnitude rates at each band in four different phases. Our prior work on these light curves and other data indicate that dust is forming in our targets from days {approx}300 to 400, supporting SN dust formation theory. In this paper we focus on other physical properties derived from late-time light curves. We estimate {sup 56}Ni masses for our targets (0.5-14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun }) from the bolometric light curve of each of days {approx}150-300 using SN 1987A as a standard (7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun }). The flattening or sometimes increasing fluxes in the late-time light curves of SNe 2002hh, 2003gd, 2004et, and 2006bc indicate the presence of light echoes. We estimate the circumstellar hydrogen density of the material causing the light echo and find that SN 2002hh is surrounded by relatively dense materials (n(H) >400 cm{sup -3}) and SNe 2003gd and 2004et have densities more typical of the interstellar medium ({approx}1 cm{sup -3}). We analyze the sample as a whole in the context of physical properties derived in prior work. The {sup 56}Ni mass appears well correlated with progenitor mass with a slope of 0

  20. EIGHT γ-RAY PULSARS DISCOVERED IN BLIND FREQUENCY SEARCHES OF FERMI LAT DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Dormody, M.; Ziegler, M.; Belfiore, A.; Johnson, R. P.; Ray, P. S.; Abdo, A. A.; Grove, J. E.; Gwon, C.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; De Luca, A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Johnson, T. J.; Freire, P. C. C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of eight γ-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches of ∼650 source positions using the Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We present the timing models, light curves, and detailed spectral parameters of the new pulsars. PSRs J1023-5746, J1044-5737, J1413-5205, J1429-5911, and J1954+2836 are young (τ c 10 36 erg s -1 ), and located within the Galactic plane (|b| 0 ). The remaining three pulsars, PSRs J1846+0919, J1957+5033, and J2055+25, are less energetic, and located off the plane. Five pulsars are associated with sources included in the Fermi-LAT bright γ-ray source list, but only one, PSR J1413-6205, is clearly associated with an EGRET source. PSR J1023-5746 has the smallest characteristic age (τ c = 4.6 kyr) and is the most energetic ( E-dot = 1.1x10 37 erg s -1 ) of all γ-ray pulsars discovered so far in blind searches. By analyzing >100 ks of publicly available archival Chandra X-ray data, we have identified the likely counterpart of PSR J1023-5746 as a faint, highly absorbed source, CXOU J102302.8-574606. The large X-ray absorption indicates that this could be among the most distant γ-ray pulsars detected so far. PSR J1023-5746 is positionally coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023-575, located near the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2, while PSR J1954+2836 is coincident with a 4.3σ excess reported by Milagro at a median energy of 35 TeV. PSRs J1957+5033 and J2055+25 have the largest characteristic ages (τ c ∼ 1 Myr) and are the least energetic ( E-dot ∼5x10 33 erg s -1 ) of the newly discovered pulsars. We used recent XMM observations to identify the counterpart of PSR J2055+25 as XMMU J205549.4+253959. Deep radio follow-up observations of the eight pulsars resulted in no detections of pulsations and upper limits comparable to the faintest known radio pulsars, indicating that these pulsars can be included among the growing population of radio-quiet pulsars in our Galaxy being

  1. SHOCK BREAKOUT AND EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnavich, P. M.; Tucker, B. E.; Rest, A.; Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P.; Kasen, D; Villar, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R ⊙ ) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R ⊙ ), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10 51 erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10 −4 M ⊙ yr −1 from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P

  2. Pulsar era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewish, A

    1986-12-01

    The discovery of pulsars in 1967 initiated one of the most effervescent phases of astronomy since World War II and opened up a number of important new fields of research. In looking back at the history of this event it is useful to focus on three aspects. These are the prehistory because it reveals a fascinating relationship between theory and observation concerning an entirely new phenomenon - the neutron star; the discovery itself, which was totally unexpected, to see if anything can be learned which might have a bearing on serendipitous discoveries in the future. For example, would pulsars have been found if the sky survey had been recorded digitally and analysed by a computer; the astronomical impact of the discovery as seen eighteen years after the initial excitement.

  3. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  4. Light Curve Stability and Period Behavior of the Contact Binary TZ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2013) 34, 329–339 c Indian Academy of Sciences. Light Curve Stability and Period Behavior of the Contact. Binary TZ Boo. M. M. Elkhateeb1,2 & M. I. Nouh1,2,∗. 1National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, 11421 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt. 2Physics Department, College of Science, Northern ...

  5. New methods for deriving cometary secular light curves: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Maria; Lastra, Nathan; Harrington, Olga; Curtis, Anthony; Wierzchos, Kacper; Ruffini, Nicholas; Charles, Mentzer; Rabson, David; Cox, Timothy; Rivera, Isabel; Micciche, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    We present an algorithm for reducing scatter and increasing precision in a comet light curve. As a demonstration, we processed apparent magnitudes of comet Hale-Bopp from 16 highly experienced observers (archived with the International Comet Quarterly), correcting for distance from Earth and phase angle. Different observers tend to agree on the difference in magnitudes of an object at different distances, but the magnitude reported by observer is shifted relative to that of another for an object at a fixed distance. We estimated the shifts using a self-consistent statistical approach, leading to a sharper light curve and improving the precision of the measured slopes. The final secular lightcurve for comet Hale-Bopp ranges from -7 au (pre-perihelion) to +8 au (post-perihelion) and is the best secular light curve produced to date for this “great” comet. We discuss Hale-Bopp’s lightcurve evolution and possibly related physical implications, and potential usefulness of this light curve for comparisons with other future bright comets. We also assess the appropriateness of using secular lightcurves to characterize dust production rates in Hale-Bopp and other dust-rich comets. M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.

  6. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL DIVERSITY OF EARLY TYPE IA SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    During the first several days after explosion, Type Ia supernova light curves probe the outer layers of the exploding star, and therefore provide important clues for identifying their progenitors. We investigate how both the shallow {sup 56}Ni distribution and the presence of circumstellar material shape these early light curves. This is performed using a series of numerical experiments with parameterized properties for systematic exploration. Although not all of the considered models may be realized in nature (and indeed there are arguments why some of them should not occur), the spirit of this work is to provide a broader exploration of the diversity of possibilities. We find that shallower {sup 56}Ni leads to steeper, bluer light curves. Differences in the shape of the rise can introduce errors in estimating the explosion time, and thus impact efforts to infer upper limits on the progenitor or companion radius from a lack of observed shock cooling emission. Circumstellar material can lead to significant luminosity during the first few days, but its presence can be difficult to identify depending on the degree of nickel mixing. In some cases, the hot emission of circumstellar material may even lead to a signature similar to an interaction with a companion, and thus in the future additional diagnostics should be gathered for properly assessing early light curves.

  7. Fractal Property in the Light Curve of BL Lac Object S5 0716+714

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, we compile the historical R-band data of S5 0716+714 from literature and obtain its fractal dimension by using a fractal method and then simulate the data with the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot (W–M) function. It is considered that the light curve has a fractal property.

  8. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Jurkevich method is a useful method to explore periodic- ity in the unevenly sampled observational data. In this work, we adopted the method to the light curve of Cyg X-1 from 1996 to 2012, and found that there is an interesting period of 370 days, which appears in both low/hard and high/soft states.

  9. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jurkevich method is a useful method to explore periodicity in the unevenly sampled observational data. In this work, we adopted the method to the light curve of Cyg X-1 from 1996 to 2012, and found that there is an interesting period of 370 days, which appears in both low/hard and high/soft states. That period may be ...

  10. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-01-01

    a dispersion of 0.56 mag, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the "plateau" stage, through to the brightest events which...

  11. Photometric light curves for ten rapidly rotating stars in Alpha Persei, the Pleiades, and the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Schild, Rudolph E.; Stauffer, John R.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of ten rapidly rotating stars observed during 1991 using the FLWO 48-in. telescope. Brightness variations for an additional six cluster stars observed with the Lick 40-in. telescope are also given. The periods and light curves for seven Alpha Persei members, two Pleiades members, and one naked T Tauri field star are reported.

  12. UBV Light Curves of AR Lacertae During 1980-'81 and 1981-'82

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Seong Nha

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The UBV observations of the brightest RE CVn-type eclipsing binary star AR Lac were made at four observatories, two in Korea and two in the U.S. in the 1980-81 and 1981-82 seasons. As a result of the cooperation, two light curves in the yellow and in the blue were completed for each observing seasons. Ultraviolet observations were also made at three of the four observatories. The orbital period of AR Lac apparantly decreased around 1977. An analysis of our yellow light curves together with five other yellow curves available in the literature since 1975 shows that there seems no periodicity in the migration of the distortion waves. There is a gradual decrease of at least 0.m1 between 1976 and 1982 in the brightness of the cooler component if one assumes that the hotter component is constant.

  13. Exquisite Nova Light Curves from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsell, R.; Bode, M. F.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.; Darnley, M. J.; Mawson, N. R.; Steele, I. A.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; O'Brien, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    We present light curves of three classical novae (CNe; KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete skymap coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102 minute cadence. The light curves derived from these skymaps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the eruption normally not covered by ground-based observations. They allow us to explore fundamental parameters of individual objects including the epoch of the initial explosion, the reality and duration of any pre-maximum halt (found in all three fast novae in our sample), the presence of secondary maxima, speed of decline of the initial light curve, plus precise timing of the onset of dust formation (in V1280 Sco) leading to estimation of the bolometric luminosity, white dwarf mass, and object distance. For KT Eri, Liverpool Telescope SkyCamT data confirm important features of the SMEI light curve and overall our results add weight to the proposed similarities of this object to recurrent rather than to CNe. In RS Oph, comparison with hard X-ray data from the 2006 outburst implies that the onset of the outburst coincides with extensive high-velocity mass loss. It is also noted that two of the four novae we have detected (V598 Pup and KT Eri) were only discovered by ground-based observers weeks or months after maximum light, yet these novae reached peak magnitudes of 3.46 and 5.42, respectively. This emphasizes the fact that many bright novae per year are still overlooked, particularly those of the very fast speed class. Coupled with its ability to observe novae in detail even when relatively close to the Sun in the sky, we estimate that as many as five novae per year may be detectable by SMEI.

  14. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. III. CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaversa, Lovro; Eyer, Laurent; Rimoldini, Lorenzo [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Ivezić, Željko; Loebman, Sarah; Hunt-Walker, Nicholas; VanderPlas, Jacob; Westman, David; Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Ruždjak, Domagoj; Sudar, Davor; Božić, Hrvoje [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Galin, Mario [Faculty of Geodesy, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kroflin, Andrea; Mesarić, Martina; Munk, Petra; Vrbanec, Dijana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stuart, J. Scott [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, MA 02420-9108 (United States); Srdoč, Gregor, E-mail: lovro.palaversa@unige.ch [Saršoni 90, 51216 Viškovo (Croatia); and others

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction of a highly reliable sample of ∼7000 optically faint periodic variable stars with light curves obtained by the asteroid survey LINEAR across 10,000 deg{sup 2} of the northern sky. The majority of these variables have not been cataloged yet. The sample flux limit is several magnitudes fainter than most other wide-angle surveys; the photometric errors range from ∼0.03 mag at r = 15 to ∼0.20 mag at r = 18. Light curves include on average 250 data points, collected over about a decade. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based photometric recalibration of the LINEAR data for about 25 million objects, we selected ∼200,000 most probable candidate variables with r < 17 and visually confirmed and classified ∼7000 periodic variables using phased light curves. The reliability and uniformity of visual classification across eight human classifiers was calibrated and tested using a catalog of variable stars from the SDSS Stripe 82 region and verified using an unsupervised machine learning approach. The resulting sample of periodic LINEAR variables is dominated by 3900 RR Lyrae stars and 2700 eclipsing binary stars of all subtypes and includes small fractions of relatively rare populations such as asymptotic giant branch stars and SX Phoenicis stars. We discuss the distribution of these mostly uncataloged variables in various diagrams constructed with optical-to-infrared SDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry, and with LINEAR light-curve features. We find that the combination of light-curve features and colors enables classification schemes much more powerful than when colors or light curves are each used separately. An interesting side result is a robust and precise quantitative description of a strong correlation between the light-curve period and color/spectral type for close and contact eclipsing binary stars (β Lyrae and W UMa): as the color-based spectral type varies from K4 to F5, the

  15. The Discovery of Ellipsoidal Variations in the Kepler Light Curve of HAT-P-7

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Jenkins, Jon; Rowe, Jason F.; Koch, David; Borucki, William J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the early Kepler observations of the previously discovered transiting planet HAT-P-7b. The light curve shows the transit of the star, the occultation of the planet, and the orbit phase-dependent light from the planet. In addition, phase-dependent light from the star is present, known as "ellipsoidal variations". The very nearby planet (only 4 stellar radii away) gravitationally distorts the star and results in a flux modulation twice per orbit. The ellipsoidal variat...

  16. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE POWERED BY MAGNETARS: LATE-TIME LIGHT CURVES AND HARD EMISSION LEAKAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S. Q.; Wang, L. J.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research performed by two groups has revealed that the magnetar spin-down energy injection model with full energy trapping can explain the early-time light curves of SN 2010gx, SN 2013dg, LSQ12dlf, SSS120810, and CSS121015 but fails to fit the late-time light curves of these superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). These results imply that the original magnetar-powered model is challenged in explaining these SLSNe. Our paper aims to simultaneously explain both the early- and late-time data/upper limits by considering the leakage of hard emissions. We incorporate quantitatively the leakage effect into the original magnetar-powered model and derive a new semianalytical equation. Comparing the light curves reproduced by our revised magnetar-powered model with the observed data and/or upper limits of these five SLSNe, we found that the late-time light curves reproduced by our semianalytical equation are in good agreement with the late-time observed data and/or upper limits of SN 2010gx, CSS121015, SN 2013dg, and LSQ12dlf and the late-time excess of SSS120810, indicating that the magnetar-powered model might be responsible for these SLSNe and that the gamma-ray and X-ray leakages are unavoidable when the hard photons were down-Comptonized to softer photons. To determine the details of the leakage effect and unveil the nature of SLSNe, more high-quality bolometric light curves and spectra of SLSNe are required

  17. The effect of lunarlike satellites on the orbital infrared light curves of Earth-analog planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Gaidos, Eric; Williams, Darren M

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of lunarlike satellites on the infrared orbital light curves of Earth-analog extrasolar planets. Such light curves will be obtained by NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin missions as a consequence of repeat observations to confirm the companion status of a putative planet and determine its orbit. We used an energy balance model to calculate disk-averaged infrared (bolometric) fluxes from planet-satellite systems over a full orbital period (one year). The satellites are assumed to lack an atmosphere, have a low thermal inertia like that of the Moon, and span a range of plausible radii. The planets are assumed to have thermal and orbital properties that mimic those of Earth, while their obliquities and orbital longitudes of inferior conjunction remain free parameters. Even if the gross thermal properties of the planet can be independently constrained (e.g., via spectroscopy or visible-wavelength detection of specular glint from a surface ocean), only the largest (approximately Mars-sized) lunarlike satellites can be detected by light curve data from a TPF-like instrument (i.e., one that achieves a photometric signal-to-noise ratio of 10 to 20 at infrared wavelengths). Nondetection of a lunarlike satellite can obfuscate the interpretation of a given system's infrared light curve so that it may resemble a single planet with high obliquity, different orbital longitude of vernal equinox relative to inferior conjunction, and in some cases drastically different thermal characteristics. If the thermal properties of the planet are not independently established, then the presence of a lunarlike satellite cannot be inferred from infrared data, which would thus demonstrate that photometric light curves alone can only be used for preliminary study, and the addition of spectroscopic data will be necessary.

  18. The Peculiar Light Curve of J1415+1320: A Case Study in Extreme Scattering Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Hovatta, T.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Pearson, T. J.; Blandford, R. D.; Gurwell, M. A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pavlidou, V.; Ravi, V.; Reeves, R. A.; Richards, J. L.; Tornikoski, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    The radio light curve of J1415+1320 (PKS 1413+135) shows time-symmetric and recurring U-shaped features across the centimeter-wave and millimeter-wave bands. The symmetry of these features points to lensing by an intervening object as the cause. U-shaped events in radio light curves in the centimeter-wave band have previously been attributed to Extreme scattering events (ESE). ESEs are thought to be the result of lensing by compact plasma structures in the Galactic interstellar medium, but the precise nature of these plasma structures remains unknown. Since the strength of a plasma lens evolves with wavelength λ as {λ }2, the presence of correlated variations at over a wide wavelength range casts doubt on the canonical ESE interpretation for J1415+1320. In this paper, we critically examine the evidence for plasma lensing in J1415+1320. We compute limits on the lensing strength and the associated free-free opacity of the putative plasma lenses. We compare the observed and model ESE light curves, and also derive a lower limit on the lens distance based on the effects of parallax due to the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. We conclude that plasma lensing is not a viable interpretation for J1415+1320's light curves and that symmetric U-shaped features in the radio light curves of extragalactic sources do not present prima facie evidence for ESEs. The methodology presented here is generic enough to be applicable to any plasma-lensing candidate.

  19. Devil in the Details: Investigating Astrophysical Phenomena with Kepler Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael; SOC, Kepler; SO, Kepler; Kepler Science Team

    2011-05-01

    The light curves produced by the Kepler photometer are unprecedented in their photometric precision, completeness, and contiguity. Moreover, although Kepler was designed to detect 100 ppm changes in brightness corresponding to transits of Earth-size planets crossing Sun-size stars, the Kepler light curves preserve intrinsic intensity variations across a large dynamic range, including those of RR Lyrae stars, which can increase their brightness by more than a factor of two over a few hours. The large dynamic range and phenomenal photometric precision of Kepler promises to revolutionize the study of intrinsic stellar variability and a wide variety of variable stars on timescales from minutes to several years. In this paper, we describe the science pipeline processing that produces the uncorrected and the systematic error-corrected light curves, and give examples of residual instrumental artifacts that can be found in the data, such as those caused by thermal changes due to the position of the spacecraft with relation to the sun or heaters cycling on and off on various spacecraft components (which can change the shape of the telescope and alter its focus), as well as examples of processing artifacts that can occur. We also describe algorithms in development that promise to improve our ability to identify and remove instrumental signatures and further reduce the incidence of processing artifacts in the archival light curves, thereby increasing the usability of the corrected light curves for astrophysical investigations. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Type IIP supernova light curves affected by the acceleration of red supergiant winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Förster, Francisco; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Gräfener, Götz; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the first synthetic light-curve model set of Type IIP supernovae exploded within circumstellar media in which the acceleration of the red supergiant winds is taken into account. Because wind acceleration makes the wind velocities near the progenitors low, the density of the immediate vicinity of the red supergiant supernova progenitors can be higher than that extrapolated by using a constant terminal wind velocity. Therefore, even if the mass-loss rate of the progenitor is relatively low, it can have a dense circumstellar medium at the immediate stellar vicinity and the early light curves of Type IIP supernovae are significantly affected by it. We adopt a simple β velocity law to formulate the wind acceleration. We provide bolometric and multicolour light curves of Type IIP supernovae exploding within such accelerated winds from the combinations of three progenitors, 12-16 M⊙; five β, 1-5; seven mass-loss rates, 10-5-10-2 M⊙ yr-1; and four explosion energies, (0.5-2) × 1051 erg. All the light-curve models are available at https://goo.gl/o5phYb. When the circumstellar density is sufficiently high, our models do not show a classical shock breakout as a consequence of the interaction with the dense and optically thick circumstellar media. Instead, they show a delayed `wind breakout', substantially affecting early light curves of Type IIP supernovae. We find that the mass-loss rates of the progenitors need to be 10-3-10-2 M⊙ yr-1 to explain typical rise times of 5-10 d in Type IIP supernovae assuming a dense circumstellar radius of 1015 cm.

  1. THE INFORMATION CONTENT IN ANALYTIC SPOT MODELS OF BROADBAND PRECISION LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08534 (United States); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Valenti, Jeff A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments to assess degeneracies in light curve models of starspots. Using synthetic light curves generated with the Cheetah starspot modeling code, we explore the extent to which photometric light curves constrain spot model parameters, including spot latitudes and stellar inclination. We also investigate the effects of spot parameters and differential rotation on one's ability to correctly recover rotation periods and differential rotation in the Kepler light curves. We confirm that in the absence of additional constraints on the stellar inclination, such as spectroscopic measurements of vsin i or occultations of starspots by planetary transits, the spot latitude and stellar inclination are difficult to determine uniquely from the photometry alone. We find that for models with no differential rotation, spots that appear on opposite hemispheres of the star may cause one to interpret the rotation period to be half of the true period. When differential rotation is included, the changing longitude separation between spots breaks the symmetry of the hemispheres and the correct rotation period is more likely to be found. The dominant period found via periodogram analysis is typically that of the largest spot. Even when multiple spots with periods representative of the star's differential rotation exist, if one spot dominates the light curve the signal of differential rotation may not be detectable from the periodogram alone. Starspot modeling is applicable to stars with a wider range of rotation rates than other surface imaging techniques (such as Doppler imaging), allows subtle signatures of differential rotation to be measured, and may provide valuable information on the distribution of stellar spots. However, given the inherent degeneracies and uncertainty present in starspot models, caution should be exercised in their interpretation.

  2. THE INFORMATION CONTENT IN ANALYTIC SPOT MODELS OF BROADBAND PRECISION LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Basri, Gibor; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments to assess degeneracies in light curve models of starspots. Using synthetic light curves generated with the Cheetah starspot modeling code, we explore the extent to which photometric light curves constrain spot model parameters, including spot latitudes and stellar inclination. We also investigate the effects of spot parameters and differential rotation on one's ability to correctly recover rotation periods and differential rotation in the Kepler light curves. We confirm that in the absence of additional constraints on the stellar inclination, such as spectroscopic measurements of vsin i or occultations of starspots by planetary transits, the spot latitude and stellar inclination are difficult to determine uniquely from the photometry alone. We find that for models with no differential rotation, spots that appear on opposite hemispheres of the star may cause one to interpret the rotation period to be half of the true period. When differential rotation is included, the changing longitude separation between spots breaks the symmetry of the hemispheres and the correct rotation period is more likely to be found. The dominant period found via periodogram analysis is typically that of the largest spot. Even when multiple spots with periods representative of the star's differential rotation exist, if one spot dominates the light curve the signal of differential rotation may not be detectable from the periodogram alone. Starspot modeling is applicable to stars with a wider range of rotation rates than other surface imaging techniques (such as Doppler imaging), allows subtle signatures of differential rotation to be measured, and may provide valuable information on the distribution of stellar spots. However, given the inherent degeneracies and uncertainty present in starspot models, caution should be exercised in their interpretation.

  3. Hierarchical Models for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, G.; Kirshner, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova optical and near infrared light curves. Since the near infrared light curves are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction and reddening, the combination of near infrared and optical data better constrains the host galaxy extinction and improves the precision of distance predictions to SN Ia. A hierarchical probabilistic model coherently accounts for multiple random and uncertain effects, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations across phase and wavelength, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances. An improved BayeSN MCMC code is implemented for computing probabilistic inferences for individual supernovae and the SN Ia and host galaxy dust populations. I use this hierarchical model to analyze nearby Type Ia supernovae with optical and near infared data from the PAIRITEL, CfA3, and CSP samples and the literature. Using cross-validation to test the robustness of the model predictions, I find that the rms Hubble diagram scatter of predicted distance moduli is 0.11 mag for SN with optical and near infrared data versus 0.15 mag for SN with only optical data. Accounting for the dispersion expected from random peculiar velocities, the rms intrinsic prediction error is 0.08-0.10 mag for SN with both optical and near infrared light curves. I discuss results for the inferred intrinsic correlation structures of the optical-NIR SN Ia light curves and the host galaxy dust distribution captured by the hierarchical model. The continued observation and analysis of Type Ia SN in the optical and near infrared is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  4. CSI 2264: characterizing accretion-burst dominated light curves for young stars in NGC 2264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean; Baglin, Annie; Alencar, Silvia; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Findeisen, Krzysztof; Venuti, Laura; Bouvier, Jerome; Turner, Neal J.; Plavchan, Peter; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Based on more than four weeks of continuous high-cadence photometric monitoring of several hundred members of the young cluster NGC 2264 with two space telescopes, NASA's Spitzer and the CNES CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits), we provide high-quality, multi-wavelength light curves for young stellar objects whose optical variability is dominated by short-duration flux bursts, which we infer are due to enhanced mass accretion rates. These light curves show many brief—several hours to one day—brightenings at optical and near-infrared wavelengths with amplitudes generally in the range of 5%-50% of the quiescent value. Typically, a dozen or more of these bursts occur in a 30 day period. We demonstrate that stars exhibiting this type of variability have large ultraviolet (UV) excesses and dominate the portion of the u – g versus g – r color-color diagram with the largest UV excesses. These stars also have large Hα equivalent widths, and either centrally peaked, lumpy Hα emission profiles or profiles with blueshifted absorption dips associated with disk or stellar winds. Light curves of this type have been predicted for stars whose accretion is dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the boundary between their magnetosphere and inner circumstellar disk, or where magneto-rotational instabilities modulate the accretion rate from the inner disk. Among the stars with the largest UV excesses or largest Hα equivalent widths, light curves with this type of variability greatly outnumber light curves with relatively smooth sinusoidal variations associated with long-lived hot spots. We provide quantitative statistics for the average duration and strength of the accretion bursts and for the fraction of the accretion luminosity associated with these bursts.

  5. General-relativistic pulsar magnetospheric emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2018-06-01

    Most current pulsar emission models assume photon production and emission within the magnetosphere. Low-frequency radiation is preferentially produced in the vicinity of the polar caps, whereas the high-energy tail is shifted to regions closer but still inside the light cylinder. We conducted a systematic study of the merit of several popular radiation sites like the polar cap, the outer gap, and the slot gap. We computed sky maps emanating from each emission site according to a prescribed distribution function for the emitting particles made of an electron/positron mixture. Calculations are performed using a three-dimensional integration of the plasma emissivity in the vacuum electromagnetic field of a rotating and centred general-relativistic dipole. We compare Newtonian electromagnetic fields to their general-relativistic counterpart. In the latter case, light bending is also taken into account. As a typical example, light curves and sky maps are plotted for several power-law indices of the particle distribution function. The detailed pulse profiles strongly depend on the underlying assumption about the fluid motion subject to strong electromagnetic fields. This electromagnetic topology enforces the photon propagation direction directly, or indirectly, from aberration effects. We also discuss the implication of a net stellar electric charge on to sky maps. Taking into account, the electric field strongly affects the light curves originating close to the light cylinder, where the electric field strength becomes comparable to the magnetic field strength.

  6. The Physics of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. I. Analytic Results and Time Dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Philip A.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    We develop an analytic solution of the radiation transport problem for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and show that it reproduces bolometric light curves produced by more detailed calculations under the assumption of a constant-extinction coefficient. This model is used to derive the thermal conditions in the interior of SNe Ia and to study the sensitivity of light curves to various properties of the underlying supernova explosions. Although the model is limited by simplifying assumptions, it is adequate for demonstrating that the relationship between SNe Ia maximum-light luminosity and rate of decline is most easily explained if SNe Ia span a range in mass. The analytic model is also used to examine the size of various terms in the transport equation under conditions appropriate to maximum light. For instance, the Eulerian and advective time derivatives are each shown to be of the same order of magnitude as other order v/c terms in the transport equation. We conclude that a fully time-dependent solution to the transport problem is needed in order to compute SNe Ia light curves and spectra accurate enough to distinguish subtle differences of various explosion models. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  7. Detections of millisecond pulsars with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemot, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Fermi observatory was launched on June 11, 2008. It hosts the Large Area Telescope (LAT), sensitive to gamma-ray photons from 20 MeV to over 300 GeV. When the LAT began its activity, nine young and energetic pulsars were known in gamma ray range. At least several tens of pulsar detections by the LAT were predicted before launch. The LAT also allowed the study of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), never firmly detected in gamma ray range before Fermi. This thesis first presents the pulsar timing campaign for the LAT, in collaboration with large radio telescopes and X-ray telescopes, allowing for high sensitivity pulsed searches. Furthermore, it lead to quasi-homogeneous coverage of the galactic MSPs, so that the search for pulsations in LAT data for this population of stars was not affected by an a-priori bias. We present a search for pulsations from these objects in LAT data. For the first time, eight galactic MSPs have been detected as sources of pulsed gamma-ray emission over 100 MeV. In addition, a couple of good candidates for future detection are seen. A similar search for globular cluster MSPs was not successful so far. Comparison of the phase-aligned gamma-ray and radio light curves, as well as the spectral shapes, leads to the conclusion that their gamma-ray emission is similar to that of normal pulsars, and is probably produced in the outer-magnetosphere. This discovery suggests that many unresolved gamma-ray sources are unknown MSPs. (author)

  8. Transitional millisecond pulsars in the low-level accretion state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodard, Amruta D.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Archibald, Anne; Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam; Hernandez Santisteban, Juan; Patruno, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Caroline; Bassa, Cees; Amruta Jaodand

    2018-01-01

    In the canonical pulsar recycling scenario, a slowly spinning neutron star can be rejuvenated to rapid spin rates by the transfer of angular momentum and mass from a binary companion star. Over the last decade, the discovery of three transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) has allowed us to study recycling in detail. These systems transition between accretion-powered (X-ray) and rotation-powered (radio) pulsar states within just a few days, raising questions such as: what triggers the state transition, when does the recycling process truly end, and what will the radio pulsar’s final spin rate be? Systematic multi-wavelength campaigns over the last decade have provided critical insights: multi-year-long, low-level accretion states showing coherent X-ray pulsations; extremely stable, bi-modal X-ray light curves; outflows probed by radio continuum emission; a surprising gamma-ray brightening during accretion, etc. In my thesis I am trying to bring these clues together to understand the low-level accretion process that recycles a pulsar. For example, recently we timed PSR J1023+0038 in the accretion state and found it to be spinning down ~26% faster compared to the non-accreting radio pulsar state. We are currently conducting simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns (XMM, HST, Kepler and VLA) to understand the global variability of the accretion flow, as well as high-energy Fermi-LAT observations to probe the gamma-ray emission mechanism. I will highlight these recent developments, while also presenting a broad overview of tMSPs as exciting new laboratories to test low-level accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  9. Understanding the spectral and timing behaviour of a newly discovered transient X-ray pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    We present the results obtained from timing and spectral studies of the newly discovered accreting X-ray binary pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124 using Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array observation in 2017 October at a flux level of ~280 mCrab. Pulsations at 9.854 23(5) s were detected in the X......-ray light curves of the pulsar. Pulse profiles of the pulsar were found to be strongly energy dependent. A broad profile at lower energies was found to evolve into a double-peaked profile in ≥ 30 keV. The 3-79 keV continuum spectrum of the pulsar was well described with a negative and positive exponential...

  10. Spectra of short-period pulsars according to the hypothesis of the two types of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, I.F.

    1985-01-01

    The lack of low-frequency turnovers in the spectra of PSR 0531+21 and 1937+21 may be expl ned if the generation of radio emission in these pulsars occurs near the light cylinder. Differences of high frequency cut-offs and spectral inoices for long-period pulsars and short-period ones are discussed

  11. Phase shifts and nonellipsoidal light curves: Challenges from mass determinations in x-ray binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew Glenn

    We consider two types of anomalous observations which have arisen from efforts to measure dynamical masses of X-ray binary stars: (1) Radial velocity curves which seemingly show the primary and the secondary out of antiphase in most systems, and (2) The observation of double-waved light curves which deviate significantly from the ellipsoidal modulations expected for a Roche lobe filling star. We consider both problems with the joint goals of understanding the physical origins of the anomalous observations, and using this understanding to allow robust dynamical determinations of mass in X-ray binary systems. In our analysis of phase-shifted radial velocity curves, we discuss a comprehensive sample of X-ray binaries with published phase-shifted radial velocity curves. We show that the most commonly adopted explanation for phase shifts is contradicted by many observations, and consider instead a generalized form of a model proposed by Smak in 1970. We show that this model is well supported by a range of observations, including some systems which had previously been considered anomalous. We lay the groundwork for the derivation of mass ratios based on our explanation for phase shifts, and we discuss the work necessary to produce more detailed physical models of the phase shift. In our analysis of non-ellipsoidal light curves, we focus on the very well-studied system A0620-00. We present new VIH SMARTS photometry spanning 1999-2007, and supplement this with a comprehensive collection of archival data obtained since 1981. We show that A0620-00 undergoes optical state changes within X-ray quiescence and argue that not all quiescent data should be used for determinations of the inclination. We identify twelve light curves which may reliably be used for determining the inclination. We show that the accretion disk contributes significantly to all twelve curves and is the dominant source of nonellipsoidal variations. We derive the disk fraction for each of the twelve curves

  12. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  13. Supernova 1987A Interpreted through the SLIP Pulsar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2010-01-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced by a rotating, magnetized body at many light cylinder radii, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of >1.5 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. Such highly collimated pulsations (), and later, in less collimated form, the bipolarity of SN 1987A itself. The pulsations and jet interacted with circumstellar material (CM), to produce features observed in the very early light curve which correspond to: 1) the entry of the pulsed beam into the CM; 2) the entry of the 0.95 c particles into the CM; 3) the exit of the pulsed beam from the CM (with contributions in the B and I bands -- the same as later inferred/observed for its 2.14 ms pulsations); and 4) the exit of the fastest particles from the CM. Because of the energy requirements of the jet in these early stages, the spindown required of its pulsar could exceed 1e-5 Hz/s at a rotation rate of 500 Hz. There is no reason to suggest that this mechanism is not universally applicable to all SNe with gaseous remnants remaining, and thus SN 1987A is the Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, gamma-ray bursts, and millisecond pulsars. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  14. Mass estimates from optical-light curves for binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The small amplitude variations with orbital phase of the optical light from X-ray binaries are caused by the changing geometrical aspect of the primary as seen by a fixed observer. The shape and the amplitude of the light curve depends on the stellar masses and on the orbital elements. The light curve can, therefore, be used to determine, or set limits on, the parameters of the binary system. A self-consistent procedure for the calculation of the light curve can be formulated if the primary is formulated if the primary is uniformly rotating at an angular velocity equal to the angular velocity of its orbital revolution in a circular orbit, and if the primary is in a hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium in the co-rotating frame. When the primary is further approximated to be centrally condensed, the above set of assumptions is called the standard picture. The standard picture is described, its validity discussed and its application to various systems reviewed. (C.F.)

  15. Space 'beachballs' generate pulsar bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    Wasowicz, L

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have analyzed radio emissions from a pulsar at the center of the Crab Nebula and have found 'subpulses' that last around 2 nanoseconds. They speculate this means the regions in which these ultra-short pulses are generated can be no larger than about 2 feet across - the distance light travels in 2 nanoseconds (2 pages).

