WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulps

  1. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  2. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  3. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  4. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  5. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  6. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  7. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  8. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Goldberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically.

  9. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  10. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental p...

  11. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  12. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  13. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  14. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath

  15. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  16. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  17. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  18. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  19. [Daily practice and pulp diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmein, S; Claisse, A

    1990-09-01

    Constructive or destructive processes of pulp tissue depend on many factors: anatomic topography, particular physiology, or intensity and duration of infectious, mechanical and chemical aggression. Also irritation of the pulpo-dentinal complex induce histologic and physiologic changes. The positive diagnosis of hyperemia, acute or chronic pulpitis, pulpal necrosis and acute or chronic apical abscess is performed by clinical investigations which allow a differential diagnosis with other dental or extra-dental diseases. These multiple steps lead to an adapted and appropriate treatment.

  20. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  1. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  2. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and α- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an α-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% α-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  3. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  4. Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouveng, H O

    1967-01-01

    Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

  5. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. ... pulping compounds in the kraft method are Na2S and .... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement of pulp.

  6. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  7. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  8. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  9. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  10. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  11. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  12. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  13. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  14. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  15. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  16. Recruitment of dental pulp cells by dentine and pulp extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether dentine tissue and preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM), and breakdown products, influenced pulp cell migration. Chemotaxis transwell and agarose spot assays demonstrated that both dentine and pulp ECM molecules acted as chemoattractants for primary pulp cells. Chemoattractant activities of dECM and pECM were enhanced when subjected to acid and enzymatic breakdown, respectively. This enhanced activity following physiologically relevant breakdown may be pertinent to the disease environment. Pulp cell migration in response to dental ECMs was dependent on an active rho pathway. Recruited cells exhibited increased stem cell marker expression indicating that dental ECMs and their breakdown products selectively attract progenitor cells that contribute to repair processes. In conclusion, combined these results indicate that ECM molecules contribute to cell recruitment necessary for regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  18. Optimization of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing cellulose pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; Rodríguez, A; De la Torre, M J; Ferrer, J L

    2005-06-01

    The influence of temperature (150-170 degrees C), pulping time (15-45 min) and soda concentration (5-10%) in the pulping of abaca on the yield, kappa, viscosity, breaking length, stretch and tear index of pulp and paper sheets, was studied. Using a factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the pulping process were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 25%. Using a high temperature, and a medium time and soda concentration, led to pulp that was difficult to bleach (kappa 28.34) but provided acceptable strength-related properties (breaking length 4728 m; stretch 4.76%; tear index 18.25 mN m2/g), with good yield (77.33%) and potential savings on capital equipment costs. Obtaining pulp amenable to bleaching would entail using more drastic conditions than those employed in this work.

  19. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  20. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  1. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification...

  2. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  3. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  4. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  6. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  7. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  8. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  9. PULP OBTAINING METHOD FOR PACKAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for obtaining pulp which is used for production of cardboard, paper and package while using carbon dioxide and hydrazine hydrate and neutral-sulfite  shive cooking. Output increase of  the desired product can be explained by reduction in destruction of plant raw material carbohydrates during its cooking process. Quality improvement of the desired product (improvement in bleaching and output is attributed to the fact that usage of carbon dioxide and hydrazine contributes to provision of polysaccharide chain resistance to destruction due to the presence of  end links having structure of metasaccharinic and aldonic acids.The author has developed a new method for pulp obtaining on the basis of the executed investigations  and literature data.  СО2 and hydrazine hydrate have been used for obtaining pulp. Method invention concerns pulp obtaining and it can be used for paper and cardboard package manufacturing in pulp and paper industry.The method is to be carried in the following way: pulp-containing plant raw material is loaded into an autoclave and then aqua solution of sodium monosulfite containing hydrazine hydrate that constitutes 4–5 % of absolute dry pulp-containing raw material mass with liquid module 1:6–1:8 is supplied into the autoclave. The autoclave is closed for operation under pressure and the solution is carbonated under pressure which constitutes 5–8 % of absolute dry plant raw material (shover. Temperature is subsequently raised up to 180 °С in the space of 2 hours and cooking is carried out in the course of 4 hours. Usage of  the proposed method for shover cooking makes it possible to reduce monosulfite cooking process and improve qualitative characteristics and output of the desired product.  In addition to above mentioned fact there is a possibility to improve bleaching and final product output. 

  10. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  11. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  12. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  13. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  15. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  16. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Ana Paula; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos, Sérgio Francisco Dos; Savastano Junior, Holmer

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana) chemical (organosolv) pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP) fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressin...

  17. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft.

  18. Effects of transportation time after extraction on the magnetic cryopreservation of pulp cells of rat dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Suan Huang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The freezing technique used in this animal study provided positive effects on pulp cell storage. In addition, the storage time before the freezing procedure is an important issue for cryopreserving pulp cells in intact teeth.

  19. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

  20. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  1. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    also other applications like in the chemical industry. (Biermann, 1993). Therefore pulp is a very .... digester was maintained at an operating condition of. 170°C, pressure of 2 bars, with liquor to wood ratio of 4:1. Cooking ... The effects of different concentrations of pulping liquor on the yield of pulp from the wood species are ...

  2. Organosolv pulping and test paper characterization of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, F.H.A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Tjeerdsma, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The autocatalyzed ethanol pulping of hemp to produce chemical-grade pulp was examined. Batch delignification conditions were developed for hemp core, hemp bast, and hemp whole stem. Although successful pulping of both hemp core and bast fibre is possible, further research is necessary.

  3. Betatron activation analysis of cupriferous flotation pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Matenko, J.; Mencel, J.; Janiczek, J.; Kielsznia, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of copper determination in cupriferous flotation pulp by photo-activation analysis using betatron and another equipments of existent ''analytical line'' intended for copper determination in dry samples has been described. An activation has been achieved with 14.9 MeV γ-photons. The excitation activity was investigated by using two scintillation detectors and a fast coincidence circuit with resolution time 80 ns. The precision of method was determined as +- 4.25% in 0.95 confidence level for pulp with concentration 5% Cu and +- 24% for 0.06% Cu. (author)

  4. Effects of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Variables on the Durian Rind Pulp and Paper Characteristics: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Rahmad Talib, Mohd; Sian, Lau Lee

    2017-08-01

    Good combination of pulping variables is required to obtain the quality pulp and paper characteristics. Thus, in this preliminary work, naturally dried durian rind were pulped under Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with 18% to 22% alkali charge, 0% to 0.1% Anthraquinone (AQ) charge, 90 minutes to 150 minutes of cooking time and 150°C to 170°C to investigate the effect of pulping variables on the characteristics of the pulp and paper. Pulping condition with 0% of AQ charge was also conducted for comparison. Results indicated that the best screen yield percentage, reject yield percentage, freeness, drainage time, tear index, number of folds and optical properties were shown by the pulp produced with combination of the highest active alkali (22%), AQ charge (0.1%), cooking time (150 minutes) and cooking temperature (170°C) except apparent density, tensile index and burst index. This preliminary result shows that the optimum quality of durian rind pulp as a potential papermaking raw material pulp could be produced by selecting the good combination of pulping variables which influences the pulp and paper characteristics.

  5. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  6. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  7. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  9. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  10. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  11. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  12. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  13. Pulp regeneration by transplantation of dental pulp stem cells in pulpitis: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Yayoi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Matsushita, Kenji

    2017-03-09

    Experiments have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) for complete pulp regeneration. The aim of the present pilot clinical study is to assess the safety, potential efficacy, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of MDPSCs in pulpectomized teeth. Five patients with irreversible pulpitis were enrolled and monitored for up to 24 weeks following MDPSC transplantation. The MDPSCs were isolated from discarded teeth and expanded based on good manufacturing practice (GMP). The quality of the MDPSCs at passages 9 or 10 was ascertained by karyotype analyses. The MDPSCs were transplanted with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in atelocollagen into pulpectomized teeth. The clinical and laboratory evaluations demonstrated no adverse events or toxicity. The electric pulp test (EPT) of the pulp at 4 weeks demonstrated a robust positive response. The signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the regenerated tissue in the root canal after 24 weeks was similar to that of normal dental pulp in the untreated control. Finally, cone beam computed tomography demonstrated functional dentin formation in three of the five patients. Human MDPSCs are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration in humans in this pilot clinical study.

  14. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  15. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  18. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  19. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  20. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  1. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunolocalization of bone-resorptive cytokines in rat pulp and periapical lesions following surgical pulp exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani-Ishii, N; Wang, C Y; Stashenko, P

    1995-08-01

    The bone-resorptive cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including pulpitis and apical periodontitis.To further elucidate their role in these disorders, we have identified cells that express IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha in infected pulps and in developing rat periapical lesions after surgical pulp exposure. As detected by immunohistochemistry, IL-1 alpha- and TNF alpha-positive cells were present as early as 2 days after pulp exposure in both the pulp and periapical region. The numbers of cytokine-expressing cells increased up to day 4 in the pulp and up to day 30 in the periapex. In contrast, cells expressing IL-1 beta and TNF beta, the homologous forms of these mediators, were not found in pulp or periapical lesions during this period. Cells expressing IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha were identified primarily as macrophages and fibroblasts, with occasional staining of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also positive, whereas lymphocytes were negative. In general, cytokine-expressing cells were located proximal to abscesses and the root apex. These findings demonstrate that cells that express bone-resorptive cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha are present immediately after pulp exposure in this model, which supports the hypothesis that these mediators play a key role in pulpal and periapical pathogenesis, including the concomitant bone destruction. They also indicate that both resident connective tissue cells as well as infiltrating cells express bone-resorptive cytokines in response to infection in these lesions.

  3. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  4. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  5. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  6. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  7. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  8. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  9. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  10. Pembuatan Pulp dari Alang-alang

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Wibisono Aylianawati

    2011-01-01

    Alang-alang merupakan tanaman gulma yang jumlahnya cukup besar di Indonesia. Hingga saat ini pemanfaatan dalam jumlah yang besar terhadap alang-alang di Indonesia belum ada. Alang-alang mempunyai kandungan selulosa yang cukup tinggi. Pada penelitian pendahuluan terhadap bahan baku alang-alang mengandung kadar alfa selulosa sekitar 41,7% dan mempunyai bilangan Kappa sebesar 37,1886. Maka alang-alang bisa dijadikan sebagai bahan dari pulp untuk pembuatan kertas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ...

  11. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  13. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and red...

  14. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  15. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate...... of caries progression is reflected by the quality of the tertiary dentin. Slowly progressing lesions create tertiary dentin resembling normal tubular dentin. Rapidly progressing lesions lead to the production of a tubular dentin or complete absence of tertiary dentin, as well as pulp necrosis and apical...

  16. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Derakhshani, Ali; Kamal-Abadi, Ali Mohammadi; Ebrahimi, Behnam; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2014-03-01

    Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1) digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2) outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3) digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS) in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2. The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  17. Method of increasing efficiency of uranium sorption from acid pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Hinterholzinger, O.; Baloun, S.; Homolka, V.; Vanek, J.; Vebr, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Acid pulp containing uranium is adjusted to pH 2.5 to 4 with alkaline agents, such as alkaline pulp, lime milk, finely ground limestone or soda, or a combination thereof. The treated pulp is put into contact with an ion exchanger whose pH has been adjuste to a range of 2.5 to 4. Partial pulp neutralization causes the hydrolysis of the iron present and an overall reduction in salt contents and a significant increase in the ion exchanger sorptio capacity and thus the overall sorption efficiency. The quality o the eluate and of the uranium concentrate improves. (B.S.)

  18. Kinetic modeling of formic acid pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiliang; Fu, Shiyu; Zhan, Huaiyu; Chai, Xinsheng; Lucia, Lucian A

    2008-05-14

    Organic solvent or organosolv pulping processes are alternatives to soda or kraft pulping to delignify lignocellulosic materials for the production of paper pulp. Formic acid, a typical organosolv system, has been presently examined under atmospheric pressure to pulp bagasse fibers. It was shown that efficient bagasse pulping was achieved when the formic acid concentration was limited to 90% (v/v). A statistical kinetic model based on the experimental results for the delignification of bagasse during formic acid pulping was developed that can be described as follows: D (delignification) = 0.747 x C(formicacid) (1.688) x (1 - e(-0.05171t)), an equation that can be used to predict the lignin content in formic acid during the pulping process. The delignification of bagasse by 90% formic acid was almost completed after approximately 80 min, while extended pulping did not improve the delignification but tended to degrade the carbohydrates in bagasse, especially the hemicelluloses, which were rapidly hydrolyzed at the onset of pulping.

  19. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  20. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  2. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  3. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis

  4. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pulp Buah Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) Untuk Pembuatan Nata De Watermelon Pulp Dengan Menggunakan Bakteri Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah

    2011-01-01

    This research done to know can or not the waste of watermelon pulp use to produce nata and how the effect of mass variation using to nata’s quality. This research was done with mass variation of watermelon pulp that is 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g, 50 g, 60 g, and watermelon pulp without adding sugar as control. Statistical analysis count the thickness, water content, ash content, fiber content and organoleptic test of texture, color, aroma, and taste of nata de watermelon pulp. The result show...

  6. A Histopathological Study of Direct Pulp Capping with Adhesive Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salhenejad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recently, it has been proposed that different adhesive materials can be used for direct pulp capping. Previous studies have demonstrated that multi steps dentin adhesives could form reparative dentin similar to calcium hydroxide (CH.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp response of ninety mechanically exposed cat pulps to two adhesive resins (Scotch Bond MP and Single Bond 3M were compared with a calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal, Dentsply.Materials and Methods : Class V facial cavities with similar pulpal exposures were prepared in canines. In the experimental groups phosphoric acid was used to etch the enamel and dentin and pulp exposure, and after it dentin adhesives was applied. The exposure point of the control group was capped with Dycal then the remainder of the cavities was etched and a dentin adhesive (single bond was applied. All of the cavities were restored with a composite resin (Z 100 in usual manner. The animals were scarified after 7, 30 and 60 days (n=30, and the pulp evaluated histologically, statistical analysis was carried out with Kruskal- Wallis test (a=0.05.Results: The data showed that most of the cases had mild inflammation of pulp tissue.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp by Dycal and two adhesive systems, severe inflammatory reaction of pulp was observed only in most of the 30- day Single Bond group. Soft tissue organization of dentin bridge was less than ScotchBond and Dycal groups, the differentiation of dentin bridge was less than Scotch Bond group after 7 days.Conclusion: Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main reaction of exposed pulp when two commercially available adhesive resins were placed directly on the exposed pulp.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp between Dycal and two adhesive systems after 7 days and 60 days. After 7 days most of the specimens showed an amount of predentin

  7. Free toe pulp flap for finger pulp and volar defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoshid R Balan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fingertip injury requiring flap cover is very common in the modern era. The ideal cover should fulfill both functional and aesthetic improvement. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to April 2016, we performed seven free toe pulp flaps for finger defect reconstruction. All patients were males. Five flaps were done in emergency post-traumatic cases, and two were done in elective set up. The cases included reconstruction of three thumbs, one index and one ring finger in an emergency set up and two ring fingers in the elective. Thumb reconstruction was done with great toe lateral pulp and the other digits reconstructed with second toe pulp flap. Follow-up evaluation included both functional and aesthetic assessment. Results: Five flaps survived completely, one suffered partial loss, and one flap failed completely. The median follow-up period was 9 months. The median duration of surgery was 255 min (range 210 to 300 min. The median two-point discrimination was 6.5 mm (range 4–8 mm. There was the return of temperature sensation in all patients; two had cold intolerance. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score varied from 3.61 to 5.07 (median filament index value 4.31/pressure value of 2 g/mm2. Three patients had delayed donor site wound healing. Conclusions: The free toe pulp flap is an efficient choice for fingertip and volar finger defects reconstruction with an excellent tissue match.

  8. Cell-derived micro-environment helps dental pulp stem cells promote dental pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuexin; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Luo, Xiangyou; Yang, Hefeng; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-10-01

    The function of the dental pulp is closely connected to the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, and ECM has received significant attention due to its biological functions for regulating cells. As such, the interaction between the ECM niche and cells is worth exploring for potential clinical uses. In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-derived ECM (DPM) was prepared through cell culture and decellularization to function as the cell niche, and changes in DPSC behaviour and histological analysis of dental pulp tissue regeneration were evaluated following the DPM culture. DPM promoted the replication of DPSCs and exhibited retention of their mineralization. Then, the DPM-based culture strategy under odontogenic culture medium was further investigated, and the mineralization-related markers showed that DPSCs were regulated towards odontogenic differentiation. Dental pulp-like tissue with well-arranged ECM was harvested after a 2-month subcutaneous implantation in nude mice with DPM application. Additionally, DPSCs cultured on the plastic culture surface showed the up-regulation of mineralization makers in vitro, but there was a disorder in matrix formation and mineralization when the cells were cultured in vivo. DPM-based cultivation could serve as a cell niche and modulate DPSC behaviour, and this method also provided an alternative to harvest tissue-specific ECM and provided a strategy for ECM-cell interaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interappointment emergencies in teeth with necrotic pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of interappointment emergencies in symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps was evaluated, and severity of flare-ups was determined by a quantitative method using a flare-up index. There were no significant differences in the incidence of flare-ups attributable to gender, age, diameter of lesion, taking analgesics, placebos, or no medication, or preoperative symptomatic or asymptomatic tooth diagnoses (p > 0.05). There were significantly more painful flare-ups in mandibular teeth than in maxillary (p < 0.05).

  10. CD146 positive human dental pulp stem cells promote regeneration of dentin/pulp-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mikiko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Tsutsui, Takeo W

    2018-04-01

    CD146 and STRO-1 are endothelial biomarkers that are co-expressed on the cellular membranes of blood vessels within human dental pulp tissue. This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146 + ) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146 - ) counterparts. DPSC populations were enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), yielding CD146 + and CD146 - cells, as well as mixtures composed of 25% CD146 + cells and 75% CD146 - cells (CD146 +/- ). Cell growth assays indicated that CD146 + cells exhibit an approximate 3-4 h difference in doubling time, compared with CD146 - cells. Cell cycle distributions were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The low percentage of CD146 + cells' DNA content in G 0 /G 1 phase were compared with CD146 - and non-separated cells. In contrast to CD146 - and non-separated cells, prompt mineralization was observed in CD146 + cells. Subsequently, qRT-PCR revealed high mRNA expression of CD146 and Alkaline phosphatase in mineralization-induced CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells were also observed high adipogenic ability by Oil red O staining. Histological examinations revealed an increased area of dentin/pulp-like structures in transplanted CD146 + cells, compared with CD146 - and CD146 +/- cells. Immunohistochemical studies detected dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), as well as human mitochondria, in transplanted DPSCs. Co-expression of CD146 and GFP indicated that CD146 was expressed in transplanted CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells may promote mineralization and generate dentin/pulp-like structures, suggesting a role in self-renewal of stem cells and dental pulp regenerative therapy.