  16. Ab-initio Pulsar Magnetosphere: Particle Acceleration in Oblique Rotators and High-energy Emission Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    We perform global particle-in-cell simulations of pulsar magnetospheres, including pair production, ion extraction from the surface, frame-dragging corrections, and high-energy photon emission and propagation. In the case of oblique rotators, the effects of general relativity increase the fraction of the open field lines that support active pair discharge. We find that the plasma density and particle energy flux in the pulsar wind are highly non-uniform with latitude. A significant fraction of the outgoing particle energy flux is carried by energetic ions, which are extracted from the stellar surface. Their energies may extend up to a large fraction of the open field line voltage, making them interesting candidates for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We show that pulsar gamma-ray radiation is dominated by synchrotron emission, produced by particles that are energized by relativistic magnetic reconnection close to the Y-point and in the equatorial current sheet. In most cases, the calculated light curves contain two strong peaks, which is in general agreement with Fermi observations. The radiative efficiency decreases with increasing pulsar inclination and increasing efficiency of pair production in the current sheet, which explains the observed scatter in L γ versus \\dot{E}. We find that the high-frequency cutoff in the spectra is regulated by the pair-loading of the current sheet. Our findings lay the foundation for quantitative interpretation of Fermi observations of gamma-ray pulsars.

  17. Fermi LAT Pulsed Detection of PSR J0737-3039A in the Double Pulsar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Johnson, T. J.; Craig, H. A.; Romani, R. W.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Ferdman, R. D.; Stairs, I. H.; Kerr, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the 22.7 ms pulsar A in the double pulsar system J0737-3039A/B. This is the first mildly recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) detected in the GeV domain. The 2.7 s companion object PSR J0737-3039B is not detected in gamma rays. PSR J0737-3039A is a faint gamma-ray emitter, so that its spectral properties are only weakly constrained; however, its measured efficiency is typical of other MSPs. The two peaks of the gamma-ray light curve are separated by roughly half a rotation and are well offset from the radio and X-ray emission, suggesting that the GeV radiation originates in a distinct part of the magnetosphere from the other types of emission. From the modeling of the radio and the gamma-ray emission profiles and the analysis of radio polarization data, we constrain the magnetic inclination alpha and the viewing angle zeta to be close to 90 deg., which is consistent with independent studies of the radio emission from PSR J0737-3039A. A small misalignment angle between the pulsar's spin axis and the system's orbital axis is therefore favored, supporting the hypothesis that pulsar B was formed in a nearly symmetric supernova explosion as has been discussed in the literature already.

  18. FERMI LAT PULSED DETECTION OF PSR J0737-3039A IN THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Johnson, T. J. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Craig, H. A.; Romani, R. W.; Kerr, M. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ferdman, R. D. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stairs, I. H., E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-05-10

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope discovery of {gamma}-ray pulsations from the 22.7 ms pulsar A in the double pulsar system J0737-3039A/B. This is the first mildly recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) detected in the GeV domain. The 2.7 s companion object PSR J0737-3039B is not detected in {gamma} rays. PSR J0737-3039A is a faint {gamma}-ray emitter, so that its spectral properties are only weakly constrained; however, its measured efficiency is typical of other MSPs. The two peaks of the {gamma}-ray light curve are separated by roughly half a rotation and are well offset from the radio and X-ray emission, suggesting that the GeV radiation originates in a distinct part of the magnetosphere from the other types of emission. From the modeling of the radio and the {gamma}-ray emission profiles and the analysis of radio polarization data, we constrain the magnetic inclination {alpha} and the viewing angle {zeta} to be close to 90 Degree-Sign , which is consistent with independent studies of the radio emission from PSR J0737-3039A. A small misalignment angle between the pulsar's spin axis and the system's orbital axis is therefore favored, supporting the hypothesis that pulsar B was formed in a nearly symmetric supernova explosion as has been discussed in the literature already.

  19. COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harding, A. K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gonthier, P. L. [Hope College, Department of Physics, Holland, MI (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  20. On the nature of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    1982-01-01

    Although neutron stars were predicted nearly half a century ago, their radiations have been received and studied for just over a decade. Called pulsars because of the pulsating nature of their signals, they exhibit a wide variety of periodic phenomena in their radio emission. This article begins with a historical introduction followed by a short review of their main characteristics. The major models proposed to explain these properties are then outlined. Finally, some very recent developments which promise to throw new light on the mechanism of pulsars and their relationship to supernova remnants are briefly described and discussed. (author)

  1. Searching for transits in the WTS with the difference imaging light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas Dominguez, Jesus

    2013-12-01

    The search for exo-planets is currently one of the most exiting and active topics in astronomy. Small and rocky planets are particularly the subject of intense research, since if they are suitably located from their host star, they may be warm and potentially habitable worlds. On the other hand, the discovery of giant planets in short-period orbits provides important constraints on models that describe planet formation and orbital migration theories. Several projects are dedicated to discover and characterize planets outside of our solar system. Among them, the Wide-Field Camera Transit Survey (WTS) is a pioneer program aimed to search for extra-solar planets, that stands out for its particular aims and methodology. The WTS has been in operation since August 2007 with observations from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and represents the first survey that searches for transiting planets in the near-infrared wavelengths; hence the WTS is designed to discover planets around M-dwarfs. The survey was originally assigned about 200 nights, observing four fields that were selected seasonally (RA = 03, 07, 17 and 19h) during a year. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. For the most complete field (19h-1145 epochs) in the survey, we produce an alternative set of light curves by using the method of difference imaging, which is a photometric technique that has shown important advantages when used in crowded fields. A quantitative comparison between the photometric precision achieved with both methods is carried out in this work. We remove systematic effects using the sysrem algorithm, scale the error bars on the light curves, and perform a comparison of the corrected light curves. The results show that the aperture photometry light curves provide slightly better precision for objects with J detect transits in the WTS light curves, we use a modified version of the box

  2. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  3. The Crab pulsar at VHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanin Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last six years have witnessed major revisions of our knowledge about the Crab Pulsar. The consensus scenario for the origin of the high-energy pulsed emission has been challenged with the discovery of a very-high-energy power law tail extending up to ~400 GeV, above the expected spectral cut off at a few GeV. Now, new measurements obtained by the MAGIC collaboration extend the energy spectrum of the Crab Pulsar even further, on the TeV regime. Above ~400 GeV the pulsed emission comes mainly from the interpulse, which becomes more prominent with energy due to a harder spectral index. These findings require γ -ray production via inverse Compton scattering close to or beyond the light cylinder radius by an underlying particle population with Lorentz factors greater than 5 × 106. We will present those new results and discuss the implications in our current knowledge concerning pulsar environments.

  4. Corot 310266512: A Light Curve With Primary, Secondary And Tertiary Eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Fernández Javier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the photometric study of an interesting target in the CoRoT exoplanet database: CoRoT 310266512. Its light curve shows primary, secondary and tertiary eclipses that suggests the presence of at least three celestial bodies. The primary and secondary eclipses have the same orbital period, 7.42 days, and the tertiary eclipse has an orbital period of 3.27 days. Two of the tertiary eclipses fall within a primary eclipse and a secondary eclipse. The properties of the light curve indicate the presence of two physically separated systems. The primary and secondary eclipses corresponds to a binary system (System I. The tertiary eclipses correspond to a star-planet system or a star-dwarf system (System II. Some parameters of these two systems are obtained from JKTEBOP [1] program.

  5. BINARY CANDIDATES IN THE JOVIAN TROJAN AND HILDA POPULATIONS FROM NEOWISE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnett, S.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: Sarah.Sonnett@jpl.nasa.gov [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Determining the binary fraction for a population of asteroids, particularly as a function of separation between the two components, helps describe the dynamical environment at the time the binaries formed, which in turn offers constraints on the dynamical evolution of the solar system. We searched the NEOWISE archival data set for close and contact binary Trojans and Hildas via their diagnostically large light curve amplitudes. We present 48 out of 554 Hilda and 34 out of 953 Trojan binary candidates in need of follow-up to confirm their large light curve amplitudes and subsequently constrain the binary orbit and component sizes. From these candidates, we calculate a preliminary estimate of the binary fraction without confirmation or debiasing of 14%-23% for Trojans larger than ∼12 km and 30%-51% for Hildas larger than ∼4 km. Once the binary candidates have been confirmed, it should be possible to infer the underlying, debiased binary fraction through estimation of survey biases.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Praesepe members light curves (Kovacs+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, G.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Quinn, S. N.; Penev, K.; Latham, D. W.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2014-07-01

    Light curves used in the time series analysis of Praesepe are presented. There are 381 light curves on instrumental Sloan r' magnitude scale with the zero points determined by the 2MASS magnitudes according to Eq. (1) of the paper. We present two types of magnitudes: a) external parameter decorrelated (EPD) and b), the ones obtained after the application of a trend filtering algorithm (TFA) on the EPD time series. These two methods are briefly described in the paper and in detail in the references therein. Here we just note that both methods are intended to filter out systematics due to environmental effects (instrumental, weather, etc.). For TFA filtering we used 600 templates and did not apply signal reconstruction. (5 data files).

  7. Spotted star light curve numerical modeling technique and its application to HII 1883 surface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    We developed a code for imaging the surfaces of spotted stars by a set of circular spots with a uniform temperature distribution. The flux from the spotted surface is computed by partitioning the spots into elementary areas. The code takes into account the passing of spots behind the visible stellar limb, limb darkening, and overlapping of spots. Modeling of light curves includes the use of recent results of the theory of stellar atmospheres needed to take into account the temperature dependence of flux intensity and limb darkening coefficients. The search for spot parameters is based on the analysis of several light curves obtained in different photometric bands. We test our technique by applying it to HII 1883.

  8. EXTRASOLAR STORMS: PRESSURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN LIGHT-CURVE PHASE IN BROWN DWARFS FROM SIMULTANEOUS HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [The University of Western Ontario, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during eight different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/WFC3 G141 grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrowband filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multiwavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 to 13 hr. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. The phase differences between the two groups of light curves suggest that the modulations seen at lower and higher pressures may be introduced by different cloud layers.

  9. A Simple yet Accurate Method for Students to Determine Asteroid Rotation Periods from Fragmented Light Curve Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Professional astronomers use specialized software not normally available to students to determine the rotation periods of asteroids from fragmented light curve data. This paper describes a simple yet accurate method based on Microsoft Excel[R] that enables students to find periods in asteroid light curve and other discontinuous time series data of…

  10. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Cho, Richard; Contreras, Maria; Jha, Saurabh; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Michael Wood-Vasey, W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bragg, Ann; Briceno, Cesar; Ciupik, Larry; Dendy, Kristi-Concannon

    2009-01-01

    We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with over 11,500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously observed and reduced nearby SNe Ia (z ∼< 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of ∼<0.02 mag in BVRIr'i' and ∼<0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SNe Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SNe Ia in their color and light-curve-shape/luminosity relation that they should be treated separately in light-curve/distance fitter training samples. The CfA3 sample will contribute to the development of better light-curve/distance fitters, particularly in the few dozen cases where near-infrared photometry has been obtained and, together, can help disentangle host-galaxy reddening from intrinsic supernova color, reducing the systematic uncertainty in SN Ia distances due to dust.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ji light curves of WTS-2 (Birkby+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkby, J. L.; Cappetta, M.; Cruz, P.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Ivanyuk, O.; Mustill, A. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Pinfield, D. J.; Sipocz, B.; Kovacs, G.; Saglia, R.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barrado, D.; Bayo, A.; Campbell, D.; Catalan, S.; Fossati, L.; Galvez-Ortiz, M.-C.; Kenworthy, M.; Lillo-Box, J.; Martin, E. L.; Mislis, D.; de Mooij, E. J. W.; Nefs, S. V.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Stoev, H.; Zendejas, J.; Del Burgo, C.; Barnes, J.; Goulding, N.; Haswell, C. A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Lodieu, N.; Murgas, F.; Palle, E.; Solano, E.; Steele, P.; Tata, R.

    2015-07-01

    The infrared light curves of the WTS were generated from time series photometry taken with the WFCAM imager mounted at the prime focus of UKIRT. In order to confirm the transit of WTS-2 b and to help constrain the transit model, on 2010 July 18 we obtained further time series photometry in the Sloan i band using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma. (2 data files).

  12. Ensemble Learning Method for Outlier Detection and its Application to Astronomical Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nun, Isadora; Protopapas, Pavlos; Sim, Brandon; Chen, Wesley

    2016-09-01

    Outlier detection is necessary for automated data analysis, with specific applications spanning almost every domain from financial markets to epidemiology to fraud detection. We introduce a novel mixture of the experts outlier detection model, which uses a dynamically trained, weighted network of five distinct outlier detection methods. After dimensionality reduction, individual outlier detection methods score each data point for “outlierness” in this new feature space. Our model then uses dynamically trained parameters to weigh the scores of each method, allowing for a finalized outlier score. We find that the mixture of experts model performs, on average, better than any single expert model in identifying both artificially and manually picked outliers. This mixture model is applied to a data set of astronomical light curves, after dimensionality reduction via time series feature extraction. Our model was tested using three fields from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. We confirm that the outliers detected using this method belong to rare classes, like Novae, He-burning, and red giant stars; other outlier light curves identified have no available information associated with them. To elucidate their nature, we created a website containing the light-curve data and information about these objects. Users can attempt to classify the light curves, give conjectures about their identities, and sign up for follow up messages about the progress made on identifying these objects. This user submitted data can be used further train of our mixture of experts model. Our code is publicly available to all who are interested.

  13. Spotted star mapping by light curve inversion: Tests and application to HD 12545

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    A code for mapping the surfaces of spotted stars is developed. The concept of the code is to analyze rotational-modulated light curves. We simulate the process of reconstruction for the star surface and the results of simulation are presented. The reconstruction atrifacts caused by the ill-posed nature of the problem are deduced. The surface of the spotted component of system HD 12545 is mapped using the procedure.

  14. Use of supernovae light curves for testing the expansion hypothesis and other cosmological relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with a test of the expansion hypothesis based on the relation Δt/sub obs/ = (1 + V/sub r//c)Δt/sub int/ where Δt/sub int/ is the time lapse characterizing some phenomenon in a distant galaxy, Δt/sub obs/ is the observed time lapse and V/sub r/ is the symbolic velocity of recession. If the red shift is a Doppler effect, the observed time lapse should be lengthened by the same factor as the wave length of the light. Many authors have suggested type I supernovae for such a test because of their great luminosity and the uniformity of their light curves, but apparently the test has heretofore never actually been performed. Thirty-six light curves were gathered from the literature and one (SN1971i) was measured. All of the light curves were reduced to a common (m/sub pg/) photometric system. The comparison time lapse, Δt/sub c/, was taken to be the time required for the brightness to fall from 0.5 m below peak to 2.5 m below peak. The straight line regression of Δt/sub c/ on V/sub r/ gives a correlation coefficient significant at the 93 percent level, and the simple static Euclidean hypothesis is rejected at that level. The regression line also deviates from the prediction of the classical expansion hypothesis. Better agreement was obtained using the chronogeometric theory of I. E. Segal ( []972 Astron. and Astrophys. 18, 143), but the scatter in the present data makes it impossible to distinguish between these alternate hypotheses at the 95 percent confidence level. The question of how many additional light curves would be needed to give definite tests is addressed. It is shown that at the present rate of supernova discoveries, only a few more years would be required to obtain the necessary data if light curves are systematically measured for the more distant supernovae. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  15. A powerful test for weak periodic signals with unknown light curve shape in sparse data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager De, O.C.; Raubenheimer, B.C.; Swanepoel, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A problem with most tests for periodicity is that they are powerful enough to detect only certain kinds of periodic shapes in the case of weak signals. This causes a selection effect with the identification of weak periodic signals. A new test for uniformity called the H-test is derived for which the probability distribution is an exponential function. This test is shown to have a very good power against most light curve shapes encountered in X- and γ-ray Astronomy and therefore makes the detection of sources with a larger variety of shapes possible. The use of the H-test is suggested if no a priori information about the light curve shape is available. It is also shown how the probability distribution of the test statistics changes when a periodicity search is conducted using very small steps in the period or frequency range. The flux sensitivity for various light curve shapes is also derived for a few tests and this flux is on average a minimum for the H-test

  16. New limb-darkening coefficients for modeling binary star light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, W.

    1993-01-01

    We present monochromatic, passband-specific, and bolometric limb-darkening coefficients for a linear as well as nonlinear logarithmic and square root limb-darkening laws. These coefficients, including the bolometric ones, are needed when modeling binary star light curves with the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney light curve progam. We base our calculations on the most recent ATLAS stellar atmosphere models for solar chemical composition stars with a wide range of effective temperatures and surface gravitites. We examine how well various limb-darkening approximations represent the variation of the emerging specific intensity across a stellar surface as computed according to the model. For binary star light curve modeling purposes, we propose the use of a logarithmic or a square root law. We design our tables in such a manner that the relative quality of either law with respect to another can be easily compared. Since the computation of bolometric limb-darkening coefficients first requires monochromatic coefficients, we also offer tables of these coefficients (at 1221 wavelength values between 9.09 nm and 160 micrometer) and tables of passband-specific coefficients for commonly used photometric filters.

  17. Absolute Distances to Nearby Type Ia Supernovae via Light Curve Fitting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkó, J.; Ordasi, A.; Szalai, T.; Sárneczky, K.; Bányai, E.; Bíró, I. B.; Borkovits, T.; Hegedüs, T.; Hodosán, G.; Kelemen, J.; Klagyivik, P.; Kriskovics, L.; Kun, E.; Marion, G. H.; Marschalkó, G.; Molnár, L.; Nagy, A. P.; Pál, A.; Silverman, J. M.; Szakáts, R.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Székely, P.; Szing, A.; Vida, K.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparative study of absolute distances to a sample of very nearby, bright Type Ia supernovae (SNe) derived from high cadence, high signal-to-noise, multi-band photometric data. Our sample consists of four SNe: 2012cg, 2012ht, 2013dy and 2014J. We present new homogeneous, high-cadence photometric data in Johnson–Cousins BVRI and Sloan g‧r‧i‧z‧ bands taken from two sites (Piszkesteto and Baja, Hungary), and the light curves are analyzed with publicly available light curve fitters (MLCS2k2, SNooPy2 and SALT2.4). When comparing the best-fit parameters provided by the different codes, it is found that the distance moduli of moderately reddened SNe Ia agree within ≲0.2 mag, and the agreement is even better (≲0.1 mag) for the highest signal-to-noise BVRI data. For the highly reddened SN 2014J the dispersion of the inferred distance moduli is slightly higher. These SN-based distances are in good agreement with the Cepheid distances to their host galaxies. We conclude that the current state-of-the-art light curve fitters for Type Ia SNe can provide consistent absolute distance moduli having less than ∼0.1–0.2 mag uncertainty for nearby SNe. Still, there is room for future improvements to reach the desired ∼0.05 mag accuracy in the absolute distance modulus.

  18. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana, E-mail: elia@astro.tau.ac.il [The Wise Observatory and the School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  19. IMAGING STARSPOT EVOLUTION ON KEPLER TARGET KIC 5110407 USING LIGHT-CURVE INVERSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Harmon, Robert O.; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler target KIC 5110407, a K-type star, shows strong quasi-periodic light curve fluctuations likely arising from the formation and decay of spots on the stellar surface rotating with a period of 3.4693 days. Using an established light-curve inversion algorithm, we study the evolution of the surface features based on Kepler space telescope light curves over a period of two years (with a gap of .25 years). At virtually all epochs, we detect at least one large spot group on the surface causing a 1%-10% flux modulation in the Kepler passband. By identifying and tracking spot groups over a range of inferred latitudes, we measured the surface differential rotation to be much smaller than that found for the Sun. We also searched for a correlation between the 17 stellar flares that occurred during our observations and the orientation of the dominant surface spot at the time of each flare. No statistically significant correlation was found except perhaps for the very brightest flares, suggesting that most flares are associated with regions devoid of spots or spots too small to be clearly discerned using our reconstruction technique. While we may see hints of long-term changes in the spot characteristics and flare statistics within our current data set, a longer baseline of observation will be needed to detect the existence of a magnetic cycle in KIC 5110407.

  20. Multi-Band Light Curves from Two-Dimensional Simulations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadyen, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of gamma-ray burst outflows is inherently multi-dimensional. 1.) We present high resolution two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of GRBs in the afterglow phase using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Using standard synchrotron radiation models, we compute multi-band light curves, from the radio to X-ray, directly from the 2D hydrodynamics simulation data. We will present on-axis light curves for both constant density and wind media. We will also present off-axis light curves relevant for searches for orphan afterglows. We find that jet breaks are smoothed due to both off-axis viewing and wind media effects. 2.) Non-thermal radiation mechanisms in GRB afterglows require substantial magnetic field strengths. In turbulence driven by shear instabilities in relativistic magnetized gas, we demonstrate that magnetic field is naturally amplified to half a percent of the total energy (epsilon B = 0.005). We will show high resolution three dimensional relativistic MHD simulations of this process as well as particle in cell (PIC) simulations of mildly relativistic collisionless shocks.

  1. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND OPTICAL VARIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Jonelle L.; Bentz, Misty C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Street, Rachel A.; Treu, Tommaso; Li Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Stern, Daniel; Brown, Timothy M.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The Lick AGN Monitoring Project targeted 13 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies with the intent of measuring the masses of their central black holes using reverberation mapping. The sample includes 12 galaxies selected to have black holes with masses roughly in the range 10 6 -10 7 M sun , as well as the well-studied active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. In conjunction with a spectroscopic monitoring campaign, we obtained broadband B and V images on most nights from 2008 February through 2008 May. The imaging observations were carried out by four telescopes: the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, the 2 m Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring telescope, the Palomar 60 inch (1.5 m) telescope, and the 0.80 m Tenagra II telescope. Having well-sampled light curves over the course of a few months is useful for obtaining the broad-line reverberation lag and black hole mass, and also allows us to examine the characteristics of the continuum variability. In this paper, we discuss the observational methods and the photometric measurements, and present the AGN continuum light curves. We measure various variability characteristics of each of the light curves. We do not detect any evidence for a time lag between the B- and V-band variations, and we do not find significant color variations for the AGNs in our sample.

  2. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems

  3. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Analysis of stripped-envelope supernova light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Bersten, M.; Baron, E.; Burns, C.; Contreras, C.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Sollerman, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    Stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) include H-poor (Type IIb), H-free (Type Ib), and He-free (Type Ic) events thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars. The exact nature of their progenitors is a matter of debate with several lines of evidence pointing towards intermediate mass (MinitCarnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) that are unparalleled in terms of photometric accuracy and wavelength range. Light-curve parameters are estimated through the fits of an analytical function and trends are searched for among the resulting fit parameters. Detailed inspection of the dataset suggests a tentative correlation between the peak absolute B-band magnitude and Δm15(B), while the post maximum light curves reveals a correlation between the late-time linear slope and Δm15. Making use of the full set of optical and near-IR photometry, combined with robust host-galaxy extinction corrections, comprehensive bolometric light curves are constructed and compared to both analytic and hydrodynamical models. This analysis finds consistent results among the two different modeling techniques and from the hydrodynamical models we obtained ejecta masses of 1.1-6.2M⊙, 56Ni masses of 0.03-0.35M⊙, and explosion energies (excluding two SNe Ic-BL) of 0.25-3.0 × 1051 erg. Our analysis indicates that adopting κ = 0.07 cm2 g-1 as the mean opacity serves to be a suitable assumption when comparing Arnett-model results to those obtained from hydrodynamical calculations. We also find that adopting He I and O I line velocities to infer the expansion velocity in He-rich and He-poor SNe, respectively, provides ejecta masses relatively similar to those obtained by using the Fe II line velocities, although the use of Fe II as a diagnostic does imply higher explosion energies. The inferred range of ejecta masses are compatible with intermediate mass (MZAMS ≤ 20M⊙) progenitor stars in binary systems for the majority of SE SNe. Furthermore, our hydrodynamical modeling of the

  4. Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Qi, E-mail: qidai@tongji.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Advanced Study, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-saving Study of Dense Habitat (Tongji University), Ministry of Education, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hao, Luoxi; Lin, Yi; Cui, Zhe [College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-saving Study of Dense Habitat (Tongji University), Ministry of Education, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-02-07

    Spectral optimization simulation of white light is studied to boost maximum attainable luminous efficacy of radiation at high color-rendering index (CRI) and various color temperatures. The photopic eye-sensitivity curve V(λ) is utilized as the dominant portion of white light spectra. Emission spectra of a blue InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) and a red AlInGaP LED are added to the spectrum of V(λ) to match white color coordinates. It is demonstrated that at the condition of color temperature from 2500 K to 6500 K and CRI above 90, such white sources can achieve spectral efficacy of 330–390 lm/W, which is higher than the previously reported theoretical maximum values. We show that this eye-sensitivity-based approach also has advantages on component energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported optimization solutions.

  5. Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Qi; Hao, Luoxi; Lin, Yi; Cui, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Spectral optimization simulation of white light is studied to boost maximum attainable luminous efficacy of radiation at high color-rendering index (CRI) and various color temperatures. The photopic eye-sensitivity curve V(λ) is utilized as the dominant portion of white light spectra. Emission spectra of a blue InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) and a red AlInGaP LED are added to the spectrum of V(λ) to match white color coordinates. It is demonstrated that at the condition of color temperature from 2500 K to 6500 K and CRI above 90, such white sources can achieve spectral efficacy of 330–390 lm/W, which is higher than the previously reported theoretical maximum values. We show that this eye-sensitivity-based approach also has advantages on component energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported optimization solutions

  6. Red light-induced shift of the fluence-response curve for first positive curvature of maize [Zea mays] coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, E.; Schäfer, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curve for first positive phototropic curvture of dark-grown maize coleoptiles is shifted to ten-fold higher fluences if the coieoptiles are irradiated with red light 2 h prior to the phototropic induction with blue light. Fluence-response curves for this red-induced shift were obtained with unilateral red irradiations 2 h prior to inductive blue pulses of different fluences. They differ significantly depending on whether the red light was given from the same side as or the opposite side to the respective inductive blue pulse, thus demonstrating that the red light effect is a local response of the coleoptile. The fluence-response curves for an inductive blue pulse in the ascending part were compared with those for an inductive blue pulse in the descending part of the fluence-response curve for blue light induced phototropism. They are quite different in threshold of red light sensitivity and shape for irradiations from both the same and the opposite sides. This offers evidence for the hypothesis that at least two different photosystems are involved in phototropism, and that they are modulated differently by a red light preirradiation. All these fluence-response curves indicate that it is possible to increase the response in the coleoptile, if the red light preirradiation is given opposite to the inductive blue pulse. This is supported by blue light fluence-response curves obtained after a weak unilateral red preirradiation. (author)

  7. Coherent radiation from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Interaction between a relativistic electrom stream and a plasma under conditions believed to exist in pulsar magnetospheres is shown to result in the simultaneous emission of coherent curvature radiation at radio wavelengths and incoherent curvature radiation at X-ray wavelengths from the same spatial volume. It is found that such a stream can propagate through a plasma parallel to a very strong magnetic field only if its length is less than a critical length L/sub asterisk/ic. Charge induced in the plasma by the stream co-moves with the stream and has the same limitation in longitudinal extent. The resultant charge bunching is sufficient to cause the relatively low energy plasma particles to radiate at radio wavelengths coherently while the relatively high energy stream particles radiate at X-ray wavelengths incoherently as the stream-plasma system moves along curved magnetic field lines. The effective number of coherently radiating particles per bunch is estimated to be approx.10 14 --10 15 for a tupical pulsar

  8. SEARCHES FOR MILLISECOND PULSAR CANDIDATES AMONG THE UNIDENTIFIED FERMI OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Park, S. M. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hu, C. P. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, L. C. C. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Jin, Ruolan; Yen, T.-C. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tam, P. H. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kim, Chunglee, E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-10

    Here we report the results of searching millisecond pulsar (MSP) candidates from the Fermi LAT second source catalog (2FGL). Seven unassociated γ-ray sources in this catalog are identified as promising MSP candidates based on their γ-ray properties. Through the X-ray analysis, we have detected possible X-ray counterparts, localized to an arcsecond accuracy. We have systematically estimated their X-ray fluxes and compared them with the corresponding γ-ray fluxes. The X-ray to γ-ray flux ratios for 2FGL J1653.6-0159 and 2FGL J1946.4-5402 are comparable with the typical value for pulsars. For 2FGL J1625.2-0020, 2FGL J1653.6-0159, and 2FGL J1946.4-5402, their candidate X-ray counterparts are bright enough to perform a detailed spectral and temporal analysis to discriminate their thermal/non-thermal nature and search for the periodic signal. We have also searched for possible optical/IR counterparts at the X-ray positions. For the optical/IR source coincident with the brightest X-ray object associated with 2FGL J1120.0-2204, its spectral energy distribution is comparable with a late-type star. Evidence for the variability has also been found by examining its optical light curve. All the aforementioned 2FGL sources resemble a pulsar in one or more aspects, making them promising targets for follow-up investigations.

  9. Estimation of error on the cross-correlation, phase and time lag between evenly sampled light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R.; Bora, A.; Dewangan, G.

    2018-04-01

    Temporal analysis of radiation from Astrophysical sources like Active Galactic Nuclei, X-ray Binaries and Gamma-ray bursts provides information on the geometry and sizes of the emitting regions. Establishing that two light-curves in different energy bands are correlated, and measuring the phase and time-lag between them is an important and frequently used temporal diagnostic. Generally the estimates are done by dividing the light-curves into large number of adjacent intervals to find the variance or by using numerically expensive simulations. In this work we have presented alternative expressions for estimate of the errors on the cross-correlation, phase and time-lag between two shorter light-curves when they cannot be divided into segments. Thus the estimates presented here allow for analysis of light-curves with relatively small number of points, as well as to obtain information on the longest time-scales available. The expressions have been tested using 200 light curves simulated from both white and 1 / f stochastic processes with measurement errors. We also present an application to the XMM-Newton light-curves of the Active Galactic Nucleus, Akn 564. The example shows that the estimates presented here allow for analysis of light-curves with relatively small (∼ 1000) number of points.

  10. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  11. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  12. The diverse broad-band light-curves of Swift GRBs reproduced with the cannonball model

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, A

    2009-01-01

    Two radiation mechanisms, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), suffice within the cannonball (CB) model of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) to provide a very simple and accurate description of their observed prompt emission and afterglows. Simple as they are, the two mechanisms and the burst environment generate the rich structure of the light curves at all frequencies and times. This is demonstrated for 33 selected Swift LGRBs and XRFs, which are well sampled from early time until late time and well represent the entire diversity of the broad band light curves of Swift LGRBs and XRFs. Their prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission is dominated by ICS of glory light. During their fast decline phase, ICS is taken over by SR which dominates their broad band afterglow. The pulse shape and spectral evolution of the gamma-ray peaks and the early-time X-ray flares, and even the delayed optical `humps' in XRFs, are correctly predicted. The canonical and non-canonical X-ra...

  13. APSIDAL MOTION AND A LIGHT CURVE SOLUTION FOR 13 LMC ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Pilarcik, L. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00 Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    New CCD observations for 13 eccentric eclipsing binaries from the Large Magellanic Cloud were carried out using the Danish 1.54 m telescope located at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. These systems were observed for their times of minimum and 56 new minima were obtained. These are needed for accurate determination of the apsidal motion. Besides that, in total 436 times of minimum were derived from the photometric databases OGLE and MACHO. The O – C diagrams of minimum timings for these B-type binaries were analyzed and the parameters of the apsidal motion were computed. The light curves of these systems were fitted using the program PHOEBE, giving the light curve parameters. We derived for the first time relatively short periods of the apsidal motion ranging from 21 to 107 years. The system OGLE-LMC-ECL-07902 was also analyzed using the spectra and radial velocities, resulting in masses of 6.8 and 4.4 M{sub ⊙} for the eclipsing components. For one system (OGLE-LMC-ECL-20112), the third-body hypothesis was also used to describe the residuals after subtraction of the apsidal motion, resulting in a period of about 22 years. For several systems an additional third light was also detected, which makes these systems suspect for triplicity.

  14. ''Anomalous'' air showers from point sources: Mass limits and light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain upper limits on the mass of the primaries of air showers associated with point sources. One also obtains the UHE pulse shape of a pulsar if its period is observed in the signal. As an example, we analyze the data obtained during a recent burst of Hercules-X1

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSION FROM LONG-LIVED BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGER REMNANTS. II. LIGHT CURVES AND SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Daniel M. [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciolfi, Riccardo, E-mail: daniel.siegel@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: riccardo.ciolfi@unitn.it [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    Recent observations indicate that in a large fraction of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers a long-lived neutron star (NS) may be formed rather than a black hole. Unambiguous electromagnetic (EM) signatures of such a scenario would strongly impact our knowledge on how short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and their afterglow radiation are generated. Furthermore, such EM signals would have profound implications for multimessenger astronomy with joint EM and gravitational-wave (GW) observations of BNS mergers, which will soon become reality thanks to the ground-based advanced LIGO/Virgo GW detector network. Here we explore such EM signatures based on the model presented in a companion paper, which provides a self-consistent evolution of the post-merger system and its EM emission up to ∼10{sup 7} s. Light curves and spectra are computed for a wide range of post-merger physical properties. We present X-ray afterglow light curves corresponding to the “standard” and the “time-reversal” scenario for SGRBs (prompt emission associated with the merger or with the collapse of the long-lived NS). The light curve morphologies include single and two-plateau features with timescales and luminosities that are in good agreement with Swift observations. Furthermore, we compute the X-ray signal that should precede the SGRB in the time-reversal scenario, the detection of which would represent smoking-gun evidence for this scenario. Finally, we find a bright, highly isotropic EM transient peaking in the X-ray band at ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} s after the BNS merger with luminosities of L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 46}–10{sup 48} erg s{sup −1}. This signal represents a very promising EM counterpart to the GW emission from BNS mergers.

  16. A GLOBAL MODEL OF THE LIGHT CURVES AND EXPANSION VELOCITIES OF TYPE II-PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Ondřej [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: pejcha@astro.princeton.edu [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We present a new self-consistent and versatile method that derives photospheric radius and temperature variations of Type II-Plateau supernovae based on their expansion velocities and photometric measurements. We apply the method to a sample of 26 well-observed, nearby supernovae with published light curves and velocities. We simultaneously fit ∼230 velocity and ∼6800 mag measurements distributed over 21 photometric passbands spanning wavelengths from 0.19 to 2.2 μm. The light-curve differences among the Type II-Plateau supernovae are well modeled by assuming different rates of photospheric radius expansion, which we explain as different density profiles of the ejecta, and we argue that steeper density profiles result in flatter plateaus, if everything else remains unchanged. The steep luminosity decline of Type II-Linear supernovae is due to fast evolution of the photospheric temperature, which we verify with a successful fit of SN 1980K. Eliminating the need for theoretical supernova atmosphere models, we obtain self-consistent relative distances, reddenings, and nickel masses fully accounting for all internal model uncertainties and covariances. We use our global fit to estimate the time evolution of any missing band tailored specifically for each supernova, and we construct spectral energy distributions and bolometric light curves. We produce bolometric corrections for all filter combinations in our sample. We compare our model to the theoretical dilution factors and find good agreement for the B and V filters. Our results differ from the theory when the I, J, H, or K bands are included. We investigate the reddening law toward our supernovae and find reasonable agreement with standard R{sub V}∼3.1 reddening law in UBVRI bands. Results for other bands are inconclusive. We make our fitting code publicly available.

  17. SiFTO: An Empirical Method for Fitting SN Ia Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, A.; Sullivan, M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. A.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.

    2008-07-01

    We present SiFTO, a new empirical method for modeling Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves by manipulating a spectral template. We make use of high-redshift SN data when training the model, allowing us to extend it bluer than rest-frame U. This increases the utility of our high-redshift SN observations by allowing us to use more of the available data. We find that when the shape of the light curve is described using a stretch prescription, applying the same stretch at all wavelengths is not an adequate description. SiFTO therefore uses a generalization of stretch which applies different stretch factors as a function of both the wavelength of the observed filter and the stretch in the rest-frame B band. We compare SiFTO to other published light-curve models by applying them to the same set of SN photometry, and demonstrate that SiFTO and SALT2 perform better than the alternatives when judged by the scatter around the best-fit luminosity distance relationship. We further demonstrate that when SiFTO and SALT2 are trained on the same data set the cosmological results agree. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  18. Type II Supernova Light Curves and Spectra from the CfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Friedman, Andrew S.; Blondin, Stephane; Challis, Peter; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Mike; Esquerdo, Gil; Matheson, Thomas; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-11-01

    We present multiband photometry of 60 spectroscopically confirmed supernovae (SNe): 39 SNe II/IIP, 19 IIn, 1 IIb, and 1 that was originally classified as a IIn but later as a Ibn. Of these, 46 have only optical photometry, 6 have only near-infrared (NIR) photometry, and 8 have both optical and NIR. The median redshift of the sample is 0.016. We also present 195 optical spectra for 48 of the 60 SN. There are 26 optical and 2 NIR light curves of SNe II/IIP with redshifts z> 0.01, some of which may give rise to useful distances for cosmological applications. All photometry was obtained between 2000 and 2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO), via the 1.2 m and 1.3 m PAIRITEL telescopes for the optical and NIR, respectively. Each SN was observed in a subset of the u\\prime {UBVRIr}\\prime I\\prime {{JHK}}s bands. There are a total of 2932 optical and 816 NIR light curve points. Optical spectra were obtained using the FLWO 1.5 m Tillinghast telescope with the FAST spectrograph and the MMT Telescope with the Blue Channel Spectrograph. Our photometry is in reasonable agreement with select samples from the literature: two-thirds of our star sequences have average V offsets within ±0.02 mag and roughly three-quarters of our light curves have average differences within ±0.04 mag. The data from this work and the literature will provide insight into SN II explosions, help with developing methods for photometric SN classification, and contribute to their use as cosmological distance indicators.

  19. IMPROVED DARK ENERGY CONSTRAINTS FROM ∼100 NEW CfA SUPERNOVA TYPE Ia LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Blondin, Stephane; Jha, Saurabh; Kelly, Patrick L.; Rest, Armin

    2009-01-01

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013 +0.066 -0.068 (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R V = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R V = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 V = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R V ∼ 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2σ, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Lick AGN monitoring 2011: light curves (Barth+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. J.; Bennert, V. N.; Canalizo, G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Gates, E. L.; Greene, J. E.; Li, W.; Malkan, M. A.; Pancoast, A.; Sand, D. J.; Stern, D.; Treu, T.; Woo, J.-H.; Assef, R. J.; Bae, H.-J.; Brewer, B. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Clubb, K. I.; Cooper, M. C.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Hiner, K. D.; Honig, S. F.; Hsiao, E.; Kandrashoff, M. T.; Lazarova, M. S.; Nierenberg, A. M.; Rex, J.; Silverman, J. M.; Tollerud, E. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    This project was allocated 69 nights at the Lick 3m Shane telescope, distributed between 2011 March 27 and June 13. Observations were conducted using the Kast double spectrograph (3440-5515Å on the blue side and 5410-8200Å on the red side). In order to extend our light curves for two AGNs, we also requested additional observations from other observers using the Kast spectrograph: Mrk 50 from 2011 January through March, and Zw 229-015 in June and July. For Zw 229-015, three additional observations were taken 20-23 days after the end of our main campaign. See section 3. (2 data files).

  1. THE FIRST SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF TYPE Ibc SUPERNOVA MULTI-BAND LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drout, Maria R.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Green, Yoav; Cenko, S. Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Sand, David J.; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed optical photometry for 25 Type Ibc supernovae (SNe Ibc) within d ≈ 150 Mpc obtained with the robotic Palomar 60 inch telescope in 2004-2007. This study represents the first uniform, systematic, and statistical sample of multi-band SNe Ibc light curves available to date. We correct the light curves for host galaxy extinction using a new technique based on the photometric color evolution, namely, we show that the (V – R) color of extinction-corrected SNe Ibc at Δt ≈ 10 days after V-band maximum is tightly distributed, ((V – R) V10 ) = 0.26 ± 0.06 mag. Using this technique, we find that SNe Ibc typically suffer from significant host galaxy extinction, (E(B – V)) ≈ 0.4 mag. A comparison of the extinction-corrected light curves for helium-rich (Type Ib) and helium-poor (Type Ic) SNe reveals that they are statistically indistinguishable, both in luminosity and decline rate. We report peak absolute magnitudes of (M R ) = –17.9 ± 0.9 mag and (M R ) = –18.3 ± 0.6 mag for SNe Ib and Ic, respectively. Focusing on the broad-lined (BL) SNe Ic, we find that they are more luminous than the normal SNe Ibc sample, (M R ) = –19.0 ± 1.1 mag, with a probability of only 1.6% that they are drawn from the same population of explosions. By comparing the peak absolute magnitudes of SNe Ic-BL with those inferred for local engine-driven explosions (GRB-SN 1998bw, XRF-SN 2006aj, and SN 2009bb) we find a 25% probability that relativistic SNe are drawn from the overall SNe Ic-BL population. Finally, we fit analytic models to the light curves to derive typical 56 Ni masses of M Ni ≈ 0.2 and 0.5 M ☉ for SNe Ibc and SNe Ic-BL, respectively. With reasonable assumptions for the photospheric velocities, we further extract kinetic energy and ejecta mass values of M ej ≈ 2 M ☉ and E K ≈ 10 51 erg for SNe Ibc, while for SNe Ic-BL we find higher values, M ej ≈ 5 M ☉ and E K ≈ 10 52 erg. We discuss the implications for the progenitors of SNe Ibc

  2. Emergence of curved light-cones in a class of inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Dubail, Jean-Marie Stéphan, Pasquale Calabrese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The light-cone spreading of entanglement and correlation is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of homogeneous extended quantum systems. Here we point out that a class of inhomogenous Luttinger liquids (those with a uniform Luttinger parameter $K$ at low energy display the universal phenomenon of curved light cones: gapless excitations propagate along the geodesics of the metric $ds^2=dx^2+v(x^2 d\\tau^2$, with $v(x$ being the calculable spatial dependent velocity induced by the inhomogeneity. We confirm our findings with explicit analytic and numerical calculations both in- and out-of-equilibrium for a Tonks-Girardeau gas in a harmonic potential and in lattice systems with artificially tuned hamiltonian density.

  3. A UNIFORM SEARCH FOR SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF HOT JUPITERS IN KEPLER Q2 LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of searching the Kepler Q2 public data set for the secondary eclipses of 76 hot Jupiter planet candidates from the list of 1235 candidates published by Borucki et al. This search has been performed by modeling both the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curves and new light curves produced via our own photometric pipeline. We derive new stellar and planetary parameters for each system, while calculating robust errors for both. We find 16 systems with 1σ-2σ, 14 systems with 2σ-3σ, and 6 systems with >3σ confidence level secondary eclipse detections in at least one light curve produced via the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curve or our own pipeline; however, results can vary depending on the light curve modeled and whether eccentricity is allowed to vary or not. We estimate false alarm probabilities of 31%, 10%, and 6% for the 1σ-2σ, 2σ-3σ, and >3σ confidence intervals, respectively. Comparing each secondary eclipse result to theoretical expectations, we find that the majority of detected planet candidates emit more light than expected owing to thermal blackbody emission in the optical Kepler bandpass, and present a trend of increasing excess emission with decreasing maximum effective planetary temperature. These results agree with previously published optical secondary eclipse data for other hot Jupiters. We explore modeling biases, significant planetary albedos, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium or other thermal emission, significant internal energy generation, and misidentification of brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, or stellar blends as possible causes of both the excess emission and its correlation with expected planetary temperature. Although we find that no single cause is able to explain all of the planet candidates, significant planetary albedos, with a general trend of increasing planetary albedos with decreasing atmospheric temperatures, are able to explain most of the systems. Identifying

  4. Detection of Time Lags between Quasar Continuum Emission Bands Based On Pan-STARRS Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Green, Paul J.; Pancoast, Anna; MacLeod, Chelsea L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Morganson, Eric; Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Rix, H.-W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Protopapas, Pavlos [Institute for Applied Computational Science, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scott, Caroline [Astrophysics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Burgett, W. S.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2017-02-20

    We study the time lags between the continuum emission of quasars at different wavelengths, based on more than four years of multi-band ( g , r , i , z ) light curves in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Fields. As photons from different bands emerge from different radial ranges in the accretion disk, the lags constrain the sizes of the accretion disks. We select 240 quasars with redshifts of z ≈ 1 or z ≈ 0.3 that are relatively emission-line free. The light curves are sampled from day to month timescales, which makes it possible to detect lags on the scale of the light crossing time of the accretion disks. With the code JAVELIN , we detect typical lags of several days in the rest frame between the g band and the riz bands. The detected lags are ∼2–3 times larger than the light crossing time estimated from the standard thin disk model, consistent with the recently measured lag in NGC 5548 and microlensing measurements of quasars. The lags in our sample are found to increase with increasing luminosity. Furthermore, the increase in lags going from g − r to g − i and then to g − z is slower than predicted in the thin disk model, particularly for high-luminosity quasars. The radial temperature profile in the disk must be different from what is assumed. We also find evidence that the lags decrease with increasing line ratios between ultraviolet Fe ii lines and Mg ii, which may point to changes in the accretion disk structure at higher metallicity.

  5. Optical counterparts of two Fermi millisecond pulsars: PSR J1301+0833 and PSR J1628–3205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Miao; Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1.3 m and 2.4 m Telescopes of the MDM Observatory, we identified the close companions of two eclipsing millisecond radio pulsars that were discovered by the Green Bank Telescope in searches of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope sources, and measured their light curves. PSR J1301+0833 is a black widow pulsar in a 6.5 hr orbit whose companion star is strongly heated on the side facing the pulsar. It varies from R = 21.8 to R > 24 around the orbit. PSR J1628–3205 is a 'redback', a nearly Roche-lobe-filling system in a 5.0 hr orbit whose optical modulation in the range 19.0 < R < 19.4 is dominated by strong ellipsoidal variations, indicating a large orbital inclination angle. PSR J1628–3205 also shows evidence for a long-term variation of about 0.2 mag, and an asymmetric temperature distribution possibly due to either off-center heating by the pulsar wind, or large starspots. Modeling of its light curve restricts the inclination angle to i > 55°, the mass of the companion to 0.16 < M c < 0.30 M ☉ , and the effective temperature to 3560 < T eff < 4670 K. As is the case for several redbacks, the companion of PSR J1628–3205 is less dense and hotter than a main-sequence star of the same mass.

  6. A unique UV flare in the optical light curve of the quasar J004457.9+412344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzidimitriou D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We found that the nova candidate J004457.9+412344 is a radio-quiet quasar at z ∼ 2. Its optical long-term light curve, covering more than half a century, shows quasar typical flux variations superimposed by a spectacular single flare lasting more than one year (observer frame. We could not find comparable light curves among the several thousand catalogued radio-quiet quasars in the stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The decreasing part of the flare light curve roughly follows a power law t−5/3. The quasar spectrum, the total energy of the flare, and the decline of the light curve are consistent with the tidal disruption of a ∼10 Mʘ giant star by a supermassive black hole of a few 108 Mʘ. We argue that the alternative explanation by gravitational microlensing is less likely, though it cannot be definitely excluded.

  7. LOFAR Discovery of the Fastest-spinning Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, C. G.; Pleunis, Z.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Ferrara, E. C.; Breton, R. P.; Gusinskaia, N. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Sanidas, S.; Nieder, L.; Clark, C. J.; Li, T.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Burnett, T. H.; Camilo, F.; Michelson, P. F.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K.

    2017-09-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J0952-0607, a 707 Hz binary millisecond pulsar that is now the fastest-spinning neutron star known in the Galactic field (I.e., outside of a globular cluster). PSR J0952-0607 was found using LOFAR at a central observing frequency of 135 MHz, well below the 300 MHz to 3 GHz frequencies typically used in pulsar searches. The discovery is part of an ongoing LOFAR survey targeting unassociated Fermi-Large Area Telescope γ-ray sources. PSR J0952-0607 is in a 6.42 hr orbit around a very low-mass companion ({M}{{c}}≳ 0.02 {M}⊙ ), and we identify a strongly variable optical source, modulated at the orbital period of the pulsar, as the binary companion. The light curve of the companion varies by 1.6 mag from {r}{\\prime }=22.2 at maximum to {r}{\\prime }> 23.8, indicating that it is irradiated by the pulsar wind. Swift observations place a 3σ upper limit on the 0.3-10 {keV} X-ray luminosity of {L}Xdispersion measure). Though no eclipses of the radio pulsar are observed, the properties of the system classify it as a black widow binary. The radio pulsed spectrum of PSR J0952-0607, as determined through flux density measurements at 150 and 350 MHz, is extremely steep with α ˜ -3 (where S\\propto {ν }α ). We discuss the growing evidence that the fastest-spinning radio pulsars have exceptionally steep radio spectra, as well as the prospects for finding more sources like PSR J0952-0607.

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  9. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heinze, Jonas; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Murase, Kohta, E-mail: bustamanteramirez.1@osu.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de, E-mail: jonas.heinze@desy.de, E-mail: murase@psu.edu [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA16802 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  10. Recurrence network measures for hypothesis testing using surrogate data: Application to black hole light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K. P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2018-01-01

    Recurrence networks and the associated statistical measures have become important tools in the analysis of time series data. In this work, we test how effective the recurrence network measures are in analyzing real world data involving two main types of noise, white noise and colored noise. We use two prominent network measures as discriminating statistic for hypothesis testing using surrogate data for a specific null hypothesis that the data is derived from a linear stochastic process. We show that the characteristic path length is especially efficient as a discriminating measure with the conclusions reasonably accurate even with limited number of data points in the time series. We also highlight an additional advantage of the network approach in identifying the dimensionality of the system underlying the time series through a convergence measure derived from the probability distribution of the local clustering coefficients. As examples of real world data, we use the light curves from a prominent black hole system and show that a combined analysis using three primary network measures can provide vital information regarding the nature of temporal variability of light curves from different spectroscopic classes.

  11. SNaX: A Database of Supernova X-Ray Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Mathias; Dwarkadas, Vikram V., E-mail: Mathias_Ross@msn.com, E-mail: vikram@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, ERC 569, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We present the Supernova X-ray Database (SNaX), a compilation of the X-ray data from young supernovae (SNe). The database includes the X-ray fluxes and luminosities of young SNe, from days to years after outburst. The original goal and intent of this study was to present a database of Type IIn SNe (SNe IIn), which we have accomplished. Our ongoing goal is to expand the database to include all SNe for which published data are available. The database interface allows one to search for SNe using various criteria, plot all or selected data points, and download both the data and the plot. The plotting facility allows for significant customization. There is also a facility for the user to submit data that can be directly incorporated into the database. We include an option to fit the decay of any given SN light curve with a power-law. The database includes a conversion of most data points to a common 0.3–8 keV band so that SN light curves may be directly compared with each other. A mailing list has been set up to disseminate information about the database. We outline the structure and function of the database, describe its various features, and outline the plans for future expansion.

  12. EXTRACTING PERIODIC TRANSIT SIGNALS FROM NOISY LIGHT CURVES USING FOURIER SERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsing, Johan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We present a simple and powerful method for extracting transit signals associated with a known transiting planet from noisy light curves. Assuming the orbital period of the planet is known and the signal is periodic, we illustrate that systematic noise can be removed in Fourier space at all frequencies by only using data within a fixed time frame with a width equal to an integer number of orbital periods. This results in a reconstruction of the full transit signal, which on average is unbiased despite no prior knowledge of either the noise or the transit signal itself being used in the analysis. The method therefore has clear advantages over standard phase folding, which normally requires external input such as nearby stars or noise models for removing systematic components. In addition, we can extract the full orbital transit signal (360°) simultaneously, and Kepler-like data can be analyzed in just a few seconds. We illustrate the performance of our method by applying it to a dataset composed of light curves from Kepler with a fake injected signal emulating a planet with rings. For extracting periodic transit signals, our presented method is in general the optimal and least biased estimator and could therefore lead the way toward the first detections of, e.g., planet rings and exo-trojan asteroids.

  13. Cosmological parameter uncertainties from SALT-II type Ia supernova light curve models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; El-Hage, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A.; Marriner, J.; Biswas, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ∼120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ∼255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ∼290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w input – w recovered ) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty; the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  14. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: LIGHT-CURVE FITTING WITH SNooPy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Folatelli, Gaston; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Kattner, ShiAnne; Contreras, Carlos; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    In providing an independent measure of the expansion history of the universe, the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) has observed 71 high-z Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the near-infrared bands Y and J. These can be used to construct rest-frame i-band light curves which, when compared to a low-z sample, yield distance moduli that are less sensitive to extinction and/or decline-rate corrections than in the optical. However, working with NIR observed and i-band rest-frame photometry presents unique challenges and has necessitated the development of a new set of observational tools in order to reduce and analyze both the low-z and high-z CSP sample. We present in this paper the methods used to generate uBVgriYJH light-curve templates based on a sample of 24 high-quality low-z CSP SNe. We also present two methods for determining the distances to the hosts of SN Ia events. A larger sample of 30 low-z SNe Ia in the Hubble flow is used to calibrate these methods. We then apply the method and derive distances to seven galaxies that are so nearby that their motions are not dominated by the Hubble flow.

  15. The Origin and Evolution of the Infrared Light Curve of SN2010jl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Sarangi, Arkaprabha; Arendt, Richard; Fox, Ori; Kallman, Timothy; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2018-01-01

    SN2010jl is a luminous core-collapse supernova (CCSN) of Type IIn that is surrounded by a dense circumstellar medium (CSM). The supernova (SN) luminosity vastly exceeds the available power from radiactive elements in the ejecta, and is powered by the interaction of the SN shock wave with the ambient medium. Upper limits on the UV and near-IR (NIR) emission from pre-explosion images of the region suggest that any progenitor star was hidden by pre-existing CSM dust. After day ~80, the SN spectrum shows the development of an IR excess above the extrapolated UVO emission arising from the shocked CSM. This IR component is attributed to thermal emission from dust.After day ~300, the light curve exhibits a rise in the NIR luminosity, concurrent with a steep decline at UVO wavelengths. Ruling out any possible contribution of SN-condensed dust to the IR light curve, we show that the early IR emission arises from the pre-existing CSM dust that survived the flash of radiation from the shock breakout. The late IR emission arises from newly-formed CSM dust that condensed in the cooling dust-free postshock gas of the advancing SN shock wave. Our analysis presents the first detailed modeling of dust formation in a cooling postshock environment, and provides important insights into the interaction of the SN shock wave with the CSM.

  16. PERIOD ESTIMATION FOR SPARSELY SAMPLED QUASI-PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES APPLIED TO MIRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Long, James [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M., E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We develop a nonlinear semi-parametric Gaussian process model to estimate periods of Miras with sparsely sampled light curves. The model uses a sinusoidal basis for the periodic variation and a Gaussian process for the stochastic changes. We use maximum likelihood to estimate the period and the parameters of the Gaussian process, while integrating out the effects of other nuisance parameters in the model with respect to a suitable prior distribution obtained from earlier studies. Since the likelihood is highly multimodal for period, we implement a hybrid method that applies the quasi-Newton algorithm for Gaussian process parameters and search the period/frequency parameter space over a dense grid. A large-scale, high-fidelity simulation is conducted to mimic the sampling quality of Mira light curves obtained by the M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. The simulated data set is publicly available and can serve as a testbed for future evaluation of different period estimation methods. The semi-parametric model outperforms an existing algorithm on this simulated test data set as measured by period recovery rate and quality of the resulting period–luminosity relations.

  17. Multi-messenger light curves from gamma-ray bursts in the internal shock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP); Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Murase, Kohta [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure tend to be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  18. SNaX: A Database of Supernova X-Ray Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Mathias; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Supernova X-ray Database (SNaX), a compilation of the X-ray data from young supernovae (SNe). The database includes the X-ray fluxes and luminosities of young SNe, from days to years after outburst. The original goal and intent of this study was to present a database of Type IIn SNe (SNe IIn), which we have accomplished. Our ongoing goal is to expand the database to include all SNe for which published data are available. The database interface allows one to search for SNe using various criteria, plot all or selected data points, and download both the data and the plot. The plotting facility allows for significant customization. There is also a facility for the user to submit data that can be directly incorporated into the database. We include an option to fit the decay of any given SN light curve with a power-law. The database includes a conversion of most data points to a common 0.3–8 keV band so that SN light curves may be directly compared with each other. A mailing list has been set up to disseminate information about the database. We outline the structure and function of the database, describe its various features, and outline the plans for future expansion.

  19. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. [Pennsylvania U.; Guy, J. [LBL, Berkeley; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Astier, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Marriner, J. [Fermilab; Betoule, M. [Paris U., VI-VII; Sako, M. [Pennsylvania U.; El-Hage, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Biswas, R. [Argonne; Pain, R. [Paris U., VI-VII; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne; Regnault, N. [Paris U., VI-VII; Frieman, J. A. [Fermilab; Schneider, D. P. [Penn State U.

    2014-08-29

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ~120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ~255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ~290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w (input) – w (recovered)) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty, the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  20. Effect of stellar activity on the high precision transit light curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshagh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar activity features such as spots and plages can create difficulties in determining planetary parameters through spectroscopic and photometric observations. The overlap of a transiting planet and a stellar spot, for instance, can produce anomalies in the transit light curve that may lead to inaccurate estimation of the transit duration, depth, and timing. Such inaccuracies can affect the precise derivation of the planet’s radius. In this talk we will present the results of a quantitative study on the effects of stellar spots on high precision transit light curves. We show that spot anomalies can lead to the estimate of a planet radius that is 4% smaller than the real value. The effects on the transit duration can also be of the order of 4%, longer or shorter. Depending on the size and distribution of spots, anomalies can also produce transit timing variations with significant amplitudes. For instance, TTVs with signal amplitudes of 200 seconds can be produced by spots as large as the largest sunspot. Finally, we examine the impact of active regions on the transit depth measurements in different wavelengths, in order to probe the impact of this effect on transmission spectroscopy measurements. We show that significant (up to 10% underestimation/overestimation of the planet-to-star radius ratio can be measured, especially in the short wavelength regime.

  1. KIC 4552982: outbursts and pulsations in the longest-ever pseudo-continuous light curve of a ZZ Ceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KIC 4552982 was the first ZZ Ceti (hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf identified to lie in the Kepler field, resulting in the longest pseudo-continuous light curve ever obtained for this type of variable star. In addition to the pulsations, this light curve exhibits stochastic episodes of brightness enhancement unlike any previously studied white dwarf phenomenon. We briefly highlight the basic outburst and pulsation properties in these proceedings.

  2. Infrared rotational light curves on Jupiter induced by wave activities and cloud patterns andimplications on brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huazhi; Zhang, Xi; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Fernandes,, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Warren, Ari; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit infrared rotational light curves with amplitude varying from a fewpercent to twenty percent (Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750,105). Recently, it was claimed that weather patterns, especially planetary-scale waves in thebelts and cloud spots, are responsible for the light curves and their evolutions on brown dwarfs(Apai et al. 2017, Science, 357, 683). Here we present a clear relationship between the direct IRemission maps and light curves of Jupiter at multiple wavelengths, which might be similar withthat on cold brown dwarfs. Based on infrared disk maps from Subaru/COMICS and VLT/VISIR,we constructed full maps of Jupiter and rotational light curves at different wavelengths in thethermal infrared. We discovered a strong relationship between the light curves and weatherpatterns on Jupiter. The light curves also exhibit strong multi-bands phase shifts and temporalvariations, similar to that detected on brown dwarfs. Together with the spectra fromTEXES/IRTF, our observations further provide detailed information of the spatial variations oftemperature, ammonia clouds and aerosols in the troposphere of Jupiter (Fletcher et al. 2016,Icarus, 2016 128) and their influences on the shapes of the light curves. We conclude that waveactivities in Jupiter’s belts (Fletcher et al. 2017, GRL, 44, 7140), cloud holes, and long-livedvortices such as the Great Red Spot and ovals control the shapes of IR light curves and multi-wavelength phase shifts on Jupiter. Our finding supports the hypothesis that observed lightcurves on brown dwarfs are induced by planetary-scale waves and cloud spots.

  3. Are PSR 0656+14, PSR 0950+08, and PSR 1822-09 gamma ray pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible discovery of three new gamma-ray pulsars PSR 0656+14, PSR 0950+08, and PSR 1822-09 (Ma, Lu, Yu, and Young, 1993) in data obtained with the COS-B experiment is reinvestigated using a refined technique for pulsar light curve analysis. The results of this study do not confirm the previously claimed gamma-ray pulsar nature of any of these pulsars. Even when using the standard epoch folding technique in conjunction with energy-dependent acceptance cones, we do not detect pulsed gamma-ray emission from these sources. We suspect that insufficient position accuracy is the cause for the discrepancy between our results and those of Ma et al. (1993). We do not rule out that any one of the three candidates, or all of them, is in fact a gamma-ray pulsar, but their spin properties must differ from those derived by Ma et al. (1993). More work is needed to determine the correct high-energy properties of these three sources.

  4. Pulsar timing and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R N

    2018-01-01

    Pulsars are remarkably precise "celestial clocks" that can be used to explore many different aspects of physics and astrophysics. In this article I give a brief summary of pulsar properties and describe some of the applications of pulsar timing, including tests of theories of gravitation, efforts to detect low-frequency gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays and establishment a "pulsar timescale".

  5. Polarized curvature radiation in pulsar magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. F.; Wang, C.; Han, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    The propagation of polarized emission in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated in this paper. The polarized waves are generated through curvature radiation from the relativistic particles streaming along curved magnetic field lines and corotating with the pulsar magnetosphere. Within the 1/γ emission cone, the waves can be divided into two natural wave-mode components, the ordinary (O) mode and the extraordinary (X) mode, with comparable intensities. Both components propagate separately in magnetosphere, and are aligned within the cone by adiabatic walking. The refraction of O mode makes the two components separated and incoherent. The detectable emission at a given height and a given rotation phase consists of incoherent X-mode and O-mode components coming from discrete emission regions. For four particle-density models in the form of uniformity, cone, core and patches, we calculate the intensities for each mode numerically within the entire pulsar beam. If the corotation of relativistic particles with magnetosphere is not considered, the intensity distributions for the X-mode and O-mode components are quite similar within the pulsar beam, which causes serious depolarization. However, if the corotation of relativistic particles is considered, the intensity distributions of the two modes are very different, and the net polarization of outcoming emission should be significant. Our numerical results are compared with observations, and can naturally explain the orthogonal polarization modes of some pulsars. Strong linear polarizations of some parts of pulsar profile can be reproduced by curvature radiation and subsequent propagation effect.

  6. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic of a circular wave reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Montiel-Piña, Enrique; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Rosado, Alfonso; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to obtain expressions for both the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the light rays reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in the two-dimensional free space. To this end, we obtain an expression for the k-function associated with the general integral of Stavroudis to the eikonal equation that describes the evolution of the reflected light rays. The caustic is computed by using the definitions of the critical and caustic sets of the two-dimensional map that describes the evolution of an arbitrary wavefront associated with the general integral. The general results are applied to circular and parabolic mirrors. The main motivation to carry out this research is to establish, in future work, the caustic touching theorem in a two-dimensional optical medium and to study the diffraction problem by using the k-function concept. Both problems are important in the computation of the image of an arbitrary object under reflection and refraction

  7. GLOBAL MAPPING OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS FROM SCATTERED LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka

    2010-01-01

    Scattered lights from terrestrial exoplanets provide valuable information about their planetary surface. Applying the surface reconstruction method proposed by Fujii et al. to both diurnal and annual variations of scattered light, we develop a reconstruction method of land distribution with both longitudinal and latitudinal resolutions. We find that one can recover a global map of an idealized Earth-like planet on the following assumptions: (1) cloudlessness, (2) a face-on circular orbit, (3) known surface types and their reflectance spectra, (4) lack of atmospheric absorption, (5) known rotation rate, (6) a static map, and (7) the absence of a moon. Using the dependence of light curves on planetary obliquity, we also show that the obliquity can be measured by adopting the χ 2 minimization or the extended information criterion. We demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology by applying it to a multi-band photometry of a cloudless model Earth with future space missions such as the occulting ozone observatory (O3). We conclude that future space missions can estimate both the surface distribution and the obliquity at least for cloudless Earth-like planets within 5 pc.

  8. Constraining Relativistic Bow Shock Properties in Rotation-powered Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Böttcher, Markus [Centre for Space Research, North–West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, Alice K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Baring, Matthew G., E-mail: zwadiasingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Multiwavelength follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock standoff R {sub 0}. We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the standoff is R {sub 0} ∼ 0.15–0.3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R {sub 0} ≲ 0.4, while X-ray light curves suggest 0.1 ≲ R {sub 0} ≲ 0.3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy dependence in the shape of light curves, motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein.

  9. Constraining Relativistic Bow Shock Properties in Rotation-Powered Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Harding, Alice K.; Venter, Christo; Bottcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    Multiwavelength follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase-centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly-relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock stand-off R(sub 0). We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the stand-off is R(sub 0) approximately 0:15 - 0:3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R(sub 0) is approximately less than 0:4 while X-ray light curves suggest 0:1 is approximately less than R(sub 0) is approximately less than 0:3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein.

  10. CONSTRAINING RELATIVISTIC BOW SHOCK PROPERTIES IN ROTATION-POWERED MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Harding, Alice K.; Venter, Christo; Böttcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2018-01-01

    Multiwavelength followup of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase-centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly-relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock stand-off R0. We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the stand-off is R0 ~ 0.15–0.3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R0 ≲ 0.4 while X-ray light curves suggest 0.1 ≲ R0 ≲ 0.3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein. PMID:29651167

  11. Mid-UV studies of the transitional millisecond pulsars XSS J12270-4859 and PSR J1023+0038 during their radio pulsar states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Sandoval, L. E.; Hernández Santisteban, J. V.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Knigge, C.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Altamirano, D.; van den Berg, M.; Hill, A.

    2018-05-01

    We report mid-UV (MUV) observations taken with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3, Swift/UVOT, and GALEX/NUV of the transitional millisecond pulsars XSS J12270-4859 and PSR J1023+0038 during their radio pulsar states. Both systems were detected in our images and showed MUV variability. At similar orbital phases, the MUV luminosities of both pulsars are comparable. This suggests that the emission processes involved in both objects are similar. We estimated limits on the mass ratio, companion's temperature, inclination, and distance to XSS J12270-4859 by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to fit published folded optical light curves. Using the resulting parameters, we modelled MUV light curves in our HST filters. The resulting models failed to fit our MUV observations. Fixing the mass ratio of XSS J12270-4859 to the value reported in other studies, we obtained a distance of ˜3.2 kpc. This is larger than the one derived from dispersion measure (˜1.4 kpc). Assuming a uniform prior for the mass ratio, the distance is similar to that from radio measurements. However, it requires an undermassive companion (˜0.01M⊙). We conclude that a direct heating model alone cannot fully explain the observations in optical and MUV. Therefore, an additional radiation source is needed. The source could be an intrabinary shock which contributes to the MUV flux and likely to the optical one as well. During the radio pulsar state, the MUV orbital variations of PSR J1023+0038 detected with GALEX, suggest the presence of an asymmetric intrabinary shock.

  12. Simulated gamma-ray pulse profile of the Crab pulsar with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtovoi, A.; Zampieri, L.

    2016-07-01

    We present simulations of the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray light curve of the Crab pulsar as observed by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The CTA pulse profile of the Crab pulsar is simulated with the specific goal of determining the accuracy of the position of the interpulse. We fit the pulse shape obtained by the Major Atmospheric Gamma-Ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope with a three-Gaussian template and rescale it to account for the different CTA instrumental and observational configurations. Simulations are performed for different configurations of CTA and for the ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) mini-array. The northern CTA configuration will provide an improvement of a factor of ˜3 in accuracy with an observing time comparable to that of MAGIC (73 h). Unless the VHE spectrum above 1 TeV behaves differently from what we presently know, unreasonably long observing times are required for a significant detection of the pulsations of the Crab pulsar with the high-energy-range sub-arrays. We also found that an independent VHE timing analysis is feasible with Large Size Telescopes. CTA will provide a significant improvement in determining the VHE pulse shape parameters necessary to constrain theoretical models of the gamma-ray emission of the Crab pulsar. One of such parameters is the shift in phase between peaks in the pulse profile at VHE and in other energy bands that, if detected, may point to different locations of the emission regions.

  13. Pulsar Wind Nebulae Created by Fast-Moving Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy

    2017-01-01

    We review multiwavelength properties of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) created by supersonically moving pulsars and the effects of pulsar motion on the PWN morphologies and the ambient medium. Supersonic pulsar wind nebulae (SPWNe) are characterized by bow-shaped shocks around the pulsar and/or cometary tails filled with the shocked pulsar wind. In the past several years significant advances in SPWN studies have been made in deep observations with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories as...

  14. The EB factory project. I. A fast, neural-net-based, general purpose light curve classifier optimized for eclipsing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; Burger, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new neural-net-based light curve classifier and provide it with documentation as a ready-to-use tool for the community. While optimized for identification and classification of eclipsing binary stars, the classifier is general purpose, and has been developed for speed in the context of upcoming massive surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. A challenge for classifiers in the context of neural-net training and massive data sets is to minimize the number of parameters required to describe each light curve. We show that a simple and fast geometric representation that encodes the overall light curve shape, together with a chi-square parameter to capture higher-order morphology information results in efficient yet robust light curve classification, especially for eclipsing binaries. Testing the classifier on the ASAS light curve database, we achieve a retrieval rate of 98% and a false-positive rate of 2% for eclipsing binaries. We achieve similarly high retrieval rates for most other periodic variable-star classes, including RR Lyrae, Mira, and delta Scuti. However, the classifier currently has difficulty discriminating between different sub-classes of eclipsing binaries, and suffers a relatively low (∼60%) retrieval rate for multi-mode delta Cepheid stars. We find that it is imperative to train the classifier's neural network with exemplars that include the full range of light curve quality to which the classifier will be expected to perform; the classifier performs well on noisy light curves only when trained with noisy exemplars. The classifier source code, ancillary programs, a trained neural net, and a guide for use, are provided.