  11. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A; Boostani, H R

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended.

  12. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  13. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  14. 78 FR 38877 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0640] FRL-9829-3 RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... comments on the May 23, 2013, proposed rule titled, ``Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review'' is being extended by...

  15. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  16. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  17. Path analysis for selection of feijoa with greater pulp weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Donazzolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to identify the direct and indirect effects of feijoa fruits (Acca sellowiana traitson pulp weight, in order to use these traits in indirect genotypes selection. Fruits of five feijoa plants were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, in the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Six traits were evaluated: diameter, length, total weight, pulp weight, peel thickness and number of seeds per fruit. In the path analysis, with or without ridge regression, pulp weight was considered as the basic variable, and the other traits were considered as explanatory variables. Total weight and fruit diameter had high direct effect, and are the main traits associated with pulp weight. These traits may serve as criteria for indirect selection to increase feijoa pulp weight, since they are easy to be measured.

  18. Gamma ray induced chromophore modification of softwood thermomechanical pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, S.; Daneault, C.; Viel, C.; Lepine, F.

    1992-01-01

    This study focuses on bleaching a softwood (black spruce, balsam fur) thermomechanical pulp with gamma rays. Gamma rays are known for their enormous penetrating power, along with their ionizing properties. They can generate highly energetic radicals capable of oxidizing lignin chromophores. The authors studied the influence of isopropyl alcohol, sodium borohydride, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, nitrogen dioxide and water along with gamma ray irradiation of the pulps. The authors measured the optimal dose and dose rate, along with the influence of the radical scavengers like oxygen on the bleaching effect of gamma irradiated pulps. They observe various degrees of bleaching of these pulps. Evidence relates this bleaching to the generation of perhydroxyl anions upon irradiation of water. Also, they were able to pinpoint the influence of the dose rate on the rate of formation and disappearance of these perhydroxyl anions and their influence on bleaching kinetics. Stability toward photoyellowing, and photoyellowing's kinetic of papers from these pulps was also studied

  19. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roetzer, H.; Donhoffer, D.

    1988-12-01

    A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant. Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained 24-Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres (2-5 micrometers) this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp. For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry. 3 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  20. Investigation of pulping and paper making potential of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid Ghaffarzadeh Mollabashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of wood products accompanying with resource constraint has revealed the importance of nonwood based material. In this study, pulping and papermaking potential of three varieties of weeds including Xanthium spinosum, Carthamus tinctorius and Cyperus papyrus have been considered. At first, chemical components of the samples i.e. cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured following TAPPI standard test methods. Afterwards, pulping process based as soda and Kraft has been carried out and the pulp properties i.e. screen yield and reject, kappa number, caliper, bust index, tear index, brightness have been considered. According to the results, the amount cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured for the Xanthium spinosum %38.15, %13.5 and 4.72, respectively. Theses parameters have been estimated about %38.25, %10.3 and % 2.95 for Carthamus tinctorius and %38.8, %19.2 and 4.4 in case of papyrus. The yield of soda and Kraft pulp of the papyrus was more than Xanthium spinosum and Carthamus tinctorius. Among all treatments, the highest screen yield related to soda pulping of Cyperus papyrus by %39.8 which has been obtained by 175 centigrade as a maximum temperature, L/W: 6/1, active alkaline: %30 and 90 minutes as the time at temperature. The lowest and highest amounts of the tear index were related to soda pulp sample of the Carthamus tinctorius and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 2.49 and 8.1, respectively. In addition, the lowest and highest amounts of the bursting index were related to soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 0.61and 2.48, respectively. Meanwhile, soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus showed the highest amount of brightness with %45 ISO.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Pulp Tissues Obtained from Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekfar, Azin; Valli, Kusum S; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are becoming an attractive target for therapeutic purposes because of their neural crest origin and propensity. Although DPSCs can be successfully cryopreserved, there are hardly any reports on cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues obtained from teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment and isolation and characterization of DPSCs from such cryopreserved pulp. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve the said pulp tissues to propagate and characterize isolated DPSCs. A medium consisting of 90% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used for cryopreservation of pulp tissues. DPSCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved pulp tissues using an enzymatic method. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. DPSC migration and interaction were analyzed with the wound healing assay. Mesenchymal characteristics of DPSCs were verified by flow cytometric analysis of cell surface CD markers. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DPSCs was shown by von Kossa and oil red O staining methods, respectively, and the polymerase chain reaction method. We found no significant difference in CD marker expression and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained from fresh and cryopreserved dental pulp tissue. Our study shows that dental pulp can be successfully cryopreserved without losing normal characteristics and differentiation potential of their DPSCs, thus making them suitable for dental banking and future therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  3. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  4. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  5. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Farges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  6. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  7. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  8. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  9. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1 digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2 outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3 digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2 . The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results indicated that by the first method a few cell colonies with homogenous morphology were detectable after 4 days, while in the outgrowth method more time was needed (10-12 days to allow sufficient numbers of heterogeneous phenotype stem cells to migrate out of tissue. Interestingly, with the improved third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. Conclusion: This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  10. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  12. Enzyme Enhanced Protein Recovery from Green Biomass Pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    of local protein resources based on upgrade from e.g. green plant biomass. In present work we consider different strategies for protein recovery from white clover and ryegrass screw press pulps, using aqueous extraction, as well as carbohydrases and proteases enhanced extraction. Protein recovery...... in these studies was determined as a yield of solubilized protein with regard to the total protein in a screw press pulp. Aqueous extraction at pH 8.0 resulted in approx. 40 % protein recovery, while proteases application (Savinase 16.0L, Novozymes) enabled twice higher protein yield. Application of plant cell...... pulp proteolyzates, generated by Savinase 16.0L protease....

  13. Competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyze the competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states, in May, 2008 (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia, using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The results obtained indicated that the private and social profitability of wood pulp production and commercialization was positive and greater in Bahia. The Brazilian companies were penalized by public policies adopted for the sector; the wood pulp production in São Paulo and Bahia were more competitive and less exposed to the negative effects of public policies that reduce the national company profits.

  14. Using renewable sources in the pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, Aneta; Hazi, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry is a major consumer of natural sources (wood) and energy (fossil fuels, electricity) and a significant contributor of pollutant discharges to the environment. In this paper there are presented pulp and paper making process and steam and power generation using renewable sources. This paper includes also an exergy analysis of the steam and power generation process for a pulp and paper mill. Based on the analysis, two sustainability indicators were calculated: the exergetic efficiency and the exergy renewability. (authors)

  15. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  16. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  17. Chemi-thermomechanical pulping of para rubber waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T.; Hosokawa, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of NaOH to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/-treated waste wood chips (Hevea brasiliensis) increased long fiber fraction, Klason lignin content and bulk density, improved breaking length and tear factor, and decreased energy consumption in refining and brightness of resulting chemithermomechanical pulp. Lowering in brightness by alkali treatment was recovered by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, and bleaching with 8% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ on pulp gave pulp with 61.3% brightness.

  18. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard [Bellevue, WA; Callis, James B [Seattle, WA; Mathews, Jeffrey D [Neenah, WI; Robinson, John [Issaquah, WA; Bruckner, Carsten A [San Mateo, CA; Suvamakich, Kuntinee [Seattle, WA

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  19. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  20. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried....... This study determined the nutrient compositions of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of V. paradoxa. Laboratory analyses were undertaken to determine the micro and macro nutrients in the samples on fresh (FM) and dry matter (DM) basis following standard procedures and protocols. The potassium, sodium...

  1. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis.

  2. UTILIZATION OF Prosopis afiicana PULP FOR RABBIT FEEDING: 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBB

    The formulated diets contained similar crude protein content of 18%. The apparent ... These results indicate that Prosopis africana pulp can completely replace maize in the diets of ... serum albumin were determined by Biuret reactions. (Bush ...

  3. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement. ... The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 ... of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.

  4. Effects of feeding cassava pulp fermented with Acremonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2017-01-27

    #, T. .... Briefly, 10 kg steamed cassava pulp (87.5% DM) was soaked with sterile water (1 : 1). .... The data on digestibility and retention of broilers are presented in Table 3. .... Taken together, the antioxidant capacity of A.

  5. Partial pulp necrosis caused by excessive orthodontic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the dental pulp is encased with a rigid, noncompliant shell, changes in pulpal blood flow or vascular tissue pressure can have serious implication for the health of pulp. Numerous studies have demonstrated that orthodontic force application may influence both blood flow and cellular metabolism, leading degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to present a case about tooth with chronic periapical abscess which showed normal vital responses. Excessive orthodontic force is thought to be the prime cause of partial pulp necrosis. Owing to remaining vital tissue, wrong dianosis can be made, and tooth falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissuses. Clinician should be able to utilize various diagnostic tools for the precise diagnosis, and be aware of the endodontic-orthodontic inter-relationship.

  6. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... The results showed that the fruit pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum contained essential ... seed of the plant is a good source of oil which is ... Sample Collection and Treatment ... AAS machine due to its good precision and.

  7. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  8. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  9. Claustral single cell reactions to tooth pulp stimulation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P; Sikora, M; Frydrychowski, A; Słoniewski, P

    1983-01-01

    Single unit activity in the central region of the claustrum, evoked by electrical stimulation of tooth pulp or paws was studied on cats under chloralose anesthesia. The majority of cells responded in similar manner to stimulation of tooth pulp or paws, but there were cells with clear preference to a given type of stimulation. Latencies of reactions evoked by tooth pulp stimulation were significantly shorter than those for limb stimulation. In the former case latencies as short as 8 rns were observed. It is postulated that the central region of the claustrum receives a projection from the tooth pulp, and that in those cases with very short latency the projection is direct and does not involve the cerebral cortex.

  10. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth ... Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and ... (1982) reported a PS prevalence rate of 20.7 % in.

  11. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A com...

  12. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  13. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, A.; Djumaev, B.B.; Djumaev, N.B.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2008-01-01

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60 d ig C . The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  14. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  15. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  16. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  17. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwint?, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be p...

  18. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  19. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  20. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwinté, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-11-05

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  1. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Keller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  2. Water requirements of the pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville D.

    1955-01-01

    Water, of varied qualities, is used for several purposes in the manufacture of pulp and paper, as a vehicle for transporting the constituents of paper in the paper machines; as process water for cooking wood chips to make pulp; as a medium for heat transfer; and for washing the pulpwood, the woodpulp, and the machines that handle the pulp. About 3,200 million gallons of water was withdrawn from surface- and ground-water sources each day during 1950 for the use of the pulp and paper industry. This is about 4 percent of the total estimated industrial withdrawal of water in the Nation The paper industry in the United States has been growing at a rapid rate. It has increased about tenfold in the last 50 years and has doubled every 15 years. The 1950 production of paper was about 24 million tons, which amounts to about 85 percent of the domestic consumption. In 1950, the pulp mills of the country produced more than 14 million tons of woodpulp, which supplied about 85 percent of the demand by the paper mills and other industries. The remainder of the fiber for paper manufacture was obtained from imported woodpulp, from reclaimed wastepaper, and from other fibers including rags and straw. The nationwide paper consumption for 1955 has been estimated at 31,700,000 tons. Woodpulp is classified according to the process by which it is made. Every woodpulp has characteristics that are carried over into the many and diverse grades of paper. Groundwood pulp is manufactured by simply grinding up wood and refining the resulting product. Soda, sulfite, and sulfate pulps are manufactured by chemically breaking down the lignin that cements the cellulose of the wood together and removing, cleaning, and sometimes bleaching the resulting fibers. Some woodpulp is produced by other methods. Sulfate-pulp mills are increasing in number and in rated daily capacity and are manufacturing more than half of the present domestic production of woodpulp. Most of the newer and larger woodpulp mills

  3. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  4. Repair Responses of Dental Pulp to Tooth Injury and Biological Properties of Dentin-pulp Complex

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 勇人; Ohshima, Hayato

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration-the creation of a new tissue after the original one has been lost-is the fundamental biological capability in an organism. Numerous organs are considered to contain stem cells referred to as adult stem cells, even in the adult. Adult stem cells can give rise to a limited set of adult tissue types. In the field of clinical dentistry, it is well-known that the dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries such as tooth replantation/transplantation or restorative pro...

  5. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  6. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  7. Understanding about the classification of pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since most authors use the reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis classification, however, many dentists still do not implement these new classifications. Research was made using a descriptive method by proposing questionnaire to dentists from various dental clinics. The numbers of the dentists participating in this research are 22 dentists. All respondents use the diagnosis sheet during their examinations on patients. Nonetheless, it can't be known what diagnosis card used and most of the dentists are still using the old classification. Concerning responses given towards the new classification: a the new classification had been heard, however, it was not clear (36.3%; b the new classification has never been heard at all (63.6%. Then, responses concerning whether a new development is important to be followed-up or not: a there are those who think that information concerning new development is very important (27.2%; b those who feel that it is important to have new information (68.3%; c those who think that new information is not important (8%. It concluded that information concerning the development of classification of pulp inflammation did not reach the dentists.

  8. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  9. Prospect of trema orientalis as a pulping raw material in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in Bangladesh is looking for new raw materials with high productivity per hectare. Currently, bamboo and Gmelina arborea are the main pulping raw materials for the pulp and paper industry of the country. Trema orientalis is one of the fastest growing woods in the tropical region. This paper reviews the literature on the topic, in particular, related to the chemical, morphological and physical properties of T. orientalis and its suitability for pulping. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of various ulping processes proposed in the literature were critically analyzed. It was concluded that T. orientalis is a potential pulp wood for the Bangladesh pulp and paper industry. (author)

  10. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  11. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  12. Cynara cardunculus L. alkaline pulps: alternatives fibres for paper and paperboard production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, S; Amaral, M E; Costa, A P; Duarte, A P

    2007-11-01

    The pulping of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) was performed under conditions for kraft, kraft-AQ and soda-AQ processes. The best results in terms of delignification degree, expressed as kappa number, pulp viscosity and screened yield, were obtained for the kraft-AQ process with 0.20% of anthraquinone (AQ). The papermaking potential of the selected pulp was studied attending to biometric fibre characterisation, refining aptitude, optical and strength properties. All properties were compared against a Eucalyptus globulus pulp at different refining degrees. The cardoon pulp was also evaluated concerning its potential to board manufacture, alone and in mixtures with pine pulp, giving rise to promising results for liner manufacture.

  13. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic extractives naturally occurring in wood tend to coalesce during pulping to form pitch deposits, which have particularly undesirable effects on the pulping process and quality of pulp produced. A chemical characterization of different...

  14. Scaffold-free Prevascularized Microtissue Spheroids for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, W L; Zhu, L; Hargreaves, K M; Jin, L; Zhang, C

    2014-12-01

    Creating an optimal microenvironment that mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) of natural pulp and securing an adequate blood supply for the survival of cell transplants are major hurdles that need to be overcome in dental pulp regeneration. However, many currently available scaffolds fail to mimic essential functions of natural ECM. The present study investigated a novel approach involving the use of scaffold-free microtissue spheroids of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) prevascularized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in pulp regeneration. In vitro-fabricated microtissue spheroids were inserted into the canal space of tooth-root slices and were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. Histological examination revealed that, after four-week implantation, tooth-root slices containing microtissue spheroids resulted in well-vascularized and cellular pulp-like tissues, compared with empty tooth-root slices, which were filled with only subcutaneous fat tissue. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the tissue found in the tooth-root slices was of human origin, as characterized by the expression of human mitochondria, and contained odontoblast-like cells organized along the dentin, as assessed by immunostaining for nestin and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Vascular structures formed by HUVECs in vitro were successfully anastomosed with the host vasculature upon transplantation in vivo, as shown by immunostaining for human CD31. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that prevascularized, scaffold-free, microtissue spheroids can successfully regenerate vascular dental pulp-like tissue and also highlight the significance of the microtissue microenvironment as an optimal environment for successful pulp-regeneration strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  15. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  16. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  17. Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Rémi; Mekni, Rania; Levasseur, Anthony; Chabrière, Eric; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Human proteins consisted of conjunctive tissue and blood proteins including IgA immunoglobulins. Four peptides were indicative of three presumable Yersinia pestis proteins detected in 3/8 dental pulp specimens from the plague-positive site but not in the eight dental pulp specimens collected in the plague-negative site. Paleoproteomics applied to the dental pulp is a new and innovative approach to screen ancient individuals for the detection of blood-borne pathogens and host inflammatory response.

  18. Mesta/Kenaf as raw material for Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, V. P.; Shiveshwar, R. M.; Meshramkar, P. M.; Deb, U. K.; Jaspal, N. S.; Biyani, B. P.

    1980-03-15

    In recent years, the shortage of conventional raw materials for pulping has intensified a world-wide search for alternate raw materials. Among other cellulosic materials, attention has focused on agricultural residues and annual plants. In this category, Kenaf, also called Mesta, has been studied as a fiber source in many countries including the USA, Phillippines and India. A comprehensive study on kraft pulping of mesta was carried out where the fiber morphology, pulping, bleaching and papermaking characteristics were investigated. Black liquor properties were also determined. The results of this study are reported and compared to the conventional raw material bamboo. The investigation has shown that mesta is easily pulped and bleached and forms sheets of excellent strength properties, comparable to or better than bamboo pulps. The black liquor from mesta is similar to bamboo in calorific value but is very low in silica, which is highly desirable from the chemical recovery point of view. As with all agricultural residues and annual plants, mesta has a high bulk per unit weight. The problems arising from this, e.g., baling, transportation, proper utilization of digester capacity, have to be studied before mesta can be widely accepted in the paper industry.