  15. The host galaxy and optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, S.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Hjorth, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present deep HST/STIS and ground-based photometry of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703 taken 17, 551, 710, and 716 days after the burst. We find that the host is a blue, slightly over-luminous galaxy with V-gal = 23.00 +/-0.10, (V - R)(gal) = 0.43 +/-0.13, and a centre...... 980703 with any special features in the host. The host galaxy appears to be a typical example of a compact star forming galaxy similar to those found in the Hubble Deep Field North. The R-band light curve of the optical afterglow associated with this gamma-ray burst is consistent with a single power...

  16. Observations and light curve solutions of four ultrashort-period binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents light curve solutions of our observations of four new ultrashort-period eclipsing binaries with MS components. Two of them have periods almost at the upper limit (0.22 days of the ultrashort-period binaries, while the periods of around 0.18 days of CSS J171508.5+350658 and CSS J214633.8+120016 are amongst the shortest known orbital periods. CSS J171410.0+ 445850, CSS J214633.8+120016 and CSS J224326.0+154532 are over contact binaries with fill out factors around 0.25 while CSS J171508.5+350658 is a semidetached system. The two targets with shortest periods consist of M dwarfs.

  17. QUEST1 Variability Survey. II. Variability Determination Criteria and 200k Light Curve Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Mufson, S. L.; Andrews, P.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Adams, B.; Bailyn, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceño, C.; Bruzual, G.; Coppi, P.; Della Prugna, F.; Emmet, W.; Ferrín, I.; Fuenmayor, F.; Gebhard, M.; Hernández, J.; Magris, G.; Musser, J.; Naranjo, O.; Oemler, A.; Rosenzweig, P.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sánchez, Ge.; Sánchez, Gu.; Schaefer, B.; Schenner, H.; Sinnott, J.; Snyder, J. A.; Sofia, S.; Stock, J.; van Altena, W.

    2004-12-01

    The QUEST (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team) Phase 1 camera has collected multibandpass photometry on a large strip of high Galactic latitude sky over a period of 26 months. This robust data set has been reduced and nightly catalogs compared to determine the photometric variability of the ensemble objects. Subsequent spectroscopic observations have confirmed a subset of the photometric variables as quasars, as previously reported. This paper reports on the details of the data reduction and analysis pipeline and presents multiple bandpass light curves for 198,213 QUEST1 objects, along with global variability information and matched Sloan photometry. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory, operated by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Venezuela.

  18. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF SN 1987A: THE SOFT X-RAY LIGHT CURVE REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helder, E. A.; Broos, P. S.; Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dewey, D. [MIT Kavli Institute, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dwek, E. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCray, R. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Park, S. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Racusin, J. L. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zhekov, S. A. [Space Research and Technology Institute, Akad. G. Bonchev str., bl.1, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-02-10

    We report on the present stage of SN 1987A as observed by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We reanalyze published Chandra observations and add three more epochs of Chandra data to get a consistent picture of the evolution of the X-ray fluxes in several energy bands. We discuss the implications of several calibration issues for Chandra data. Using the most recent Chandra calibration files, we find that the 0.5-2.0 keV band fluxes of SN 1987A have increased by {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} per year since 2009. This is in contrast with our previous result that the 0.5-2.0 keV light curve showed a sudden flattening in 2009. Based on our new analysis, we conclude that the forward shock is still in full interaction with the equatorial ring.

  19. Finite source sizes and the information content of macho-type lens search light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.

    1994-01-01

    If the dark halo matter is primarily composed of Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) toward the lower end of the possible detection range (less than 10(exp -3) solar mass) a fraction of the lens detection events should involve the lens crossing directly in front of the disk of the background star. Previously, Nemiroff has shown that each crossing would create an inflection point in the light curve of the MACHO event. Such inflection points would allow a measure of the time it took for the lens to cross the stellar disk. Given an independent estimate of the stellar radius by other methods, one could then obtain a more accurate estimate of the velocity of the lens. This velocity could then, in turn, be used to obtain a more accurate estimate of the mass range for the MACHO or disk star doing the lensing.

  20. Ultraviolet Light Curves of Gaia16apd in Superluminous Supernova Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Zhiglo, Andrey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sorokina, Elena [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyreva, Alexandra, E-mail: alexey.tolstov@ipmu.jp [The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    Observations of Gaia16apd revealed extremely luminous ultraviolet emission among superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Using radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we perform a comparison of UV light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities between the most popular SLSN models: pair-instability supernova, magnetar, and interaction with circumstellar medium. We find that the interaction model is the most promising to explain the extreme UV luminosity of Gaia16apd. The differences in late-time UV emission and in color evolution found between the models can be used to link an observed SLSN event to the most appropriate model. Observations at UV wavelengths can be used to clarify the nature of SLSNe and more attention should be paid to them in future follow-up observations.

  1. A posteriori noise estimation in variable data sets. With applications to spectra and light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czesla, S.; Molle, T.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Most physical data sets contain a stochastic contribution produced by measurement noise or other random sources along with the signal. Usually, neither the signal nor the noise are accurately known prior to the measurement so that both have to be estimated a posteriori. We have studied a procedure to estimate the standard deviation of the stochastic contribution assuming normality and independence, requiring a sufficiently well-sampled data set to yield reliable results. This procedure is based on estimating the standard deviation in a sample of weighted sums of arbitrarily sampled data points and is identical to the so-called DER_SNR algorithm for specific parameter settings. To demonstrate the applicability of our procedure, we present applications to synthetic data, high-resolution spectra, and a large sample of space-based light curves and, finally, give guidelines to apply the procedure in situation not explicitly considered here to promote its adoption in data analysis.

  2. An information preserving method for producing full coverage CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual-Granado J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invalid flux measurements, caused mainly by the South Atlantic Anomaly crossing of the CoRoT satellite, introduce aliases in the periodogram and wrong amplitudes. It has been demonstrated that replacing such invalid data with a linear interpolation is not harmless. On the other side, using power spectrum estimators for unevenly sampled time series is not only less computationally efficient but it leads to difficulties in the interpretation of the results. Therefore, even when the gaps are rather small and the duty cycle is high enough the use of gap-filling methods is a gain in frequency analysis. However, the method must preserve the information contained in the time series. In this work we give a short description of an information preserving method (MIARMA and show some results when applying it to CoRoT seismo light curves. The method is implemented as the second step of a pipeline for CoRoT data analysis.

  3. Spectral analysis of stellar light curves by means of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, R.; Ciaramella, A.; Milano, L.; Barone, F.; Longo, G.

    1999-06-01

    Periodicity analysis of unevenly collected data is a relevant issue in several scientific fields. In astrophysics, for example, we have to find the fundamental period of light or radial velocity curves which are unevenly sampled observations of stars. Classical spectral analysis methods are unsatisfactory to solve the problem. In this paper we present a neural network based estimator system which performs well the frequency extraction in unevenly sampled signals. It uses an unsupervised Hebbian nonlinear neural algorithm to extract, from the interpolated signal, the principal components which, in turn, are used by the MUSIC frequency estimator algorithm to extract the frequencies. The neural network is tolerant to noise and works well also with few points in the sequence. We benchmark the system on synthetic and real signals with the Periodogram and with the Cramer-Rao lower bound. This work was been partially supported by IIASS, by MURST 40\\% and by the Italian Space Agency.

  4. A Study of Precataclysmic Binaries Through Theoretic Modeling of Light Curves and Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, A. A.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.

    2017-06-01

    The article presents results of three pre-cataclysmic binaries (PN G068.1+11.0, TW Crv and RE J2013+4002) investigation. Spectroscopic and photometric observations were obtained on BTA and Zeiss-1000 of SAO RAS and on RTT-150. We used the modeling of light curves and spectra to determine the fundamental parameters for all three systems. The PN G068.1+11.0 parameters were obtained with the use of the evolutionary tracks for the nuclei of planetary nebulae of different masses. According to the results of the study, it was found that the secondary components of PN G068.1+11.0 and TW Crv have luminosity excess, but secondary component of RE J2013+4002 doesn't have one.

  5. Periods and light curves of 16 Cepheid variables in IC 1613 not completed by Baade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    New periods and light curves are presented for 16 of the faintest Cepheids in IC 1613 which had not been finished by Baade. Magnitudes have been reduced to Freedman's new photometric scale. The P-L relation is extended to periods of 2 days using these new data. Comparison of the total Cepheid data now available in IC 1613 with the data in LMC shows no significant slope difference in the two P-L relations for periods of less than 10 days despite the lower metallicity of the young stars in IC 1613. Fifty new faint Cepheid candidates have been found in IC 1613 by blinking plates not used for this purpose by Baade. Most of these stars will have probable periods of less than 2 days, which will eventually permit an extension of the P-L relation in IC 1613 to fainter magnitudes when the photometry and period determinations are completed. 18 refs

  6. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL MODELS IN THE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Narayan, Gautham; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves spanning optical through near-infrared (NIR) data. A hierarchical framework coherently models multiple random and uncertain effects, including intrinsic supernova (SN) light curve covariances, dust extinction and reddening, and distances. An improved BAYESN Markov Chain Monte Carlo code computes probabilistic inferences for the hierarchical model by sampling the global probability density of parameters describing individual SNe and the population. We have applied this hierarchical model to optical and NIR data of 127 SNe Ia from PAIRITEL, CfA3, Carnegie Supernova Project, and the literature. We find an apparent population correlation between the host galaxy extinction A V and the ratio of total-to-selective dust absorption R V . For SNe with low dust extinction, A V ∼ V ∼ 2.5-2.9, while at high extinctions, A V ∼> 1, low values of R V < 2 are favored. The NIR luminosities are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction. They exhibit low correlation with optical peak luminosities, and thus provide independent information on distances. The combination of NIR and optical data constrains the dust extinction and improves the predictive precision of individual SN Ia distances by about 60%. Using cross-validation, we estimate an rms distance modulus prediction error of 0.11 mag for SNe with optical and NIR data versus 0.15 mag for SNe with optical data alone. Continued study of SNe Ia in the NIR is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  7. Imprints of the quasar structure in time-delay light curves: Microlensing-aided reverberation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluse, D.; Tewes, M.

    2014-11-01

    The advent of large area photometric surveys has raised a great deal of interest in the possibility of using broadband photometric data, instead of spectra, to measure the size of the broad line region of active galactic nuclei. We describe here a new method that uses time-delay lensed quasars where one or several images are affected by microlensing due to stars in the lensing galaxy. Because microlensing decreases (or increases) the flux of the continuum compared to the broad line region, it changes the contrast between these two emission components. We show that this effect can be used to effectively disentangle the intrinsic variability of those two regions, offering the opportunity to perform reverberation mapping based on single-band photometric data. Based on simulated light curves generated using a damped random walk model of quasar variability, we show that measurement of the size of the broad line region can be achieved using this method, provided one spectrum has been obtained independently during the monitoring. This method is complementary to photometric reverberation mapping and could also be extended to multi-band data. Because the effect described above produces a variability pattern in difference light curves between pairs of lensed images that is correlated with the time-lagged continuum variability, it can potentially produce systematic errors in measurement of time delays between pairs of lensed images. Simple simulations indicate that time-delay measurement techniques that use a sufficiently flexible model for the extrinsic variability are not affected by this effect and produce accurate time delays.

  8. Transit Timing Variation analysis with Kepler light curves of KOI 227 and Kepler 93b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulz, Shannon; Reed, Mike

    2017-01-01

    By searching for transit signals in approximately 150,000 stars, NASA’s Kepler Space telescope found thousands of exoplanets over its primary mission from 2009 to 2013 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014, ApJS, 211, 6). Yet, a detailed follow-up examination of Kepler light curves may contribute more evidence on system dynamics and planetary atmospheres of these objects. Kepler’s continuous observing of these systems over the mission duration produced light curves of sufficient duration to allow for the search for transit timing variations. Transit timing variations over the course of many orbits may indicate a precessing orbit or the existence of a non-transiting third body such as another exoplanet. Flux contributions of the planet just prior to secondary eclipse may provide a measurement of bond albedo from the day-side of the transiting planet. Any asymmetries of the transit shape may indicate thermal asymmetries which can measure upper atmosphere motion of the planet. These two factors can constrain atmospheric models of close orbiting exoplanets. We first establish our procedure with the well-documented TTV system, KOI 227 (Nesvorny et al. 2014, ApJ, 790, 31). Using the test case of KOI 227, we analyze Kepler-93b for TTVs and day-side flux contributions. Kepler-93b is likely a rocky planet with R = 1.50 ± 0.03 Earth Radii and M = 2.59 ± 2.0 Earth Masses (Marcy et al. 2014, ApJS, 210, 20). This research is funded by a NASA EPSCoR grant.

  9. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  10. Galactic population of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Manchester, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    In order to draw statistical conclusions about the overall population of pulsars in the Galaxy, a sample of 316 pulsars detected in surveys carried out at Jodrell Bank, Arecibo, Molonglo, and Green Bank has been analysed. The important selection effects of each survey are quantified and a statistically reliable pulsar distance scale based on a model for the large-scale distribution of free electrons in the Galaxy is described. These results allow the spatial and luminosity distribution functions of galactic pulsars to be computed. It is concluded that the Galaxy contains approximately 70 000 potentially observable pulsars with luminosities above 0.3 mJy kpc 2 . The period and luminosity evolution of pulsars, is also considered. (author)

  11. REVISITING EVIDENCE OF CHAOS IN X-RAY LIGHT CURVES: THE CASE OF GRS 1915+105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannattil, Manu; Gupta, Himanshu; Chakraborty, Sagar, E-mail: mmanu@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: hiugupta@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2016-12-20

    Nonlinear time series analysis has been widely used to search for signatures of low-dimensional chaos in light curves emanating from astrophysical bodies. A particularly popular example is the microquasar GRS 1915+105, whose irregular but systematic X-ray variability has been well studied using data acquired by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer . With a view to building simpler models of X-ray variability, attempts have been made to classify the light curves of GRS 1915+105 as chaotic or stochastic. Contrary to some of the earlier suggestions, after careful analysis, we find no evidence for chaos or determinism in any of the GRS 1915+105 classes. The dearth of long and stationary data sets representing all the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 makes it a poor candidate for analysis using nonlinear time series techniques. We conclude that either very exhaustive data analysis with sufficiently long and stationary light curves should be performed, keeping all the pitfalls of nonlinear time series analysis in mind, or alternative schemes of classifying the light curves should be adopted. The generic limitations of the techniques that we point out in the context of GRS 1915+105 affect all similar investigations of light curves from other astrophysical sources.

  12. Photometric light curves for seven rapidly-rotating K dwarfs in the Pleiades and Alpha Persei clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John R.; Schild, Rudolph A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Africano, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Light curves and period estimates were obtained for several Pleiades and Alpha Persei cluster K dwarfs which were identified as rapid rotators in earlier spectroscopic studies. A few of the stars have previously-published light curves, making it possible to study the long-term variability of the light-curve shapes. The general cause of the photometric variability observed for these stars is an asymmetric distribution of photospheric inhomogeneities (starspots). The presence of these inhomogeneities combined with the rotation of the star lead to the light curves observed. The photometric periods derived are thus identified with the rotation period of the star, making it possible to estimate equatorial rotational velocities for these K dwarfs. These data are of particular importance because the clusters are sufficiently young that stars of this mass should have just arrived on the main sequence. These data could be used to estimate the temperatures and sizes of the spot groups necessary to produce the observed light curves for these stars.

  13. Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Inference: Hierarchical Models for Nearby SN Ia in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, R. P.; Narayan, G.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Friedman, A. S.; Hicken, M.

    2010-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova light curves spanning optical through near infrared data simultaneously. The near infrared light curves are found to be excellent standard candles (sigma(MH) = 0.11 +/- 0.03 mag) that are less vulnerable to systematic error from dust extinction, a major confounding factor for cosmological studies. A hierarchical statistical framework incorporates coherently multiple sources of randomness and uncertainty, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances, for probabilistic inference with Type Ia SN light curves. Inferences are drawn from the full probability density over individual supernovae and the SN Ia and dust populations, conditioned on a dataset of SN Ia light curves and redshifts. To compute probabilistic inferences with hierarchical models, I have developed BayeSN, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm based on Gibbs sampling. This code explores and samples the global probability density of parameters describing individual supernovae and the population. I have applied this hierarchical model to optical and near infrared data of over 100 nearby Type Ia SN from PAIRITEL, the CfA3 sample, and the literature. Using this statistical model, I find that SN with optical and NIR data have a smaller residual scatter in the Hubble diagram than SN with only optical data. The continued study of Type Ia SN in the near infrared will be important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  14. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  15. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-yi; Lu, Xiang-long; Zhao, Qiu-wen; Dong, Dian-qiao; Lao, Bao-qiang; Lu, Yang; Wei, Yan-heng; Wu, Xiao-cong; An, Tao

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  16. Pulsar-Driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Middleditch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bipolarity of Supernova 1987A can be understood through its very early light curve from the CTIO 0.4 m telescope and IUE FES and following speckle observations of the “Mystery Spot”. These indicate a beam/jet of light/particles, with initial collimation factors >104 and velocities >0.95 c, involving up to 10−5 M⊙ interacting with circumstellar material. These can be produced by a model of pulsar emission from polarization currents induced/(modulated faster than c beyond the pulsar light cylinder by the periodic electromagnetic field (supraluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP. SLIP accounts for the disruption of supernova progenitors and their anomalous dimming at cosmological distances, jets from Sco X-1 and SS 433, the lack/presence of pulsations from the high-/low-luminosity low-mass X-ray binaries, and long/short gamma-ray bursts, and it predicts that their afterglows are the pulsed optical-/near-infrared emission associated with these pulsars. SLIP may also account for the TeV e+/e− results from PAMELA and ATIC, the WMAP “Haze”/Fermi “Bubbles,” and the r-process. SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without dark matter and explain the peculiar nongravitational motions between pairs of distant galaxies observed by GALEX.

  17. Gamma-Ray Emission in Dissipative Pulsar Magnetospheres: from Theory to Fermi Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Konstantinos; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    We compute the patterns of gamma-ray emission due to curvature radiation in dissipative pulsar magnetospheres. Our ultimate goal is to construct macrophysical models that are able to reproduce the observed gamma-ray light curve phenomenology recently published in the Second Fermi Pulsar Catalog. We apply specific forms of Ohm's law on the open field lines using a broad range for the macroscopic conductivity values that result in solutions ranging, from near-vacuum to near-force-free. Using these solutions, we generate model gamma-ray light curves by calculating realistic trajectories and Lorentz factors of radiating particles under the influence of both the accelerating electric fields and curvature radiation reaction. We further constrain our models using the observed dependence of the phase lags between the radio and gamma-ray emission on the gamma-ray peak separation. We perform a statistical comparison of our model radio-lag versus peak-separation diagram and the one obtained for the Fermi standard pulsars. We find that for models of uniform conductivity over the entire open magnetic field line region, agreement with observations favors higher values of this parameter. We find, however, significant improvement in fitting the data with models that employ a hybrid form of conductivity, specifically, infinite conductivity interior to the light cylinder and high but finite conductivity on the outside. In these models the gamma-ray emission is produced in regions near the equatorial current sheet but modulated by the local physical properties. These models have radio lags near the observed values and statistically best reproduce the observed light curve phenomenology. Additionally, they also produce GeV photon cut-off energies.

  18. Multiwavelength Polarization of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Alice K.; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Polarization measurements provide strong constraints on models for emission from rotation-powered pulsars. We present multiwavelength polarization predictions showing that measurements over a range of frequencies can be particularly important for constraining the emission location, radiation mechanisms, and system geometry. The results assume a generic model for emission from the outer magnetosphere and current sheet in which optical to hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation (SR) from electron–positron pairs and γ -ray emission is produced by curvature radiation (CR) or SR from accelerating primary electrons. The magnetic field structure of a force-free magnetosphere is assumed and the phase-resolved and phase-averaged polarization is calculated in the frame of an inertial observer. We find that large position angle (PA) swings and deep depolarization dips occur during the light-curve peaks in all energy bands. For synchrotron emission, the polarization characteristics are strongly dependent on photon emission radius with larger, nearly 180°, PA swings for emission outside the light cylinder (LC) as the line of sight crosses the current sheet. The phase-averaged polarization degree for SR is less that 10% and around 20% for emission starting inside and outside the LC, respectively, while the polarization degree for CR is much larger, up to 40%–60%. Observing a sharp increase in polarization degree and a change in PA at the transition between X-ray and γ -ray spectral components would indicate that CR is the γ -ray emission mechanism.

  19. Implications of the Early X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves of Swift GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Konigl, Arieh; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Chicago U., EFI; Piran, Tsvi; /Hebrew U.

    2006-01-17

    According to current models, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced when the energy carried by a relativistic outflow is dissipated and converted into radiation. The efficiency of this process, {epsilon}{sub {gamma}}, is one of the critical factors in any GRB model. The X-ray afterglow light curves of Swift GRBs show an early stage of flattish decay. This has been interpreted as reflecting energy injection. When combined with previous estimates, which have concluded that the kinetic energy of the late ({approx}> 10 hr) afterglow is comparable to the energy emitted in {gamma}-rays, this interpretation implies very high values of {epsilon}{sub {gamma}}, corresponding to {approx}> 90% of the initial energy being converted into {gamma}-rays. Such a high efficiency is hard to reconcile with most models, including in particular the popular internal-shocks model. We re-analyze the derivation of the kinetic energy from the afterglow X-ray flux and re-examine the resulting estimates of the efficiency. We confirm that, if the flattish decay arises from energy injection and the pre-Swift broad-band estimates of the kinetic energy are correct, then {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} {approx}> 0.9. We discuss various issues related to this result, including an alternative interpretation of the light curve in terms of a two-component outflow model, which we apply to the X-ray observations of GRB 050315. We point out, however, that another interpretation of the flattish decay--a variable X-ray afterglow efficiency (e.g., due to a time dependence of afterglow shock microphysical parameters)--is possible. We also show that direct estimates of the kinetic energy from the late X-ray afterglow flux are sensitive to the assumed values of the shock microphysical parameters and suggest that broad-band afterglow fits might have underestimated the kinetic energy (e.g., by overestimating the fraction of electrons that are accelerated to relativistic energies). Either one of these possibilities implies a

  20. THE INFRARED LIGHT CURVE OF SN 2011fe IN M101 AND THE DISTANCE TO M101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, T.; Joyce, R. R.; Allen, L. E.; Saha, A.; Silva, D. R.; Binkert, W. S.; Butler, K.; Everett, M.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Adams, J. J.; Anderson, R. E.; Beck, T. L.; Bentz, M. C.; Bershady, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Camarata, M. A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Glikman, E.; Harbeck, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present near-infrared light curves of supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, including 34 epochs in H band starting 14 days before maximum brightness in the B band. The light curve data were obtained with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera. When the data are calibrated using templates of other Type Ia SNe, we derive an apparent H-band magnitude at the epoch of B-band maximum of 10.85 ± 0.04. This implies a distance modulus for M101 that ranges from 28.86 to 29.17 mag, depending on which absolute calibration for Type Ia SNe is used.

  1. The Infrared Light Curve of SN 2011fe in M101 and the Distance to M101

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, T.; Joyce, R. R.; Allen, L. E.; Saha, A.; Silva, D. R.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Adams, J. J.; Anderson, R. E.; Beck, T. L.; Bentz, M. C.; Bershady, M. A.; Binkert, W. S.; Butler, K.; Camarata, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present near infra-red light curves of supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, including 34 epochs in H band starting fourteen days before maximum brightness in the B-band. The light curve data were obtained with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC). When the data are calibrated using templates of other Type Ia SNe, we derive an apparent H-band magnitude at the epoch of B-band maximum of 10.85 \\pm 0.04. This implies a distance modulus for M101 that ranges from 28.86 to 29.17 mag, depend...

  2. THE INFRARED LIGHT CURVE OF SN 2011fe IN M101 AND THE DISTANCE TO M101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, T.; Joyce, R. R.; Allen, L. E.; Saha, A.; Silva, D. R.; Binkert, W. S.; Butler, K.; Everett, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT-PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Adams, J. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, R. E.; Beck, T. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Bershady, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Gallagher, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Camarata, M. A. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Garnavich, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Glikman, E. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Harbeck, D., E-mail: matheson@noao.edu [WIYN Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2012-07-20

    We present near-infrared light curves of supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, including 34 epochs in H band starting 14 days before maximum brightness in the B band. The light curve data were obtained with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera. When the data are calibrated using templates of other Type Ia SNe, we derive an apparent H-band magnitude at the epoch of B-band maximum of 10.85 {+-} 0.04. This implies a distance modulus for M101 that ranges from 28.86 to 29.17 mag, depending on which absolute calibration for Type Ia SNe is used.

  3. Observations and modeling of the companions of short period binary millisecond pulsars: evidence for high-mass neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Joshua; Halpern, Jules

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of fields containing eight recently discovered binary millisecond pulsars using the telescopes at MDM Observatory. Optical counterparts to four of these systems are detected, one of which, PSR J2214+3000, is a novel detection. Additionally, we present the fully phase-resolved B, V, and R light curves of the optical counterparts to two objects, PSR J1810+1744 and PSR J2215+5135 for which we employ model fitting using the eclipsing light curve (ELC) model of Orosz and Hauschildt to measure the unknown system parameters. For PSR J1810+1744, we find that the system parameters cannot be fit even assuming that 100% of the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar is irradiating the secondary, and so radial velocity measurements of this object will be required for the complete solution. However, PSR J2215+5135 exhibits light curves that are extremely well constrained using the ELC model and we find that the mass of the neutron star is constrained by these and the radio observations to be M NS > 1.75 M ☉ at the 3σ level. We also find a discrepancy between the model temperature and the measured colors of this object, which we interpret as possible evidence for an additional high-temperature source such as a quiescent disk. Given this and the fact that PSR J2215+5135 contains a relatively high mass companion (M c > 0.1 M ☉ ), we propose that similar to the binary pulsar systems PSR J1023+0038 and IGR J18245–2452, the pulsar may transition between accretion- and rotation-powered modes.

  4. A Pulsar and a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Recent, unusual X-ray observations from our galactic neighbor, the Small Magellanic Cloud, have led to an interesting model for SXP 214, a pulsar in a binary star system.Artists illustration of the magnetic field lines of a pulsar, a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. [NASA]An Intriguing BinaryAn X-ray pulsar is a magnetized, rotating neutron star in a binary system with a stellar companion. Material is fed from the companion onto the neutron star, channeled by the objects magnetic fields onto a hotspot thats millions of degrees. This hotspot rotating past our line of sight is what produces the pulsations that we observe from X-ray pulsars.Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SXP 214 is a transient X-ray pulsar in a binary with a Be-type star. This star is spinning so quickly that material is thrown off of it to form a circumstellar disk.Recently, a team of authors led by JaeSub Hong (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have presented new Chandra X-ray observations of SXP 214, tracking it for 50 ks (~14 hours) in January 2013. These observations reveal some very unexpected behavior for this pulsar.X-ray PuzzleThe energy distribution of the X-ray emission from SXP 214 over time. Dark shades or blue colors indicate high counts, and light shades or yellow colors indicate low counts. Lower-energy X-ray emission appeared only later, after about 20 ks. [Hong et al. 2016]Three interesting pieces of information came from the Chandra observations:SXP 214s rotation period was measured to be 211.5 s an increase in the spin rate since the discovery measurement of a 214-second period. Pulsars usually spin down as they lose angular momentum over time so what caused this one to spin up?Its overall X-ray luminosity steadily increased over the 50 ks of observations.Its spectrum became gradually softer (lower energy) over time; in the first 20 ks, the spectrum only consisted of hard X-ray photons above 3 keV, but after 20 ks, softer X-ray photons below 2 ke

  5. On Some Statistical Properties of GRBs with Measured Redshifts Having Peaks in Optical Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii Beskin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the subset of optical light curves of gamma-ray bursts with measured redshifts and well-sampled R band data that have clearly detected peaks. Among 43 such events, 11 are promptoptical peaks (P, coincident with gamma-ray activity, 22 are purely afterglows (A, and 10 more carrythe signatures of an underlying activity (A(U. We studied pair correlations of their gamma-ray andoptical parameters, e.g. total energetics, peak optical luminosities, and durations. The main outcomeof our study is the detection of source frame correlations between both optical peak luminosity and total energy and the redshift for classes A and A(U, and the absence of such a correlation for class Pevents. This result seems to provide evidence of the cosmological evolution of a medium around the burst defining class A and A(U energetics, and the absence of cosmological evolution of the internal properties of GRB engines. We also discuss some other prominent correlations.

  6. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-01-01

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds

  7. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T. [European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); McFall, M., E-mail: ignace@etsu.edu [Department of Physics, 191 W. Woodruff Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  8. A New Relationship Between Soft X-Rays and EUV Flare Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are the result of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona which converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy resulting in the rapid heating of solar plasma. As this plasma cools, it emits radiation at different EUV wavelengths when the dropping temperature passes a line’s temperature of formation. This results in a delay in the emissions from cooler EUV lines relative to hotter EUV lines. Therefore, characterizing how this hot plasma cools is important for understanding how the corresponding geo-effective extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance evolves in time. I present a simple new framework in which to study flare cooling by using a Lumped Element Thermal Model (LETM). LETM is frequently used in science and engineering to simplify a complex multi-dimensional thermal system by reducing it to a 0-D thermal circuit. For example, a structure that conducts heat out of a system is simplified with a resistive element and a structure that allows a system to store heat is simplified with a capacitive element. A major advantage of LETM is that the specific geometry of a system can be ignored, allowing for an intuitive analysis of the major thermal processes. I show that LETM is able to accurately reproduce the temporal evolution of cooler flare emission lines based on hotter emission line evolution. In particular, it can be used to predict the evolution of EUV flare light curves using the NOAA X-Ray Sensor (XRS).

  9. IRTF/SPEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE UNUSUAL KEPLER LIGHT CURVE SYSTEM KIC 8462852

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Marengo, M., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We have utilized the NASA/IRTF 3 m SpeX instrument’s high-resolution spectral mode to observe and characterize the near-infrared flux emanating from the unusual Kepler light curve system KIC 8462852. By comparing the resulting 0.8–4.2 μm spectrum to a mesh of model photospheric spectra, the 6 emission line analyses of the Rayner et al. catalog, and the 25 system collections of debris disks we have observed to date using SpeX under the Near InfraRed Debris disk Survey, we have been able to additionally characterize the system. Within the errors of our measurements, this star looks like a normal solar abundance main-sequence F1V to F3V dwarf star without any obvious traces of significant circumstellar dust or gas. Using Connelley and Greene’s emission measures, we also see no evidence of significant ongoing accretion onto the star nor any stellar outflow away from it. Our results are inconsistent with large amounts of static close-in obscuring material or the unusual behavior of a YSO system, but are consistent with the favored episodic giant comet models of a Gyr old stellar system favored by Boyajian et al. We speculate that KIC 8462852, like the ∼1.4 Gyr old F2V system η Corvi, is undergoing a late heavy bombardment, but is only in its very early stages.

  10. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ∼2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu ≥ 0.7 mag on stars with u -1 deg -2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  11. Characterizing high-energy light curves of Fermi/Lat GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, Jarred [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A systematic analysis of the light curves of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRBs) with redshift and detected at high-energy (> 100 MeV) by Fermi/LAT has never been done before our work, because there were only a handful of detections. Now we have 20 of those, which we can use to characterize the GRBs in their rest frame. We compared a characteristic decay times Tc of GRBs with redshifts using the new “Pass 8” data, and used a Crystal Ball function to parametrize GRB characteristics. An unexpected anti-correlation between Tc and the peak flux was observed. This means that brighter peaked GRBs have shorter durations. There is also no correlation between the Tc and the decay index, which makes the anti-correlation with brightness more clear. This results appears to be consistent with the External Shock model, which is one of the competing hypothesis on the origin of the high-energy emission. We did not observe any bimodality, which is seen in GRBs at lower energies.

  12. Gamma-ray Burst X-ray Flares Light Curve Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubain, Jonisha

    2018-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the Universe. These electromagnetic explosions produce jets demonstrated by a short burst of prompt gamma-ray emission followed by a broadband afterglow. There are sharp increases of flux in the X-ray light curves known as flares that occurs in about 50% of the afterglows. In this study, we characterized all of the X-ray afterglows that were detected by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), whether with flares or without. We fit flares to the Norris function (Norris et al. 2005) and power laws with breaks where necessary (Racusin et al. 2009). After fitting the Norris function and power laws, we search for the residual pattern detected in prompt GRB pulses (Hakkila et al. 2014, 2015, 2017), that may indicate a common signature of shock physics. If we find the same signature in flares and prompt pulses, it provides insight into what causes them, as well as, how these flares are produced.

  13. Pair-instability Supernova Simulations: Progenitor Evolution, Explosion, and Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Kozyreva, Alexandra [The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hirschi, Raphael [Astrophysics group, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Yusof, Norhasliza, E-mail: msgilmer@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-09-10

    In recent years, the viability of the pair-instability supernova (PISN) scenario for explaining superluminous supernovae has all but disappeared except for a few slowly-evolving examples. However, PISNe are not predicted to be superluminous throughout the bulk of their mass range. In fact, it is more likely that the first PISN we see (if we have not seen one already) will not be superluminous. Here, we present hydrodynamic simulations of PISNe for four stellar models with unique envelope properties spanning the PISN mass range. In addition, we compute synthetic light curves (LCs) for comparison with current and future observations. We also investigate, in the context of our most massive model, the prospect of mixing in the supernova ejecta, alleviating discrepancies between current PISN models and the remaining superluminous candidate events. To this end, we present the first published 3D hydrodynamic simulations of PISNe. After achieving convergence between 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations, we examine mixing in the supernova ejecta and its affect on the bolometric LC. We observe slight deviations from spherical symmetry, which increase with the number of dimensions. We find no significant effects on the bolometric LC; however, we conclude that mixing between the silicon and oxygen rich layers caused by the Rayleigh–Taylor instability may affect spectra.

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF {sup 56}Ni IN SHAPING THE LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakar, Ehud; Poznanski, Dovi [The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-06-01

    What intrinsic properties shape the light curves of SNe II? To address this question we derive observational measures that are robust (i.e., insensitive to detailed radiative transfer) and constrain the contribution from {sup 56}Ni as well as a combination of the envelope mass, progenitor radius, and explosion energy. By applying our methods to a sample of SNe II from the literature, we find that a {sup 56}Ni contribution is often significant. In our sample, its contribution to the time-weighted integrated luminosity during the photospheric phase ranges between 8% and 72% with a typical value of 30%. We find that the {sup 56}Ni relative contribution is anti-correlated with the luminosity decline rate. When added to other clues, this in turn suggests that the flat plateaus often observed in SNe II are not a generic feature of the cooling envelope emission, and that without {sup 56}Ni many of the SNe that are classified as II-P would have shown a decline rate that is steeper by up to 1 mag/100 days. Nevertheless, we find that the cooling envelope emission, and not {sup 56}Ni contribution, is the main driver behind the observed range of decline rates. Furthermore, contrary to previous suggestions, our findings indicate that fast decline rates are not driven by lower envelope masses. We therefore suggest that the difference in observed decline rates is mainly a result of different density profiles of the progenitors.

  15. AN X-RAY AND OPTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODEL OF THE ECLIPSING SYMBIOTIC BINARY SMC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Mikołajewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Some binary evolution scenarios for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) include long-period binaries that evolve to symbiotic supersoft X-ray sources in their late stage of evolution. However, symbiotic stars with steady hydrogen burning on the white dwarf's (WD) surface are very rare, and the X-ray characteristics are not well known. SMC3 is one such rare example and a key object for understanding the evolution of symbiotic stars to SNe Ia. SMC3 is an eclipsing symbiotic binary, consisting of a massive WD and red giant (RG), with an orbital period of 4.5 years in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The long-term V light curve variations are reproduced as orbital variations in the irradiated RG, whose atmosphere fills its Roche lobe, thus supporting the idea that the RG supplies matter to the WD at rates high enough to maintain steady hydrogen burning on the WD. We also present an eclipse model in which an X-ray-emitting region around the WD is almost totally occulted by the RG swelling over the Roche lobe on the trailing side, although it is always partly obscured by a long spiral tail of neutral hydrogen surrounding the binary in the orbital plane.

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF SWIFT/X-RAY TELESCOPE DATA. IV. SINGLE POWER-LAW DECAYING LIGHT CURVES VERSUS CANONICAL LIGHT CURVES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR A UNIFIED ORIGIN OF X-RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Enwei; Lue Houjun; Hou Shujin; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing

    2009-01-01

    By systematically analyzing the Swift/XRT light curves detected before 2009 July, we find 19 light curves that monotonously decay as a single power law (SPL) with an index of 1 ∼ 1.7 from tens (or hundreds) of seconds to ∼10 5 s post the gamma-ray burst (GRB) trigger. They are apparently different from the canonical light curves characterized by a shallow-to-normal decay transition. We compare the observations of the prompt gamma rays and the X-rays for these two samples of GRBs (SPL vs. canonical). No statistical difference is found in the prompt gamma-ray properties for the two samples. The X-ray properties of the two samples are also similar, although the SPL sample tends to have a slightly lower neutral hydrogen absorption column for the host galaxies and a slightly larger energy release compared with the canonical sample. The SPL X-ray Telescope (XRT) light curves in the burst frame gradually merge into a conflux, and their luminosities at 10 5 s are normally distributed at log L/ergs s -1 = 45.6 ± 0.5. The normal decay segment of the canonical XRT light curves has the same feature. Similar to the normal decay segment, the SPL light curves satisfy the closure relations and therefore can be roughly explained with external shock models. In the scenario that the X-rays are the afterglows of the GRB fireball, our results indicate that the shallow decay would be due to energy injection into the fireball and the total energy budget after injection for both samples of GRBs is comparable. More intriguing, we find that a prior X-ray emission model proposed by Yamazaki is more straightforward to interpret the observed XRT data. We show that the zero times (T 0 ) of the X-rays are 10 2 -10 5 s prior to the GRB trigger for the canonical sample, and satisfy a log-normal distribution. The negligible T 0 's of the SPL sample are consistent with being the tail of T 0 distributions at low end, suggesting that the SPL sample and the canonical sample may be from a same

  17. Observational properties of pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, R N

    2004-04-23

    Pulsars are remarkable clocklike celestial sources that are believed to be rotating neutron stars formed in supernova explosions. They are valuable tools for investigations into topics such as neutron star interiors, globular cluster dynamics, the structure of the interstellar medium, and gravitational physics. Searches at radio and x-ray wavelengths over the past 5 years have resulted in a large increase in the number of known pulsars and the discovery of new populations of pulsars, posing challenges to theories of binary and stellar evolution. Recent images at radio, optical, and x-ray wavelengths have revealed structures resulting from the interaction of pulsar winds with the surrounding interstellar medium, giving new insights into the physics of pulsars.

  18. AGAINST THE WIND: RADIO LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE INTERACTING WITH LOW-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasen, Daniel N., E-mail: chelseaharris@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    For decades a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the X-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, because shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we model the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low-density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves. We also identify a fiducial set of models that obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for an interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial models can be used to deduce CSM properties from radio observations; we demonstrate this by applying them to the nondetections of SN 2011fe and SN 2014J. Finally, we explore a multiple shell CSM configuration and describe its more complicated dynamics and the resultant radio light curves.

  19. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  20. Discovery of Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Young Radio Pulsar PSR J1028-5819 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, Matthew G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /NASA, Goddard /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Radio pulsar PSR J1028-5819 was recently discovered in a high-frequency search (at 3.1 GHz) in the error circle of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) source 3EG J1027-5817. The spin-down power of this young pulsar is great enough to make it very likely the counterpart for the EGRET source. We report here the discovery of {gamma}-ray pulsations from PSR J1028-5819 in early observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The {gamma}-ray light curve shows two sharp peaks having phase separation of 0.460 {+-} 0.004, trailing the very narrow radio pulse by 0.200 {+-} 0.003 in phase, very similar to that of other known {gamma}-ray pulsars. The measured {gamma}-ray flux gives an efficiency for the pulsar of {approx}10-20% (for outer magnetosphere beam models). No evidence of a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen in the current Fermi data but limits on associated emission are weak because the source lies in a crowded region with high background emission. However, the improved angular resolution afforded by the LAT enables the disentanglement of the previous COS-B and EGRET source detections into at least two distinct sources, one of which is now identified as PSR J1028-5819.

  1. Meter-wavelength VLBI. III. Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, N.R.; Clark, T.A.; Clark, W.C.; Erickson, W.C.; Resch, G.M.; Broderick, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results and analysis of observations of pulsars, especially the Crab Nebula pulsar, taken during a series of meter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments are discussed. Based on a crude 144 MHz visibility curve which is consistent with a Gaussian brightness distribution, the measured visibilities at 196, 111, and 74 MHz were interpreted to yield apparent angular diameters (at half-power) of 0 .03 +- 0 .01, 0 .07 +- 0 .01, and 0 .18 +- 0 .01, respectively. These sizes scale approximately as wavelength-squared, and the 74 MHz size agrees with recent observations using interplanetary scintillation techniques.The VLBI-measured total flux densities lie on the extrapolation from higher frequencies of the pulsing flux densities. Variations in the total flux density up to 25 percent were observed. A lack of fine structure other than the pulsar in the nebula is indicated by our simple visibility curves. The pulse shapes observed with the interferometer are similar to single-dish measurements at 196 MHz but reveal a steady, nonpulsing component at 111 MHz. The ratio of pulsing to total power was approximately equal to one-half but varied with time. No pulsing power was detected at 74 MHz. It was found that four strong, low-dispersion pulsars were only slightly resolved

  2. Pulsar searches of Fermi unassociated sources with the Effelsberg telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, E. D.; Guillemot, L.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Eatough, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope operating at 1.36 GHz, we have performed a targeted radio pulsar survey of 289 unassociated γ-ray sources discovered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite and published in the 1FGL catalogue (Abdo et al. 2010a). In addition, this survey resulted in the discovery of millisecond pulsar J1745+1017, which resides in a short-period binary system with a low-mass companion, M c,min ~0.0137M⊙, indicative of ‘black widow’ type systems. A 2-yr timing campaign has produced a refined radio ephemeris, accurate enough to allow for phase-folding of the LAT photons, resulting in the detection of a dual-peaked γ-ray light curve, proving that PSR J1745+1017 is the source responsible for the γ-ray emission seen in 1FGL J1745.5+1018 (2FGL J1745.6+1015; Nolan et al. 2012). We find the γ-ray spectrum of PSR J1745+1017 to be well modelled by an exponentially cut-off power law with cut-off energy 3.2 GeV and photon index 1.6. The observed sources are known to contain a further 10 newly discovered pulsars which were undetected in this survey. Our radio observations of these sources are discussed and in all cases limiting flux densities are calculated. Lastly, the reasons behind the seemingly low yield of discoveries are also discussed.

  3. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Ashall, C. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moore University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Diamond, T. R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601 La Serena (Chile); Sand, D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stritzinger, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Suntzeff, N.; Krisciunas, K.; Wang, L. [The G.P. and C. Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Contreras, C.; Morrell, N., E-mail: phoeflich77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Ava España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δ m {sub 15}) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the ( B − V ) color and B ( B − V ), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to {sup 56}Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ {sub c} of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of {sup 56}Ni production. This results in a Δ m {sub 15} spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δ m {sub 15} with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E ( B − V ) and R {sub B}. Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  4. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: SPECTROSCOPIC CAMPAIGN AND EMISSION-LINE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sand, David J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Statistics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broad Hβ line widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad Hβ line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad Hβ width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region “breathes” on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad Hβ velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad Hβ velocity shifted by ∼250 km s{sup −1} over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  5. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored

  6. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Ashall, C.; Burns, C. R.; Diamond, T. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Sand, D.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Suntzeff, N.; Krisciunas, K.; Wang, L.; Contreras, C.; Morrell, N.

    2017-01-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δ m 15 ) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the ( B − V ) color and B ( B − V ), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to 56 Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ c of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of 56 Ni production. This results in a Δ m 15 spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δ m 15 with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E ( B − V ) and R B . Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  7. Statistical improvement in detection level of gravitational microlensing events from their light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ichsan; Malasan, Hakim L.; Kunjaya, Chatief; Timur Jaelani, Anton; Puannandra Putri, Gerhana; Djamal, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    In astronomy, the brightness of a source is typically expressed in terms of magnitude. Conventionally, the magnitude is defined by the logarithm of received flux. This relationship is known as the Pogson formula. For received flux with a small signal to noise ratio (S/N), however, the formula gives a large magnitude error. We investigate whether the use of Inverse Hyperbolic Sine function (hereafter referred to as the Asinh magnitude) in the modified formulae could allow for an alternative calculation of magnitudes for small S/N flux, and whether the new approach is better for representing the brightness of that region. We study the possibility of increasing the detection level of gravitational microlensing using 40 selected microlensing light curves from the 2013 and 2014 seasons and by using the Asinh magnitude. Photometric data of the selected events are obtained from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE). We found that utilization of the Asinh magnitude makes the events brighter compared to using the logarithmic magnitude, with an average of about 3.42 × 10‑2 magnitude and an average in the difference of error between the logarithmic and the Asinh magnitude of about 2.21 × 10‑2 magnitude. The microlensing events OB140847 and OB140885 are found to have the largest difference values among the selected events. Using a Gaussian fit to find the peak for OB140847 and OB140885, we conclude statistically that the Asinh magnitude gives better mean squared values of the regression and narrower residual histograms than the Pogson magnitude. Based on these results, we also attempt to propose a limit in magnitude value for which use of the Asinh magnitude is optimal with small S/N data.

  8. Real-time evaluation of two light delivery systems for photodynamic disinfection of Candida albicans biofilm in curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, C P; Garcez, A S; Núñez, S C; Ribeiro, M S; Hamblin, M R

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) combined with endodontic treatment has been recognized as an alternative approach to complement conventional root canal disinfection methods on bacterial biofilms. We developed an in  vitro model of bioluminescent Candida albicans biofilm inside curved dental root canals and investigated the microbial reduction produced when different light delivery methods are employed. Each light delivery method was evaluated in respect to the light distribution provided inside curved root canals. After conventional endodontic preparation, teeth were sterilized before canals were contaminated by a bioluminescent strain of C. albicans (CEC789). Methylene blue (90 μM) was introduced into the canals and then irradiated (λ = 660 nm, P = 100 mW, beam diameter = 2 mm) with laser tip either in contact with pulp chamber or within the canal using an optical diffuser fiber. Light distribution was evaluated by CCD camera, and microbial reduction was monitored through bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrated that the bioluminescent C. albicans biofilm model had good reproducibility and uniformity. Light distribution in dental tissue was markedly dependent on the light delivery system, and this strategy was directly related to microbial destruction. Both light delivery systems performed significant fungal inactivation. However, when irradiation was performed with optical diffuser fiber, microbial burden reduction was nearly 100 times more effective. Bioluminescence is an interesting real-time analysis to endodontic C. albicans biofilm inactivation. APDT showed to be an effective way to inactivate C. albicans biofilms. Diffuser fibers provided optimized light distribution inside curved root canals and significantly increased APDT efficiency.

  9. Aspects of pulsar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, F.S.; Kennel, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    We consider pulsar statistics from the point of view of generalized evolutionary equations that assume that pulsar torques diminish exponentially with a decay-time constant T, to be determined empirically. Decay or alignment of the neutron-star magnetic moment, or a combination, may cause the torque to diminish with time. The Sturrock-Ruderman-Sutherland pair-production model provides a quantitative way to calculate pulsar lifetimes. Different test, which use th data in partially independent ways and involve differnt assumptions, consistently suggest that T is less than a million years and may be as short as several hundred thousand years

  10. The Pulsar Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. Guseinov; E. Yazgan; S. O. Tagieva

    2003-01-01

    Hemos construido y examinado la función de luminosidad para pulsares, usando una nueva lista la cual incluye datos de 1328 radio pulsares. En este trabajo, se construye por primera vez la función de luminosidad en 1400 MHz. También presentamos una función de luminosidad mejorada en 400 MHz. Se comparan las funciones de luminosidad en 400 y 1400 MHz. De igual manera se construyen las funciones de luminosidad excluyendo los pulsares binarios y los de campos magnéticos pequeños. S...

  11. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne Hong

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from millisecond pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar light-curve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  12. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves: A Case Study of SN 2011fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V., E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We present a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that a variant broken-power-law function provides a good fit, with the simple assumption that the optical emission is approximately the blackbody emission of the expanding fireball. This function is mathematically analytic and is derived directly from the photospheric velocity evolution. When deriving the function, we assume that both the blackbody temperature and photospheric velocity are constant, but the final function is able to accommodate these changes during the fitting procedure. Applying it to the case study of SN 2011fe gives a surprisingly good fit that can describe the light curves from the first-light time to a few weeks after peak brightness, as well as over a large range of fluxes (∼5 mag, and even ∼7 mag in the g band). Since SNe Ia share similar light-curve shapes, this fitting method has the potential to fit most other SNe Ia and characterize their properties in large statistical samples such as those already gathered and in the near future as new facilities become available.

  13. ASTEROID LIGHT CURVES FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY SURVEY: ROTATION PERIODS AND PHASE FUNCTIONS FROM SPARSE PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waszczak, Adam [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chang, Chan-Kao; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas, E-mail: waszczak@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We fit 54,296 sparsely sampled asteroid light curves in the Palomar Transient Factory survey to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each light curve consists of 20 or more observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find that the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude, and other light-curve attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining ∼53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find that 9033 of our light curves (of ∼8300 unique asteroids) have “reliable” periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple light-curve fits indicates a 4% contamination in these “reliable” periods. For 3902 light curves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliable fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimodal though all correlate with the bond albedo and with visible-band colors. Comparing the theoretical maximal spin rate of a fluid body with our amplitude versus spin-rate distribution suggests that, if held together only by self-gravity, most asteroids are in general less dense than ∼2 g cm{sup −3}, while C types have a lower limit of between 1 and 2 g cm{sup −3}. These results are in agreement with previous density estimates. For 5–20 km diameters, S types rotate faster and have lower amplitudes than C types. If both populations share the same angular momentum, this may indicate the two types’ differing ability to deform under rotational stress. Lastly, we compare our absolute magnitudes (and apparent-magnitude residuals) to those of the Minor Planet Center’s nominal (G = 0.15, rotation-neglecting) model; our phase-function plus Fourier-series fitting reduces asteroid photometric rms

  14. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  15. Pulsar Emission Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Emission spectrum is calculated for a weak axisymmetric pulsar. Also calculated are the observed spectrum, efficiency, and the observed efficiency. The underlying flow of electrons and positrons turns out to be curiously intricate.

  16. Cosmic Ray Positrons from Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are potential Galactic sources of positrons through pair cascades in their magnetospheres. There are, however, many uncertainties in establishing their contribution to the local primary positron flux. Among these are the local density of pulsars, the cascade pair multiplicities that determine the injection rate of positrons from the pulsar, the acceleration of the injected particles by the pulsar wind termination shock, their rate of escape from the pulsar wind nebula, and their propagation through the interstellar medium. I will discuss these issues in the context of what we are learning from the new Fermi pulsar detections and discoveries.

  17. Effects of forward and backward transitions in light intensities in tau-illuminance curves of the rat motor activity rhythm under constant dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambras, Trinitat; Díez-Noguera, Antoni

    2012-07-01

    Circadian rhythms are strongly influenced by light intensity, the effects of which may persist beyond the duration of light exposure (aftereffects). Here, the authors constructed period-illuminance curves for the motor activity circadian rhythm of male and female rats by recording the effects of a series of small upward and downward steps in light intensity (illuminance ranging between .01 lux of dim red light and 1 lux of white light) on their activity. In all cases, stepwise changes were made in five logarithmic steps (irradiance: dim red light: .692 µW/cm(2) and white light: .006, .016, .044, .12, and .315 µW/cm(2), corresponding, respectively, to .02, .05, .14, .13, and 1 lux measured at cage level), with changes in intensity every 2 wks. One group of rats (DLD) started in dim red light, moved up to 1 lux white light, and then back down to the original light intensity. Another group (LDL) started at 1 lux, moved down to .01 lux, and then back up to the original intensity. Motor activity data were recorded throughout the experiment and tau values, the percentage of variance explained by the rhythm, and the mean motor activity for each stage and group were calculated. The results show differences in the dynamics of tau values between the DLD and LDL groups and between males and females. In the LDL group, the tau values of both males and females were dependent on light intensity, and were similar for the forward and backward transitions. In other words, no aftereffects were found, and no differences were detected between males and females. In the DLD group, however, differences were found between males and females. Males had a tau value of 24 h 20 min under dim red light, 25 h 40 min under 1 lux, and 24 h 50 min on return to dim red light. It is noticeable that the tau values of the backward branch of the illuminance curve contradicted classical predictions, since at .38 and .14 lux the tau values were shorter than those found under the same intensities after

  18. Radio emission region exposed: courtesy of the double pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomiashvili, David; Lyutikov, Maxim

    2014-06-01

    The double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B offers exceptional possibilities for detailed probes of the structure of the pulsar magnetosphere, pulsar winds and relativistic reconnection. We numerically model the distortions of the magnetosphere of pulsar B by the magnetized wind from pulsar A, including effects of magnetic reconnection and of the geodetic precession. Geodetic precession leads to secular evolution of the geometric parameters and effectively allows a 3D view of the magnetosphere. Using the two complimentary models of pulsar B's magnetosphere, adapted from the Earth's magnetosphere models by Tsyganenko (ideal pressure confinement) and Dungey (highly resistive limit), we determine the precise location and shape of the coherent radio emission generation region within pulsar B's magnetosphere. We successfully reproduce orbital variations and secular evolution of the profile of B, as well as subpulse drift (due to reconnection between the magnetospheric and wind magnetic fields), and determine the location and the shape of the emission region. The emission region is located at about 3750 stellar radii and has a horseshoe-like shape, which is centred on the polar magnetic field lines. The best-fitting angular parameters of the emission region indicate that radio emission is generated on the field lines which, according to the theoretical models, originate close to the poles and carry the maximum current. We resolved all but one degeneracy in pulsar B's geometry. When considered together, the results of the two models converge and can explain why the modulation of B's radio emission at A's period is observed only within a certain orbital phase region. Our results imply that the wind of pulsar A has a striped structure only 1000 light-cylinder radii away. We discuss the implications of these results for pulsar magnetospheric models, mechanisms of coherent radio emission generation and reconnection rates in relativistic plasma.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE X-RAY LIGHT CURVE OF THE {gamma} Cas-LIKE B1e STAR HD 110432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Myron A. [Catholic University of America, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Motch, Christian, E-mail: msmith@stsci.edu [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2012-08-10

    HD 110432 (BZ Cru; B1Ve) is the brightest member of a small group of '{gamma} Cas analogs' that emit copious hard X-ray flux, punctuated by ubiquitous 'flares'. To characterize the X-ray time history of this star, we made a series of six RXTE multi-visit observations in 2010 and an extended observation with the XMM-Newton in 2007. We analyzed these new light curves along with three older XMM-Newton observations from 2002 to 2003. Distributed over five months, the RXTE observations were designed to search for long X-ray modulations over a few months. These observations indeed suggest the presence of a long cycle with P Almost-Equal-To 226 days and an amplitude of a factor of two. We also used X-ray light curves constructed from XMM-Newton observations to characterize the lifetimes, strengths, and interflare intervals of 1615 flare-like events in the light curves. After accounting for false positive events, we infer the presence of 955 (2002-2003) and 386 (2007) events we identified as flares. Similarly, as a control we measured the same attributes for an additional group of 541 events in XMM-Newton light curves of {gamma} Cas, which, after a similar correction, yielded 517 flares. We found that the flare properties of HD 110432 are mostly similar to our control group. In both cases the distribution of flare strengths are best fit with log-linear relations. Both the slopes of these distributions and the flaring frequencies themselves exhibit modest fluctuations. We discovered that some flares in the hard X-ray band of HD 110432 were weak or unobserved in the soft band and vice versa. The light curves also occasionally show rapid curve drop-offs that are sustained for hours. We discuss the existence of the long cycle and these flare properties in the backdrop of two rival scenarios to produce hard X-rays, a magnetic star-disk interaction, and the accretion of blobs onto a secondary white dwarf.

  20. Light curve of the CX Cep eclipsing binary system and characteristics of a Wolf-Rayet star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipunova, N.A.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The photoelectric B, V, R observations of the eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary CX Cep (WN 5 + 08V, V approximately equal to 12sup(m),1, p approximately equal to 2sup(d),127) have been carried out. The physical characteristics of the WN 5 star, the core radius r 0 =(4.5+-2.5) Rsub(S) (Rsub(S) is the Sun radius) and the brightness temperature of the core Tsub(b)>50 000 K, are determined from the analysis of the light curve lambdasub(eff) approximately equal to 6 000 A. These characteristics are close to those of the WN 5 star in the eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary V 444 Cyg. The results of the interpretation of the light curves of two eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binaries (V 444 Cyg and CX Cep) confirm the conclusions of the modern theory of evolution of massive close binary systems [ru

  1. An adaptive-binning method for generating constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with Fermi-LAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, B.; Escande, L.; Larsson, S.; Ballet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present a method enabling the creation of constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with the data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The adaptive-binning method enables more information to be encapsulated within the light curve than with the fixed-binning method. Although primarily developed for blazar studies, it can be applied to any sources. Furthermore, this method allows the starting and ending times of each interval to be calculated in a simple and quick way during a first step. The reported mean flux and spectral index (assuming the spectrum is a power-law distribution) in the interval are calculated via the standard LAT analysis during a second step. In the absence of major caveats associated with this method Monte-Carlo simulations have been established. We present the performance of this method in determining duty cycles as well as power-density spectra relative to the traditional fixed-binning method.

  2. Non-regularized inversion method from light scattering applied to ferrofluid magnetization curves for magnetic size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SNe II light curves & spectra from the CfA (Hicken+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, M.; Friedman, A. S.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Esquerdo, G.; Matheson, T.; Modjaz, M.; Rest, A.; Kirshner, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    Since all of the optical photometry reported here was produced as part of the CfA3 and CfA4 processing campaigns, see Hicken+ (2009, J/ApJ/700/331) and Hicken+ (2012, J/ApJS/200/12) for greater details on the instruments, observations, photometry pipeline, calibration, and host-galaxy subtraction used to create the CfA SN II light curves. (8 data files).

  4. The frequency content of Double-Mode Cepheids light curves and the importance of the cross-coupling terms

    OpenAIRE

    Poretti, Ennio

    1997-01-01

    The recent results (Pardo & Poretti 1997, A&A 324, 121; Poretti & Pardo 1997, A&A 324, 133) obtained on the frequency content of Double-Mode Cepheids light curves and the properties of their Fourier parameters are reviewed. Some points briefly discussed in previous papers (no third periodicity, methodological aspects on the true peaks detection, the action of the cross coupling terms and the impact on theoretical models) are described.

  5. Gamma ray emission from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Massaro, E.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the production of gamma rays in a pulsar environment is presented, together with numerical computations fitted to the observations of PSR 0833-45. It is assumed that the primary particles are accelerated close to the star surface and then injected along the open field lines, which cause them to emit curvature radiation. The equation describing the particles' braking is integrated exactly up to the first order in the pulsar rotational frequency, and the transfer problem for the curvature photons is solved with the aberration, the Doppler shif, and the pair production absorption being taken into account. The latter effect is due not only to the transverse component of the magnetic field, but also to the electric field induced by the rotation. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the secondary particles is also included, subject to the 'on-the-spot' approximation. It is found that the observed gamma rays originate in the innermost regions of the magnetosphere, where the open lines' bundle is narrow and the geometrical beaming is effective. As shown by the computed pulse profiles, the duty cycle turns out to be equal to a few percent, comparable to the one of PSR 0833-45. The averaged spectra indicate that a substantial fraction of the primary photons do outlive the interaction with the magnetisphere; furthermore, the agreement in shape with the observational curves suggests that the acceleration output is fiarly close to a monoenergetic beam of particles. (orig.) [de

  6. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) Light Curve Server v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Shields, J. V.; Will, D.; Britt, C.; Perzanowski, D.; Pojmański, G.

    2017-10-01

    The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is working toward imaging the entire visible sky every night to a depth of V˜ 17 mag. The present data covers the sky and spans ˜2-5 years with ˜100-400 epochs of observation. The data should contain some ˜1 million variable sources, and the ultimate goal is to have a database of these observations publicly accessible. We describe here a first step, a simple but unprecedented web interface https://asas-sn.osu.edu/ that provides an up to date aperture photometry light curve for any user-selected sky coordinate. The V band photometry is obtained using a two-pixel (16.″0) radius aperture and is calibrated against the APASS catalog. Because the light curves are produced in real time, this web tool is relatively slow and can only be used for small samples of objects. However, it also imposes no selection bias on the part of the ASAS-SN team, allowing the user to obtain a light curve for any point on the celestial sphere. We present the tool, describe its capabilities, limitations, and known issues, and provide a few illustrative examples.

  7. Oscillatory patterns in the light curves of five long-term monitored type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Andjelka B.; Pérez-Hernández, Ernesto; Popović, Luka Č.; Shapovalova, Alla I.; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Ilić, Dragana

    2018-04-01

    New combined data of five well-known type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are probed with a novel hybrid method in a search for oscillatory behaviour. Additional analysis of artificial light curves obtained from the coupled oscillatory models gives confirmation for detected periods that could have a physical background. We find periodic variations in the long-term light curves of 3C 390.3, NGC 4151 and NGC 5548, and E1821 + 643, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.6. We show that the oscillatory patterns of two binary black hole candidates, NGC 5548 and E1821 + 643, correspond to qualitatively different dynamical regimes of chaos and stability, respectively. We demonstrate that the absence of oscillatory patterns in Arp 102B could be the result of a weak coupling between oscillatory mechanisms. This is the first good evidence that 3C 390.3 and Arp 102B, categorized as double-peaked Balmer line objects, have qualitative different dynamics. Our analysis shows a novelty in the oscillatory dynamical patterns of the light curves of these type 1 AGNs.

  8. PyTranSpot: A tool for multiband light curve modeling of planetary transits and stellar spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvan, Ines G.; Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Fossati, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Lammer, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have shown that stellar activity features, such as occulted and non-occulted starspots, can affect the measurement of transit parameters biasing studies of transit timing variations and transmission spectra. We present PyTranSpot, which we designed to model multiband transit light curves showing starspot anomalies, inferring both transit and spot parameters. The code follows a pixellation approach to model the star with its corresponding limb darkening, spots, and transiting planet on a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate grid. We combine PyTranSpot with a Markov chain Monte Carlo framework to study and derive exoplanet transmission spectra, which provides statistically robust values for the physical properties and uncertainties of a transiting star-planet system. We validate PyTranSpot's performance by analyzing eleven synthetic light curves of four different star-planet systems and 20 transit light curves of the well-studied WASP-41b system. We also investigate the impact of starspots on transit parameters and derive wavelength dependent transit depth values for WASP-41b covering a range of 6200-9200 Å, indicating a flat transmission spectrum.

  9. Helical Tomography of an Accretion Disk by Superhump Light Curves of the 2001 Outburst of WZ Sagittae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoji

    2003-06-01

    A new method for analyzing complex superhump light curves for the 2001 outburst of WZ Sagittae is proposed. The complexity arises because intrinsically time-varying and non-axisymmetric distributions of superhump light sources are coupled with the aspect effects around the binary orbital phase because of its high orbital inclination. The new method can disentangle these complexities by separating the non-axisymmetric spatial distribution in the disk from the time variation with the superhump period. It may be called a helical tomography of an accretion disk because it can reconstruct a series of disk images (i.e., disk's azimuthal structures) at different superhump phases. The power spectral data of superhump light curves of the 2001 outburst of WZ Sge by Patterson et al. (2002, PASP, 114, 721) are now interpreted under a new light based on the concept of helical tomography, and the azimuthal wave numbers of various frequency modes are identified. In particular, a frequen! cy component, nω0 - Ω, where ω0 and Ω are the orbital frequency and a low frequency of the apsidal precession of the eccentric disk, is understood as an (n - 1)-armed traveling wave in the disk. A vigorous excitation of a wave component of cos(2Θ - 3ω0t) in the first week of the superhump era of WZ Sge, where Θ is the azimuthal angle, supports Lubow's (1991, AAA 54.064.175) theory of non-linear wave coupling of the eccentric Lindblad resonance for the superhump phenomenon. This method can in principle be applied to other SU UMa stars with high orbital inclination if light curves are fully covered over the beat cycle.

  10. Broadband pulsations from PSR B1821–24: Implications for emission models and the pulsar population of M28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T. J. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kerr, M.; Romani, R. W.; Wood, M. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Grove, J. E.; Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Bégin, S. [Département de physique, génie physique et optique, Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Janssen, G. H.; Espinoza, C. M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa); Casandjian, J. M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K., E-mail: tyrel.j.johnson@gmail.com, E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: kerrm@stanford.edu, E-mail: icognard@cnrs-orleans.fr, E-mail: Paul.Ray@nrl.navy.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    We report a 5.4σ detection of pulsed gamma rays from PSR B1821–24 in the globular cluster M28 using ∼44 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data that have been reprocessed with improved instrument calibration constants. We constructed a phase-coherent ephemeris, with post-fit residual rms of 3 μs, using radio data spanning ∼23.2 yr, enabling measurements of the multi-wavelength light-curve properties of PSR B1821–24 at the milliperiod level. We fold RXTE observations of PSR B1821–24 from 1996 to 2007 and discuss implications on the emission zones. The gamma-ray light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.41 ± 0.02 in phase, with the first gamma-ray peak lagging behind the first radio peak by 0.05 ± 0.02 in phase, consistent with the phase of giant radio pulses. We observe significant emission in the off-peak interval of PSR B1821–24 with a best-fit LAT position inconsistent with the core of M28. We do not detect significant gamma-ray pulsations at the spin or orbital periods from any other known pulsar in M28, and we place limits on the number of energetic pulsars in the cluster. The derived gamma-ray efficiency, ∼2%, is typical of other gamma-ray pulsars with comparable spin-down power, suggesting that the measured spin-down rate (2.2 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}) is not appreciably distorted by acceleration in the cluster potential. This confirms PSR B1821–24 as the second very energetic millisecond pulsar in a globular cluster and raises the question of whether these represent a separate class of objects that only form in regions of very high stellar density.

  11. B and V photoelectric photometry and light curve solution of the interacting binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani and SY Horologii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first photoelectric observations of the eclipsing binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani, and SY Horologii were obtained and complete B and V light curves are presented. Improved light elements were derived for all three systems. The light curves of HI Puppis were analyzed by the three different computer models of Wilson and Devinney (1971), Binnendijk (1977), and Wood (1971) to get the geometrical and photometric elements of the system. HI Puppis, whose light curves show a total eclipse at secondary minimum, is shown to be a classic A-Type W Ursae Majoris system. The geometrical and photometric elements of BL Eridani were obtained from the analysis of the light curves using the method of Wilson and Devinney. The asymmetric nature of the light curve is treated as being due to the presence of an underluminous starspot on the primary component. The light curves of BL Eri show secondary eclipse to be total. The system is found to be a near contact system with the primary component filling its Roche lobe and the secondary nearly filling its lobe with a fill-out ratio of approximately 1.0. The light curves of SY Horologii were also subjected to the model of Wilson and Devinney. Both primary and secondary eclipses are partial

  12. The effect of scattered light sensor orientation on roughness measurement of curved polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    directions, and its acquisition within ± 16º angular range with a linear detector array. From the distribution of the acquired scattered light intensity, a number of statistical parameters describing the surface texture are calculated, where the Aq parameter (variance of the scattered light distribution...

  13. Kepler K2 observations of the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. R.; Clark, C. J.; Voisin, G.; Breton, R. P.

    2018-06-01

    For 80 d in 2017, the Kepler Space Telescope continuously observed the transitional millisecond pulsar system PSR J1023+0038 in its accreting state. We present analyses of the 59-s cadence data, focusing on investigations of the orbital light curve of the irradiated companion star and of flaring activity in the neutron star's accretion disc. The underlying orbital modulation from the companion star retains a similar amplitude and asymmetric heating profile as seen in previous photometric observations of the system in its radio pulsar state, suggesting that the heating mechanism has not been affected by the state change. We also find tentative evidence that this asymmetry may vary with time. The light curve also exhibits `flickering' activity, evident as short time-scale flux correlations throughout the observations, and periods of rapid mode-switching activity on time-scales shorter than the observation cadence. Finally, the system spent ˜ 20 per cent of the observations in a flaring state, with the length of these flares varying from <2 min up to several hours. The flaring behaviour is consistent with a self-organized criticality mechanism, most likely related to the build-up and release of mass at the inner edge of the accretion disc.

  14. The mass of the black hole in 1A 0620-00, revisiting the ellipsoidal light curve modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grunsven, Theo F. J.; Jonker, Peter G.; Verbunt, Frank W. M.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2017-12-01

    The mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes can provide important clues to supernova modelling, but observationally it is still ill constrained. Therefore, it is of importance to make black hole mass measurements as accurate as possible. The X-ray transient 1A 0620-00 is well studied, with a published black hole mass of 6.61 ± 0.25 M⊙, based on an orbital inclination i of 51.0° ± 0.9°. This was obtained by Cantrell et al. (2010) as an average of independent fits to V-, I- and H-band light curves. In this work, we perform an independent check on the value of i by re-analysing existing YALO/SMARTS V-, I- and H-band photometry, using different modelling software and fitting strategy. Performing a fit to the three light curves simultaneously, we obtain a value for i of 54.1° ± 1.1°, resulting in a black hole mass of 5.86 ± 0.24 M⊙. Applying the same model to the light curves individually, we obtain 58.2° ± 1.9°, 53.6° ± 1.6° and 50.5° ± 2.2° for V-, I- and H-band, respectively, where the differences in best-fitting i are caused by the contribution of the residual accretion disc light in the three different bands. We conclude that the mass determination of this black hole may still be subject to systematic effects exceeding the statistical uncertainty. Obtaining more accurate masses would be greatly helped by continuous phase-resolved spectroscopic observations simultaneous with photometry.