  19. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  20. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  1. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  2. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  3. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  4. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dentin and dental pulp regeneration by the patient's endogenous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahng G; Zheng, Ying; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Embree, Mildred C; Song, Karen; Jiang, Nan; Mao, Jeremy J

    2013-03-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the functions of the dental pulp-dentin complex. Two approaches are being applied toward dental pulp-dentin regeneration: cell transplantation and cell homing. The majority of previous approaches are based on cell transplantation by delivering ex vivo cultivated cells toward dental pulp or dentin regeneration. Many hurdles limit the clinical translation of cell transplantation such as the difficulty of acquiring and isolating viable cells, uncertainty of what cells or what fractions of cells to use, excessive cost of cell manipulation and transportation, and the risk of immune rejection, pathogen transmission, and tumorigenesis in associated with ex vivo cell manipulation. In contrast, cell homing relies on induced chemotaxis of endogenous cells and therefore circumvents many of the difficulties that are associated with cell transplantation. An array of proteins, peptides, and chemical compounds that are yet to be identified may orchestrate endogenous cells to regenerate dental pulp-dentin complex. Both cell transplantation and cell homing are scientifically valid approaches; however, cell homing offers a number of advantages that are compatible with the development of clinical therapies for dental pulp-dentin regeneration.

  6. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  7. The prevalence and distribution of radiopaque, calcified pulp stones: A cone-beam computed tomography study in a northern Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Hsieh

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: Pulp stones are more frequent in maxillary teeth compared to mandibular teeth. Pulp stones in molar teeth were significantly more common than premolars and incisors. CBCT could be a sensitive tool to detect pulp stones, especially simplifying identification of pulp stones in radicular pulp. Knowledge of pulp stones distribution can aid dentists in clinical endodontic treatment.

  8. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  9. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    released by enzyme treatment showed a characteristic peak at 280 nm indicating the presence of lignin in the released coloring matter. Enzymatic prebleaching of kraft pulp showed 20 % reduction in kappa number of the pulp without much change in viscosity...

  10. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  11. Advanced Scaffolds for Dental Pulp and Periodontal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marco C; Pankajakshan, Divya; Nör, Jacques E

    2017-10-01

    No current therapy promotes root canal disinfection and regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex in cases of pulp necrosis. Antibiotic pastes used to eradicate canal infection negatively affect stem cell survival. Three-dimensional easy-to-fit antibiotic-eluting nanofibers, combined with injectable scaffolds, enriched or not with stem cells and/or growth factors, may increase the likelihood of achieving predictable dental pulp regeneration. Periodontitis is an aggressive disease that impairs the integrity of tooth-supporting structures and may lead to tooth loss. The latest advances in membrane biomodification to endow needed functionalities and technologies to engineer patient-specific membranes/constructs to amplify periodontal regeneration are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the shearing chamber is built, and the formula and procedure to calculate the radius of the turbulence generator are established. The blade laying angle is referenced from the turbine agitator which has the similar shape with the turbulence generator, and the CFD simulation is applied to study the different flow fields with different blade laying angles. Then the recommended blade laying angle of the turbulence generator is formed to be between 60° and 75°.

  13. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  14. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  15. Engineering structural integrity issues in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, A.; Singbeil, D.

    2002-01-01

    ESI issues for Pulp and Paper (P and P) plant are reviewed. Five typical processes are covered, namely: Chemical Pulping, Bleaching, Chemical Recovery, Mechanical Pulping and Papermaking. Equipment, chemical environments and failure modes are summarized with examples from each process. Pressure, temperature, corrosion and rotation are typical sources of risk, which is managed by appropriate inspection. The nature of the P and P Industry and its technology supply is summarized: current trends are consolidation and outsourcing. Three examples are presented to illustrate typical ESI issues: deaerator cracking where the P and P Industry alerted others to this serious cross-industry problem; pressure vessel safety factors and inconsistent international codes; and caustic cracking in continuous kraft digesters, which required rapid and concerted action to diagnose and control. In the future better predictability, data-bases, more formal risk based inspection and fitness-for-service assessments are envisaged. (author)

  16. Outcomes of Different Vital Pulp Therapy Techniques on Symptomatic Permanent Teeth: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) us...

  17. Anthraquinone-A Review of the Rise and Fall of a Pulping Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2014-01-01

    The application of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst has been well documented in scientific studies and mill applications. AQ is known to increase the rate of delignification, enabling a reduction in pulping time, temperature, or chemical charge and an increase in pulp yield. Specific details of AQ use are not extensively reviewed in this work. The review...

  18. Studies of lignin transformation in polyoxometalate (POM) bleaching of kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljana Bujanovic; Richard S. Reiner; Kolby C. Hirth; Sally A. Ralph; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate changes occurring in lignin during polyoxometalate delignification of kraft pulp, residual lignins of a series of POM- delignified kraft pulps of decreasing kappa number were isolated and characterized. Oxidative treatment of commercial unbleached kraft pulp was performed using complex POM solutions containing the active [SiVW11O40]anion. For...

  19. Alkaline Pulping and Bleaching of Acacia auriculiformis Grown in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    JAHAN, M. Sarwar; SABINA, Rowshan; RUBAIYAT, Arjumand

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis were evaluated in terms of its suitability for papermaking. The fiber length (1.1 mm) of A. auriculiformis in this study was within the range of tropical hardwoods. The lignin content in A. auriculiformis was 19.4% and a-cellulose 44.1%, which was within the range of other acacias, but that of extractives was higher. Soda, soda-AQ, and kraft processes were studied in pulping. Screened pulp yield was increased w...

  20. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  1. Microarray evaluation of gene expression profiles in inflamed and healthy human dental pulp: the role of IL1beta and CD40 in pulp inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, V; Zizzari, V L; Dd ' Amico, V; Salini, L; D' Aurora, M; Franchi, S; Antonucci, I; Sberna, M T; Gherlone, E; Stuppia, L; Tetè, S

    2012-01-01

    Dental pulp undergoes a number of changes passing from healthy status to inflammation due to deep decay. These changes are regulated by several genes resulting differently expressed in inflamed and healthy dental pulp, and the knowledge of the processes underlying this differential expression is of great relevance in the identification of the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the gene expression profile of inflamed and healthy dental pulps were compared by microarray analysis, and data obtained were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. This analysis allows to focus on a variety of genes, typically expressed in inflamed tissues. The comparison analysis showed an increased expression of several genes in inflamed pulp, among which IL1β and CD40 resulted of particular interest. These results indicate that gene expression profile of human dental pulp in different physiological and pathological conditions may become an useful tool for improving our knowledge about processes regulating pulp inflammation.

  2. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  3. Vital pulp therapy in symptomatic immature permanent molars: Report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SheikhRezaie MS.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nEndodontic treatment of immature permanent teeth accompanies with several issues. The primary goal when treating such teeth is to maintain pulp vitality so that root development can occur normally. Indications and requirements for vital pulp therapy include asymptomatic and reversible pulpitis. Also there are controversial opinions regarding the ultimate clinical treatment of the vital pulp therapy techniques. In this manuscript we report 3 cases of immature symptomatic permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis caused by caries exposure of the pulp that have been undergone vital pulp therapy successfully.

  4. Recuperation of uranium and gold in mineral pulps by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.B.; Amorim, L.O.

    1985-06-01

    The technological routes for the treatment of the gold and uranium ores are presented. The results obtained during the continuous tests with the uraniferous Ores of Wabo in Somalia are presented. The utilization of 99% of the uranium content in the alkaline pulp is obtained. (C.B.) [pt

  5. Pequi pulp ( Caryocar brasiliense Cambess): Drying kinetics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entropy values found were -251.01, -250.38 and -250.05 (J.Mol-1K-1) for the same temperatures. The values obtained from the Gibbs free energy for the drying of Pequi pulp increased with increasing temperature. The obtained data were consistent to the drying process, and the mathematical equations were effective ...

  6. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or more in a single tooth, their size varying from minute particles to large masses ... between pulp stones and sex, tooth type, dental arch, side and .... attended Kırıkkale University Dental School (KUDS).Caution .... Beside these disadvantages,.

  7. Comparison of various pulping characteristic of Fraxinus angustifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handsheets made from different pulping methods were compared with each other for strength and optical properties. Strength properties were found to be higher for kraft and kraft + anthraquinone processes, while optical properties were found to be higher for cold soda and NSSC processes. Key words: Ash, Fraxinus ...

  8. Selection of Corymbia citriodora for pulp productivity | Brawner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of a series of spotted gum (Corymbia citirodora) progeny trials, established in the subtropical region of Queensland, Australia, was undertaken to provide information for the development of advanced-generation breeding populations suitable for pulp production. Measurements of growth at two ages were ...

  9. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus

  10. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances...

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Relaxant effect of Lagenaria breviflora Roberty fruit pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagenaria breviflora roberty is used in West Africa as traditional remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhoea. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of the pulp and seed extract of L. breviflora on the contractile activity of isolated rabbit ileum. Rabbits of both sexes were used for the study ...

  13. Mechanical pulping with a sequential velocity refiner- a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. McMillin

    1978-01-01

    In previous research with refiner mechanical pulps, a theoretical stress analysis indicated that longitudinal tracheids of Pinus taeda L. fail while under torsional stress and unwind into ribbonlike elements that provide the coherence necessary for strength development. When macerated tracheids of loblolly pine were individually stressed in torsion...

  14. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  15. Antimicrobial screening and effect of the pulp extracts of Zizyphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups of rats were orally administered 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight of extracts daily for three (3) weeks. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation and blood collected for biochemical analysis. The pulp aqueous extract showed more susceptibility on E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans which is a ...

  16. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Tamarind Fruit Pulp and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both seed dhal and flour treated with tamarind fruit pulp had lower mean TBA values ranging from 2.80 to 4.12 ppm Malonaldehyde as against 4.55 to 4.91 ppm for untreated samples. Tamarind fruit can thus be further studied for possible exploitation as a natural antioxidant for use in food, drug and cosmetic products.

  17. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall incidence of pulp stones in the patients and their correlations between female and male patients and between the right‑side and left‑side occurrences were analyzed by computer program, SPSS 15. (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) with using the χ2 test. Differences were considered as significant when P < 0.05.

  18. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis

  19. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  20. Measurement of cellulose content, Kraft pulp yield and basic density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous descriptions of multisite and multispecies near infra-red (NIR) spectroscopic calibrations for predicting cellulose content (CC) and Kraft pulp yield (KPY) in eucalypt woodmeal demonstrated that large, single calibrations provide precise predictions for a wide range of sites and species. These have since been used ...

  1. Natural and recombinant fungal laccases for paper pulp bleaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigoillot, C.; Record, E.; Belle, V.; Robert, J.L.; Levasseur, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Fournel, A.; Sigoillot, J.C.; Asther, M.

    2004-01-01

    Three laccases, a natural form and two recombinant forms obtained from two different expression hosts, were characterized and compared for paper pulp bleaching. Laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a well known lignolytic fungus, was selected as a reference for this study. The corresponding

  2. Possible mechanism for anthraquinone species diffusion in alkaline pulping

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.-S. Chai; J. Samp; Q.X. Hou; S.-H Yoon; J.Y. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of anthraquinone (AQ) in kraft-AQ pulping in terms of its mechanism of transport has been conducted. Our previous work showed that caustic solutions of wood lignin can decrease the membrane exclusion for anthraquinones, i.e., the presence of wood lignin enhances the ability of AQ to pass through a membrane when a reducing agent is...

  3. CD44 is involved in mineralization of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Lung, Jrhau; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Yuan, Kuo

    2013-03-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions. Histologic studies have shown that CD44 is strongly expressed in odontoblasts at the appositional stage of tooth development. We investigated whether CD44 is involved in the mineralization of dental pulp cells. Ten human third molars with incomplete root formation were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD44. Dental pulp cells isolated from another 5 human third molars were assayed for their viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red staining in vitro after silencing stably their expression of CD44 by using the short hairpin RNA technique. The CD44 knockdown cells were cultured on a collagen sponge and transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surfaces of immunocompromised mice. After 6 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues were processed for alizarin red staining and immunohistochemistry of human specific antigen. The dental pulp cells transduced with control short hairpin RNA were used as the control in all assays. CD44 is expressed in odontogenic cells with active mineral deposition during tooth development. Odontoblasts in the root ends of immature teeth express a stronger CD44 signal compared with those in the crown portion. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in dental pulp cells, their mineralization activities were substantially decreased in both in vitro and in vivo assays. CD44 may play a crucial role in the initial mineralization of tooth-associated structures. However, further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. Pulp antioxidant activities, mineral contents and juice nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical differences among the citrus pulps were established for the contents of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids, the quantification of bioactive compounds revealed distinct contents amongst the analysed materials. Phenolic and flavonoid contents presented a value between 3108.78 and 4046.20 mg gallic acid/100 g ...

  6. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  7. Determining the minimum conditions for soda-anthraquinone pulping of kenaf bast, core, and whole stalk fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Thomas A. Rymsza

    1999-01-01

    Chemical pulping of kenaf fiber is comparatively new. In this study, bast, core, and whole stalk kenaf fibers were pulped using a soda-AQ pulping process and various pulping conditions. Handsheets were evaluated for density, Canadian standard freeness, brightness, opacity, smoothness, and tensile, burst, and tear indexes and strength. The results indicate that...

  8. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  9. Assessment of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of permanent teeth with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Larissa Bergesch; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Bruno, Kely Firmino; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    In individuals with periodontal disease, dental pulp status should be determined before a treatment plan is made. Pulse oximeters are promising diagnostic tools to evaluate pulp vascularization. This study used pulse oximetry to determine the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of intact permanent teeth with periodontal attachment loss (PAL) and gingival recession (GR) and to evaluate the correlation between periodontal disease and level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. This study included 67 anterior teeth of 35 patients; all teeth showed intact crowns, PAL, a periodontal pocket (PP), and GR. The teeth underwent periodontal examination, cold and electric pulp testing, and pulse oximetry measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient and a linear regression coefficient were calculated to evaluate the degree of correlation between periodontal disease markers (PAL, PP, and GR) and the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp. These tests also evaluated possible associations between oxygen saturation and cold and electric pulp testing. PAL, PP, and GR had negative correlations with oxygen saturation in dental pulp. Conversely, no statistically significant association was found between oxygen saturation in dental pulp and the response to electric sensibility testing. Oxygen saturation was lower in the pulp of permanent teeth with PAL, PP, and GR, indicating that periodontal disease correlates with the level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.

  11. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  12. The effects of high energy radiation on the pulping properties of Pinus radiation and Eucalyptus regnans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.; Garland, C.P.; Higgins, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of high energy radiation on the pulping behaviour of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata. Pre-irradiation of wood chips with small doses of 60 Co gamma radiation (up to about 0.2 Mrad) caused little degradation of the cellulose, and had only minor effects on the kraft pulping properties of both wood species. Pulp yield, Kappa number and strength properties of the pulps showed little change. There was also little effect on the bisulphite cooking of Pinus radiata. As the dose was increased to 1 Mrad, degradation of cellulose (as indicated by degree of polymerisation measurements) became significant, and Kraft pulp yields from both woods showed small reductions. The Kappa number and physical properties of these pulps were little affected at this dose level. A gamma radiation dose of 10 Mrad produced marked depolymerisation of the cellulose, and big reductions in kraft and neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp yields. The kraft pulps showed a much higher lignin content. Some low dose (0.15 Mrad) irradiations on thin chips were carried out with a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In contrast to comparable gamma irradiations, this treatment produced discernible changes in kraft pulping behaviour. The pulp yield, under the same cooking conditions, appears to be slightly higher, but the Lignin content of the pulp was increased. (Author)

  13. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  14. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  15. Properties of Enzyme Pretreated Wikstroemia sikokiana and Broussonetia papyrifera Bast Fiber Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang-Dong Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase, pectinase complex, and BL11 pectinase were employed for the pretreatment of gampi and paper mulberry bast fiber pulps prior to chlorine dioxide bleaching. The bleaching efficiencies of the pulps with different enzymatic pretreatments were investigated. Accelerated aging by heat-humidity treatment was also conducted to evaluate yellowing phenomena and to estimate the prevention of brightness reversion (brightness retention by enzymatic pretreatment. The order of active chlorine required with respect to pretreatment was pectinase complex > xylanase > BL11 pectinase for soda and soda/oxalate gampi pulps and pectinase complex > BL11 pectinase > xylanase for soda and soda/oxalate paper mulberry pulps. Higher brightness retention values were observed for soda/oxalate pulps compared to soda pulps. The brightness retention levels for gampi pulps and mulberry pulps after ClO2 bleaching with enzymatic pretreatment were higher than the levels of ClO2 and NaClO bleaching pulps. Enzymatic treatments were thus able to reduce the usage of ClO2 and to assist in producing photo-stable paper materials for art and artifact-repairing applications. Thus, enzymatic pretreatment of the pulp has the potential to meet world trends and environmental sustainability for pulp and paper industries.

  16. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  17. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.

  18. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  19. Positive and negative aspects of soda/anthraquinone pulping of hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R C; Bolton, T S; Abdoulmoumine, N; Lavrykova, N; Bose, S K

    2008-11-01

    The positive aspects of the non-sulfur soda/anthraquinone (SAQ) process are mostly tied to improved energy efficiency while lower pulp brightness after bleaching is its most significant drawback. A credible method that quantifies bleachability as well as an approach that solves the problem for SAQ pulps from hardwoods will be described. A straight line correlation (R2=0.904) was obtained between O2 kappa number and final light absorption coefficient (LAC) value after standardized OD0EpD1 bleaching of nine hardwood kraft pulps from three laboratories and one pulp mill. The bleachability of pulps from four different soda processes catalyzed by anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) was compared to that of conventional kraft pulps by comparing O2 kappa number decrease and final LAC values. It was observed that a mild hot water pre-hydrolysis improved the bleachability of SAQ pulps to a level equal to that of kraft.