  15. On the number of light rings in curved spacetimes of ultra-compact objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2018-01-01

    In a very interesting paper, Cunha, Berti, and Herdeiro have recently claimed that ultra-compact objects, self-gravitating horizonless solutions of the Einstein field equations which have a light ring, must possess at least two (and, in general, an even number of) light rings, of which the inner one is stable. In the present compact paper we explicitly prove that, while this intriguing theorem is generally true, there is an important exception in the presence of degenerate light rings which, in the spherically symmetric static case, are characterized by the simple dimensionless relation 8 πrγ2 (ρ +pT) = 1 [here rγ is the radius of the light ring and { ρ ,pT } are respectively the energy density and tangential pressure of the matter fields]. Ultra-compact objects which belong to this unique family can have an odd number of light rings. As a concrete example, we show that spherically symmetric constant density stars with dimensionless compactness M / R = 1 / 3 possess only one light ring which, interestingly, is shown to be unstable.

  16. Pulsars: gigantic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Renxin

    2011-01-01

    What is the real nature of pulsars? This is essentially a question of the fundamental strong interaction between quarks at low-energy scale and hence of the non-perturbative quantum chromo-dynamics, the solution of which would certainly be meaningful for us to understand one of the seven millennium prize problems (i.e., "Yang-Mills Theory") named by the Clay Mathematical Institute. After a historical note, it is argued here that a pulsar is very similar to an extremely big nucleus, but is a little bit different from the gigantic nucleus speculated 80 years ago by L. Landau. The paper demonstrates the similarity between pulsars and gigantic nuclei from both points of view: the different manifestations of compact stars and the general behavior of the strong interaction. (author)

  17. Handbook of pulsar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars. Studies of these fascinating objects have provided applications in solid-state physics, general relativity, galactic astronomy, astrometry, planetary physics and even cosmology. Most of these applications and much of what we know about neutron stars are derived from single-dish radio observations using state-of-the-art receivers and data acquisition systems. This comprehensive 2004 book is a unique resource that brings together the key observational techniques, background information and a review of results, including the discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided which can be used to analyse example data, made available on a related website. This work will be of great value not only to graduate students but also to researchers wishing to carry out and interpret a wide variety of radio pulsar observations.

  18. Pulsar slow-down epochs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of magnetospheric currents and low frequency waves for pulsar braking is assessed and a model is developed which tries to account for the available pulsar timing data under the unifying aspect that all pulsars have equal masses and magnetic moments and are born as rapid rotators. Four epochs of slow-down are distinguished which are dominated by different braking mechanisms. According to the model no direct relationship exists between 'slow-down age' and true age of a pulsar and leads to a pulsar birth-rate of one event per hundred years. (Author) [pt

  19. Circadian phase response curves to light in older and young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Katharine M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phase of a circadian rhythm reflects where the peak and the trough occur, for example, the peak and trough of performance within the 24 h. Light exposure can shift this phase. More extensive knowledge of the human circadian phase response to light is needed to guide light treatment for shiftworkers, air travelers, and people with circadian rhythm phase disorders. This study tested the hypotheses that older adults have absent or weaker phase-shift responses to light (3000 lux, and that women's responses might differ from those of men. Methods After preliminary health screening and home actigraphic recording baselines, 50 young adults (ages 18–31 years and 56 older adults (ages 59–75 years remained in light-controlled laboratory surroundings for 4.7 to 5.6 days, while experiencing a 90-min ultra-short sleep-wake cycle. Following at least 30 h in-lab baseline, over the next 51 h, participants were given 3 treatments with 3000 lux white light, each treatment for 3 h, centered at one of 8 clock times. The circadian rhythms of urinary aMT6s (a melatonin metabolite, free cortisol, oral temperature, and wrist activity were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results Light (3000 lux for 3 h on 3 days induced maximal phase shifts of about 3 h. Phase shifts did not differ significantly in amplitude among older and young groups or among women and men. At home and at baseline, compared to the young, the older adults were significantly phase-advanced in sleep, cortisol, and aMT6s onset, but not advanced in aMT6s acrophase or the temperature rhythm. The inflection from delays to advances was approximately 1.8 h earlier among older compared to young participants in reference to their aMT6s rhythm peaks, and it was earlier in clock time. Conclusion In these experimental conditions, 3000 lux light could shift the phase of circadian rhythms to about the same extent among older and young adults, but the optimal light timing for

  20. One-phase and two-phase homologous curves for coolant pumps of the pressurized light water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.A. dos.

    1990-01-01

    The two-phase coolant pump model of pressurized light water nuclear reactors is an important point for the loss of primary coolant accident analysis. The single-phase pump characteristics are an essential feature for operational transients studies, for example, the shut-down and start-up of pump. These parameters, in terms of the homologous curves, set up the complete performance of the pump and are input for transients and accidents analysis thermal-hydraulic codes. This work propose a mathematical model able to predict the single-phase and two-phase homologous curves where it was incorporated geometric and operational pump condition. The results were compared with the experimental tests data from literature and it has showed a good agreement. (author)

  1. Particle acceleration by pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, Jonathan.

    1980-06-01

    The evidence that pulsars accelerate relativistic particles is reviewed, with emphasis on the γ-ray observations. The current state of knowledge of acceleration in strong waves is summarized, with emphasis on the inability of consistent theories to accelerate very high energy particles without converting too much energy into high energy photons. The state of viable models for pair creation by pulsars is summarized, with the conclusion that pulsars very likely lose rotational energy in winds instead of in superluminous strong waves. The relation of the pair creation models to γ-ray observations and to soft X-ray observations of pulsars is outlined, with the conclusion that energetically viable models may exist, but none have yet yielded useful agreement with the extant data. Some paths for overcoming present problems are discussed. The relation of the favored models to cosmic rays is discussed. It is pointed out that the pairs made by the models may have observable consequences for observation of positrons in the local cosmic ray flux and for observations of the 511 keV line from the interstellar medium. Another new point is that asymmetry of plasma supply from at least one of the models may qualitatively explain the gross asymmetry of the X-ray emission from the Crab nebula. It is also argued that acceleration of cosmic ray nuclei by pulsars, while energetically possible, can occur only at the boundary of the bubbles blown by the pulsars, if the cosmic ray composition is to be anything like that of the known source spectrum

  2. CONSTRUCTION OF AN EARTH MODEL: ANALYSIS OF EXOPLANET LIGHT CURVES AND MAPPING THE NEXT EARTH WITH THE NEW WORLDS OBSERVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, P. H. H.; Cash, W.

    2009-01-01

    The orbital light curve of a terrestrial exoplanet will likely contain valuable information about the surface and atmospheric features of the planet, both in its overall shape and hourly variations. We have constructed an empirically based code capable of simulating observations of the Earth from any orientation, at any time of year with continuously updated cloud and snow coverage with a New Worlds Observatory. By simulating these observations over a full orbital revolution at a distance of 10 pc we determine that the detection of an obliquity or seasonal terrain change is possible at low inclinations. In agreement with other studies, a 4 m New Worlds Observer can accurately determine the rotation rate of the planet at a success rate from ∼30% to 80% with only 5 days of observations depending on the signal to noise of the observations. We also attempt simple inversions of these diurnal light curves to sketch a map of the reflecting planet's surface features. This mapping technique is only successful with highly favorable systems and in particular requires that the cloud coverage must be lower than the Earth's average. Our test case of a 2 M + planet at 7 pc distance with low exo-zodiacal light and 25% cloud coverage produced crude, but successful results. Additionally, with these highly favorable systems NWO may be able to discern the presence of liquid surface water (or other smooth surfaces) though it requires a complex detection available only at crescent phases in high inclination systems.

  3. Pulsar glitch dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, P. D.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss pulsar glitch dynamics from three different viewpoints: statistical description, neutron star equation of state description and finally an electromagnetic field description. For the latter, the pulsar glitch recovery times are the dissipation time constants of sheet surface currents created in response to the glitch-induced crustal magnetic field disruption. We mathematically derive these glitch time constants (Ohmic time constant and Hall sheet current time constant) from a perturbation analysis of the electromagnetic induction equation. Different crustal channels will carry the sheet surface current and their different electron densities determine the time constants.

  4. Interaction of a pulsar with interstellar matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Ya. N.

    1994-03-01

    An increase of the rate of spin-down dot-P and emergence of a Magnus force acting on the star is connected with the appearance of a dense hydrogen plasma in the region of light surface. These effects are proportional to the permittivity epsilon = 1 + c2/(VA)2, where vA is the Alfven velocity in the vicinity of the light cylinder. During its lifetime, a pulsar can change the direction of its proper velocity and leave the Galactic plane. For the pulsar PSR 1757-24 located in the nebula G5.4-1.2, it is shown that due to the changing value of dot-P its characteristic age increases up to 7.5 x 104 years and the proper velocity decreases in magnitude to the order of 400km/s.

  5. Pulsar Emission: Is It All Relative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-five years after the discovery of pulsars, we still do not understand the fundamentals of their pulsed emission at any wavelength. The fact that even detailed pulse profiles cannot identlfy the origin of the emission in a magnetosphere that extends fiom the neutron star surface to plasma moving at relativistic speeds near the light cylinder compounds the problem. I will discuss the role of special and general relativistic effects on pulsar emission, fiom inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics.

  6. Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommen, Andrea N

    2015-12-01

    We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves.

  7. Effect of F- and Z2-light illumination on thermal glow curves of pretreated NaCl:Ca phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.V.; Dhake, K.P.; Joshi, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that colour centres are produced when doped or undoped alkali halides are exposed to ionizing radiation. Earlier work has also revealed an intimate relationship between the thermoluminescence (TL) centres associated with the glow peaks and different species of colour centres. The aim of the present investigation has been to find out the species of colour centres associated with the observed thermal glow peaks. The measurements were carried out on thermally treated Ca-doped NaCl phosphors. The thermal treatment involves annealing of the phosphors at 550 C. The specimens were irradiated by a 90 Sr 20 mCi source. A figure showing the glow curves recorded immediately after β-irradiation, after β-irradiation followed by F-light illumination and after β-irradiation followed by 20 min decay at room temperature. The F-light illumination leads to the quenching of the peak at 137 C and generates new peaks at 113 and 157 C. The bleaching effect becomes more significant with the increase in the duration of F-light illumination. The effect of F-light illumination followed by Z 2 -light illumination shows that of the two peaks appearing earlier, the 113 C peak is selectively suppressed. The isothermal bleaching at room temperature for 20 min does not affect the intensity of the 137 C peak. The results are discussed. (author)

  8. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, María [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, PO BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  9. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Turner, Neal J.; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall

  10. SDSS J14584479+3720215: A BENCHMARK JHK{sub S} BLAZAR LIGHT CURVE FROM THE 2MASS CALIBRATION SCANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Ruan, John J.; Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Macleod, Chelsea L. [Physics Department, The United States Naval Academy, 572c Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR (NIR) variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHK{sub s}-band light curves from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSS J14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled NIR photometric blazar light curve to date, and it exhibits correlated, stochastic variability that we characterize with continuous auto-regressive moving average (CARMA) models. None of the other 26 known quasars had detectable variability in the 2MASS bands above the photometric uncertainty. A blind search of the 2MASS calibration field light curves for active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates based on fitting CARMA(1,0) models (damped-random walk) uncovered only seven candidates. All seven were young stellar objects within the ρ Ophiuchus star forming region, five with previous X-ray detections. A significant γ-ray detection (5σ) for the known blazar using 4.5 yr of Fermi photon data is also found. We suggest that strong NIR variability of blazars, such as seen for SDSS J14584479+3720215, can be used as an efficient method of identifying previously unidentified γ-ray blazars, with low contamination from other AGNs.

  11. Modelling the KIC8462852 light curves: compatibility of the dips and secular dimming with an exocomet interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M. C.; van Lieshout, R.; Kennedy, G. M.; Boyajian, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper shows how the dips and secular dimming in the KIC8462852 light curve can originate in circumstellar material distributed around a single elliptical orbit (e.g. exocomets). The expected thermal emission and wavelength dependent dimming is derived for different orbital parameters and geometries, including dust that is optically thick to stellar radiation, and for a size distribution of dust with realistic optical properties. We first consider dust distributed evenly around the orbit, then show how to derive its uneven distribution from the optical light curve and to predict light curves at different wavelengths. The fractional luminosity of an even distribution is approximately the level of dimming times stellar radius divided by distance from the star at transit. Non-detection of dust thermal emission for KIC8462852 thus provides a lower limit on the transit distance to complement the 0.6 au upper limit imposed by 0.4 d dips. Unless the dust distribution is optically thick, the putative 16 per cent century-long secular dimming must have disappeared before the WISE 12 μm measurement in 2010, and subsequent 4.5 μm observations require transits at >0.05 au. However, self-absorption of thermal emission removes these constraints for opaque dust distributions. The passage of dust clumps through pericentre is predicted to cause infrared brightening lasting tens of days and dimming during transit, such that total flux received decreases at wavelengths dimming levels than seen for KIC8462852 are more common in the Galactic population and may be detected in future transit surveys.

  12. ON THE GLOBAL STRUCTURE OF PULSAR FORCE-FREE MAGNETOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The dipolar magnetic field structure of a neutron star is modified by the plasma originating in the pulsar magnetosphere. In the simplest case of a stationary axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere, a self-consistent description of the fields and currents is given by the well-known pulsar equation. Here we revise the commonly used boundary conditions of the problem in order to incorporate the plasma-producing gaps and to provide a framework for a truly self-consistent treatment of the pulsar magnetosphere. A generalized multipolar solution of the pulsar equation is found, which, as compared to the customary split monopole solution, is suggested to better represent the character of the dipolar force-free field at large distances. In particular, the outer gap location entirely inside the light cylinder implies that beyond the light cylinder the null and critical lines should be aligned and become parallel to the equator at a certain altitude. Our scheme of the pulsar force-free magnetosphere, which will hopefully be followed by extensive analytic and numerical studies, may have numerous implications for different fields of pulsar research.

  13. Giant pulses of pulsar radio emission

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, A. D.

    2007-01-01

    Review report of giant pulses of pulsar radio emission, based on our detections of four new pulsars with giant pulses, and the comparative analysis of the previously known pulsars with giant pulses, including the Crab pulsar and millisecond pulsar PSR B1937+21.

  14. Structure in the early afterglow light curve of the gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Makoto; Kato, Taichi; Ishioka, Ryoko; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Monard, Berto; Nogami, Daisaku; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Sugie, Atsushi; Takahashi, Susumu

    2003-06-19

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are energetic explosions that for 0.01-100 s are the brightest gamma-ray sources in the sky. Observations of the early evolution of afterglows are expected to provide clues about the nature of the bursts, but their rapid fading has hampered such studies; some recent rapid localizations of bursts have improved the situation. Here we report an early detection of the very bright afterglow of the burst of 29 March 2003 (GRB030329). Our data show that, even early in the afterglow phase, the light curve shows unexpectedly complicated structures superimposed on the fading background.

  15. Current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: connection between light and dark curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boix, Pablo P.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain); Marchesi, Luis F. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de, Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil); Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A connection is established between recombination and series resistances extracted from impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage curves of polythiophene:fullerene organic solar cells. Recombination is shown to depend exclusively on the (Fermi level) voltage, which allows construction of the current-voltage characteristics in any required conditions based on a restricted set of measurements. The analysis highlights carrier recombination current as the determining mechanism of organic solar cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. γ-ray emission from slow pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    The scope of this communication is to calculate the expected γ-ray flux from slow pulsars, neglecting the problem of the reliability of the observations. The key hypothesis is that since the γ-ray luminosity is a substantial fraction of Lsub(T) (the intrinsic energy loss), it should be produced in the vicinity of the speed of light radius. This comes from the well known argument of simultaneous conservation of energy and angular momentum. (Auth.)

  17. Light distributions in a port wine stain model containing multiple cylindrical and curved blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, G. W.; Verkruysse, W.; Keijzer, M.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the light distribution in skin tissue is important for the understanding, prediction, and improvement of the clinical results in laser treatment of port wine stains (PWS). The objective of this study is to improve modelling of PWS treated by laser using an improved and more realistic

  18. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Heatherly, S.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Boyles, J. R.; Wilson, M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) (NSF #0737641) is a joint project between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to interest high school students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics related career paths by helping them to conduct authentic scientific research. The 3 year PSC program,…

  19. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Collier Cameron, A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Jehin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Street, R. A., E-mail: amss@astro.keele.ac.uk [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  20. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar J1813–1246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; De Luca, A.; Caraveo, P.; Salvetti, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Harding, A. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Acero, F., E-mail: marelli@lambrate.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universit Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-11-10

    We have analyzed the new deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the energetic, radio-quiet pulsar J1813–1246. The X-ray spectrum is nonthermal, very hard, and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available Fermi ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The γ-ray light curve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardening toward the bridge. Surprisingly, both X-ray peaks lag behind the γ-ray ones by a quarter of phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with INTEGRAL, which is consistent with the extrapolation of both the soft X-ray and γ-ray emission of J1813. The unique X-ray and γ-ray phasing suggests a singular emission geometry. We discuss some possibilities within the current pulsar emission models. Finally, we develop an alternative geometrical model where the X-ray emission comes from polar cap pair cascades.

  1. Understanding the spectral and timing behaviour of a newly discovered transient X-ray pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2018-03-01

    We present the results obtained from timing and spectral studies of the newly discovered accreting X-ray binary pulsar Swift J0243.6+6124 using Nuclear Spectroscopy Telescope Array observation in 2017 October at a flux level of ˜280 mCrab. Pulsations at 9.854 23(5) s were detected in the X-ray light curves of the pulsar. Pulse profiles of the pulsar were found to be strongly energy dependent. A broad profile at lower energies was found to evolve into a double-peaked profile in ≥ 30 keV. The 3-79 keV continuum spectrum of the pulsar was well described with a negative and positive exponential cutoff or high-energy cutoff power-law models modified with a hot blackbody at ˜3 keV. An iron emission line was also detected at 6.4 keV in the source spectrum. We did not find any signature of cyclotron absorption line in our study. Results obtained from phase-resolved and time-resolved spectroscopy are discussed in the paper.

  2. Change of characteristic curves using light emission spectrum of the intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1990-01-01

    This report is study about difference of H-D curve in regular film and ortho type film, and obtained results as follows: 1. In the blue-color emission intensifying screen, ortho type films and in the green-color emission intensifying screens, regular type are decreased in their gradient. 2. When joint use of regular type film and ortho type film, the gradient difference not seen in blue color screen. 3. The gradient difference seen clearly in G4, KM screens (green color emission intensifying). Especially, in part of high film density, the gradient difference are great. So we have to right use of screen and film because not matched used of there the sensitivity and gradient are decrease

  3. Theoretical light curve for the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi - Determination of the white dwarf mass, composition, and distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M.

    1991-01-01

    Sequences of steady mass-loss solutions are constructed for the envelopes on a white dwarf with mass 1.33, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, and 1.377 solar mass as models of the decay phase of novae. The envelopes are assumed to have a uniform chemical composition with X = 0.73, 0.6, 0.52, 0.44, 0.33, and 0.11 for hydrogen and Z = 0.02 for heavy elements by weight. An excellent agreement with the observed light curves of UV and optical is obtained in the models with a white dwarf mass of 1.36 solar mass with hydrogen content X = 0.52, and 1.37 solar mass with X = 0.6. The distance of RS Oph is obtained to be 1.6 kpc from the comparison between the theoretical and observed light curves. The success of this wind model is a strong indication from the theoretical point of view that RS Oph is a thermonuclear runaway event. 31 refs

  4. AGAPEROS Searches for microlensing in the LMC with the Pixel Method; 1, Data treatment and pixel light curves production

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, A.-L.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, E.; Baillon, P.; Bareyre, P.; Bauer, F.; Beaulieu, J.-Ph.; Bouquet, A.; Brehin, S.; Cavalier, F.; Char, S.; Couchot, F.; Coutures, C.; Ferlet, R.; Fernandez, J.; Gaucherel, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Goldman, B.; Gondolo, P.; Gros, M.; Guibert, J.; Gry, C.; Hardin, D.; Kaplan, J.; de Kat, J.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Laurent, B.; Lesquoy, E.; Magneville, Ch.; Mansoux, B.; Marquette, J.-B.; Maurice, E.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Moreau, O.; Moscoso, L.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Prevot, L.; Renault, C.; Queinnec, F.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Magneville, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The presence and abundance of MAssive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) can be studied with microlensing searches. The 10 events detected by the EROS and MACHO groups suggest that objects with 0.5 Mo could fill 50% of the dark halo. This preferred mass is quite surprising, and increasing the presently small statistics is a crucial issue. Additional microlensing of stars too dim to be resolved in crowded fields should be detectable using the Pixel Method. We present here an application of this method to the EROS 91-92 data (one tenth of the whole existing data set). We emphasize the data treatment required for monitoring pixel fluxes. Geometric and photometric alignments are performed on each image. Seeing correction and error estimates are discussed. 3.6" x 3.6" super-pixel light curves, thus produced, are very stable over the 120 days time-span. Fluctuations at a level of 1.8% of the flux in blue and 1.3% in red are measured on the pixel light curves. This level of stabil...

  5. A Data-driven Study of RR Lyrae Near-IR Light Curves: Principal Component Analysis, Robust Fits, and Metallicity Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Gergely; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Grebel, Eva K.; Jurcsik, Johanna

    2018-04-01

    RR Lyrae variables are widely used tracers of Galactic halo structure and kinematics, but they can also serve to constrain the distribution of the old stellar population in the Galactic bulge. With the aim of improving their near-infrared photometric characterization, we investigate their near-infrared light curves, as well as the empirical relationships between their light curve and metallicities using machine learning methods. We introduce a new, robust method for the estimation of the light-curve shapes, hence the average magnitudes of RR Lyrae variables in the K S band, by utilizing the first few principal components (PCs) as basis vectors, obtained from the PC analysis of a training set of light curves. Furthermore, we use the amplitudes of these PCs to predict the light-curve shape of each star in the J-band, allowing us to precisely determine their average magnitudes (hence colors), even in cases where only one J measurement is available. Finally, we demonstrate that the K S-band light-curve parameters of RR Lyrae variables, together with the period, allow the estimation of the metallicity of individual stars with an accuracy of ∼0.2–0.25 dex, providing valuable chemical information about old stellar populations bearing RR Lyrae variables. The methods presented here can be straightforwardly adopted for other classes of variable stars, bands, or for the estimation of other physical quantities.

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION GEOMETRIES AND SPIN EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T. J. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, A. K.; Çelik, Ö.; Ferrara, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Guillemot, L. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Smith, D. A.; Hou, X. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Den Hartog, P. R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lande, J. [Twitter Inc., 1355 Market Street 900, San Francisco, CA 94103 (United States); Ray, P. S., E-mail: tyrel.j.johnson@gmail.com, E-mail: Christo.Venter@nwu.ac.za, E-mail: ahardingx@yahoo.com [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION GEOMETRIES AND SPIN EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Çelik, Ö.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Hou, X.; Kramer, M.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed

  8. Gigahertz-peaked spectra pulsars in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R.; RoŻko, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of the spectral nature of six pulsars surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The pulsar flux density was estimated using the interferometric imaging technique of the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at three frequencies 325, 610, and 1280 MHz. The spectra showed a turnover around gigahertz frequency in four out of six pulsars. It has been suggested that the gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) in pulsars arises due to thermal absorption of the pulsar emission in surrounding medium like PWNe, H II regions, supernova remnants, etc. The relatively high incidence of GPS behaviour in pulsars surrounded by PWNe imparts further credence to this view. The pulsar J1747-2958 associated with the well-known Mouse nebula was also observed in our sample and exhibited GPS behaviour. The pulsar was detected as a point source in the high-resolution images. However, the pulsed emission was not seen in the phased-array mode. It is possible that the pulsed emission was affected by extreme scattering causing considerable smearing of the emission at low radio frequencies. The GPS spectra were modelled using the thermal free-free absorption and the estimated absorber properties were largely consistent with PWNe. The spatial resolution of the images made it unlikely that the point source associated with J1747-2958 was the compact head of the PWNe, but the synchrotron self-absorption seen in such sources was a better fit to the estimated spectral shape.

  9. A Multi-year Search for Transits of Proxima Centauri. I. Light Curves Corresponding to Published Ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, David L.; Feliz, Dax; Collins, Karen A.; White, Graeme L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Curtis, Ivan A.; Hart, Rhodes; Kielkopf, John F.; Nelson, Peter; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Jayawardene, Bandupriya; Pennypacker, Carlton R.; Shankland, Paul; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Kouprianov, Vladimir V.

    2018-06-01

    Proxima Centauri has become the subject of intense study since the radial-velocity (RV) discovery by Anglada-Escudé et al. of a planet orbiting this nearby M dwarf every ∼11.2 days. If Proxima Centauri b transits its host star, independent confirmation of its existence is possible, and its mass and radius can be measured in units of the stellar host mass and radius. To date, there have been three independent claims of possible transit-like event detections in light curve observations obtained by the MOST satellite (in 2014–15), the Bright Star Survey Telescope telescope in Antarctica (in 2016), and the Las Campanas Observatory (in 2016). The claimed possible detections are tentative, due in part to the variability intrinsic to the host star, and in the case of the ground-based observations, also due to the limited duration of the light curve observations. Here, we present preliminary results from an extensive photometric monitoring campaign of Proxima Centauri, using telescopes around the globe and spanning from 2006 to 2017, comprising a total of 329 observations. Considering our data that coincide directly and/or phased with the previously published tentative transit detections, we are unable to independently verify those claims. We do, however, verify the previously reported ubiquitous and complex variability of the host star. We discuss possible interpretations of the data in light of the previous claims, and we discuss future analyses of these data that could more definitively verify or refute the presence of transits associated with the RV-discovered planet.

  10. The galactic distribution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The galactic distribution of pulsars follows the general form of many population I objects in galactocentric radius, but has a wide distribution above and below the plane due to high space velocities imparted to the pulsars at birth. Statistical studies of the properties of large numbers of pulsars and proper motion measurements demonstrate that the effective magnetic dipole moments decay on a timescale of about 8 million years. This work provides a better knowledge of pulsar evolution and ages and shows that a birthrate of one pulsar every 20 to 50 years is required to sustain the observed galactic population of 300,000. This rate is comparable with most recent estimates of the galactic supernova rate, but requires nearly all supernovae to produce active pulsars. (orig.)

  11. WHY ARE PULSAR PLANETS RARE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Livio, Mario; Palaniswamy, Divya [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed planets around only a few pulsars. We suggest that the rarity of these planets is due mainly to two effects. First, we show that the most likely formation mechanism requires the destruction of a companion star. Only pulsars with a suitable companion (with an extreme mass ratio) are able to form planets. Second, while a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) in the disk is generally thought to be essential for planet formation, it is most probably rare in disks around pulsars, because of the irradiation from the pulsar. The irradiation strongly heats the inner parts of the disk, thus pushing the inner boundary of the dead zone out. We suggest that the rarity of pulsar planets can be explained by the low probability for these two requirements to be satisfied: a very low-mass companion and a dead zone.

  12. Radio pulsar death lines to SGRs/AXPs and white dwarfs pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, M. [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, ITA - DCTA, Vila das Acácias, São José dos Campos, 12228-900 SP (Brazil); Coelho, J. G. [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisão de Astrofísica, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    Recently, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain a class of pulsars known as Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGR) and Anomalus X-Ray Pulsars (AXP) [1], usually named as magnetars. In this model, the magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field B ∼ 10{sup 7} − 10{sup 10} G and rotate very fast with angular frequencies Ω ∼ 1 rad/s, allowing them to produce large electromagnetic (EM) potentials and generate electron-positron pairs. These EM potentials are comparable with the ones of neutron star pulsars with strong magnetic fields and even larger. In this study we consider two possible processes associated with the particle acceleration, both of them are common used to explain radio emission in neutron star pulsars: in the first process the pair production happens near to the star polar caps, i.e. inside of the light cylinder where magnetic field lines are closed; in the second one the creation of pair happens in the outer magnetosphere, i.e. far away of the star surface where magnetic field lines are open [2]. The analysis of the possibility of radio emission were done for 23 SGRs/AXPs of the McGill Online Magnetar Catalog [3] that contains the current information available on these sources. The results of this work show that the model where the particles production occur in the outer magnetosphere emission “o2” is the process compatible with the astronomical observations of absence of radio emission for almost all SGRs/AXPs when these sources are understood as white dwarf pulsars. Our work is a first attempted to find an explanation for the puzzle why for almost all the SGRs/AXPs was expected radio emission, but it was observed in only four of them. These four sources, as it was suggested recently [4], seem to belong to an high magnetic field neutron star pulsar category, different from all the others SGRs/AXPs that our work indicate to belong to a new class of white dwarf pulsars, very fast and magnetized.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Light Curves Reveal Interesting Properties of CC Sculptoris and RZ Leonis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Toloza, Odette; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Pala, Anna F. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Zhibin [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Waagen, Elizabeth O. [AAVSO, 48 Bay State Rd, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M., E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Time-tag ultraviolet data obtained on the Hubble Space Telescope in 2013 reveal interesting variability related to the white dwarf spin in the two cataclysmic variables RZ Leo and CC Scl. RZ Leo shows a period at 220 s and its harmonic at 110 s, thus identifying it as a likely Intermediate Polar (IP). The spin signal is not visible in a short single night of ground-based data in 2016, but the shorter exposures in that data set indicate a possible partial eclipse. The much larger UV amplitude of the spin signal in the known IP CC Scl allows the spin of 389 s, previously only seen at outburst, to be visible at quiescence. Spectra created from the peaks and troughs of the spin times indicate a hotter temperature of several thousand degrees during the peak phases, with multiple components contributing to the UV light.

  14. Oldest pulsars in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaham, J.

    1987-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Vulpecula pulsar two more superfast pulsars have been reported. In 1983 a 6.13-millisecond pulsar (called 1953 + 29) was announced, and in 1986 a 5.362-millisecond pulsar (called 1855 + 09) was publicized. A candidate for a fourth has been mentioned. As more evidence becomes available, it seems increasingly likely that the superfast pulsars can be explained only as a part of a new class of pulsars. Although many of the details of the class remain obscured, some general facts are emerging. Perhaps most interesting of all is the great age these new celestial objects are thought to have. Ordinary pulsars are relatively young, typically less than a million years old; the Crab pulsar, which is the youngest one known, is a mere infant of 932 years. The superfast pulsars, in comparison, are thought to be ancient. They are probably the result of evolutionary processes that could go back as much as a billion years, or one-twentieth of the age of the universe, and they are likely to live for several billion years more. 8 figures

  15. Automated processing of pulsar observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byzhlov, B.V.; Ivanova, V.V.; Izvekova, V.A.; Kuz' min, A.D.; Kuz' min, Yu.P.; Malofeev, V.M.; Popov, Yu.M.; Solomin, N.S.; Shabanova, T.V.; Shitov, Yu.P.

    1977-01-01

    Digital computer technology which processes observation results in a real time scale is used on meter-range radiotelescopes DKR-100 of the USSR Academy of Sciences Physics Institute and the BSA of the Physics Institute to study pulsars. A method which calls for the accumulation of impulses with preliminary compensation of pulsar dispersion in a broad band is used to increase sensitivity and resolution capability. Known pulsars are studied with the aid of a ''neuron'' type analyzer. A system for processing observations in an on-line set-up was created on the M-6000 computer for seeking unknown pulsars. 8 figures, 1 table, references.

  16. SIGPROC: Pulsar Signal Processing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, D. R.

    2011-07-01

    SIGPROC is a package designed to standardize the initial analysis of the many types of fast-sampled pulsar data. Currently recognized machines are the Wide Band Arecibo Pulsar Processor (WAPP), the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the Arecibo Observatory Fourier Transform Machine (AOFTM), the Berkeley Pulsar Processors (BPP), the Parkes/Jodrell 1-bit filterbanks (SCAMP) and the filterbank at the Ooty radio telescope (OOTY). The SIGPROC tools should help users look at their data quickly, without the need to write (yet) another routine to read data or worry about big/little endian compatibility (byte swapping is handled automatically).

  17. Toward an Empirical Theory of Pulsar Emission. XII. Exploring the Physical Conditions in Millisecond Pulsar Emission Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, Joanna M.; Mitra, Dipanjan; Archibald, Anne; Hessels, Jason; Leeuwen, Joeri van; Ransom, Scott; Stairs, Ingrid; Straten, Willem van; Weisberg, Joel M.

    2017-01-01

    The five-component profile of the 2.7 ms pulsar J0337+1715 appears to exhibit the best example to date of a core/double-cone emission-beam structure in a millisecond pulsar (MSP). Moreover, three other MSPs, the binary pulsars B1913+16, B1953+29, and J1022+1001, seem to exhibit core/single-cone profiles. These configurations are remarkable and important because it has not been clear whether MSPs and slow pulsars exhibit similar emission-beam configurations, given that they have considerably smaller magnetospheric sizes and magnetic field strengths. MSPs thus provide an extreme context for studying pulsar radio emission. Particle currents along the magnetic polar flux tube connect processes just above the polar cap through the radio-emission region to the light-cylinder and the external environment. In slow pulsars, radio-emission heights are typically about 500 km around where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar, and estimates of the physical conditions there point to radiation below the plasma frequency and emission from charged solitons by the curvature process. We are able to estimate emission heights for the four MSPs and carry out a similar estimation of physical conditions in their much lower emission regions. We find strong evidence that MSPs also radiate by curvature emission from charged solitons.

  18. Toward an Empirical Theory of Pulsar Emission. XII. Exploring the Physical Conditions in Millisecond Pulsar Emission Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, Joanna M.; Mitra, Dipanjan [Physics Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Archibald, Anne; Hessels, Jason; Leeuwen, Joeri van [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ransom, Scott [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 29201 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid [Physics Department, University of British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, BC (Canada); Straten, Willem van [Institute for Radio Astronomy and Space Research, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weisberg, Joel M., E-mail: Joanna.Rankin@uvm.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The five-component profile of the 2.7 ms pulsar J0337+1715 appears to exhibit the best example to date of a core/double-cone emission-beam structure in a millisecond pulsar (MSP). Moreover, three other MSPs, the binary pulsars B1913+16, B1953+29, and J1022+1001, seem to exhibit core/single-cone profiles. These configurations are remarkable and important because it has not been clear whether MSPs and slow pulsars exhibit similar emission-beam configurations, given that they have considerably smaller magnetospheric sizes and magnetic field strengths. MSPs thus provide an extreme context for studying pulsar radio emission. Particle currents along the magnetic polar flux tube connect processes just above the polar cap through the radio-emission region to the light-cylinder and the external environment. In slow pulsars, radio-emission heights are typically about 500 km around where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar, and estimates of the physical conditions there point to radiation below the plasma frequency and emission from charged solitons by the curvature process. We are able to estimate emission heights for the four MSPs and carry out a similar estimation of physical conditions in their much lower emission regions. We find strong evidence that MSPs also radiate by curvature emission from charged solitons.