  20. Optical and Physical Properties of ONP Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Akbarpoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein molecules with complex structures that accelerate the biochemical reactions. Activity of these chemical compounds is accomplished at limited range of pH, temperature and concentration. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of cellulose enzyme were investigated on deinking of old newsprint. Old newsprint (ONP was repulped at 5% consistency for 10 minutes in disintegrator with total revolution number of 26500. Enzymatic treatments of recycled ONP pulp were done under constant conditions (10% consistency,treatment time of 15 minutes, pH range of 5-5.5 at different cellulose concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% (based on oven-dry waste paper. The optical and physical properties of the standard paper (60g/m2 made at different concentrations of cellulose were evaluated in comparison with control pulp (untreated ONP pulp with cellulase. Overall, the results achieved by comparison the optical properties of the paper produced indicated that using cellulase in deinking of ONP led to increase the brightness and the yellowness and decrease the opacity. The brightness was improved to a maximum level of 47.5 ISO %, but the yellowness was decreased to a minimum level of 11.3 ISO %, while the brightness reduced and the yellowness increased at higher concentrations than 0.05% cellulase. The highest opacity of 99.3 ISO % was achieved using 0.1% cellulase even higher than control pulp. The results gained by comparison the physical properties of the paper showed that using cellulase resulted in decrease of paper calliper, air resistance and density and improve the freeness of pulp

  1. EVALUATION OF CONDITION OF THE PULP BY PULSE OXIMETRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Kosturkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct pulse oximetry (PO and electric pulp test (EPT on intact frontal teeth in clinically healthy patients aged between 18 and 25 years who do not have periodontal disease. Material/Methods: To achieve the aim 1058 teeth of 31 patients were studied. The following inclusion criteria for the study were set: 1. Age – 18-25 years. 2. Clinically healthy patient, who does not have any systemic diseases, do not take any medicine systematically. 3. Intact frontal teeth – without carious lesions, restorations or root canal treatment. 4. Lack of periodontal disease. Research was conducted with a pulse oximeter Contec™ - CMS60D and a custom made probe holder. Results: Average values obtained by pulse oximetry in upper jaw vary between 83% and 85%. In lower jaw – between 82% and 85%. 99% is the maximum and 48% is the minimum registered value. The average value of the measurement of all the teeth is 84%. The average saturation measured on the small finger of the right hand of the patient is 98%. The average value of EPT for all teeth is 4 μA. The maximum measured value is 20 μA, and the minimum - 1 μA. Conclusions: 1. Adequate study of the pulp includes two complementary methods – electric pulp test (evaluation of innervation and pulse oximetry (assessment of pulp microcirculation. 2. Teeth that are larger in size have larger values of PO and EPT, which is in direct relation to the size of their pulp chamber. 3. The total saturation, measured in the little finger of the right hand is greater than the one of the teeth.

  2. Review on Bamboo Utilization as Biocomposites, Pulp and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sulaeman; Syamani, F. A.; Fatriasari, W.; Subyakto

    2018-03-01

    One of potential non wood bioresources utilized in industrial application is bamboos. Bamboos are include in graminae family which have high biomass productivity, easy and rapid production, wide avability and high holocellulose content. Indonesia has a huge potential of bamboos, more than 162 bamboo species are found however only some of them are planted that have a high economic value. Bamboos have some advantages such as can be harvested at 3 years, straight culm, high strength, easy to be processed, and relatively cheap. Research Center for Biomaterials has developed utilization of bamboo culm for ply bamboo product as alternative of plywood since 1995, using gombong bamboo, tali bamboo, sembilang bamboo, andong bamboo with PF resin as adhesive. Other biocomposite products from bamboos include particle board, cement board and polymer-bamboo fiber composites. In term of processing technique and final product quality, bamboo composites from ply bamboo are the most prospectable material to be utilized in industrial application. Yellow bamboo and betung bamboo have also been developed as pulp and paper. Biopulping using soda and kraft pulping after biological pretreatment using white rot fungi to remove lignin was used as pulping method in this conversion. Biokraft pulping with Trametes versicolor for 45 days with inoculum loading of 10% resulted better pulp quality compared to the other fungi. Betung bamboo had good morphological characteristics and chemical component content to be converted into bioenergy such as bioethanol. Several pretreatment methods have been developed in order to result high sugar yield. Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was preferedin producing higher yield from the pretreated bamboo compared to enzymatic hydrolysis. By using this method, the bamboo pretreated by biological-microwave pretreatment results higher improvement to increase sugar yield.

  3. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen I. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P<0.001 and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P<0.001. In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P=0.006 and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P<0.001 was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL- 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP- 1, P<0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 and TLR8, P<0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P<0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation.

  4. Semaphorin 3A Induces Odontoblastic Phenotype in Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Wada, N; Hasegawa, D; Miyaji, H; Mitarai, H; Tomokiyo, A; Hamano, S; Maeda, H

    2016-10-01

    In cases of pulp exposure due to deep dental caries or severe traumatic injuries, existing pulp-capping materials have a limited ability to reconstruct dentin-pulp complexes and can result in pulpectomy because of their low potentials to accelerate dental pulp cell activities, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic agents has been anticipated for direct pulp capping. Dental pulp tissues are enriched with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, the authors investigated the effects of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on various functions of human DPSCs in vitro and reparative dentin formation in vivo in a rat dental pulp exposure model. Immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of Sema3A and its receptor Nrp1 (neuropilin 1) in rat dental pulp tissue and human DPSC clones. Sema3A induced cell migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. In addition, Sema3A treatment of DPSC clones increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, upregulated expression of the FARP2 gene (FERM, RhoGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 2), and activated Rac1 in DPSC clones. Furthermore, in the rat dental pulp exposure model, Sema3A promoted reparative dentin formation with dentin tubules and a well-aligned odontoblast-like cell layer at the dental pulp exposure site and with novel reparative dentin almost completely covering pulp tissue at 4 wk after direct pulp capping. These findings suggest that Sema3A could play an important role in dentin regeneration via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sema3A might be an alternative agent for direct pulp capping, which requires further study. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  5. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  6. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  7. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  8. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J.; Ciriacks, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia

  9. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Kmc; Kırıcı, D Ö; Evcil, M S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens. The specimens were collected during endodontic treatment or by longitudinally grooving and splitting the teeth (if extracted). Catalase activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods and an independent sample t-test assessed the significance of differences between the groups. There was statistically a difference between healthy pulp tissue and inflamed pulp tissue (P catalase activity of healthy group was significantly lower than inflamed pulp groups. The present study has shown that a significant increase in catalase activity is determined in inflamed dental pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp.

  10. The impact of kappa number composition on eucalyptus kraft pulp bleachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of chemicals during ECF bleaching of kraft pulp correlates reasonably well with kappa number, which measures with KMnO4 the total amount of oxidizable material in the pulp. However, the method does not distinguish between the oxidizable material in residual lignin and other structures susceptible to oxidation, such as hexenuronic acids (HexAs, extractives and carbonyl groups in the pulp. In this study an attempt is made to separate the main contributors to the kappa number in oxygen - delignified eucalyptus Kraft pulps and evaluate how these fractions behave during ECF bleaching using chlorine dioxide as the sole oxidant (DEDD sequence. Residual lignin and HexAs proved to be the main fractions contributing to the kappa number and chlorine dioxide consumption in ECF bleaching. Pulp bleachability with chlorine dioxide increases with increasing HexAs content of the pulp but chlorine dioxide per se does not react with HexAs. Reduction of pulp with sodium borohydride under conditions for removing carbonyl groups has no impact on bleachability. No correlation was found between the pulp of the extractive content and pulp bleachability. The removal of HexAs prior to ECF bleaching significantly decreases the formation of chlorinated organics in the pulp (OX and filtrates (AOX as well as of oxalic acids in the filtrates.

  11. Isolation and characterization of lignocellulose nanofibers from different wheat straw pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Loaiza, Javier Mauricio; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Wheat straw was cooked under different pulping processes: Soda (100°C, 7% NaOH, 150min), Kraft (170°C, 16% alkalinity, 25% sulfidity, 40min) and Organosolv (210°C, 60% ethanol, 60min). Once the pulps were obtained, lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) were isolated by mechanical process and TEMPO-mediated oxidation followed by a high pressure homogenization. After pulping process, the different pulps were characterized and its chemical composition was determined. The pulps characterization indicates that the Soda process is the process that, despite producing less delignification, retains much of the hemicelluloses in the pulp, being this content a key factor in the nanofibrillation process. Regarding the LCNF obtained by mechanical process, those nanofibers isolated from Organosolv wheat pulp (OWP) and Kraft wheat pulp (KWP) show low values for nanofibrillation yield, specific surface area and greater diameter. However, those nanofibers isolated from Soda wheat pulp (SWP) reach much higher values for these parameters and presents a diameter of 14nm, smaller than those obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation from OWP. Smaller diameters are generally obtained in TEMPO-oxidized LCNF. This work concludes that the lignin content does not affect greatly to obtain LCNF as does the hemicellulose content, so it is accurate to use a soft pulping process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PRODUCTION OF PRINTING AND WRITING PAPER GRADE PULP FROM ELEPHANT GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to characterize chemically and morphologically elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, and evaluate the potential of its fibers for production of printing and writing paper grade pulp. The elephant grass was chemically and morphologically characterized and cooked by the soda process to two different degrees of delignification (kappa 17.5 and 10.6. The resulting pulps were fully bleached by the O-D*-(EP-D sequence and characterized for their beatability, drainability and physical-mechanical properties. The lignin content (20.2% was low, indicating that this grass should be easier to pulp. The morphological analyses of the elephant grass indicated a short fiber material, similar to hardwoods. The soda pulp from elephant grass cooked to kappa number 17.5 presented higher screened yield than 10.6 kappa pulp, with alkali demands of 15.0% and 20.0%, respectively. The total active chlorine required by the 17.5 and 10.6 kappa pulps, were 42.1 and 35.1 kg/odt pulp, respectively, to achieve an ISO brightness of approximately 90.0%. The bleached soda pulps cooked to 17.5 and 10.6 kappa number showed similar refinability and resistance to drainage, but the tensile and burst index were highest for the 17.5 kappa pulp at beating energy consumptions in the range of 0-6 Wh. It was concluded that both 10.6 and 17.5 kappa pulps from elephant grass are suitable for the production of printing and writing paper grade pulps, but the highest kappa 17.5 pulp is more economically attractive given its highest pulping yield, despite the significantly increased of chemical demand for bleaching A produção de papel para impressão e escrita Grau de celulose a partir de capim-elefante.

  13. A prospective study of the incidence of asymptomatic pulp necrosis following crown preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakiotis, E G; Filippatos, C G; Stefopoulos, S; Tzanetakis, G N

    2015-06-01

    To determine the incidence of asymptomatic pulp necrosis following crown preparation as well as the positive predictive value of the electric pulp testing. A total of 120 teeth with healthy pulps scheduled to receive fixed crowns (experimental teeth) were included. Teeth were divided into two groups according to the preoperative crown condition (intact teeth and teeth with preoperative caries, restorations or crowns) and into four groups according to tooth type (maxillary anterior teeth, maxillary posterior teeth, mandibular anterior teeth and mandibular posterior teeth). Experimental and control teeth were submitted to electric pulp testing on three different occasions before treatment commencement (stage 0), at the impression making session (stage 1) and just before the final cementation of the crown (stage 2). Teeth that were considered to contain necrotic pulps were submitted to root canal treatment. Upon access, absence of bleeding was considered as a confirmation of pulp necrosis. Data were analysed using bivariate (chi-square) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). All reported probability values (P-values) were based on two-sided tests and compared to a significance level of 5%. The overall incidence of pulp necrosis was 9%. Intact teeth had a significantly lower incidence of pulp necrosis (5%) compared with preoperatively structurally compromised teeth (13%) [(OR: 9.113, P = 0.035)]. No significant differences were found amongst the four groups with regard to tooth type (P = 0.923). The positive predictive value of the electric pulp testing was 1.00. The incidence of asymptomatic pulp necrosis of teeth following crown preparation is noteworthy. The presence of preoperative caries, restorations or crowns of experimental teeth correlated with a significantly higher incidence of pulp necrosis. Electric pulp testing remains a useful diagnostic instrument for determining the pulp condition. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by

  14. Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T-J; Al-Habib, Mey; Gauthier, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell-based and cell-free. The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. Studies in small and large animals have demonstrated that pulp/dentin-like tissues can be regenerated partially or completely in the root canal space with apical openings of 0.7-3.0 mm using dental pulp stem cells, including stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and subpopulations of pulp stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) have also been shown to regenerate pulp-like tissue. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration. However, one crucial concept has not been considered nor defined in the field of pulp/dentin regeneration and that is the critical size defect of dentin and pulp. Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. By reasoning, cell-free therapy is unlikely to regenerate an organ/tissue after total loss. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp, it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration. Although stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration has shown great promise, clinical trials are difficult to launch at present. This article will address several issues that challenge and hinder the clinical applications of pulp/dentin regeneration which need to be overcome before stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration can occur in the clinic.

  15. Environmental performance of straw-based pulp making: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxing; Wang, Yutao; Shi, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO 2 -eq, 4550kg CO 2 -eq, 16.43kg SO 2 -eq and 2.56kg Phosphate-eq respectively. The dominant factors contributing to environmental impacts are coal consumption, electricity consumption, and chemical (NaOH, ClO 2 ) input. Chemical input decrease and energy recovery increase reduce the total environmental impacts dramatically. Compared with wood-based and recycled pulp making, wheat straw-based pulp making has higher environmental impacts, which are mainly due to higher energy and chemical requirements. However, the environmental impacts of wheat straw-based pulp making are lower than hemp and flax based pulp making from previous studies. It is also noteworthy that biogenic carbon emission is significant in bio industries. If carbon sequestration is taken into account in pulp making industry, wheat straw-based pulp making is a net emitter rather than a net absorber of carbon dioxide. Since wheat straw-based pulp making provides an alternative for agricultural residue management, its evaluation framework should be expanded to further reveal its environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Hemicelluloses in Bleached Kraft Pulp Using Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Hu, Thomas Q; Jang, Ho Fan; Grant, Edward

    2016-12-01

    The hemicellulose composition of a pulp significantly affects its chemical and physical properties and thus represents an important process control variable. However, complicated steps of sample preparation make standard methods for the carbohydrate analysis of pulp samples, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), expensive and time-consuming. In contrast, pulp analysis by attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) requires little sample preparation. Here we show that ATR FT-IR with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing offers a convenient means for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hemicelluloses in bleached kraft pulp and alkaline treated kraft pulp. The pulp samples investigated include bleached softwood kraft pulps, bleached hardwood kraft pulps, and their mixtures, as obtained from Canadian industry mills or blended in a lab, and bleached kraft pulp samples treated with 0-6% NaOH solutions. In the principal component analysis (PCA) of these spectra, we find the potential both to differentiate all pulps on the basis of hemicellulose compositions and to distinguish bleached hardwood pulps by species. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis gives a 0.442 wt% root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for the prediction of xylan content and 0.233 wt% RMSEP for the prediction of mannan content. These data all support the idea that ATR FT-IR has a great potential to rapidly and accurately predict the content of xylan and mannan for bleached kraft pulps (softwood, hardwood, and their mixtures) in industry. However, the prediction of xylan and mannan concentrations presented a difficulty for pulp samples with modified cellulose crystalline structure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (BS bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UNS bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were prepared. Then, composites with 30wt.% fiber content were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding processing. The mechanical and physical properties of these composites were analyzed and compared. Results revealed that the chemical pulping dissolved a fraction of lignin and hemicelluloses so that the linkage potential and aspect ratio of bagasse fibers was improved and consequently, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. The best overall properties were achieved with MEA and AS/AQ fibers. Addition of 5% (wt/wt of coupling agent MAPE resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact strength in line with the improvement of the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion making more effective the transfer of stress from the matrix to the rigid reinforcement.

  19. Influence of Soda Pulping Variables on Properties of Pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr. Leaf Pulp and Paper Studied by Face-Centered Composite Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantharat Wutisatwongkul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Face-centered composite design (FCC was used to study the effect of pulping variables: soda concentration (4-5 wt%, temperature (90–130°C, and pulping time (20–60 min on the properties of pineapple leaf pulp and paper employing soda pulping. Studied pulp responses were screened yield and lignin content (kappa number. Paper properties, which include tensile index, burst index, and tear index, were also investigated. Effects of the pulping variables on the properties were statistically analyzed using Minitab 16. The optimum conditions to obtain the maximum tensile index were soda concentration of 4 wt%, pulping temperature of 105°C, and pulping time of 20 min. The predicted optimum conditions provided tensile index, burst index, tear index, screened yield, and kappa number of 44.13 kN·m/kg, 1.76 kPa·m2, 1.68 N·m2/kg, 21.29 wt%, and 28.12, respectively, and were experimentally confirmed.

  20. Regenerative medicine using dental pulp stem cells for liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Hara, Hajime; Hirono, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-02-06

    Acute liver failure is a refractory disease and its prognosis, if not treated using liver transplantation, is extremely poor. It is a good candidate for regenerative medicine, where stem cell-based therapies play a central role. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to differentiate into multiple cell lineages including hepatocytes. Autologous cell transplant without any foreign gene induction is feasible using MSCs, thereby avoiding possible risks of tumorigenesis and immune rejection. Dental pulp also contains an MSC population that differentiates into hepatocytes. A point worthy of special mention is that dental pulp can be obtained from deciduous teeth during childhood and can be subsequently harvested when necessary after deposition in a tooth bank. MSCs have not only a regenerative capacity but also act in an anti-inflammatory manner via paracrine mechanisms. Promising efficacies and difficulties with the use of MSC derived from teeth are summarized in this review.

  1. Kraft pulp bleaching with molybdenum activated acid peroxide (PMo stage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Marcos Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Optimum conditions to run the P Mo stage for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp were 90 deg C, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/t Mo and 5 kg/t H 2 O 2 . The P Mo stage efficiency increased with decreasing pH (1.5-5.5) and increasing temperature (75-90 deg C), time (2-4 h), and hydrogen peroxide (3-10 kg/t) and molybdenum concentration (0.1-0.4 kg/t). The implementation of the P Mo stage, as replacement for the A stage, decreased total active chlorine demand of the OAZDP sequence by 6 kg/t to reach 90% ISO, both in laboratory and mill scale. Such practice resulted in decreased bleaching chemical costs to produce fully bleached pulp of 90% ISO. (author)

  2. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Dias Telles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin.

  3. Perspectives for Cell-homing Approaches to Engineer Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin M; Widbiller, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient proof is available today to demonstrate that dental pulp tissue engineering is possible. The body of evidence was generated mainly on cell transplantation; however, because of several severe problems afflicted with this approach, it might not be feasible for a clinical setting in the near future. More recently, cell homing has been proposed as a viable alternative. We suggest a modification of the tissue engineering paradigm, where resident cells are attracted by endogenous, dentin-derived growth factors that further induce cell proliferation and differentiation and a bioactive scaffold material laden with these growth factors that serves as a template for tissue formation. This article highlights the latest developments regarding scaffold materials, stem cells, and dentin-derived growth factors specifically for a cell-homing approach to engineer dental pulp and summarizes new ideas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preservation of mango and mango pulp by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.H.