  19. Is pulsar timing a hopeful tool for detection of relic gravitational waves by using GW150914 data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour, Basem

    2018-04-01

    The inflation stage has a behaviour as power law expansion like S(η )∝ η ^{1+β } where β constrained on the 1+β pulsar timing. Also we show that sensitivity curve of single pulsar timing may be hopeful tool for detection of the spectrum in usual and thermal case by using the GW150914 data.

  20. Orbital Dynamics of Candidate Transitional Millisecond Pulsar 3FGL J1544.6-1125: An unusually face-on system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Christopher T.; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Halpern, Jules P.; Tremou, Evangelina; Peacock, Mark; Salinas, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    We present the orbital solution for the donor star of the candidate transitional millisecond pulsar 3FGL J1544.6-1125, currently observed as an accreting low-mass X-ray binary. The orbital period is 0.2415361(36) days, entirely consistent with the spectral classification of the donor star as a mid to late K dwarf. The semi-amplitude of the radial velocity curve is exceptionally low at K2=39.3+/-1.5 km s-1, implying a remarkably face-on inclination in the range 5-8o, depending on the neutron star and donor masses. After determining the veiling of the secondary, we derive a distance to the binary of 3.8+/-0.7 kpc, yielding a 0.3-10 keV X-ray luminosity of 6.1+/-1.9 x1033 erg s-1, similar to confirmed transitional millisecond pulsars. As face-on binaries rarely occur by chance, we discuss the possibility that Fermi-selected samples of transitional milli-second pulsars in the sub-luminous disk state are affected by beaming. By phasing emission line strength on the spectroscopic ephemeris, we find coherent variations, and argue that some optical light originates from emission from an asymmetric shock originating near the inner disk.

  1. Three-dimensional Kinetic Pulsar Magnetosphere Models: Connecting to Gamma-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2018-04-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) global kinetic pulsar magnetosphere models, where the charged particle trajectories and the corresponding electromagnetic fields are treated self-consistently. For our study, we have developed a Cartesian 3D relativistic particle-in-cell code that incorporates radiation reaction forces. We describe our code and discuss the related technical issues, treatments, and assumptions. Injecting particles up to large distances in the magnetosphere, we apply arbitrarily low to high particle injection rates, and obtain an entire spectrum of solutions from close to the vacuum-retarded dipole to close to the force-free (FF) solution, respectively. For high particle injection rates (close to FF solutions), significant accelerating electric field components are confined only near the equatorial current sheet outside the light cylinder. A judicious interpretation of our models allows the particle emission to be calculated, and consequently, the corresponding realistic high-energy sky maps and spectra to be derived. Using model parameters that cover the entire range of spin-down powers of Fermi young and millisecond pulsars, we compare the corresponding model γ-ray light curves, cutoff energies, and total γ-ray luminosities with those observed by Fermi to discover a dependence of the particle injection rate, { \\mathcal F }, on the spin-down power, \\dot{{ \\mathcal E }}, indicating an increase of { \\mathcal F } with \\dot{{ \\mathcal E }}. Our models, guided by Fermi observations, provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed γ-ray phenomenologies of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  2. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  3. The pulsar era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewish, A.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of pulsars in 1967 initiated one of the most effervescent phases of astronomy since World War II and opened up a number of important new fields of research. In looking back at the history of this event it is useful to focus on three aspects. These are the prehistory because it reveals a fascinating relationship between theory and observation concerning an entirely new phenomenon - the neutron star; the discovery itself, which was totally unexpected, to see if anything can be learned which might have a bearing on serendipitous discoveries in the future. For example, would pulsars have been found if the sky survey had been recorded digitally and analysed by a computer; the astronomical impact of the discovery as seen eighteen years after the initial excitement. (author)

  4. POLARIZATION OBSERVATIONS OF 100 PULSARS AT 774 MHz BY THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J. L.; Demorest, P. B.; Van Straten, W.; Lyne, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    We report on polarimetric observations of 100 pulsars centered on 774 MHz, made using the Green Bank Telescope, presenting their polarization profiles and polarized flux densities and comparing them with previous observations when possible. For 67 pulsars, these are the first such measurements made. Polarization profiles of 8 millisecond-pulsars in our sample show wide profiles and flat position-angle curves. Strong linear polarization, sometimes approaching 100% of the total intensity, has been detected in all or a part of the average pulse profiles of some pulsars. In general, circular polarization is very weak, although it is observed to be extremely strong in the leading component of PSR J1920+2650. Sense reversal of circular polarization as a function of pulse phase has been detected from both core and other components of more than 20 pulsars. Any relationship between the spin-down luminosity and the percentage of linear polarization is not evident in our data at this frequency.

  5. Light curve solutions and out-of-eclipse variability of KIC 10031409, KIC 11228612, KIC 11403216 and KIC 11913071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out light curve solutions of four detached binaries observed by Kepler. As a result, their orbital inclinations, temperatures and relative stellar radii were determined. KIC 10031409 and KIC 11228612 reveal partial eclipses while the components of KIC 11403216 and KIC 11913071 undergo total eclipses. The secondary component of KIC 11403216 is probably a very late M dwarf or brown dwarf. The out-of-eclipse brightness of KIC 10031409, KIC 11228612 and KIC 11913071 vary with the orbital period and might be explained by spots on synchronously-rotating star(s. The out-of-eclipse variability of KIC 11403216 is with a period that is a third of its orbital period and may be due to spot on asynchronous rotating component. The resonance 1:3 needs future study of KIC 11403216.

  6. Pulsar signals from relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaesser, K.; Kirk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of the radio emission from pulsars originating in a beam-plasma system is discussed. We calculate the curvature radiation which arises if this system is placed in a very strong curved magnetic field. Numerical experiments show that the beam instability evolves into a rather stationary wave pattern whose Fourier components are concentrated near the most unstable mode. This result leads us to estimates of the radiation intensity of its autocorrelation function in time, and its bandwidth. The results are compared with measurements of the micro-structure of pulses, and the constraints imposed on radiation mechanisms by longer time-scale properties are shown to be satisfied. (orig.) [de

  7. SN 2015as: a low-luminosity Type IIb supernova without an early light-curve peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Anjasha; Misra, Kuntal; Pastorello, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Tomasella, L.; Tartaglia, L.; Singh, Mridweeka; Dastidar, Raya; Srivastav, S.; Ochner, P.; Brown, Peter J.; Anupama, G. C.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Kumar, Brajesh; Kumar, Brijesh; Pandey, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    We present results of the photometric (from 3 to 509 d post-explosion) and spectroscopic (up to 230 d post-explosion) monitoring campaign of the He-rich Type IIb supernova (SN) 2015as. The (B - V) colour evolution of SN 2015as closely resemble those of SN 2008ax, suggesting that SN 2015as belongs to the SN IIb subgroup that does not show the early, short-duration photometric peak. The light curve of SN 2015as reaches the B-band maximum about 22 d after the explosion, at an absolute magnitude of -16.82 ± 0.18 mag. At ˜75 d after the explosion, its spectrum transitions from that of a SN II to a SN Ib. P Cygni features due to He I lines appear at around 30 d after explosion, indicating that the progenitor of SN 2015as was partially stripped. For SN 2015as, we estimate a 56Ni mass of ˜0.08 M⊙ and ejecta mass of 1.1-2.2 M⊙, which are similar to the values inferred for SN 2008ax. The quasi-bolometric analytical light-curve modelling suggests that the progenitor of SN 2015as has a modest mass (˜0.1 M⊙), a nearly compact (˜0.05 × 1013 cm) H envelope on top of a dense, compact (˜2 × 1011 cm) and a more massive (˜1.2 M⊙) He core. The analysis of the nebular phase spectra indicates that ˜0.44 M⊙ of O is ejected in the explosion. The intensity ratio of the [Ca II]/[O I] nebular lines favours either a main-sequence progenitor mass of ˜15 M⊙ or a Wolf-Rayet star of 20 M⊙.

  8. Pulsar perimetry in the diagnosis of early glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppieri, Marco; Brusini, Paolo; Parisi, Lucia; Johnson, Chris A; Sampaolesi, Roberto; Salvetat, Maria Letizia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the ability of Pulsar perimetry (Pulsar) in detecting early glaucomatous visual field (VF) damage in comparison with Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT), Scanning Laser Polarimetry (SLP, GDx VCC), and Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT). Prospective observational cross-sectional case study. This multicenter study included: 87 ocular hypertensives (OHT); 67 glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) patients; 75 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients; and 90 normals. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) HFA 30-2, Pulsar T30W, FDT N-30, HRT II, and GDx VCC. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (AROCs) for discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes and agreement among instruments were determined. The best parameters for Pulsar, FDT, HRT, and GDx were, respectively: loss variance square root; no. of areas with PPulsar (AROC, 0.90) appeared comparable with FDT (0.89) and significantly better than HRT (0.82) and GDx (0.79). For GON, Pulsar ability (0.74) was higher than GDx (0.69) and lower than FDT (0.80) and HRT (0.83). The agreement among instruments ranged from 0.12 to 0.56. Pulsar test duration was significantly shorter than SAP and FDT (PPulsar T30W test is a rapid and easy perimetric method, showing higher sensitivity than SAP in detecting early glaucomatous VF loss. Its diagnostic ability is good for detecting early perimetric POAG eyes and fair for GON eyes. Pulsar performance was comparable with FDT, HRT, and GDx, even if the agreement between instruments was poor to fair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.; Tal-Or, L.; Quinn, S. N.; Latham, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M ☉ . The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  10. Pilot pulsar surveys with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.

    2013-01-01

    We are performing two complementary pilot pulsar surveys as part of LOFAR commissioning. The LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS) is a shallow all-sky survey using an incoherent combination of LOFAR stations. The LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS) is a deeper pilot survey using 19 simultaneous tied-array

  11. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Mol, J.D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being

  12. Sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with similar international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA as well as our sensitivity to gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. I will show that a detection is possible by the end of the decade.

  13. Integral luminosities of radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malov, I.; Malov, O.

    The integral radio luminosities L for 311 normal pulsars and for 27 ones with the rotation period Pfalls for fast ones. The mean values of K are -3.73 and -4.85 for normal and fast pulsars, respectively. There are no changes of L with the kinematic age T = z/V, where z is the pulsar height over the Galactic plane and V = 300 km/s is its mean velocity. The correlation between L and the rate of the rotation energy losses E is detected for both pulsar groups under consideration. It is shown that L= A E^(1/3) for the whole sample. The total number of pulsars in the Galaxy and their birth rate are in agreement with data on the rate of supernova explosions.

  14. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  15. SOAP-T: a tool to study the light curve and radial velocity of a system with a transiting planet and a rotating spotted star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, M.; Boisse, I.; Boué, G.; Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Bonfils, X.; Haghighipour, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present an improved version of SOAP named "SOAP-T", which can generate the radial velocity variations and light curves for systems consisting of a rotating spotted star with a transiting planet. This tool can be used to study the anomalies inside transit light curves and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, to better constrain the orbital configuration and properties of planetary systems and the active zones of their host stars. Tests of the code are presented to illustrate its performance and to validate its capability when compared with analytical models and real data. Finally, we apply SOAP-T to the active star, HAT-P-11, observed by the NASA Kepler space telescope and use this system to discuss the capability of this tool in analyzing light curves for the cases where the transiting planet overlaps with the star's spots. The tool's public interface is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/soap-t/

  16. TOWARD CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR POPULATION: A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF LIGHT CURVES FROM Pan-STARRS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Challis, P.; Drout, M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Margutti, R.; McKinnon, R.; Milisavljevic, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gezari, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Betancourt, M. [Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Narayan, G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rest, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kankare, E.; Mattila, S. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Smartt, S. J., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University, BT7 1NN, Belfast (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, wide-field sky surveys providing deep multiband imaging have presented a new path for indirectly characterizing the progenitor populations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe): systematic light-curve studies. We assemble a set of 76 grizy-band Type IIP SN light curves from Pan-STARRS1, obtained over a constant survey program of 4 yr and classified using both spectroscopy and machine-learning-based photometric techniques. We develop and apply a new Bayesian model for the full multiband evolution of each light curve in the sample. We find no evidence of a subpopulation of fast-declining explosions (historically referred to as ''Type IIL'' SNe). However, we identify a highly significant relation between the plateau phase decay rate and peak luminosity among our SNe IIP. These results argue in favor of a single parameter, likely determined by initial stellar mass, predominantly controlling the explosions of red supergiants. This relation could also be applied for SN cosmology, offering a standardizable candle good to an intrinsic scatter of ≲ 0.2 mag. We compare each light curve to physical models from hydrodynamic simulations to estimate progenitor initial masses and other properties of the Pan-STARRS1 Type IIP SN sample. We show that correction of systematic discrepancies between modeled and observed SN IIP light-curve properties and an expanded grid of progenitor properties are needed to enable robust progenitor inferences from multiband light-curve samples of this kind. This work will serve as a pathfinder for photometric studies of core-collapse SNe to be conducted through future wide-field transient searches.

  17. Millisecond pulsars: Timekeepers of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion on the characteristics of pulsars is given followed by a review of millisecond pulsar discoveries including the very first, PRS B1937+21, discovered in 1982. Methods of timing millisecond pulsars and the accuracy of millisecond pulsars as clocks are discussed. Possible reasons for the pulse residuals, or differences between the observed and predicted pulse arrival times for millisecond pulsars, are given.

  18. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells from curved silicate microsheet caged TiO2 photoanodes. An avenue of enhancing light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zubin; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Curved silicate microsheets are incorporated with TiO 2 for light harvesting in DSSC • The optical matching between silicate and TiO 2 is superior to light reflection. • The curved silicate can hinder the recombination reaction of electrons with I 3 − . • The DSSC with TiO 2 /curved silicate photoanode shows an efficiency of 9.22% - Abstract: Enhancement of light harvesting has been a persistent objective for elevating dye excitation and therefore power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here we launch a strategy of markedly enhancing light harvesting by caging TiO 2 nanoparticles with curved silica microsheets. The results show that the strategy is versatile in suppressing the recombination reaction of electrons with I 3 − species in liquid electrolyte. Due to the superior reflective behaviors of curved silica microsheets, an optimal efficiency of 9.22% is recorded under simulated air mass 1.5 global sunlight on the DSSC in comparison with 6.51% and 7.51% from pristine TiO 2 and planar silicate microsheet incorporated TiO 2 photoanode based solar cells, respectively. This strategy is also believed to be applicable to other solar cells such as perovskite solar cells and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Young gamma-ray pulsar: from modeling the gamma-ray emission to the particle-in-cell simulations of the global magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gabriele; Kalapotharakos, Constantions; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2016-04-01

    Accelerated charged particles flowing in the magnetosphere produce pulsar gamma-ray emission. Pair creation processes produce an electron-positron plasma that populates the magnetosphere, in which the plasma is very close to force-free. However, it is unknown how and where the plasma departs from the ideal force-free condition, which consequently inhibits the understanding of the emission generation. We found that a dissipative magnetosphere outside the light cylinder effectively reproduces many aspects of the young gamma-ray pulsar emission as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and through particle-in-cell simulations (PIC), we started explaining this configuration self-consistently. These findings show that, together, a magnetic field structure close to force-free and the assumption of gamma-ray curvature radiation as the emission mechanism are strongly compatible with the observations. Two main issues from the previously used models that our work addresses are the inability to explain luminosity, spectra, and light curve features at the same time and the inconsistency of the electrodynamics. Moreover, using the PIC simulations, we explore the effects of different pair multiplicities on the magnetosphere configurations and the locations of the accelerating regions. Our work aims for a self-consistent modeling of the magnetosphere, connecting the microphysics of the pair-plasma to the global magnetosphere macroscopic quantities. This direction will lead to a greater understanding of pulsar emission at all wavelengths, as well as to concrete insights into the physics of the magnetosphere.

  20. Light-curve analysis of KOI 2700b: the second extrasolar planet with a comet-like tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The Kepler object KOI 2700b (KIC 8639908b) was discovered recently as the second exoplanet with a comet-like tail. It exhibits a distinctly asymmetric transit profile, likely indicative of the emission of dusty effluents and reminiscent of KIC 12557548b, the first exoplanet with a comet-like tail. Aim. The scientific goal of this work is to verify the disintegrating-planet scenario of KOI 2700b by modeling its light curve and to put constraints on various tail and planet properties, as was done in the case of KIC 12557548b. Methods: We obtained the phase-folded and binned transit light curve of KOI 2700b, which we subsequently iteratively modeled using the radiative-transfer code SHELLSPEC. We modeled the comet-like tail as part of a ring around the parent star and we also included the solid body of the planet in the model. During the modeling we applied selected species and dust particle sizes. Results: We confirmed the disintegrating-planet scenario of KOI 2700b. Furthermore, via modeling, we derived some interesting features of KOI 2700b and its comet-like tail. It turns out that the orbital plane of the planet and its tail are not edge-on, but the orbital inclination angle is from the interval [85.1, 88.6] deg. In comparison with KIC 12557548b, KOI 2700b exhibits a relatively low dust density decreasing in its tail. We also derived the dust density at the beginning of the ring and the highest optical depth through the tail in front of the star, based on a tail-model with a cross-section of 0.05 × 0.05 R⊙ at the beginning and 0.09 × 0.09 R⊙ at its end. Our results show that the dimension of the planet is Rp/Rs ≤ 0.014 (Rp ≤ 0.871 R⊕, or ≤5551 km). We also estimated the mass-loss rate from KOI 2700b, and we obtained Ṁ values from the interval [5.05 × 107, 4.41 × 1015] g s-1. On the other hand, we could not draw any satisfactory conclusions about the typical grain size in the dust tail.

  1. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. XII. Thermal light curves of Haumea, 2003 VS2 and 2003 AZ84 with Herschel/PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Groussin, O.; Lacerda, P.; Müller, T. G.; Ortiz, J. L.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Thirouin, A.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Time series observations of the dwarf planet Haumea and the Plutinos 2003 VS2 and 2003 AZ84 with Herschel/PACS are presented in this work. Thermal emission of these trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) were acquired as part of the "TNOs are Cool" Herschel Space Observatory key programme. Aims: We search for the thermal light curves at 100 and 160 μm of Haumea and 2003 AZ84, and at 70 and 160 μm for 2003 VS2 by means of photometric analysis of the PACS data. The goal of this work is to use these thermal light curves to obtain physical and thermophysical properties of these icy Solar System bodies. Methods: When a thermal light curve is detected, it is possible to derive or constrain the object thermal inertia, phase integral and/or surface roughness with thermophysical modeling. Results: Haumea's thermal light curve is clearly detected at 100 and 160 μm. The effect of the reported dark spot is apparent at 100 μm. Different thermophysical models were applied to these light curves, varying the thermophysical properties of the surface within and outside the spot. Although no model gives a perfect fit to the thermal observations, results imply an extremely low thermal inertia (0.73) for Haumea's surface. We note that the dark spot region appears to be only weakly different from the rest of the object, with modest changes in thermal inertia and/or phase integral. The thermal light curve of 2003 VS2 is not firmly detected at 70 μm and at 160 μm but a thermal inertia of (2 ± 0.5) MKS can be derived from these data. The thermal light curve of 2003 AZ84 is not firmly detected at 100 μm. We apply a thermophysical model to the mean thermal fluxes and to all the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS thermal data of 2003 AZ84, obtaining a close to pole-on orientation as the most likely for this TNO. Conclusions: For the three TNOs, the thermal inertias derived from light curve analyses or from the thermophysical analysis of the mean thermal fluxes confirm the generally small

  2. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RADIO-LOUD AND RADIO-QUIET γ -RAY PULSARS AS REVEALED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Takata, J. [Institute of Particle physics and Astronomy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: takata@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-10

    By comparing the properties of non-recycled radio-loud γ -ray pulsars and radio-quiet γ -ray pulsars, we have searched for the differences between these two populations. We found that the γ -ray spectral curvature of radio-quiet pulsars can be larger than that of radio-loud pulsars. Based on the full sample of non-recycled γ -ray pulsars, their distributions of the magnetic field strength at the light cylinder are also found to be different. We note that this might result from an observational bias. By reexamining the previously reported difference of γ -ray-to-X-ray flux ratios, we found that the significance can be hampered by their statistical uncertainties. In the context of the outer gap model, we discuss the expected properties of these two populations and compare with the possible differences that are identified in our analysis.

  3. Chandra Phase-resolved Spectroscopy of the High Magnetic Field Pulsar B1509−58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Takata, J. [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Shannon, R. M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Johnston, S., E-mail: cphu@hku.hk, E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    We report on a timing and spectral analysis of the young, high magnetic field rotation-powered pulsar (RPP) B1509−58 using Chandra continuous-clocking mode observation. The pulsar’s X-ray light curve can be fit by the two Gaussian components and the pulsed fraction shows moderate energy dependence over the Chandra band. The pulsed X-ray spectrum is well described by a power law with a photon index 1.16(4), which is harder than the values measured with RXTE /PCA and NuSTAR . This result supports the log-parabolic model for the broadband X-ray spectrum. With the unprecedented angular resolution of Chandra , we clearly identified off-pulse X-ray emission from the pulsar, and its spectrum is best fit by a power law plus blackbody model. The latter component has a temperature of ∼0.14 keV with a bolometric luminosity comparable to the luminosities of other young and high magnetic field RPPs, and it lies between the temperature of magnetars and typical RPPs. In addition, we found that the nonthermal X-ray emission of PSR B1509−58 is significantly softer in the off-pulse phase than in the pulsed phase, with the photon index varying between 1.0 and 1.8 and anticorrelated with the flux. This is similar to the behavior of three other young pulsars. We interpreted it as different contributions of pair-creation processes at different altitudes from the neutron star surface according to the outer-gap model.

  4. Do we see accreting magnetars in X-ray pulsars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnov K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong magnetic field of accreting neutron stars (1014 G is hard to probe by Xray spectroscopy but can be indirectly inferred from spin-up/spin-down measurement in X-ray pulsars. The existing observations of slowly rotating X-ray pulsars are discussed. It is shown that magnetic fields of neutron stars derived from these observations (or lower limits in some cases fall within the standard 1012-1013 G range. Claims about the evidence for accreting magnetars are critically discussed in the light of recent progress in understanding of accretion onto slowly rotating neutron stars in the subsonic regime.

  5. MULTI-COLOR OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF 64 STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Hicken, M.; Friedman, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Marion, G. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O' Hara Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: fb55@nyu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present a densely sampled, homogeneous set of light curves of 64 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.05) stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe of Type IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL). These data were obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, with the optical FLWO 1.2 m and the near-infrared (NIR) Peters Automated Infrared 1.3 m telescopes. Our data set consists of 4543 optical photometric measurements on 61 SNe, including a combination of U BV RI, U BV r{sup ′}i{sup ′}, and u{sup ′} BV r{sup ′}i{sup ′}, and 1919 JHK{sub s} NIR measurements on 25 SNe. This sample constitutes the most extensive multi-color data set of stripped-envelope SNe to date. Our photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host-galaxy light contamination. This work presents these photometric data, compares them with data in the literature, and estimates basic statistical quantities: date of maximum, color, and photometric properties. We identify promising color trends that may permit the identification of stripped-envelope SN subtypes from their photometry alone. Many of these SNe were observed spectroscopically by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN group, and the spectra are presented in a companion paper. A thorough exploration that combines the CfA photometry and spectroscopy of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe will be presented in a follow-up paper.

  6. Crab Flares and Magnetic Reconnection in Pulsar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    The striped winds of rotation-powered pulsars are ideal sites for magnetic reconnection. The magnetic fields of the wind near the current sheet outside the light cylinder alternate polarity every pulsar period and eventually encounter a termination shock. Magnetic reconnection in the wind has been proposed as a mechanism for transferring energy from electromagnetic fields to particles upstream of the shock (the "sigma" problem), but it is not clear if, where and how this occurs. Fermi and AGILE have recently observed powerful gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula, which challenge traditional models of acceleration at the termination shock. New simulations are revealing that magnetic reconnection may be instrumental in understanding the Crab flares and in resolving the "sigma" problem in pulsar wind nebulae.

  7. Noise reduction methods in the analysis of near infrared lunar occultation light curves for high angular resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baug Tapas; Chandrasekhar Thyagarajan

    2013-01-01

    A lunar occultation (LO) technique in the near-infrared (NIR) provides angular resolution down to milliarcseconds for an occulted source, even with ground-based 1 m class telescopes. LO observations are limited to brighter objects because they require a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ∼40) for proper extraction of angular diameter values. Hence, methods to improve the S/N ratio by reducing noise using Fourier and wavelet transforms have been explored in this study. A sample of 54 NIR LO light curves observed with the IR camera at Mt Abu Observatory has been used. It is seen that both Fourier and wavelet methods have shown an improvement in S/N compared to the original data. However, the application of wavelet transforms causes a slight smoothing of the fringes and results in a higher value for angular diameter. Fourier transforms which reduce discrete noise frequencies do not distort the fringe. The Fourier transform method seems to be effective in improving the S/N, as well as improving the model fit, particularly in the fainter regime of our sample. These methods also provide a better model fit for brighter sources in some cases, though there may not be a significant improvement in S/N

  8. A Hybrid Algorithm for Period Analysis from Multiband Data with Sparse and Irregular Sampling for Arbitrary Light-curve Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Vivas, A. Katherina

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing and future surveys with repeat imaging in multiple bands are producing (or will produce) time-spaced measurements of brightness, resulting in the identification of large numbers of variable sources in the sky. A large fraction of these are periodic variables: compilations of these are of scientific interest for a variety of purposes. Unavoidably, the data sets from many such surveys not only have sparse sampling, but also have embedded frequencies in the observing cadence that beat against the natural periodicities of any object under investigation. Such limitations can make period determination ambiguous and uncertain. For multiband data sets with asynchronous measurements in multiple passbands, we wish to maximally use the information on periodicity in a manner that is agnostic of differences in the light-curve shapes across the different channels. Given large volumes of data, computational efficiency is also at a premium. This paper develops and presents a computationally economic method for determining periodicity that combines the results from two different classes of period-determination algorithms. The underlying principles are illustrated through examples. The effectiveness of this approach for combining asynchronously sampled measurements in multiple observables that share an underlying fundamental frequency is also demonstrated.

  9. An Optical Low-frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation in the Kepler Light Curve of an Active Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard; Smith, Krista Lynne; Boyd, Patricia; Wagoner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the optical light curve of KIC 9650712, a Seyfert 1 galaxy in the original Kepler field. After the development and application of a pipeline for Kepler data specific to active galactic nuclei (AGN), one of our sample of 21 AGN selected by infrared photometry and X-ray flux demonstrates a peak in the power spectrum at 10-6.58 Hz, corresponding to a temporal period of 44 days. >From optical spectroscopy, we measure the black hole mass of this AGN as log M = 8.17 M_sun. Despite this high mass, the optical spectrum of KIC 9650712 bears many similarities to Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, including strong Fe II emission and a low [O III]/Hβ ratio. So far, X-ray QPOs have primarily been seen in NLS1 galaxies. Finally, we find that this frequency lies along a correlation between low-frequency QPOs and black hole mass from stellar and intermediate mass black holes to AGN, similar to the known correlation in high-frequency QPOs.

  10. Light curve solutions and study of roles of magnetic fields in period variations of the UV Leo system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Manzoori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The solutions of photometric BV light curves for the Algol like system UV Leo were obtained using Wilson-Devinney code. The physical and orbital parameters along with absolute dimensions of the system were determined. It has been found that to best fit the V light curve of the system, assumptions of three dark spots were necessary two on the secondary and one on the primary. The absolute visual magnitudes (Mv of the individual components i.e., primary and secondary were estimated to 4.41 and 4.43, respectively, through the color curve analysis. The period analysis of the system presented elsewhere, indicated a cyclic period change of 12 yr duration, which was attributed to magnetic activity cycle, as a main cause of period variation in the system, through the Applegate mechanism. To verify the Applegate model I preformed calculations of some related parameters barrowed from Apllegate and Kalimeris. Values of all the calculated parameters were in accordance to those obtained for similar systems by Applegate. The differential magnitudes Δ B and Δ V, along with corresponding values of Δ(B-V color index. The cyclic variations in brightness are quite clear. There are three predictions of Applegate's theory concerning effects of cyclic magnetic changes on the period variations, which can be checked through the observations, these are as follows: I The long term variations in mean brightness (at outside of eclipses and cyclic changes of orbital period, vary with the same period. II The active star gets bluer as it gets brightened and/or the brightness and color variations are to be in phase. III Changes in luminosity due to changes in quadrupole moment should be of the order 0.1 mag. All the above mentioned predictions of Applegate’s theory are verified. These results combined with cyclic character of P(E presented elsewhere and also consistency of parameters which are obtained in this paper, led me to conclude that one the main causes of period

  11. Modelling pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In view of the current and forthcoming observational data on pulsar wind nebulae, this book offers an assessment of the theoretical state of the art of modelling them. The expert authors also review the observational status of the field and provide an outlook for future developments. During the last few years, significant progress on the study of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) has been attained both from a theoretical and an observational perspective, perhaps focusing on the closest, more energetic, and best studied nebula: the Crab, which appears in the cover. Now, the number of TeV detected PWNe is similar to the number of characterized nebulae observed at other frequencies over decades of observations. And in just a few years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array will increase this number to several hundreds, actually providing an essentially complete account of TeV emitting PWNe in the Galaxy. At the other end of the multi-frequency spectrum, the SKA and its pathfinder instruments, will reveal thousands of new pulsa...

  12. Temporal Evolution of the Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Spectrum for an Observer: GeV–TeV Synchrotron Self-Compton Light Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Takuma; Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); To, Sho; Asano, Katsuaki, E-mail: fukushima@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tosho@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: asanok@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    We numerically simulate the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission with a one-zone time-dependent code. The temporal evolutions of the decelerating shocked shell and energy distributions of electrons and photons are consistently calculated. The photon spectrum and light curves for an observer are obtained taking into account the relativistic propagation of the shocked shell and the curvature of the emission surface. We find that the onset time of the afterglow is significantly earlier than the previous analytical estimate. The analytical formulae of the shock propagation and light curve for the radiative case are also different from our results. Our results show that even if the emission mechanism is switching from synchrotron to synchrotron self-Compton, the gamma-ray light curves can be a smooth power law, which agrees with the observed light curve and the late detection of a 32 GeV photon in GRB 130427A. The uncertainty of the model parameters obtained with the analytical formula is discussed, especially in connection with the closure relation between spectral index and decay index.

  13. An analysis of the small amplitude variations in the light curves of the R Coronae Borealis variables, S Apodis and UW Centauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Flanagan, C.

    1983-01-01

    The small amplitude variations in the light curves of the R CrB stars, S Aps and UW Cen, are examined. The periodicity of these variations appears to be changing rapidly in S Aps and slowly, if at all, in UW Cen. The evolutionary consequences of these effects are discussed. (author)

  14. Pulsar populations and their evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Ostriker, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Luminosity models are developed, and an attempt is made to answer fundamental questions regarding the statistical properties of pulsars, on the basis of a large data base encompassing the periods, period derivatives, radio luminosities, vertical Galactic heights, and transverse velocities, for a homogeneous sample of 301 pulsars. A probability is established for two pulsar subpopulations, designated F and S, which are distinguished primarily on the basis of kinematic properties. The two populations are of comparable size, with the F population having an overall birth-rate close to 1 in 200 years in the Galaxy, with the less certain S pulsar birth-rate not higher than that of the F population. 51 refs

  15. The galactic distribution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The galactic distribution of pulsars follows the general form of many population I objects in galactocentric radius, but has a wide distribution above and below the galactic plane due to high space velocities imparted to the pulsars at birth. The evidence for this model is described and the various factors involved in estimating the total galactic population and the galactic birthrate of pulsars are discussed. The various estimates of the galactic population which cluster around 5 x 10 5 are seen to be critically dependent upon the cut-off at low luminosities and upon the value of the mean electron density within 500 pc of the Earth. Estimates of the lifetimes of pulsars are available from both the characteristic ages and proper motion measurements and both give values of about 5 million years. The implied birthrate of one in every 10 years is barely compatible with most estimates of the galactic supernova rate. (Auth.)

  16. Exploring Pulsars with Polestar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappallo, Rigel; Laycock, Silas; Christodoulou, Dimitris

    2018-06-01

    An X-ray pulsar (XRP) is a highly-magnetized neutron star (NS) that rotates while emitting beams of X-ray radiation produced primarily in the vicinity of its magnetic poles. If these beams happen to cross our line of sight and the NS’s spin and magnetic axes are not aligned, then our telescopes detect it as a periodically pulsating source. With the introduction of a new class of orbit-based observatories over the last quarter of a century the field of X-ray pulsar astronomy has seen an influx of high-resolution data. This windfall demands new models of pulsar behavior and emission geometry be created and subsequently fit to this high-quality data.We have written a model (Polestar) in Python 2.7.6 that mathematically represents a simplified XRP. The code has ten different, tunable geometric parameters that can be individually incorporated or suppressed. Any given XRP has a unique pulse profile which is often energy-dependent, and changes with different luminosity states. A change in luminosity coincides with a change in the system (e.g. a periodic Type-1 outburst is triggered following periastron passage, or the orientation of the decretion disk around the donor star has changed), and as such an increase in luminosity tends to produce an increase in complexity of the accompanying pulse profile. If a particular source in a low-luminosity state can be fit well with Polestar incorporating only a few parameters then an underlying geometry may be inferred. Further, if profiles from the same source in higher-luminosity states can be fit with the addition of only one or two additional parameters it will serve to further solidify current XRP theory (e.g. the emergence of fan-like emission patterns, or the vertical growth of the accretion column).Our initial fitting campaign was directed at the ~ 100 XRPs in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Polestar also includes an interactive slider GUI that allows the user to see in real time how changing the various profiles alter the

  17. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M ⊙ (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M ⊙ of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M ⊙ , hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R ⊙

  18. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: morozvs@tapir.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  19. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  20. A JET BREAK IN THE X-RAY LIGHT CURVE OF SHORT GRB 111020A: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGETICS AND RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.; Czekala, I.; Chornock, R.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Fox, D. B.; Podsiadlowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present broadband observations of the afterglow and environment of the short GRB 111020A. An extensive X-ray light curve from Swift/XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra, spanning ∼100 s to 10 days after the burst, reveals a significant break at δt ≈ 2 days with pre- and post-break decline rates of α X,1 ≈ –0.78 and α X,2 ∼ j ≈ 3°-8°. The resulting beaming-corrected γ-ray (10-1000 keV band) and blast-wave kinetic energies are (2-3) × 10 48 erg and (0.3-2) × 10 49 erg, respectively, with the range depending on the unknown redshift of the burst. We report a radio afterglow limit of c X , constrains the circumburst density to n 0 ∼ 0.01-0.1 cm –3 . Optical observations provide an afterglow limit of i ∼> 24.4 mag at 18 hr after the burst and reveal a potential host galaxy with i ≈ 24.3 mag. The subarcsecond localization from Chandra provides a precise offset of 0.''80 ± 0.''11 (1σ) from this galaxy corresponding to an offset of 5-7 kpc for z 0.5-1.5. We find a high excess neutral hydrogen column density of (7.5 ± 2.0) × 10 21 cm –2 (z = 0). Our observations demonstrate that a growing fraction of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated, which may lead to a true event rate of ∼> 100-1000 Gpc –3 yr –1 , in good agreement with the NS-NS merger rate of ≈200-3000 Gpc –3 yr –1 . This consistency is promising for coincident short GRB-gravitational wave searches in the forthcoming era of Advanced LIGO/VIRGO.