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the following points: I- Effect of ionizing radiation alone (0-2 kGy) or in combination with hot water dip treatment (55 C/5 min.) on the shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango fruits (at mature green stage) stored at 12± 1 C. II - Effect of gamma radiation alone (0 -2 kGy) or with steam treatment (for 12 min.) on the chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango pulp stored at 3 ± 1 C. III- isolation , purification and identification of moulds associated with peel surface of mango fruits and yeasts associated with mango pulp as well as toxin production from some identified moulds

  5. Moulded Pulp Manufacturing: Overview and Prospects for the Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Saxena, Prateek; Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis

    2017-01-01

    Eco-friendly packaging such as moulded pulp products have gained commercial importance in the recent years. However, it remains a greatly under-researched area, and there is an arising need to consolidate the best practices from research and industry in order to increase its implementation....... Moreover, based on the latest research in the field, an innovative drying technique that utilizes concepts derived from impulse drying is presented, and the implementation of this process technology is discussed....

  6. Bioconversion of sugar beet pulps and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J.P.; Bourlet, P.

    A new technology for biogas and energy supply by anaerobic digestion of wet vegetal substrats was studied. It was a two step anaerobic process, each resulting from numerous fermentative reactions. About 88% of the pulp substrat can be converted into gas and a volumic load of 7 kg.m/sup 3/ of dry solids was converted in 24 hours. Many technological problems were encountered with beet trash digestion. It was not tested with high loads, but bioconversion rate was about 75%.

  7. Microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo pulp and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Song, Hainong; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Pang, Chunsheng; Liu, Shijie

    2012-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was obtained by disintegrating bleached kraft bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) pulp with a procedure of chemical pretreatment and high-pressure homogenization. The influences of sodium hydroxide dosage and homogenization times were evaluated by water retention value (WRV) of MFC. The properties, such as the surface morphology, rheological property and carboxyl acid content of MFC were also characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheometer and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) separately.

  8. Energy conservation in the pulp and paper industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Almost 40 specific research and development ideas were formulated by the 67 participants at this workshop. Projects were assessed with the following criteria in mind: potential energy savings, cost, risk, Federal role, time frame, and priority. Data are tabulated on the projects followed by six topics discussed by panel members: waste and recycling, energy management in the mill, papermaking, pulping and bleaching, power generation in the mill, and coating and conversion. Three summary speeches are included. (MCW)

  9. The pulping of esparto grass by sodium monosulfite

    OpenAIRE

    Akchiche, Omar; Messaoud, Boureghda

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the esparto's limbs, in the manufacturing process of the cellulosic pulps, are delignified according to the process chlorinates alkaline which alternate the action of caustic's soda and chlorine; the reason is that these sheets cannot be free from the silica which they contain that only in strongly alkaline medium. In spite of the relative simplicity of implementation of this process, it does not remain free from grievance about it: low yield, an excessive consumption of bleach...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tooth Pulp: Proteomics of Human Tooth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 12 (2014), s. 1961-1966 ISSN 0099-2399 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dentin * human pulp * tandem mass spectrometry * tooth proteome * 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.375, year: 2014

  11. Bibliographic update work. Dental pulp sensory function. Pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Natanael

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a soft connective tissue type that thanks to its components can fulfill a number of vital functions to the tooth. Within these, the sensory function is of great interest since there is a close relationship between histomolecular tissue changes and clinical manifestations of odontogenic pain. To think about the painful history that the patient reports, knowing the tissue level events, helps to arrive to a correct diagnosis, treatment plan and prognosis. The aim of thi...

  12. Electrothermal debracketing: patient acceptance and effects on the dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgan, J S; Walton, R E; Bishara, S E

    1995-09-01

    Adhesives bond ceramic brackets so effectively that their removal by mechanical forces can fracture the brackets and may damage the tooth surface. Electrothermal debracketers have been developed to facilitate removal; whether the heat generated will damage the underlying pulp is unclear. In our experiment, a prototype device with a high heat tip was used to remove brackets from premolars in patients. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) time required for removal, (2) patient acceptance, and (3) histologic effect on the pulp. Forty-eight experimental teeth planned for orthodontic extraction were bonded by a filled Bis-GMA composite resin and a monocrystalline sapphire bracket. After the chemically cured composite set, debracketing was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Seventeen premolars were not etched or bracketed and served as controls. The interval between heat application and removal of the bracket was timed. Patients were questioned as to sensations during debracketing. Teeth were extracted at 5 to 7 or 28 to 32 days and histologically prepared. Pulps were evaluated for alterations. Brackets were removed in an average of 2.1 seconds, usually at the bracket/composite interface. Patient acceptance was generally positive. Pulpal necrosis was not observed but, in a number of specimens, slight inflammation and odontoblastic disruption occurred at both observation periods.

  13. Rapid determination of fluorine in the pulp process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, V.N.; Levitskaya, O.N.

    1994-01-01

    The control of enrichment of mineral raw materials in order to increase the yield of enriched minerals is an important problem of modern industry. A possible solution is an automatic control system (ACS), which makes possible the monitoring and optimization of the enrichment. In terms of future applications, the nuclear-physical analysis, which is based on the use of a radionuclide source of neutrons, is a promising method. The advantages of this method (high rate, the possibility of performing the analysis directly in the flow, high accuracy, and high sensitivity) make themselves evident in the determination of short-lived isotopes, such as F, Ag, Si, Al, V, etc. Both an instrumental complex and a method for the rapid neutron activation determination (RNAD) of fluorine in the pulp flow of the enrichment process of raw materials were developed at the Institute of Chemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences. The analytical complex for RNAD comprises an activator; a densitometer; a pump; a pulp-feed system; a gamma-ray detector; a data acquisition apparatus; and a computer for processing the input/output data and controlling the analysis. The authors found that the RNAD of fluorine using radionuclide Pu-Be sources allows the determination in a 6-L pulp under recirculation conditions with an error of less than 1% in 3-5 minutes. The method allows the routine monitoring of the enrichment process of mineral raw materials

  14. ANTHRAQUINONE ADDITION IN THE ALKALINE PULPING OF Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Jerônimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated different alkaline pulping conditions for Eucalyptus saligna wood. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the anthraquinone (AQ on the reduction of the total reduced sulfur (TRS in the aerial emissions, by reducing the sulfidity. The experiment consisted of 8 cooking with active alkali varying from  19 to 21%, sulfidity from  0 to 20% and anthraquinone from 0 to 0.1%, aiming to obtain  kappa numbers in the range 15.5±1.5. The H factor was used to control the relation time/temperature along cooking. The addition of anthraquinone increased the delignification rate allowing sulfidity reduction. The kraft/AQ pulping with sulfidities of 5 and 10% presented satisfactory results, making it possible the replacement of conventional kraft cooking, giving a reduction in process sulfidity without harms in pulping. In spite of a slightly lower performance, the soda/AQ cooking has potential to be used where the smell is a critical problem in the industrial operation.

  15. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of residual pulp of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Tavares de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available Abstract Starch-rich liquid effluent is generated after peeling, cutting and washing of tubers during the fries processing. After sedimentation of this effluent is recovered a wet residual pulp, and after drying is obtained dry residual pulp or simply named in this study residual pulp of potato (RPP. In order to convert the effluent into a material easy to store for long periods (such as the potato starch, which would make it suitable for various applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the drying conditions, specifically variables temperature and air flow on the drying time and water activity, pH, titratable acidity, instrumental colour parameters, water absorption index, water solubility index and oil absorption capacity of dry RPP. Central Composite Design was used, with temperature levels from 50.0 to 70.0 °C and air flow from 0.06 to 0.092 m3 m–2 s–1. Temperature and airflow affected the study characteristics, except for lightness (L*, water solubility index and oil absorption capacity. It was concluded that milder conditions (lower temperatures and intermediate air flow resulted in higher-quality final products (lighter, less acidic, although requiring higher drying time. Therefore, depending on the product application, different drying conditions can be used.

  16. Strategies for characterizing compositions of industrial pulp and paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz; Kemal, Rahmat A.; Pribowo, Amadeus Y.

    2018-01-01

    The large quantities of waste sludge produced by the pulp and paper industry present significant environmental challenges. In order to minimize the amounts of waste, the pulp sludge should be utilized for productive applications. In order to find feasible solutions, the sludge need to be characterized. In this study, the potential of using acid pretreatment and ashing method to determine the chemical compositions of the sludge is investigated. This study shows that acid pretreatment could be used to dissolve and determine the composition of CaCO3 in the pulp sludge. CaCO3 removal also facilitates the measurement of fiber and ash (clay) contents by using the ashing method. The optimum acid concentration used to completely dissolve CaCO3 was determined using a titration method. Using this method, the measurement of the chemical composition of the sludge sample revealed that it consisted primarily of CaCO3 (55% w/w), clay (25%, w/w), and fibers (18%, w/w). Based on these chemical compositions, potential utilization for the sludge could be determined.

  17. Dental Pulp: Correspondences and Contradictions between Clinical and Histological Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuroiu, Cristian Levente; Căruntu, Irina-Draga; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Melian, Anca; Vataman, Maria; Andrian, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp represents a specialized connective tissue enclosed by dentin and enamel, the most highly mineralized tissues of the body. Consequently, the direct examination as well as pathological evaluation of dental pulp is difficult. Within this anatomical context, our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between dental pulp lesions and clinical diagnosis. Pulpectomies were performed for 54 patients with acute and chronic irreversible pulpitides and for 5 patients (control group) with orthodontic extractions. The morphological features were semiquantitatively assessed by specific score values. The clinical and morphological correspondence was noted for 35 cases (68.62%), whereas inconsistency was recorded for 16 cases (31.38%). The results of the statistical analysis revealed the correlations between clinically and pathologically diagnosed acute/chronic pulpitides. No significant differences were established between the score values for inflammatory infiltrate intensity, collagen depositions, calcifications and necrosis, and acute, respectively chronic pulpitides. We also obtained significant differences between acute pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate and calcifications and between chronic pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate, collagen deposition, and calcifications. On the basis of the predominant pathological aspects, namely, acute and chronic pulpitis, we consider that the classification schemes can be simplified by adequately reducing the number of clinical entities. PMID:26078972

  18. Energy conservation in pulp and paper industry: some thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadawarte, N. S.; Prasad, A. K.; Khanolkar, V. D.; Shenoy, S. C.

    1980-03-15

    The pulp and paper industry is highly energy intensive. In view of the spiralling fuel prices and rising power costs, there is an urgent need to conserve energy through better management of various operations in the industry, from the optimal utilization of the forest residues to the shipment of the final product. The total energy concept, e.g., energy generation, distribution and utilization in Indian paper industry is discussed. The need for an energy audit is emphasized and the formats of energy reporting forms are included. Short and long term measures to be enforced to achieve energy savings in the pulp and paper mills are outlined. Some important energy conservation approaches are also discussed. Factors affecting energy efficiency in a pulp and paper mill are reviewed. Some areas where sustained R and D efforts should be focused to make the paper industry nearly self-sufficient in energy generation and utilization are also given. It is essential to have a National Energy Policy clearly defining achievable targets of energy conservation for industry. The Indian paper industry could advantageously form its own committee to review the operation of the various mills in the country and come out with concrete solutions for higher energy efficiency and more effective conservation of energy.

  19. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe 3 O 4 or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased

  20. Factors affecting the optimal performance of a high-yield pulping operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, PQ (Canada); Paris, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Valada, J L [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Strategies for operating a chemical-mechanical pulp mill were investigated from data based on process models from some one hundred pilot scale pulping runs. Optimal values for 55 process and pulp quality variables have been calculated by applying a genetic algorithm search to a fuzzy model of the overall system. Best pulp quality was achieved and maintained when the chemical pretreatment was conducted at moderately low temperatures using a high SO{sub 2} concentration, which produced high sulphonation and high yield at the same time. By characterizing the quality of the pulp at the fibre level, optimization results were said to be more easily transferable to other high yield pulping systems. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alkaline pulping with additives of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Khider, T

    2005-01-01

    Soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ), alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) and alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM) pulping of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan was carried under different conditions, and pulps with variable yields and mechanical properties were obtained. The date palm rachis gave best yields and mechanical properties with the AS-AQ or the ASAM process, while the leaves were best pulped with the soda method with low yield, but very good strength properties. Blending with 10% and 30% kenaf bark pulp was beneficial, especially for the AS-AQ pulps. Totally chlorine free (TCF) bleached rachis pulps were obtained of high brightness and strength properties suitable for use in writing and printing papers.

  3. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  4. De-pulping and Seed Separation from Tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Vishvambhar Dayal

    2017-09-01

    Tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) contains spongy pulp in which seeds are embedded unevenly. Seeds contain about 26% fats and 13% protein. The process of seed separation is highly time consuming and labour intensive. Two weeks are required to separate its seeds with traditional methods. The developed prototype, for separating tumba seeds, mainly consists of chopper, de-pulping screw, barrel assembly and seed separation unit. The de-pulping screw and barrel assembly was divided in two sections i.e. conveying (feeding zone) and compression sections (de-pulping zone). The performance of developed machine was evaluated at different screw speed in the range of 40-100 rpm. Maximum pulp removal efficiency of 78.1% was achieved with screw speed of 60 rpm. Seed separation from the pulp was carried out by adding different chemicals. Use of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide produced seed separation up to 99%.

  5. Temperature variation in pulp chamber during dental bleaching in presence or absence of light activation

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Travassos, Alessandro Caldas; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Araujo, Maria Amélia Maximo de

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In addition to the chemical damage due to bleaching gels penetration into the pulp during pulp vitality dental bleaching, another possible aggressive factor could be the heat generated by the exothermal oxidation reaction of the bleaching gel, which may also be aggravated by the use of light activation. This study assessed the temperature variation in the pulp chamber in human teeth, using three different bleaching gels with or without LED light activation. METHODS: Thirty human pre-...

  6. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Różyło; Dariusz Dziki; Anna Jakubczyk; Monika Karaś; Urszula Gawlik-Dziki; Krzysztof Różyło

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory chara...

  7. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-11-30

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts.

  8. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.R. Kenealy; E. Horn; C.J. Houtman; J. Laplaza; T.W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. Even with high yield pulps there are conversion losses and with chemical pulps the yields approach 50%. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior...

  9. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-01-01

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts

  10. Process parameters affecting the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulp with peroxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandranupap, P.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Various process parameters affecting eucalyptus kraft pulp delignification with peroxyacetic acid were investigated. The results showed that pH was an important factor. The delignification rate increased with increasing pH to the value of 6. High delignification rate was obtained when the pulp was chelated with Na4-EDTA prior to the peroxyacetic acid stage. Therefore, delignification reaction rate depends on peroxyacid charge, temperature, pH and metal content of pulp.

  11. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Suan Ang; Cheu Peng Leh; Chong Chat Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increas...

  12. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  13. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Jeon, Mijeong; Song, Je-Seon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Choi, Byung-Jai; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok Jun; DenBesten, Pamela K; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1), leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1) were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  14. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA) PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Quaiyyum; A. Noori; Labooni Ahsan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita). Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA) pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. ...

  15. Characteristics and utilization of non-wood pulp and paper; Himokuzai pulp / kami no tokucho to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, H. [Mishima Paper Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The reasons, difficulty in the usage, and the methods of use of non-wood papers are discussed. Non-wood papers sold in Japan are arranged basing on published data. The type of non-wood paper classified as special printing paper makes up the majority, and there are a variety of other products such as printing board, coated paper, thin paper, wrapping paper, functional paper, and watercolor paper. Kenaf and cotton are used in large quantities as non-wood plants for paper production, and use of bagasse and bamboo is increasing. Non-wood paper are used in consideration of environmental and resources problems and for utilizing the special features of non-wood fiber, and the characteristics of non-wood pulp and the effect of non-wood paper are discussed in this report. It is expected that papers utilizing the characteristics of non-wood paper will be developed. Non-wood papers are substitutions for various papers produced from wood pulp, and the fundamental point is the method of improving the original quality and paper quality by combining with non-wood pulp. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Effect of Flotation Time on the Deinking Process and Properties of Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami İmamoğlu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flotation time on the ink removal and physical properties of resulting deinked pulp. Flotation deinking of high quality office paper, printed in a digital duplicating machine based on screen-printing system, was studied using a laboratory cell with a nominal capacity of 10 L. Formamidine sulfinic acid was used in a pulper and pulping conditions such as temperature, retention time, chemical dosage and consistency were held constant prior to flotation process. During the flotation process while pulp consistency, agitation speed, air flow rate and other conditions keeping constant, only flotation time were analyzed in terms of physical properties of resulting pulp quality, pulp yield, filler and fibre balance and waste water quality aspects at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 minutes. Increased flotation time substantially affected optical properties of pulp up to some point then became steady. Yield losses increased as might be expected with increasing flotation time by the 9th minute as flotation sludge skimmed off on top of the flotation cell. Filler content of flotation sludge increased with increasing flotation time while fibre content was decreasing to a certain extent. Thanks to removal of ink and filler materials from pulp physical properties of evaluated handsheets enhanced. The overall results demonstrate that increasing flotation time increased physical and optical properties of resulting pulp. On the other hand flotation time should be increased up to critical point. Exceeding critical point increased yield losses, consumed time and energy without gaining significant pulp qualities.

  17. Effect of Partial Pre-Extraction of Hemicelluloses on the Properties of Pinus radiata Chemimechanical Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reyes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of hemicelluloses prior to pulping and conversion of the extracted hemicelluloses to other bioproducts could provide additional revenue to traditional pulp and paper industries. The effect of hemicelluloses pre-extraction with a hydrothermal (HT process on Pinus radiata chemimechanical pulp (CMP properties was investigated in this study. The HT extraction resulted in a release of 7% to 58% of the initial amount of hemicelluloses from the wood. The extraction yield increased with temperature and extraction time. This hemicellulosic fraction was in the form of low molar mass oligomers with molecular weights varying from 1.5 to 100 kDa. Compared with the control (unextracted CMP pulp, the HT pre-extraction significantly reduced the refining energy to obtain a given fibrillation degree (freeness. The pulp yield with the HT/CMP process was in the range of 56% to 75%. Fiber properties of the pulps from pre-extracted wood, such as fiber length, were reduced, while increases in fiber width, fines content, fiber coarseness, and kink index were observed in comparison with the control pulps. The strength properties of CMP pulps decreased with increasing amounts of hemicellulose removal during the stage prior to pulping.

  18. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    OpenAIRE

    Villela,Paula; Batista,Ângela Giovana; Dessimoni-Pinto,Nísia Andrade Villela

    2013-01-01

    Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with...

  19. Substance P and CGRP expression in dental pulps with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Mandana; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Matloob, Arash; Mozayeni, Maryam; Javaheri, Homan H

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in pulp tissue with clinically diagnosed symptomatic and asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Healthy pulps acted as controls. Five normal pulps and 40 with irreversible pulpitis (20 symptomatic and 20 asymptomatic) were obtained from 45 different patients. SP and CGRP expression was determined by competition binding assays using enzyme immunoassay. anova and Mann-Whitney tests were used to ascertain if there were statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that neuropeptides were found in all pulp samples. The highest and the lowest expressions for SP and CGRP were found in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and healthy pulps groups, respectively. The differences between healthy pulps and the groups of pulps having irreversible pulpitis were significant (P pulpitis groups (P pulpitis groups were not significant. This study demonstrated that the expression of CGRP and SP is significantly higher in pulps with irreversible pulpitis compared with healthy pulps.

  20. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  1. Local myogenic pulp-derived cell injection enhances craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J E; Song, M J; Shin, S; Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Chung, C J

    2017-02-01

    To enhance myogenic differentiation in pulp cells isolated from extracted premolars by epigenetic modification using a DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), and to evaluate the potent stimulatory effect of 5-Aza-treated pulp cell injection for craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo. Pulp cells were isolated from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes from four adults (age range, 18-22.1 years). Levels of myogenic differentiation and functional contraction response in vitro were compared between pulp cells with or without pre-treatment of 5-Aza. Changes in muscle regeneration in response to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled myogenic pulp cell injection in vivo were evaluated using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury model of the gastrocnemius as well as the masseter muscle in mice. Pre-treatment of 5-Aza in pulp cells stimulated myotube formation, myogenic differentiation in terms of desmin and myogenin expression, and the level of collagen gel contraction. The local injection of 5-Aza pre-treated myogenic pulp cells was engrafted into the host tissue and indicated signs of enhanced muscle regeneration in both the gastrocnemius and the masseter muscles. The epigenetic modification of pulp cells from extracted premolars and the local injection of myogenic pulp cells may stimulate craniofacial muscles regeneration in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry: application to a sulfite wood pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.

    2007-07-01

    This report measures the actions performed in 2006 and the actions planned for 2007 within the framework of the project Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry. In addition to the data reconciliation models of the steam and condensate networks and of the process of Borregaard Schweiz AG, process models have been developed with the goal of defining the heat requirements of the process. The combination of utility system data reconciliation with the process models allows to considerably reduce the need for detailed process modelling and for on-site data collection and measurement. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process has been developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirement of the process. The process requirements have been defined using the dual representation concept where the energy requirement of the process unit operations are systematically analysed from their thermodynamic requirement and the way they are satisfied by the technology that implements the operation. Corresponding to the same energy requirement but realised with different temperature allows on one hand to define the exergy efficiency of the heat transfer system in each of the process unit operations and to identify possible energy savings by heat exchange in the system. The analysis has been completed by the definition of the possible energy recovery from waste streams. The minimum energy requirement of the process using the different requirement representation has been realised and the analysis of the energy savings opportunities is now under preparation. This new step will first concern the definition of the utility system integration and the systematic analysis of the energy savings opportunities followed by the techno-economic evaluation of the most profitable energy savings options in the process. The national and international collaborations constitute also an important part of this project. The project is done in close

  3. C-myb Regulates Autophagy for Pulp Vitality in Glucose Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J S; Yu, M K; Cho, S D; Jeon, J G; Yi, H K

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is closely related to oral-complicated diseases by oxidative stress. This study investigates whether cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) could protect human dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress and regulate autophagy activity for pulp vitality. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and their pulp tissue in teeth was analyzed in terms of pulp cavity and molecules by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. Human dental pulp cells were serially subcultured and treated with glucose oxidase in the presence of elevated glucose to generate glucose oxidative stress. The replication-deficient adenovirus c-myb and small interfering RNA c-myb were introduced for c-myb expression. The pulp tissue from the diabetic rats was structurally different from normal tissue in terms of narrow pulp capacity, reduced c-myb, and dentinogenesis molecules. Glucose oxidase treatment decreased c-myb and dentinogenesis molecules (bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein) in human dental pulp cells. However, overexpression of c-myb by adenovirus c-myb increased dentinogenesis, autophagy molecules (autophagy protein 5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, and Beclin-1), and cell survival via p-AMPK/AKT signaling even with glucose oxidative stress. In contrast, the lack of c-myb decreased the above molecules and cell survival by downregulating p-AMPK/AKT signaling. The results indicate that diabetes leads to irreversible damage to dental pulp, which is related to downexpression of autophagy via the p-AMPK/AKT pathway by decline of c-myb. The findings of this study provide a new insight that c-myb could ameliorate autophagy activity and that it is applicable for monitoring complicated diseases of dental pulp. The involvement of c-myb in pulp pathology could serve a therapeutic target in oral-complicated diseases. © International & American Associations

  4. Proliferation and mineralization ability of dental pulp cells derived from primary and permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the proliferation and mineralization ability of CFU-F selected dental pulp cellsderived from primary and permanent teeth. Those cells were isolated by enzyme digestion and analyzed for their colonyformingcapacity. The cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay on day 1, day 7, and day14. Alizarin Red S stainingwas used to detect mineralized nodule formation of the cells on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. Proliferation of CFU-F selected pulpcells from primary teeth was significantly higher than that of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teeth in all periods ofthe experiment. Upon cultured cells in mineralization inducing media, the mineralized nodules appeared as early as day 14 inCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth and MG-63, whereas those of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teethcan be found at day 21. On day 21 and day 28, the mineralized nodules of the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the primaryteeth group were more than those in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group. Mineralized noduleformation in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group appeared later and were less than those ofCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth. However, mineralized nodules in CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanentteeth group increased very fast after their appearance. Those results suggest that CFU-F selected pulp cells from primaryteeth had a higher proliferation rate and mineralization rate when compared to CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanentteeth.

  5. Characterization of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp of erupted and unerupted murine molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Aguila, H. Leonardo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Francone, Victor P.; Mina, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there have been significant advances in the identification of putative stem cells also referred to as “mesenchymal stem cells” (MSC) in dental tissues including the dental pulp. It is thought that MSC in dental pulp share certain similarities with MSC isolated from other tissues. However, cells in dental pulp are still poorly characterized. This study focused on the characterization of progenitor and stem cells in dental pulps of erupted and unerupted mice molars. Our study showed that dental pulps from unerupted molars contain a significant number of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45- and little if any CD45+ cells. Our in vitro functional studies showed that dental pulp cells from unerupted molars displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulp from erupted molars displayed a reduced number of cells, contained higher percentage of CD45+ and lower percentage of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45- as compared to unerupted molars. In vitro functional assays demonstrated the ability of a small fraction of cells to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. There was a significant reduction in the osteo-dentinogenic potential of the pulp cells derived from erupted molars compared to unerupted molars. Furthermore, the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of pulp cells from erupted molars was dependent on a long induction period and infrequent. Based on these findings we propose that the dental pulp of the erupted molars contain a small population of multipotent cells, whereas the dental pulp of the unerupted molars does not contain multipotent cells but is enriched in osteo-dentinogenic progenitors engaged in the formation of coronal and radicular odontoblasts. PMID:20193787

  6. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulp polyp - A periapical lesion: Radiographic observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandagal V Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulp polyp (PP is a chronic hyperplastic condition resulting in formation of granulation tissue and proliferative mass. The radiographic appearance of PP has innumerable presentations. Diagnosing and treatment planning of periapical lesions, heavily relies on the radiographic changes surrounding the root structures. Objective: To evaluate different radiographic periapical changes in clinically detected PP patients. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and who were clinically diagnosed with PP by an oral diagnostician were subjected to radiographic examination. Digital intraoral periapical radiographs of 50 patients with PP were taken. Various periapical changes in the digital radiographs were recorded by a skilled oral radiologist. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS ver 17.0 and P-value was set at <0.05 as significant. Result: Periapical changes like periodontal space widening (PDLW, loss of lamina dura, periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, hypercementosis, condensing osteitis and root resorption were noted. Periodontal space widening was seen in all patients (100%, loss of lamina dura was noted in 72%, periapical rarefying osteitis in 56%, condensing osteitis in 8%, hypercementosis, periapical granuloma, and root resorption were seen in 4% of PP patients. Majority of PP were asymptomatic (66%. Pulp polyp was commonly seen in mandibular first molar followed by mandibular second molar and maxillary first molar. Statistically significant difference was noticed between periapical changes in PP patients (P value <0.0001. All PP patients showed definite periapical changes suggesting it to be a periapical lesion. Conclusion: Pulp polyp is confined to the pulpal portion of the tooth which, may or may not cause changes in periapical region. The results of the present study showed that majority of the PP patients were associated with definite periapical

  8. Decellularized Human Dental Pulp as a Scaffold for Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J S; Takimoto, K; Jeon, M; Vadakekalam, J; Ruparel, N B; Diogenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Teeth undergo postnatal organogenesis relatively late in life and only complete full maturation a few years after the crown first erupts in the oral cavity. At this stage, development can be arrested if the tooth organ is damaged by either trauma or caries. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are a treatment alternative to conventional root canal treatment for immature teeth. These procedures rely on the transfer of apically positioned stem cells, including stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), into the root canal system. Although clinical success has been reported for these procedures, the predictability of expected outcomes and the organization of the newly formed tissues are affected by the lack of an available suitable scaffold that mimics the complexity of the dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we evaluated 3 methods of decellularization of human dental pulp to be used as a potential autograft scaffold. Tooth slices of human healthy extracted third molars were decellularized by 3 different methods. One of the methods generated the maximum observed decellularization with minimal impact on the ECM composition and organization. Furthermore, recellularization of the scaffold supported the proliferation of SCAP throughout the scaffold with differentiation into odontoblast-like cells near the dentinal walls. Thus, this study reports that human dental pulp from healthy extracted teeth can be successfully decellularized, and the resulting scaffold supports the proliferation and differentiation of SCAP. The future application of this form of an autograft in REPs can fulfill a yet unmet need for a suitable scaffold, potentially improving clinical outcomes and ultimately promoting the survival and function of teeth with otherwise poor prognosis.

  9. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  10. Recovering gold from thiosulfate leach pulps via ion exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Michael J.; O'Malley, Glen

    2002-10-01

    Increasing environmental and occupational safety concerns about the use of cyanide in gold processing has increased interest in more acceptable alternative lixiviants, the most promising of which is thiosulfate. However, the thiosulfate process lacks a proven inpulp method of recovering the dissolved gold because activated carbon is not effective for the absorption of the gold-thiosulfate complex. This paper describes work aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of commercially available anion exchange resins for the recovery of gold from thiosulfate leach liquors and pulps.

  11. Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  12. A New Technology for Treating Pulp Waste with Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiaozhen; Tian Zhongyu

    2009-01-01

    New methods for both the treatment of pulp waste liquor called black liquor (BL) and the recovery of chemicals by using plasma, and the concentration of BL with the freezing technique were developed. The new methods aiming at the pilot plant scale are described and the experiments in a small-scale research facility for demonstration and test are presented. The energy consumption for treating waste liquid is 1 kg/kWh. Plasma processing can reduce the costs for treatment and eliminate pollution. (plasma technology)

  13. Optimal energy management in pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarimveis, H.K.; Angelou, A.S.; Retsina, T.R.; Rutherford, S.R.; Bafas, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the utilization of mathematical programming tools for optimum energy management of the power plant in pulp and paper mills. The objective is the fulfillment of the total plant requirements in energy and steam with the minimum possible cost. The proposed methodology is based on the development of a detailed model of the power plant using mass and energy balances and a mathematical formulation of the electrical purchase contract, which can be translated into a rigorous mixed integer linear programming optimization problem. The results show that the method can be a very useful tool for the reduction of production cost due to minimization of the fuel and electricity costs

  14. Inter-laboratory comparisons of hexenuronic acid measurements in kraft eucalyptus pulps using a UV-Vis spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; H.F Zhou; Chai X.S.; Donna Johannes; Richard Pope; Cristina Valls; M. Blanca Roncero

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of a UV-Vis spectroscopic method (TAPPI T 282 om-13 “Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp”) for hexeneuronic acid measurements was conducted using three eucalyptus kraft pulps. The pulp samples were produced in a laboratory at kappa numbers of approximately 14, 20, and 35. The hexeneuronic acid contents of the three pulps were...

  15. Stimulation of angiogenesis, neurogenesis and regeneration by side population cells from dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Ryo; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Murakami, Masashi; Yamamoto, Tsubasa; Fukuta, Osamu; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell therapy in various experimental disease models. However, the regenerative potential of MSCs from different tissue sources and the influence of the tissue niche have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the regenerative potential of dental pulp, bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived CD31(-) side population (SP) cells isolated from an individual porcine source. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells expressed the highest levels of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and had the highest migration activity. Conditioned medium from pulp CD31(-) SP cells produced potent anti-apoptotic activity and neurite outgrowth, compared to those from bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Transplantation of pulp CD31(-) SP cells in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model produced higher blood flow and capillary density than transplantation of bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Motor function recovery and infarct size reduction were greater with pulp CD31(-) SP cells. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells induced maximal angiogenesis, neurogenesis and pulp regeneration in ectopic transplantation models compared to other tissue sources. These results demonstrate that pulp stem cells have higher angiogenic, neurogenic and regenerative potential and may therefore be superior to bone marrow and adipose stem cells for cell therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  17. Quality evaluation of frozen guava and yellow passion fruit pulps by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Priscila D; Caramês, Elem T S; Poppi, Ronei J; Pallone, Juliana A L

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the application of near infrared spectroscopy as a green, quick, and efficient alternative to analytical methods currently used to evaluate the quality (moisture, total sugars, acidity, soluble solids, pH and ascorbic acid) of frozen guava and passion fruit pulps. Fifty samples were analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and reference methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to develop calibration models to relate the NIR spectra and the reference values. Reference methods indicated adulteration by water addition in 58% of guava pulp samples and 44% of yellow passion fruit pulp samples. The PLS models produced lower values of root mean squares error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), and coefficient of determination above 0.7. Moisture and total sugars presented the best calibration models (RMSEP of 0.240 and 0.269, respectively, for guava pulp; RMSEP of 0.401 and 0.413, respectively, for passion fruit pulp) which enables the application of these models to determine adulteration in guava and yellow passion fruit pulp by water or sugar addition. The models constructed for calibration of quality parameters of frozen fruit pulps in this study indicate that NIR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate calibration technique could be applied to determine the quality of guava and yellow passion fruit pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) Fruit Pulp Drink on Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of consuming baobab fruit pulp drink with the diet on iron status of school children. Materials and Methods: Baobab fruit pulp was scrapped from the seeds and mixed with water in the ratio of 1:2 (w/v) to produce a refreshing drink. One hundred and forty two school children 6-8 yrs involved ...

  19. Changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory rotting of Egusi Fruits was completed in 120 hours. At this stage pulp became soft and the seeds were extracted easily with the fingers. The changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and titratable acidity during the controlled rotting of egusi fruit (Colocynthis citrullus L.) for the harvesting of ...

  20. Evaluation of African black pear pulp and oil as ingredients in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bakery fat is important ingrredient that affects the rheological properties of bread crumb. In this work, African black peer pulp and pulp oil were used as substitutions to commercial bakery fat 0%, 25%,50%,75% and 100% levels of substitution. The results obtained show that significant difference (p>0.05) occur between the ...

  1. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  2. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  3. Characterisation of Arabica Coffee Pulp - Hay from Kintamani - Bali as Prospective Biogas Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendroko Setyobudi Roy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of coffee pulp waste is an environmental problem. Anaerobic fermentation is one of the alternative solutions. However, availability of coffee pulp does not appear for year-round, whereas biogas needs continuous feedstocks for digester stability. This research uses coffee pulp from Arabica Coffee Factory at Mengani, Kintamani, Bali–Indonesia. The coffee pulp was transformed into coffee pulp-hay product by sun drying for preservations to extend the raw materials through the year. Characterization of coffee pulp-hay was conducted after to keep for 15 mo for review the prospect as biogas feedstocks. Several parameters were analyzed such as C/N ratio, volatile solids, carbohydrate, protein, fat, lignocellulose content, macro-micro nutrients, and density. The review results indicated that coffee pulp-hay is prospective raw material for biogas feedstock. This well-proven preservation technology was able to fulfill the continuous supply. Furthermore, some problems were found in the recent preliminary experiment related to the density and fungi growth in the conventional laboratory digester. Further investigation was needed to implement the coffee pulp – hay as biogas feedstocks.

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and hydrolytic enzymes on fermentation and ruminal degradability of orange pulp silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid; Lashkari, Saman

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to examine the effect of inoculants, enzymes and mixtures of them on the fermentation, degradability and nutrient value of orange pulp silage. Orange pulp was treated with water (control), inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum), enzymes (multiple enzyme) or inoculants...

  5. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  6. An environmental systems analysis of the Kraft pulp industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warit, J.

    2006-01-01

    The pulp industry inThailandis of economic and social importance because of its production value, the revenues from export and the employment in this sector. The eucalyptus-based Kraft pulp industry plays an

  7. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  8. Improvement of Pulping Uniformity by Measurement of Single Fiber Kappa Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Gustafson; James B. Callis

    2001-11-20

    A method to measure the kappa of single fibers by staining with a fluorescent dye, Acridine Orange (AO), has been developed. This method is now applied to develop and automated flow-through instrument that permits routine kappa analysis on thousands of images of AO stained fibers to give the fiber kappa number distribution of a pulp sample in a few minutes. The design and operation of the instrument are similar to that of a flow cytometer but with the addition of extensive fiber imaging capability. Fluorescence measurements in the flow-through instrument are found to be consistent with those made with fluorescence microscope provided the signal processing in the flow-thou instrument is handled propertly. The kappa distributions of pulps that were analyzed by means of a density gradient column are compared to those measured with the flow-through instrument with good results. The kappa distributions of various laboratory pulps and commercial pulps have been measured. It has been found that all pulps are non-uniform but that ommercial pulps generally have broader kappa distributions thatn their laboratory counterparts. The effects of different pulping methods and chip pretreatments on pulp uniformity are discussed in the report. Finally, the application of flow-through fluorescence technology to other single fiber measurements are presented.