  1. Rotation of cometary nuclei: new light curves and an update of the ensemble properties of Jupiter-family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotanekova, R.; Snodgrass, C.; Lacerda, P.; Green, S. F.; Lowry, S. C.; Fernández, Y. R.; Tubiana, C.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Hsieh, H. H.

    2017-11-01

    We report new light curves and phase functions for nine Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). They were observed in the period 2004-2015 with various ground telescopes as part of the Survey of Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei as well as during devoted observing campaigns. We add to this a review of the properties of 35 JFCs with previously published rotation properties. The photometric time series were obtained in Bessel R, Harris R and SDSS r΄ filters and were absolutely calibrated using stars from the Pan-STARRS survey. This specially developed method allowed us to combine data sets taken at different epochs and instruments with absolute-calibration uncertainty down to 0.02 mag. We used the resulting time series to improve the rotation periods for comets 14P/Wolf, 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson, 94P/Russell and 110P/Hartley 3 and to determine the rotation rates of comets 93P/Lovas and 162P/Siding Spring for the first time. In addition to this, we determined the phase functions for seven of the examined comets and derived geometric albedos for eight of them. We confirm the known cut-off in bulk densities at ˜0.6 g cm-3 if JFCs are strengthless. Using a model for prolate ellipsoids with typical density and elongations, we conclude that none of the known JFCs requires tensile strength larger than 10-25 Pa to remain stable against rotational instabilities. We find evidence for an increasing linear phase function coefficient with increasing geometric albedo. The median linear phase function coefficient for JFCs is 0.046 mag deg-1 and the median geometric albedo is 4.2 per cent.

  2. Light mirror reflection combined with heating/cooling curves as a method of studying phase transitions in transparent and opaque petroleum products: Apparatus and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Yu.L.

    2007-01-01

    A portable low weight low cost apparatus 'Phasafot' and method for determining pour and cloud points of petroleum products, as well as precipitation and melting temperatures of paraffins in both transparent (diesel fuels), semi-transparent (lube oils) and opaque (crude oils) samples are described. The method consists in illuminating the surface of a sample with an oblique light beam and registering the intensity of specularly reflected light while heating/cooling the sample in the temperature range of its structural transitions. The mirror reflection of a light beam from an ideally smooth liquid surface falls in intensity when the surface becomes rough (dim) due to crystal formation. Simultaneous recording of the temperature ramp curve and the mirror reflection curve enables the determination of the beginning and end of crystallization of paraffins in both transparent and opaque petroleum products. Besides, their rheological properties can be accurately determined by rocking or tilting the instrument while monitoring the sample movement via its mirror reflection

  3. Visualization of Pulsar Search Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, R. S.; Wolszczan, A.

    1993-05-01

    The search for periodic signals from rotating neutron stars or pulsars has been a computationally taxing problem to astronomers for more than twenty-five years. Over this time interval, increases in computational capability have allowed ever more sensitive searches, covering a larger parameter space. The volume of input data and the general presence of radio frequency interference typically produce numerous spurious signals. Visualization of the search output and enhanced real-time processing of significant candidate events allow the pulsar searcher to optimally processes and search for new radio pulsars. The pulsar search algorithm and visualization system presented in this paper currently runs on serial RISC based workstations, a traditional vector based super computer, and a massively parallel computer. A description of the serial software algorithm and its modifications for massively parallel computing are describe. The results of four successive searches for millisecond period radio pulsars using the Arecibo telescope at 430 MHz have resulted in the successful detection of new long-period and millisecond period radio pulsars.

  4. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  5. Pulsars In The Headlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    1967 was the year of the so-called “war of the six days” or “third Arab Israeli war”, the year of the Che Guevara's death in Bolivia, the year of the military coup in Greece and, in medicine, the year of the first human heart transplant. Moreover, the signing of the international agreement on the use of space with peaceful means and the crash of the Russian shuttle Soyuz-1, with Cosmonaut Vladimir Kamarov on board also happened that year. Likewise, Spanish writer and professor of journalists, José Azorín, passed away. However, here we are interested in 1967 because it was the year of the detection of pulsars, which astronomers initially confused with signals from extraterrestrials or Little Green Men. Nowadays, they are still present in the headlines.

  6. Abrupt acceleration of a 'cold' ultrarelativistic wind from the Crab pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonian, F A; Bogovalov, S V; Khangulyan, D

    2012-02-15

    Pulsars are thought to eject electron-positron winds that energize the surrounding environment, with the formation of a pulsar wind nebula. The pulsar wind originates close to the light cylinder, the surface at which the pulsar co-rotation velocity equals the speed of light, and carries away much of the rotational energy lost by the pulsar. Initially the wind is dominated by electromagnetic energy (Poynting flux) but later this is converted to the kinetic energy of bulk motion. It is unclear exactly where this takes place and to what speed the wind is accelerated. Although some preferred models imply a gradual acceleration over the entire distance from the magnetosphere to the point at which the wind terminates, a rapid acceleration close to the light cylinder cannot be excluded. Here we report that the recent observations of pulsed, very high-energy γ-ray emission from the Crab pulsar are explained by the presence of a cold (in the sense of the low energy of the electrons in the frame of the moving plasma) ultrarelativistic wind dominated by kinetic energy. The conversion of the Poynting flux to kinetic energy should take place abruptly in the narrow cylindrical zone of radius between 20 and 50 light-cylinder radii centred on the axis of rotation of the pulsar, and should accelerate the wind to a Lorentz factor of (0.5-1.0) × 10(6). Although the ultrarelativistic nature of the wind does support the general model of pulsars, the requirement of the very high acceleration of the wind in a narrow zone not far from the light cylinder challenges current models.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NON-VACUUM PULSAR OUTER-GAP MODEL: LOCALIZED ACCELERATION ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE HIGHER ALTITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotani, Kouichi [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-10

    We investigate the particle accelerator that arises in a rotating neutron-star magnetosphere. Simultaneously solving the Poisson equation for the electro-static potential, the Boltzmann equations for relativistic electrons and positrons, and the radiative transfer equation, we demonstrate that the electric field is substantially screened along the magnetic field lines by pairs that are created and separated within the accelerator. As a result, the magnetic-field-aligned electric field is localized in higher altitudes near the light cylinder and efficiently accelerates the positrons created in the lower altitudes outward but does not accelerate the electrons inward. The resulting photon flux becomes predominantly outward, leading to typical double-peak light curves, which are commonly observed from many high-energy pulsars.

  8. THE RADIATIVE X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY EFFICIENCIES OF ROTATION-POWERED PULSARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev and Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the γ-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and γ-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient γ-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young (τ c 4 yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and γ-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L X ∝ P-dot 3 /P 6 . For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency η≡L X / E-dot rot ∼8x10 -5 . For the γ-ray luminosity we confirm that L γ ∝ √E-dot rot . We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  9. The Radiative X-ray and Gamma-ray Efficiencies of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev & Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the γ-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and γ-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient γ-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young (τ c < 1.7 × 104 yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and γ-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L_X ∝ \\dot{P}^3/P^6. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency η ≡ L_X/\\dot{E}_{rot} ≈ 8× 10^{-5}. For the γ-ray luminosity we confirm that L_γ ∝ √{\\dot{E}_{rot}}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  10. AEOLUS: A MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO CODE FOR MAPPING ULTRACOOL ATMOSPHERES. AN APPLICATION ON JUPITER AND BROWN DWARF HST LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karalidi, Theodora; Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn; Hanson, Jake R. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pasachoff, Jay M., E-mail: tkaralidi@email.arizona.edu [Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, 33 Lab Campus Drive, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Deducing the cloud cover and its temporal evolution from the observed planetary spectra and phase curves can give us major insight into the atmospheric dynamics. In this paper, we present Aeolus, a Markov chain Monte Carlo code that maps the structure of brown dwarf and other ultracool atmospheres. We validated Aeolus on a set of unique Jupiter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) light curves. Aeolus accurately retrieves the properties of the major features of the Jovian atmosphere, such as the Great Red Spot and a major 5 μm hot spot. Aeolus is the first mapping code validated on actual observations of a giant planet over a full rotational period. For this study, we applied Aeolus to J- and H-band HST light curves of 2MASS J21392676+0220226 and 2MASS J0136565+093347. Aeolus retrieves three spots at the top of the atmosphere (per observational wavelength) of these two brown dwarfs, with a surface coverage of 21% ± 3% and 20.3% ± 1.5%, respectively. The Jupiter HST light curves will be publicly available via ADS/VIZIR.

  11. Global Current Circuit Structure in a Resistive Pulsar Magnetosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yugo. E.

    2017-12-01

    Pulsar magnetospheres have strong magnetic fields and large amounts of plasma. The structures of these magnetospheres are studied using force-free electrodynamics. To understand pulsar magnetospheres, discussions must include their outer region. However, force-free electrodynamics is limited in it does not handle dissipation. Therefore, a resistive pulsar magnetic field model is needed. To break the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) condition E\\cdot B=0, Ohm’s law is used. This work introduces resistivity depending upon the distance from the star and obtain a self-consistent steady state by time integration. Poloidal current circuits form in the magnetosphere while the toroidal magnetic field region expands beyond the light cylinder and the Poynting flux radiation appears. High electric resistivity causes a large space scale poloidal current circuit and the magnetosphere radiates a larger Poynting flux than the linear increase outside of the light cylinder radius. The formed poloidal-current circuit has width, which grows with the electric conductivity. This result contributes to a more concrete dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model.

  12. Limits on the speed of gravitational waves from pulsar timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, D.; Polnarev, A. G.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Postnov, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, analyzing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the field of gravitational waves, we show the presence and significance of the so-called surfing effect for pulsar timing measurements. It is shown that, due to the transverse nature of gravitational waves, the surfing effect leads to enormous pulsar timing residuals if the speed of gravitational waves is smaller than the speed of light. This fact allows one to place significant constraints on parameter ε, which characterizes the relative deviation of the speed of gravitational waves from the speed of light. We show that the existing constraints from pulsar timing measurements already place stringent limits on ε and consequently on the mass of the graviton m g . The limits on m g -24 are 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the current constraints from Solar System tests. The current constraints also allow one to rule out massive gravitons as possible candidates for cold dark matter in the galactic halo. In the near future, the gravitational wave background from extragalactic super massive black hole binaries, along with the expected submicrosecond pulsar timing accuracy, will allow one to achieve constraints of ε < or approx. 0.4% and possibly stronger.

  13. Physical conditions in the reconnection layer in pulsar magnetospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, UCB 390, Boulder, CO 80309-0390 (United States); Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet (CS) beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this CS inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. We develop a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment and discuss its implications for the observed pulsed gamma-ray emission. We argue that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via a hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. Using the conditions of pressure balance across these current layers, the balance between the heating by magnetic energy dissipation and synchrotron cooling, and Ampere's law, we obtain simple estimates for key parameters of the layers—temperature, density, and layer thickness. In the comoving frame of the relativistic pulsar wind just outside of the equatorial CS, these basic parameters are uniquely determined by the strength of the reconnecting upstream magnetic field. For the case of the Crab pulsar, we find them to be of order 10 GeV, 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, and 10 cm, respectively. After accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting due to the pulsar wind, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from the reconnecting CS can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and very high energy (∼100 GeV) radiation, respectively. Also, we suggest that the rapid relative motions of the secondary plasmoids in the hierarchical chain may contribute to the production of the pulsar radio emission.

  14. X-ray states of redback millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as 'redbacks', constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L {sub X}), between (6-9) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L {sub X} in the pulsar state (>10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}).

  15. Correlation between the luminosity and spin-period changes during outbursts of 12 Be binary pulsars observed by the MAXI/GSC and the Fermi/GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nakajima, Motoki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2017-12-01

    To study observationally the spin-period changes of accreting pulsars caused by the accretion torque, the present work analyzes X-ray light curves of 12 Be binary pulsars obtained by the MAXI Gas-Slit Camera all-sky survey and their pulse periods measured by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor pulsar project, both covering more than six years, from 2009 August to 2016 March. The 12 objects were selected because they are accompanied by clear optical identification and accurate measurements of surface magnetic fields. The luminosity L and the spin-frequency derivatives \\dot{ν}, measured during large outbursts with L ≳ 1 × 1037 erg s-1, were found to follow approximately the theoretical relations in the accretion torque models, represented by \\dot{ν} ∝ L^{α} (α ≃ 1), and the coefficient of proportionality between \\dot{ν} and Lα agrees, within a factor of ˜3, with that proposed by Ghosh and Lamb (1979b, ApJ, 234, 296). In the course of the present study, the orbital elements of several sources were refined.

  16. Galactic distribution and genesis of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, O.H.; Kasumov, F.K.

    1981-01-01

    The radial distribution of pulsars in the Galaxy have been calculated by the authors using the available electron density figure for each pulsar. Also the luminosity function, the evolution of luminosity with age and the birth rate were determined. (Auth.)

  17. Fermi LAT Detection of Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Vela-Like Pulsars PSR J1048-5832 and PSR J2229+6114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, M.G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Trieste /Arecibo Observ. /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-03-29

    We report the detection of {gamma}-ray pulsations ({ge}0.1 GeV) from PSR J2229+6114 and PSR J1048-5832, the latter having been detected as a low-significance pulsar by EGRET. Data in the {gamma}-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, while the radio rotational ephemerides used to fold the {gamma}-ray light curves were obtained using the Green Bank Telescope, the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, and the Parkes Telescope. The two young radio pulsars, located within the error circles of the previously unidentified EGRET sources 3EG J1048-5840 and 3EG J2227+6122, present spin-down characteristics similar to the Vela pulsar. PSR J1048-5832 shows two sharp peaks at phases 0.15 {+-} 0.01 and 0.57 {+-} 0.01 relative to the radio pulse confirming the EGRET light curve, while PSR J2229+6114 presents a very broad peak at phase 0.49 {+-} 0.01. The {gamma}-ray spectra above 0.1 GeV of both pulsars are fit with power laws having exponential cutoffs near 3 GeV, leading to integral photon fluxes of (2.19 {+-} 0.22 {+-} 0.32) x 10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for PSR J1048-5832 and (3.77 {+-} 0.22 {+-} 0.44) x 10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for PSR J2229+6114. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PSR J1048-5832 is one of the two LAT sources which were entangled together as 3EG J1048-5840. These detections add to the growing number of young {gamma}-ray pulsars that make up the dominant population of GeV {gamma}-ray sources in the Galactic plane.

  18. A CENSUS OF ROTATION AND VARIABILITY IN L1495: A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF TRANS-ATLANTIC EXOPLANET SURVEY LIGHT CURVES FOR PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hongyu; Covey, Kevin R.; Lloyd, James P.; Rebull, Luisa; Charbonneau, David; Mandushev, Georgi; O'Donovan, Francis; Slesnick, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We analyze light curves obtained by the Trans-atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES) for a field centered on the L1495 dark cloud in Taurus. The Spitzer Taurus Legacy Survey catalog identifies 179 bona fide Taurus members within the TrES field; 48 of the known Taurus members are detected by TrES, as well as 26 candidate members identified by the Spitzer Legacy team. We quantify the variability of each star in our sample using the ratio of the standard deviation of the original light curve (σ orig. ) to the standard deviation of a light curve that has been smoothed by 9 or 1001 epochs (σ 9 and σ 1001 , respectively). Known Taurus members typically demonstrate (σ orig. /σ 9 ) orig. /σ 1001 ) orig. /σ 9 ) ∼ 3.0 and (σ orig. /σ 1001 ) ∼ 10, as expected for light curves dominated by unstructured white noise. Of the 74 Taurus members/candidates with TrES light curves, we detect significant variability in 49 sources. Adapting a quantitative metric originally developed to assess the reliability of transit detections, we measure the amount of red and white noise in each light curve and identify 18 known or candidate Taurus members with highly significant period measurements. These appear to be the first periods measured for four of these sources (HD 282276, CX Tau, FP Tau, TrES J042423+265008), and in two other cases, the first non-aliased periods (LkCa 21 and DK Tau AB). For the remainder, the TrES measurements typically agree very well (δP < 1%) with previously reported values. Including periods measured at lower confidence for 15 additional sources, we report periods for 11 objects where no previous periods were found, including 8 confirmed Taurus members. We also identify 10 of the 26 candidate Taurus members that demonstrate variability levels consistent with being bona fide T Tauri stars. A Kolomgorov-Smirnov (K-S) test confirms that these new periods confirm the distinction between the rotation period distributions of stars with and without circumstellar

  19. Increasing Pulsar Timing Array Sensitivity Through Addition of Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Crawford, Fronefield; Ferrara, Elizabeth; Lynch, Ryan; Mingarelli, Chiara; Levin Preston, Lina; Ransom, Scott; Romano, Joseph; Simon, Joseph; Spiewak, Renee; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joe; Taylor, Stephen; Green Bank North Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey, Fermi LAT Collaboration, Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium

    2018-01-01

    Siemens et al. (2013) and Taylor et al. (2016) demonstrated the importance of increasing the number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in order to increase the sensitivity of the array and decrease the time-to-detection of a gravitational wave background (GWB). In particular, they predict that adding four MSPs per year to the NANOGrav and International PTAs will likely yield a GWB detection in less than a decade. A more even distribution of MSPs across the sky is also important for discriminating a GWB signal from a non-quadrupolar background (Sampson et al., in prep). Pulsar surveys and targeted searches have consistently led to additions of 4 or more MSPs per year to PTAs. I will describe these ongoing efforts, particularly in the context of the Green Bank North Celestial Cap pulsar survey and Fermi-guided searches at Green Bank and Arecibo that seek to find MSPs in low-pulsar-density regions of the sky.

  20. Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT Paul S. Ray∗, Matthew Kerr†, Damien Parent∗∗ and the Fermi PSC‡ ∗Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW...Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA ‡Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium Abstract. We present an overview of precise pulsar timing using data from the Large...unbinned photon data. In addition to determining the spindown behavior of the pulsars and detecting glitches and timing noise, such timing analyses al

  1. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, V M [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2008-03-07

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly

  2. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspi, V M

    2008-01-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  3. Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Tim; Auchettl, Katie; Bramante, Joseph; Cholis, Ilias; Fang, Ke; Hooper, Dan; Karwal, Tanvi; Li, Shirley Weishi

    2017-11-01

    Observations by HAWC and Milagro have detected bright and spatially extended TeV gamma-ray sources surrounding the Geminga and Monogem pulsars. We argue that these observations, along with a substantial population of other extended TeV sources coincident with pulsar wind nebulae, constitute a new morphological class of spatially extended TeV halos. We show that HAWCs wide field-of-view unlocks an expansive parameter space of TeV halos not observable by atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Under the assumption that Geminga and Monogem are typical middle-aged pulsars, we show that ten-year HAWC observations should eventually observe 37$^{+17}_{-13}$ middle-aged TeV halos that correspond to pulsars whose radio emission is not beamed towards Earth. Depending on the extrapolation of the TeV halo efficiency to young pulsars, HAWC could detect more than 100 TeV halos from mis-aligned pulsars. These pulsars have historically been difficult to detect with existing multiwavelength observations. TeV halos will constitute a significant fraction of all HAWC sources, allowing follow-up observations to efficiently find pulsar wind nebulae and thermal pulsar emission. The observation and subsequent multi-wavelength follow-up of TeV halos will have significant implications for our understanding of pulsar beam geometries, the evolution of PWN, the diffusion of cosmic-rays near energetic pulsars, and the contribution of pulsars to the cosmic-ray positron excess.

  4. Pulsars as tools for fundamental physics & astrophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, J.M.; Kramer, M.; Lazio, T.J.W.; Stappers, B.W.; Backer, D.C.; Johnston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The sheer number of pulsars discovered by the SKA, in combination with the exceptional timing precision it can provide, will revolutionize the field of pulsar astrophysics. The SKA will provide a complete census of pulsars in both the Galaxy and in Galactic globular clusters that can be used to

  5. Pulsar Magnetohydrodynamic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Isao; Sigalo, Friday B.

    2006-12-01

    The acceleration and collimation/decollimation of relativistic magnetocentrifugal winds are discussed concerning a cold plasma from a strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star in a steady axisymmetric state based on ideal magnetohydrodynamics. There exist unipolar inductors associated with the field line angular frequency, α, at the magnetospheric base surface, SB, with a huge potential difference between the poles and the equator, which drive electric current through the pulsar magnetosphere. Any ``current line'' must emanate from one terminal of the unipolar inductor and return to the other, converting the Poynting flux to the kinetic flux of the wind at finite distances. In a plausible field structure satisfying the transfield force-balance equation, the fast surface, SF, must exist somewhere between the subasymptotic and asymptotic domains, i.e., at the innermost point along each field line of the asymptotic domain of \\varpaA2/\\varpi2 ≪ 1, where \\varpiA is the Alfvénic axial distance. The criticality condition at SF yields the Lorentz factor, γF = μ\\varepsilon1/3, and the angular momentum flux, β, as the eigenvalues in terms of the field line angular velocity, α, the mass flux per unit flux tube, η, and one of the Bernoulli integrals, μδ, which are assumed to be specifiable as the boundary conditions at SB. The other Bernoulli integral, μɛ, is related to μδ as μɛ = μδ[1-(α2\\varpiA2/c2)]-1, and both μɛ and \\varpiA2 are eigenvalues to be determined by the criticality condition at SF. Ongoing MHD acceleration is possible in the superfast domain. This fact may be helpful in resolving a discrepancy between the wind theory and the Crab-nebula model. It is argued that the ``anti-collimation theorem'' holds for relativistic winds, based on the curvature of field streamlines determined by the transfield force balance. The ``theorem'' combines with the ``current-closure condition'' as a global condition in the wind zone to produce a

  6. Observations and light curve solutions of the eclipsing binaries USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present follow-up photometric observations in Sloan filters g', i' of the newly discovered eclipsing stars USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731. Our data revealed that their orbital periods are considerably bigger than the previous values. This result changed the classification of USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 from ultrashort-period binary (P=0.197 d to short-period system (P=0.251 d. The light curve solutions of our observations revealed that USNOB1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731 are overcontact binaries in which components are K dwarfs, close in masses and radii. The light curve distortions were reproduced by cool spots with angular radius of around 20°.

  7. Determinations of its Absolute Dimensions and Distance by the Analyses of Light and Radial-Velocity Curves of the Contact Binary -I. V417 Aquilae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New photometric and spectroscopic solutions of W-type overcontact binary V417 Aql were obtained by solving the UBV light curves of Samec et al. (1997 and radial-velocity ones of Lu & Rucinski (1999 with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney binary code. In the light curve synthesis the light of a third-body, which Qian (2003 proposed, was considered and obtained about 2.7%, 2.2%, and 0.4% for U, B, and V bandpasses, respectively. The model with third-light is better fitted to eclipse parts than that with no third-light. Absolute dimensions of V417 Aql are determined from our solution as M1=0.53 M⊙, M2=1.45 M⊙, R1=0.84 R⊙ and R2=1.31 M⊙, and the distance to it is deduced as about 216pc. Our distance is well consistent with that (204pc derived from Rucinski & Duerbeck's (1997 relation, MV=MV(log P, B-V, but is more distant than that (131±40pc determined by the Hipparcos trigonometric parallax. The difference may result from the relatively large error of Hipparcos parallax for V417 Aql.

  8. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  9. Optical light curve of GRB 121011A: a textbook for the onset of GRB afterglow in a mixture of ISM and wind-type medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Li-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yan; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Han, Xu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We report the optical observations of GRB 121011A by the 0.8m TNT facility at Xinglong observatory, China. The light curve of the optical afterglow shows a smooth and featureless bump during the epoch of ∼130 s and ∼5000 s with a rising index of 1.57 ± 0.28 before the break time of 539 ± 44 s, and a decaying index of about 1.29 ± 0.07 up to the end of our observations. Moreover, the X-ray light curve decays in a single power-law with a slope of about 1.51 ± 0.03 observed by XRT onboard Swift from 100 s to about 10 000 s after the burst trigger. The featureless optical light curve could be understood as an onset process under the external-shock model. The typical frequency has been below or near the optical one before the deceleration time, and the cooling frequency is located between the optical and X-ray wavelengths. The external medium density has a transition from a mixed stage of ISM and wind-type medium before the peak time to the ISM at the later phase. The joint-analysis of X-ray and optical light curves shows that the emissions from both frequencies are consistent with the prediction of the standard afterglow model without any energy injections, indicating that the central engine has stopped its activity and does not restart anymore after the prompt phase. (paper)

  10. NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF THE BROWN DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY 2MASS J05352184-0546085: CAN SPOTS EXPLAIN THE TEMPERATURE REVERSAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prsa, Andrej; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared JHK S light curves for the double-lined eclipsing binary system Two Micron All Sky Survey J05352184 - 0546085, in which both components have been shown to be brown dwarfs with an age of ∼1 Myr. We analyze these light curves together with the previously published I C -band light curve and radial velocities to provide refined measurements of the system's physical parameters. The component masses and radii are here determined with an accuracy of ∼6.5% and ∼1.5%, respectively. In addition, we confirm the previous surprising finding that the primary brown dwarf has a cooler effective temperature than its lower mass companion. Next, we perform a detailed study of the residual variations in the out-of-eclipse phases of the light curves to ascertain the properties of any inhomogeneities (e.g., spots) on the surfaces of the brown dwarfs. Our analysis reveals two low-amplitude (∼0.02 mag) periodic signals, one attributable to the rotation of the primary with a period of 3.293 ± 0.001 d and the other to the rotation of the secondary with a period of 14.05 ± 0.05 d. Both periods are consistent with the measured vsin i and radii. Finally, we explore the effects on the derived physical parameters of the system when spots are included in the modeling of the light curves. The observed low-amplitude rotational modulations are well fitted by cool spots covering a small fraction (∼<10%) of the brown dwarfs' surfaces. Such small spots negligibly affect the physical properties of the brown dwarfs, and thus by themselves cannot explain the primary's unexpectedly low surface temperature. To mimic the observed ∼200 K suppression of the primary's temperature, our model requires that the primary possesses a very large spot coverage fraction of ∼65%. These spots must in addition be symmetrically distributed on the primary's surface so as not to produce photometric variations larger than observed. Altogether, a spot configuration in which the primary

  11. Search for the signatures of a new-born black hole from the collapse of a supra-massive millisecond magnetar in short GRB light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lei, W. H.; Zhang, B. B.; Chen, W.; Xiong, S. L.; Song, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    `Internal plateau' followed by a sharp decay is commonly seen in short gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves. The plateau component is usually interpreted as the dipole emission from a supra-massive magnetar, and the sharp decay may imply the collapse of the magnetar to a black hole (BH). Fall-back accretion on to the new-born BH could produce long-lasting activities via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. The magnetic flux accumulated near the BH would be confined by the accretion discs for a period of time. As the accretion rate decreases, the magnetic flux is strong enough to obstruct gas infall, leading to a magnetically arrested disc. Within this scenario, we show that the BZ process could produce two types of typical X-ray light curves: type I exhibits a long-lasting plateau, followed by a power-law (PL) decay with slopes ranging from 5/3 to 40/9; type II shows roughly a single PL decay with a slope of 5/3. The former requires low magnetic field strength, while the latter corresponds to relatively high values. We search for such signatures of the new-born BH from a sample of short GRBs with an internal plateau, and find two candidates: GRB 101219A and GRB 160821B, corresponding to type II and type I light curves, respectively. It is shown that our model can explain the data very well.

  12. Light-curve Modulation of Low-mass Stars in K2. I. Identification of 481 Fast Rotators in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Dicy; Lepine, Sebastien; Crossfield, Ian; Petigura, Erik A.

    2018-01-01

    The K2 mission is targeting large numbers of nearby (d 40 mas yr‑1, V < 20). Additionally, the mission is targeting low-mass, high proper motion stars associated with the local (d < 500 pc) Galactic halo population also selected from SUPERBLINK. K2 campaigns 0 through 8 monitored a total of 26,518 of these cool main-sequence stars. We used the auto-correlation function to search for fast rotators by identifying short-period photometric modulations in the K2 light curves. We identified 481 candidate fast rotators with rotation periods <4 days that show light-curve modulations consistent with starspots. Their kinematics show low average transverse velocities, suggesting that they are part of the young disk population. A subset (13) of the fast rotators is found among those targets with colors and kinematics consistent with the local Galactic halo population and may represent stars spun up by tidal interactions in close binary systems. We further demonstrate that the M dwarf fast rotators selected from the K2 light curves are significantly more likely to have UV excess and discuss the potential of the K2 mission to identify new nearby young GKM dwarfs on the basis of their fast rotation rates. Finally, we discuss the possible use of local halo stars as fiducial, non-variable sources in the Kepler fields.

  13. GRB 090313 AND THE ORIGIN OF OPTICAL PEAKS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES: IMPLICATIONS FOR LORENTZ FACTORS AND RADIO FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Bersier, D.; Steele, I. A.; Smith, R. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Pooley, G.; Yoshida, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Kubanek, P.; Sota, A.; JelInek, M.; Gomboc, A.; Bremer, M.; Winters, J. M.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; GarcIa-Appadoo, D.

    2010-01-01

    We use a sample of 19 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that exhibit single-peaked optical light curves to test the standard fireball model by investigating the relationship between the time of the onset of the afterglow and the temporal rising index. Our sample includes GRBs and X-ray flashes for which we derive a wide range of initial Lorentz factors (40 e and show that values derived from the early time light-curve properties are consistent with published typical values derived from other afterglow studies. We produce expected radio light curves by predicting the temporal evolution of the expected radio emission from forward and reverse shock components, including synchrotron self-absorption effects at early time. Although a number of GRBs in this sample do not have published radio measurements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in the case of Swift GRB 090313, for which millimetric and centimetric observations were available, and conclude that future detections of reverse-shock radio flares with new radio facilities such as the EVLA and ALMA will test the low-frequency model and provide constraints on magnetic models.

  14. Detection of a repeated transit signature in the light curve of the enigma star KIC 8462852: A possible 928-day period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, F.; Lecavelier des Étangs, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Hébrard, G.; Bourrier, V.; Wilson, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    As revealed by its peculiar Kepler light curve, the enigmatic star KIC 8462852 undergoes short and deep flux dimmings at a priori unrelated epochs. This star presents nonetheless all other characteristics of a quiet 1 Gyr old F3V star. These dimmings resemble the absorption features expected for the transit of dust cometary tails. The exocomet scenario is therefore most commonly advocated. We reanalysed the Kepler data and extracted a new high-quality light curve to allow for the search of shallow signatures of single or a few exocomets. We discovered that among the 22 flux dimming events that we identified, two events present a striking similarity. These events occurred 928.25 days apart and lasted for 4.4 days with a drop in the star brightness by 1000 ppm. We show that the light curve of these events is well explained by the occultation of the star by a giant ring system or by the transit of a string of half a dozen exocomets with a typical dust production rate of 105-106 kg s-1. Assuming that these two similar events are related to the transit of the same object, we derive a period of 928.25 days. The following transit was expected in March 2017 but bad weather prohibited us from detecting it from ground-based spectroscopy. We predict that the next event will occur between 3-8 October 2019.

  15. Discovery of a 105-ms X-ray Pulsar in Kesteven-79: On the Nature of Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Seward, F. D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of 105-ms X-ray pulsations from the compact central object (CCO) in the supernova remnant \\snr\\ using data acquired with the {\\it Newton X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission). Using two observations of the pulsar taken 6-days apart we derive an upper limit on its spin-down rate of $\\dot P 18.5$-kyr. The latter exceeds the remnant's estimated age, suggesting that the pulsar was born spinning near its current period. The X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ is best characterized as a blackbody of temperature $kT {BB) =, 0.43\\pm0.02$ keV, radius $R-{BB) \\approx 1.3$-km, and $I{\\rm bol) = 5.2 \\times 10A{33)$ ergs-sSA{-1)$ at $d = 7.1$-kpc. The sinusoidal light curve is modulated with a pulsed fraction of $>45\\%$, suggestive of a small hot spot on the surface of the rotating neutron star. The lack of a discernible pulsar wind nebula is consistent with an interpretation of \\psr\\ as a rotation-powered pulsar whose spin-down luminosity falls below the empirical threshold for generating bright wind nebulae, $\\dot E-{\\rm c) = 4 \\times 10A{36)$-ergs-sSA{-I)$. The age discrepancy suggests that its $\\dot E$ has always been below $\\dot E c$, perhaps a distinguishing property of the CCOs. Alternatively, the X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ suggests a low-luminosity AXP, but the weak inferred $B-{\\rm p)$ field is incompatible with a magnetar theory of its X-ray luminosity. The ordinary spin parameters discovered from \\psr\\ highlight the inability of existing theories to explain the high luminosities and temperatures of CCO thermal X-ray spectra.

  16. WIDE-BAND SPECTRA OF GIANT RADIO PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Ryo; Asano, Katsuaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Shuta J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo, 658-8501 (Japan); Kisaka, Shota [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro [Kashima Space Technology Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-8501 (Japan); Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Misawa, Hiroaki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kita, Hajime [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshinori [Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Terasawa, Toshio, E-mail: mikami@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: asanok@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [iTHES Research Group, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of the simultaneous observation of giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 0.3, 1.6, 2.2, 6.7, and 8.4 GHz with four telescopes in Japan. We obtain 3194 and 272 GRPs occurring at the main pulse and the interpulse phases, respectively. A few GRPs detected at both 0.3 and 8.4 GHz are the most wide-band samples ever reported. In the frequency range from 0.3 to 2.2 GHz, we find that about 70% or more of the GRP spectra are consistent with single power laws and their spectral indices are distributed from −4 to −1. We also find that a significant number of GRPs have such a hard spectral index (approximately −1) that the fluence at 0.3 GHz is below the detection limit (“dim-hard” GRPs). Stacking light curves of such dim-hard GRPs at 0.3 GHz, we detect consistent enhancement compared to the off-GRP light curve. Our samples show apparent correlations between the fluences and the spectral hardness, which indicates that more energetic GRPs tend to show softer spectra. Our comprehensive studies on the GRP spectra are useful materials to verify the GRP model of fast radio bursts in future observations.

  17. WIDE-BAND SPECTRA OF GIANT RADIO PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Ryo; Asano, Katsuaki; Tanaka, Shuta J.; Kisaka, Shota; Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Misawa, Hiroaki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kita, Hajime; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Terasawa, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the simultaneous observation of giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 0.3, 1.6, 2.2, 6.7, and 8.4 GHz with four telescopes in Japan. We obtain 3194 and 272 GRPs occurring at the main pulse and the interpulse phases, respectively. A few GRPs detected at both 0.3 and 8.4 GHz are the most wide-band samples ever reported. In the frequency range from 0.3 to 2.2 GHz, we find that about