  9. Fabrication of microfibrillated cellulose gel from waste pulp sludge via mild maceration combined with mechanical shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Zhaohui Tong

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a facile route, which combines mild maceration of waste pulp sludge and a mechanical shearing process, to prepare microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) with a high storage modulus. In the maceration, the mixture of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide was used to extract cellulose from never-dried waste pulp sludge. Then, two different mechanical...

  10. Microarray evaluation of age-related changes in human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranasi, Michelangelo; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Zizzari, Vincenzo; D'Apolito, Giuseppe; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Salini, Luisa; Stuppia, Liborio; Tetè, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    The dental pulp undergoes age-related changes that could be ascribed to physiological, defensive, or pathological irritant-induced changes. These changes are regulated by pulp cell activity and by a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules, playing important roles in growth regulation, tissue differentiation and organization, formation of calcified tissue, and defense mechanisms and reactions to inflammatory stimuli. The aim of this research was to better understand the genetic changes that underlie the histological modification of the dental pulp in aging. The gene expression profile of the human dental pulp in young and older subjects was compared by RNA microarray analysis that allowed to simultaneously analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes. Data were statistically analyzed by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Semiquantitative and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to confirm the results. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes that were categorized in growth factors, transcription regulators, apoptosis regulators, and genes of the ECM. The comparison analysis showed a high expression level of the biological functions of cell and tissue differentiation, development, and proliferation and of the immune, lymphatic, and hematologic system in young dental pulp, whereas the pathway of apoptosis was highly expressed in older dental pulp. Expression profile analyses of human dental pulp represent a sensible and useful tool for the study of mechanisms involved in differentiation, growth and aging of human dental pulp in physiological and pathological conditions.

  11. Melatonin attenuates inflammation of acute pulpitis subjected to dental pulp injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Guo; Lin, Jia-Ji; Wang, Zhao-Ling; Cai, Wen-Ke; Wang, Pei-Na; Jia, Qian; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wu, Gao-Yi; Zhu, Guo-Xiong; Ni, Long-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulpitis (AP), one of the most common diseases in the endodontics, usually causes severe pain to the patients, which makes the search for therapeutic target of AP essential in clinic. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is widely involved in the mechanism of pulp inflammation, while melatonin has been reported to have an inhibition for a various kinds of inflammation. We hereby studied whether melatonin can regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in the pulp tissue of AP and in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Two left dental pulps of the adult rat were drilled open to establish the AP model, and the serum levels of melatonin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were assessed at 1, 3 and 5 d post injury. At the same time points, the expression of TLR4 signaling in the pulp was explored by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The AP rats were administered an abdominal injection of melatonin to assess whether melatonin rescued AP and TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling. Dental pulp injury led to an approximately five-day period acute pulp inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α in the serum. ELISA results showed that the level of melatonin in the serum decreased due to AP, while an abdominal injection of melatonin suppressed the increase in serum cytokines and the percentage of necrosis at the 5 d of the injured pulp. Consistent with the inflammation in AP rats, TLR4, NF-ĸB, TNF-α and IL-1β in the pulp were increased post AP compared with the baseline expression. And melatonin showed an inhibition on TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling as well as IL-1β and TNF-α production in the pulp of AP rats. Furthermore, melatonin could also regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in LPS-stimulated HDPCs. These data suggested that dental pulp injury induced AP and reduced the serum level of melatonin and that

  12. 76 FR 2145 - International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA..., applicable to workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin... follows: All workers International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, including on-site leased...

  13. 75 FR 26794 - International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA; Amended... workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin, Virginia. The notice was... Pulp & Paper Mill. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control...

  14. Morphological Study Of Border Area Of Pulp-Capping Materials And Er:YAG Laser Prepared Hard Dental Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanova Vessela P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vital pulp therapy involves biologically based therapeutic activities aimed at restoring health and preserving the vitality of cariously or traumatically damaged pulp. Adaptation of pulp-capping materials to the prepared tooth surface may be the key to the success of biological tooth treatment.

  15. [Application of Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy in analysis of pulp and paper industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chun-yu; Feng, Wen-ying; Xu, Ming; Su, Zhen-hua; Liu, Xiao-meng; Lü, Wei-jun

    2011-03-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to investigate the compositions of raw materials and the property of pulp and paper, infrared spectroscopy has played an important role in pulp and paper industry. However, the traditional transmission infrared spectroscopy has not met the requirements of the producing processes because of its disadvantages of time consuming and sample destruction. New technique would be needed to be found. Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation and could rapidly, accurately estimate the production properties of each process in pulp and paper industry. The present review describes the application of ATR-FTIR in analysis of pulp and paper industry. The analysis processes will include: pulping, papermaking, environmental protecting, special processing and paper identifying.

  16. Can dental pulp calcification predict the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Bronoosh, Pegah; Khosropanah, Shahdad; Rahimi, Elham

    2013-09-01

    To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated. Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD. This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  17. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hard tissue deposition in dental pulp canal by {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Toda, T. [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Endodontics; Mandai, Y. [Bio-Chemical Lab. of Nitta Gelatin Inc., Yao (Japan); Oonishi, H. [Osaka Minami National Hospital, Kawachi (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Canal closure by hard tissue proliferation in the pulp canal and/or apical foramen is the most ideal healing after pulp removal. Generally, Ca(OH){sub 2} may induce secondary dentine or dentine-bridge on the amputated pulp surface. However, Ca(OH){sub 2} shows strong alkalinity and may cause severe inflammatory responses in the residual pulp. Moreover, completely formed dentine-bridge at the orifice will disturb further treatment of residual pulp because of the difficulty in localizing the pathway. The purpose of this study was to see hard tissue induction using newly developed {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement and to recognize the morphological difference of hard tissue from that of Ca(OH){sub 2}. (orig.)

  19. Effectiveness of sucrose during the frozen storage of arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc. Vaugh pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johanna Silva-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on the quality of frozen arazá pulp were investigated. Five levels of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30% were evaluated in combination with freezing at low speed, storage during one month, and thawing at two different speeds. Sensory quality and water loss after centrifugation (WLAC were evaluated in the samples. Before freezing sucrose addition (5-30% to the pulp did not affect the sensory quality of the samples, but a negative effect on WLAC at 5-10% sucrose was observed. Furthermore, addition of 20-30% sucrose to arazá pulp, in combination with low speed-freezing, frozen storage, and low-speed-thawing, can be a useful technique to preserve the texture of arazá pulp. The described treatment gave results comparable to those obtained for the fresh pulp and much better than those obtained when freezing was done at high speed

  20. The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kadam, PhD

    2006-11-30

    The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about 1/3 of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

  1. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of heavy swine fed different citrus pulp levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Watanabe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.

  4. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting...... was adapted to better represent the efficiency of pulp and paper production. A multi-objective model for supply mix optimization was also developed using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Water footprint accounting confirmed the importance of the production efficiency of chemical pulp, which affected...

  5. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Action of nitric oxide on healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leopoldo Penteado Nucci; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida

    2008-10-01

    Irreversible pulpitis has been associated with pain and an increase in the number of pulp inflammatory cells. Based on the action of nitric oxide (NO) elsewhere, NO may possibly participate in the sensory and autonomic innervation of the dental pulp, and may influence local inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to analyze normal and inflamed human dental pulp for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), as an index of NO system activity. Six non-carious second premolar pulp tissue samples were obtained from young patients who required extractions for orthodontic reasons and six inflamed samples were obtained from symptomatic carious second premolars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Pulp tissue was carefully removed, fixed by immersion in a cold 4% PFA buffered solution for 120 min, rinsed in cold phosphate buffer, and quickly-frozen for cryostat sectioning. Pulp tissue was sectioned perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the tooth at 20 microm and processed for histochemistry. Sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and other sections were subjected to histochemical NADPH-d detection. Results indicated the presence of NADPH reactivity within the pulps of both normal and carious teeth. In the normal teeth NADPH-d activity was detected in a small number of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The inflammatory response of the pulp from carious premolars was detected in connective tissue by the presence of an increased number of fibroblasts, angioblasts and collagen fibers. It was possible to determine the extent of odontoblast reactivity since the odontoblast layer was usually absent in these split-peel preparations. There were no obvious signs of stained pulpal nerve fibers. Overall NADPH-d staining was significantly more intense within inflamed pulp tissues compared to normal healthy samples (Mann-Whitney test, pfunctions of NO in human dental pulp in pathophysiological situations.

  7. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  8. ELECTRIC PULP TEST OF TEETH WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsonko Uzunov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to investigate the change in pulp vitality of teeth with periodontal disease using electric pulp tester (EPT. Methods: Subjected to observation were 108 patients with chronic periodontitis. Vitality of 805 teeth with periodontal pocket depth greater than 4 mm was studied by EPT. The research was conducted with EPT "Yonovit ". Results: The highest percentage of surveyed teeth (68.4% respond to the norm when they are tested with EPT – values between 3 μA and 10 μA . Teeth that respond to EPT with values ​​below 3 μA and between 35-100 μA are relatively equal - respectively 4.3% and 3.3%. With increased threshold of irritation – 10-35 μA react 23.4% of teeth. Small number of teeth have threshold of irritation over 100 μA - 0.6%. Conclusion: The value of EPT among periodontal damaged teeth depends on many factors - patient's age, extent of periodontal affect, group affiliation of teeth, etc.

  9. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  10. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  11. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.; Perin-Levasseur, Z.

    2005-07-01

    This yearly report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2005 and the work planned for 2006 within the framework of the Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry project. The results of investigations made at a large pulp and paper facility in Switzerland are presented and analysed. Data models of the steam and condensate networks and of the processes involved are examined. An additional model of the sulphur loop has been also elaborated. From this analysis, a list of required measurements has been developed. Several performance indicators have also been calculated: A systematic analysis method developed to identify sections where condensate could be recovered is discussed. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process is being developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirements of the process. Evaluating this minimum energy requirement from the data available is to be used to prepare definitions of the energy savings possible.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Ledesma-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology.

  13. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT (Triticum aestevum L. STRAW SODA-OXYGEN PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; pulp was produced with soda-oxygen process by using wheat (Triticum aestevum L. straw as raw material and this pulp bleached with hypocholoride (H and peroxyde (P stages. It was found that crystalline properties of unbleached and bleached pulp samples increased by removing amorphous components. In addition, paper sheets made from unbleached and bleached soda-oxygen pulp and determined their optical properties. Consequently; while crystalline properties of pulp samples was rising with HP bleaching, it was determined that optical properties of paper sheets improved with bleaching.

  15. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. The product (Bioactive® [BA] was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC] and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC] counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS. Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p0.05. Ca (~110 ppm and hydroxide ions (pH 11 were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

  16. [Impact of different degree pulpitis on cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell in Beagle immature premolars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, L; Zhao, Y M; Ge, L H

    2016-10-18

    To compare the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolated from normal and inflamed pulps of different degrees in Beagle immature premolars, and provide evidence for the use of inflammatory DPSC (IDPSC). This study evaluated 14 Beagle's young premolars (21 roots). In the experiment group, irreversible pulpitis was induced by pulp exposure and the inflamed pulps were extracted 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the pulp chamber opening.For the control group, normal pulps were extracted immediately after the exposure. HE staining and real-time PCR were performed to confirm the inflammation. The cells were isolated from the inflamed and normal pulps (IDPSC and DPSC). Cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potentials of the two cells were compared. Inflammation cells infiltration was observed in the inflamed pulps by HE staining. The expression of inflammatory factor was much higher in the 6 week inflamed pulp. IDPSC had higher potential of cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potentials. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation potentials of IDPSC from 2 week inflamed pulp were higher than those from 6 week inflamed pulp. The potential of cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of DPSC was enhanced at early stage of irreversible pulpitis, and reduced at late stage in Beagle immature premolars.

  17. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  18. Pulp Inflammation Diagnosis from Clinical to Inflammatory Mediators: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Marjorie; Meyer, Elisabeth; Simon, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    Similar to other tissues, the dental pulp mounts an inflammatory reaction as a way to eliminate pathogens and stimulate repair. Pulp inflammation is prerequisite for dentin pulp complex repair and regeneration; otherwise, chronic disease or pulp necrosis occurs. Evaluation of pulp inflammation severity is necessary to predict the clinical success of maintaining pulp vitality. Clinical limitations to evaluating in situ inflammatory status are well-described. A molecular approach that aids clinical distinction between reversible and irreversible pulpitis could improve the success rate of vital pulp therapy. The aim of this article is to review inflammatory mediator expression in the context of clinical diagnosis. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles published between 1970 and December 2016. Only published studies of inflammatory mediator expression related to clinical diagnosis were eligible for inclusion and analysis. Thirty-two articles were analyzed. Two molecular approaches were described by study methods, protein expression analysis and gene expression analysis. Our review indicates that interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tumor necrosis factor-α, and receptor for advanced glycation end products expression increase at both the gene and protein levels during inflammation. Clinical irreversible pulpitis is related to specific levels of inflammatory mediator expression. The difference in expression between reversible and irreversible disease is both quantitative and qualitative. On the basis of our analysis, in situ quantification of inflammatory mediators may aid in the clinical distinction between reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the value of pulp mill biomass savings in a climate change conscious economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adahl, Anders; Harvey, Simon; Berntsson, Thore

    2006-01-01

    Pulp mills use significant amounts of biofuels, both internal and purchased. Biofuels could contribute to reach greenhouse gas emission targets at competitive costs. Implementing process integration measures at a pulp mill in order to achieve pulp production with less use of energy (biofuels) has not only on-site consequences but also off-site consequences, such as substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere by the saved pulp mill biofuels, and less on-site electric power generation. In this paper a method, a linking model, is suggested to analyse pulp mill biofuel saving measures when carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) external costs are internalised. The linking model is based on equilibrium economics and links information from CO 2 constrained energy market future scenarios with process integration measures. Pulp mill economics and marginal energy market CO 2 response are identified. In an applied study, four process integration measures at a Swedish pulp mill were analysed using five energy market future scenarios emanating from a Nordic energy model. The investigated investment alternatives for biofuel savings all result in positive net annual savings, irrespectively of the scenario used. However, CO 2 emissions may increase or decrease depending on the future development of the Nordic energy market

  20. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  1. DIRECT PULP CAPPING IN TREATMENT OF REVERSIBLE PULPITIS IN PRIMARY TEETH- CLINICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milcheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of primary teeth is identical morphologically and physiologically to that of permanent teeth and it is capable to answer to pathological stimuli by producing tertiary dentin. When the inflammation of the pulp is in its reversible stage vital methods of treatment are indicated in order to stimulate the healing processes in it and protect its vitality. In Bulgaria the most popular method of treatment of inflammation diseases of the pulp in primary dentition is the mortal amputation. The biological way of treatment is not very common even in cases where there are indications for it. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the approbated by us protocol for application of direct pulp capping for treatment of reversible pulpitis in primary teeth. Material and methods: On the base of world experience and our contemporary meta- analysis of the researches published in the last 15 years concerning the problems of diagnostics. We determined clinical and radiographic diagnostic criteria for reversible pulpitis in primary teeth and indications for application of direct pulp capping as a method of treatment. We give clinical steps for application of the method and summarized the clinical and radiographic criteria for success after treatment. Results/conclusion: We gather all the information for applying direct pulp cappingfor treatment of reversible pulpitis in primary dentition. We offer the method of direct pulp capping as a clinical protocol “step by step” and illustrated by scheme which can be useful for students and dentists in their everyday practice.

  2. The influence of irradiation of gamma-rays on the pulping and paper making, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kyoji; Inoue, Kaoru; Hanamura, Norio; Mori, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    The influence of gamma-irradiation on the beating properties of unbleached kraft pulps was studied, and the changes of the mechanical and chemical properties of the sheet made from those pulps were also investigated. The results obtained were as follows: (1) When the unbeaten pulp was treated with gamma-ray, the degree of polymerization of cellulose was decreased rapidly and the formation of aldehyde and carboxyl groups in pulp was observed in addition to that the beating time of irradiated pulps was reduced comparing with non-irradiated pulp. These effects increased roughly in proportion to the radiation dose. (2) Gamma-irradiation was more effective in wet state (moisture content = 70 - 80%) than air dry state. This may be due to the degradation products of water by gamma-irradiation. (3) The mechanical properties (breaking length, tear and burst factors) of the sheets made from irradiated pulps were considerably deteriorated at 10 7 R, but there was a slight deterioration up to 10 6 R. (4) Comparing the result of the mechanical properties, the strengths of the various sheets were shown in the following order: the sheet irradiated after paper making gt the sheet irradiated before beating (air dry state) gt the sheet irradiated before beating (wet state). (author)

  3. Universal industrial sectors integrated solutions module for the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. is the world's second-leading producer of pulp and paper products after China. Boilers, recovery furnaces, and lime kilns are the dominant sources of emissions from pulp and paper mills, collectively accounting for more than 99 % of the SO 2 , almost 96 % of the NO X , and more than 85 % of the particulate matter (PM) emitted to the air from this sector in the U.S. The process of developing industrial strategies for managing emissions can be made efficient, and the resulting strategies more cost-effective, through the application of modeling that accounts for relevant technical, environmental and economic factors. Accordingly, the United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing the Universal Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions module for the Pulp and Paper Industry (UISIS-PNP). It can be applied to evaluate emissions and economic performance of pulp and paper mills separately under user-defined pollution control strategies. In this paper, we discuss the UISIS-PNP module, the pulp and paper market and associated air emissions from the pulp and paper sector. After illustrating the sector-based multi-product modeling structure, a hypothetical example is presented to show the engineering and economic considerations involved in the emission-reduction modeling of the pulp and paper sector in the U.S.

  4. Effects of the bleaching sequence on the optical brighteners action in eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Manfredi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the bleaching process the pulp is treated with chemical reagents that can be retained in the pulp and interfere in the action of the optical brighteners. Different bleaching sequences can produce pulps at the same brightness but with different potential to whiteness increase when treated with optical brighteners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bleaching sequence on the efficiency of disulphonated and tetrasulphonated optical brighteners. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was bleached using four different bleaching sequences. For each pulp three brightness targets were aimeds. For each bleaching sequence mathematical model was generated for predicting the final pulp whiteness according to the initial brightness and the optical brightener charge applied. The presence of organochlorine residues in the pulp reduced the effectiveness of the optical brighteners. Therefore, bleaching sequences that use low chlorine dioxide charge favors for greater gains in whiteness with the application of optical brighteners. The replacement of the final chlorine dioxide bleaching stage with a hydrogen peroxide one in the sequence increased the efficiency of the optical brightening agents.

  5. The influence of irradiation of gamma-rays on the pulping and paper making, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kenji; Sasaki, Toru; Hasegawa, Kunihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Dissolving pulp (DP) containing no lignin and cold soda pulp containing much amount of lignin were used for the study of the influence of gamma irradiation. Experiments were made in the presence of air, water, methanol, acetic anhydride, acetic anhydride + methanol, dioxane, dimethyl sulfoxide and 1% NaOH solution. Irradiation was made for 100 hours at 20 - 21 deg. C; total irradiation dose was 1.47 x 10 7 R. (1) In case of dimethyl sulfoxide, and especially in case of 1% NaOH solution, the yield decreased by irradiation, with cold soda pulp particularly. (2) In case of the pulp immersed in water, the brightness of pulp was not improved by irradiation, but in methanol, it was remarkably improved. Since the improvement was observed in both DP and cold soda pulps, it is caused by the action of oxidizing bleach with small amount of oxygen in the air remaining in the material, instead of the change in the quality of lignin. (3) By infrared analysis, methanol did not react with the lignin in cold soda pulp even under irradiation. (4) The acetylation was accelerated by irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  6. Histological evaluation of the pulp in teeth from dogs with naturally occurring periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ana; Pavlica, Zlatko; Stiblar-Martincic, Draga; Petelin, Milan; Erzen, Damjan; Crossley, David

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the pulp of dog teeth affected by advanced periodontal disease. Histological examination was done on demineralized teeth extracted during clinical treatment of mature, client owned small and medium-size breed dogs with either good periodontal health or with advanced naturally occurring periodontal disease. Routinely stained sections from 5 clinically normal teeth and 22 teeth with advanced periodontitis from dogs between 5 and 12-years of age were examined using light microscopy. The pulp cavities of most teeth were narrow with low cellularity and some fibrosis of the pulp. Findings specific to periodontally affected teeth included acute and chronic pulpitis, vascular congestion, and pulp necrosis. A glomus body was identified in the pulp of one tooth and areas of poorly mineralized cementum were seen in both normal and diseased teeth. Age related changes in dog teeth appear similar to those reported for man and the rat. In addition to age related changes, the pulp of dog teeth with advanced periodontal disease were frequently inflamed or necrotic. This may reflect the advanced periodontitis affecting these teeth or a mechanical effect related to excessive tooth mobility. Further study is required to determine the etiology and significance of these findings and to investigate pulp status in less severely diseased teeth.

  7. An overview of the dental pulp: its functions and responses to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Abbott, P V

    2007-03-01

    The dental pulp is a unique tissue and its importance in the long-term prognosis of the tooth is often ignored by clinicians. It is unique in that it resides in a rigid chamber which provides strong mechanical support and protection from the microbial rich oral environment. If this rigid shell loses its structural integrity, the pulp is under the threat of the adverse stimuli from the mouth, such as caries, cracks, fractures and open restoration margins, all of which provide pathways for micro-organisms and their toxins to enter the pulp. The pulp initially responds to irritation by becoming inflamed and, if left untreated, this will progress to pulp necrosis and infection. The inflammation will also spread to the surrounding alveolar bone and cause periapical pathosis. The magnitude of pulp-related problems should not be underestimated since their most serious consequence is oral sepsis, which can be life threatening, and hence correct diagnosis and management are essential. Clinicians must have a thorough understanding of the physiological and pathological features of the dental pulp as well as the biological consequences of treatment interventions.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects of Campomanesia adamantium microencapsulated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Z. Viscardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Guavira fruits have antimicrobial, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities. Spray drying has been widely used in the food industry presenting good retention in bioactive compounds used to transform the pulp/fruit juice into powder form. Therefore, the present study has evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the microencapsulated pulp of Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O.Berg, Myrtaceae, by spray drying. Different groups of mice were treated with the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg of microencapsulated "guavira" pulp and inflammatory parameters were assessed in a carrageenan paw edema-model and leukocyte migration with pleurisy model, while the antinociceptive activity was assessed using the formalin method and CFA-induced hyperalgesia model. A significant reduction in leukocyte migration and in paw edema was observed in rodents in all time after carrageenan injection for both doses of microencapsulated pulp of C. adamantium when compared with control group. Microencapsulated pulp of C. adamantium also reduced licking time at the first (nociceptive and second (inflammatory phases in the formalin model. In CFA-induced cold and mechanical hyperalgesia, depressive behavior, and knee edema, all parameters analyzed were significantly inhibited by microencapsulated pulp of C. adamantium. Microencapsulation by spray drying proved to be a technique that promotes bioavailability and the preservation of bioactive components in guavira pulp.

  9. Increase of alcohol yield per ton of pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, B N

    1957-01-01

    Digestion processes of cellulose were studied under production conditions. When the digestion was carried out with acid having 5.2% total SO/sub 2/ and 0.92% CaO, the concentration of total sugars in the spent liquor was 1.8 to 2.5%. When the acidity was reduced to 4.8% total SO/sub 2/ and 0.82% CaO, all other conditions being the same, the sugar concentration in the spent liquor increased to 3.0 to 3.7%. The importance of the acid strength and CaO content of the cooking liquor was further demonstrated at the end of 1955. At that time the total SO/sub 2/ in the acid rose to 8% while the amount of CaO remained practically the same-0.85 to 0.90%. These conditions permitted an increase in the amount of ships by 25 to 30%, which further changed the ratio CaO: wood and created conditions favorable for an improved yield of sugar. The increase in the activity of the acid was reflected favorably in the degree of hydrolysis of the hemicelluloses and in the degree to which the oligosaccharides or polysaccharides were hydrolyzed to simple sugars. At that time the yield of alcohol reached 53 1/ton of unbleached pulp. The process was further improved in 1956 by the use of successive washings; at the end of the digestion period the concentrated spent liquor was piped to the alcohol unit. The yield of alcohol reached 59.4 1/ton of pulp. Sugar recovery from the tank was 92.5% of that theoretically possible. Further improvements resulted by saturating the wood chips with acid under variable pressures. As a result, the base of the cooking acid was reduced to 0.7 to 0.72% and, at the end of the process the liquor contained 0.03 to 0.06% CaO instead of 0.2 to 0.18%. The alcohol yield/ton of pulp then rose to 66.8 l.

  10. Cassava Pulp as a Biofuel Feedstock of an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Proces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuma’ali Djuma’ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12% w/v, particle size <320 μm hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min and yielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction and saccharification by a thermo-stable α-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  11. Electron beam processing technology for modification of different types of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Kukielka, A.; Mikolajczyk, W.; Starostka, P.; Stupinska, H.

    2002-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Pulp and Paper Research Institute and Institute of Chemical Fibers carry out a joint research project in order to develop the radiation methods modification of cellulose pulps for production of cellulose derivatives such as carbamate (CC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC). Three different types of textile pulps: Alicell (A); Borregaard (B), Ketchikan (K) and Kraft softwood (PSS) and hardwood (PSB) pulps have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/9 linear accelerator with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. After electron beam treatment the samples of cellulose pulps have been examined by using of structural and physico-chemical methods. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated cellulose pulps. By means of analytical methods, such parameters as: viscosity, average degree of polymerization (DP) and α-cellulose contents were evaluated. Based on EPR and GPC investigations the relationship between concentrations of free radicals and decreasing polymerization degrees in electron beam treatment pulps has been confirmed. The carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose and cellulose carbamate were prepared using the raw material of radiation modified pulps. Positive results of investigations will allow for determination of optimum conditions for electron beam modification of selected cellulose paper and textile pulps. Such procedure leads to limit the amounts of chemical activators used in methods for preparation cellulose derivatives. The proposed electron beam technology is new approaches in technical solution and economic of process of cellulose derivatives preparation. (author)

  12. Characterization and sensory preference of fermented dairy beverages prepared with different concentrations of whey and araticum pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Valéria Sousa Costa de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a fermented dairy beverage flavored with araticum pulp, assess its physicochemical characteristics, microbiological quality, and sensory preference by the consumer. Araticum pulp was prepared using two different methods: with or without bleaching (50 ºC/5 minutes. Formulations of fermented dairy beverages consisting of whey (50%, standardized pasteurized milk (50%, and seven different concentrations of bleached araticum pulp (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% w/v were prepared. In addition, seven formulations of fermented dairy beverage, without adding araticum pulp, and consisting of varying proportions of whey (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% were developed. In all formulations, thickeners/stabilizers were added. All araticum pulp samples (with and without bleach and fermented dairy beverages (with and without araticum pulp were analyzed for the relevant physicochemical properties: pH, titratable acidity, acidity of pulp, acidity of fermented beverage, moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, total solids, and caloric values. Microbiological counts of coliforms at 35 °C and 45 °C in the pulp and beverage, and molds and yeasts and Salmonella sp. in the pulp were obtained. Additionally, sensory analysis regarding preferences of the different fermented dairy beverage formulations was also performed. The araticum pulp samples without bleach, showed higher values of pH, moisture, protein, total fiber, and ascorbic acid, as compared to bleached pulp samples, while bleached araticum pulp showed higher values for other physicochemical parameters. Microbiological results showed that all pulps and fruit-dairy beverages were suitable for consumption. It was found that there was no significant consumer preference between different fermented beverage formulations, according to the different percentages of pulp. However, the formulations consisting of 40, 50, 60, and 70

  13. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  14. English-assisted Teaching Pertaining to Pulp and Paper in Chinese Universities: An Undergraduate Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, about 20 universities in China offer undergraduate courses related to pulp and paper. This large number is congruent with the rapid development of the Chinese pulp and paper industry in the past several decades. In the context of ever-increasing internationalization and global cooperation, English-assisted teaching in Chinese universities has much potential. The wide-spread implementation of English-assisted teaching would promote the career development of students and help foster the advancement of the Chinese pulp and paper industry.

  15. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100°C within 1min of reaction. The optima for the two selected......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study...

  16. Histological transformations of the dental pulp as possible indicator of post mortem interval: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricio A; Brizuela, Claudia I; Rodriguez, Ismael A; Muñoz, Samuel; Godoy, Marianela E; Inostroza, Carolina

    2017-10-01

    The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days. The tooth is the hardest organ of the human body, and within is confined dental pulp. The pulp morphology is defined as a lax conjunctive tissue with great sensory innervation, abundant microcirculation and great presence of groups of cell types. The aim of this study is to describe the potential use of pulp post mortem alterations to estimate PMI, using a new methodology that will allow obtainment of pulp tissue to be used for histomorphological analysis. The current study will identify potential histological indicators in dental pulp tissue to estimate PMI in time intervals of 24h, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. This study used 26 teeth from individuals with known PMI of 24h, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months. All samples were manipulated with the new methodology (Carrasco, P. and Inostroza C. inventors; Universidad de los Andes, assignee. Forensic identification, post mortem interval estimation and cause of death determination by recovery of dental tissue. United State patent US 61/826,558 23.05.2013) to extract pulp tissue without the destruction of the tooth. The dental pulp tissues obtained were fixed in formalin for the subsequent generation of histological sections, stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Masson's Trichrome. All sections were observed under an optical microscope using magnifications of 10× and 40×. The microscopic analysis of the samples showed a progressive transformation of the cellular components and fibers of dental pulp along PMI. These results allowed creating a

  17. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  18. Statistically designed optimisation of enzyme catalysed starch removal from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    to obtain dietary fibers is usually accomplished via a three step, sequential enzymatic treatment procedure using a heat stable alpha-amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase. Statistically designed experiments were performed to investigate the influence of enzyme dose, amount of dry matter, incubation time...... and temperature on the amount of starch released from the potato pulp. The data demonstrated that all the starch could be released from potato pulp in one step when 8% (w/w) dry potato pulp was treated with 0.2% (v/w) (enzyme/substrate (E/S)) of a thermostable Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (Termamyl(R) SC...

  19. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA direct pulp capping: 10 years clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Daniele

    2017-06-01

    After 10-years follow-up period, 6 out of 80 teeth required an endodontic treatment, we did not find an increase of pulp calcifications, root resorptions, endodontic lesions. All teeth still alive have responded positively to the cold-temperature test. The three lesions had disappeared at the last X-ray control. All four symptomatic teeth preserved their pulp vitality. The successful treatment rate was 92.5%. Direct pulp capping with MTA can be considered an effective treatment of exposure due to tooth decay and can be considered a valid treatment option for teeth with a diagnosis of not-severe reversible pulpitis.

  20. Pulp regeneration after non-infected and infected necrosis, what type of tissue do we want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Bakland, Leif K

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration (revitalization) of infected necrotic pulp tissue has been an important issue in endodontics for more than a decade. Based on a series of case reports, there appears to be evidence that new soft tissue can enter the root canal with a potential for subsequent hard tissue deposition...... that such events may take place in four variants: (i) Revascularization of the pulp with accelerated dentin formation leading to pulp canal obliteration. This event has a good long-term prognosis. (ii) Ingrowth of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL). The long-term prognosis for this event is not known. (iii...

  1. Fermentable sugar in ammonium and calcium bisulfite pulping and ethanol production therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, O; Schoon, N H; Ingvar, E

    1955-01-01

    The yields of fermentable sugar and EtOH were determined on spruce chips pulped with NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/ and Ca(HSO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The yield of fermentable sugar is plotted vs the yield of pulp; the curve shows a difference in sugar content for the two bases during the first part of the process. With yields of pulp below 44%, this difference disappears. Univalent ions (other than NH/sub 4//sup +/) have a beneficial effect on the sugar yield. Consequently, the destruction of the sugar is more rapid when NH/sub 4//sup +/ is used.

  2. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  3. Advances in regeneration of dental pulp--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Sharma, Lavanya; Sharma, Ajay; Dias, George J

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the biological response of dentin-pulp complexes to a variety of stimuli and responses to current treatment therapies and reviews the role of tissue engineering and its application in regenerative endodontics. An electronic search was undertaken based on keywords using Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Ovid database resources up to March 2012 to identify appropriate articles, supplemented by a manual search using reference lists from relevant articles. Inclusion criteria were mainly based on different combinations of keywords and restricted to articles published in English language only. Biological approaches based on tissue engineering principles were found to offer the possibility of restoring natural tooth vitality, with distinct evidence that regeneration of lost dental tissues is possible. Studies to formulate an ideal restorative material with regenerative properties, however, are still under way. Further research with supporting clinical studies is required to identify the most effective and safe treatment therapy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).

  5. Treatment of wheat straw pulp wastewater by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianmin; Deng Yu; Li Lanqingzi

    2005-01-01

    A microwave treatment has been developed for decoloration of wheat straw pulp wastewater. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and steel slag are used as catalyst. Effective factors on chrominance removal, such as quantity and ratio of the mixed catalyst, microwave power, and reaction time, were studied. Over 95% of chrominance removal from 50 mL wastewater could be achieved by putting in it 10 gram of GAC and steel slag at a ratio of 1:23 and operating the microwave oven at 800 W for 10 minutes. It was find that when the catalyst was used for the fourth time, the chrominance removal could still be more than 80%. A kinetics study on the treatment suggested that the decoloration process accorded to a fist-order reaction. (authors)

  6. Pulp science: education and communication in the paperback book revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    Paperback books on scientific topics were a hot commodity in the United States from the 1940s to 1960s providing a vehicle for science communication that transformed science education. Well-known scientists authored them, including Rachel Carson, Theodosius Dobzhansky, George Gamow, Fred Hoyle, Julian Huxley, and Margaret Mead. A short history of 'the paperback revolution' that began in the 1930s is provided before concentrating on one publishing company based in New York City, the New American Library of World Literature (NAL), which produced Signet and Mentor Books. The infrastructure that led to the production and consumption of paperback books is described and an underexplored and not-previously identified genre of educational books on scientific topics, what the author refers to as pulp science, is characterized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microencapsulation of pequi pulp oil by complex coacervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Narciso Justi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pequi pulp oil, Caryocar brasiliense, is rich in carotenoids, antioxidant compound easily oxidized by the presence of heat, light and oxygen. In order to improve its stability, pequi oil was microencapsulated by complex coacervation using gelatin and Arabic gum as encapsulating agents. Twenty formulations were prepared using a 23 central composite rotational design. The influence of temperature, stirring velocity and core material in the oil coacervation were evaluated, aiming to preserve carotenoids present in the oil. The best yield values and carotenoids content were obtained at the midpoint of the design (7.5g core, 15.000rpm and 50°C. Particles showed asymmetric distribution, with diameter ranging from 15 to 145 µm and the efficiency of the encapsulation process, obtained by the retention of oil in the microcapsule, ranged from 66.58 to 96.50%, thus demonstrating the encapsulation efficiency of this method.

  8. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Dental Pulp and Dentin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawli, Hassan Talat

    Current and historical endodontic "root canal" treatments employ inert obturating materials inserted into the teeth's pulp chambers and root canals, often saving teeth but without adequate function. Furthermore, the occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the immature permanent tooth is considered to be a challenging situation, clinically, in treatment because the thin and often short roots increase the risk of fracture. The ideal treatment would be to promote continued root development. This work demonstrated that endodontically-shaped and durable scaffolds of slowly resorbable fibrous (HT) glass and faster-resorbing small-particle Bioglass can be sintered at 900 degrees C for such placement, and that cell growth of osteoblasts in these scaffolds shows good early results. Retained bioactivity in the sintered specimen was revealed by Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy.

  9. Coronal pulp biomarker: A lesser known age estimation modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrithi D Veera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The evolving state of art digital technology currently available is opening new avenues in forensic odontology for age estimation methods which are subject to debate in terms of accuracy and precision. A study was carried to analyze efficacy and practical application for age estimation using digital panoramic radiographs on South Indian population. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study reduction of coronal pulp chamber using Tooth Coronal Index (TCI on panoramic radiographs and correlate with chronologic age. 2. To establish accuracy of digital panoramic radiographs as a simple, non-invasive tool. Materials and Methods: The study illustrates the potential value of a little known aging method. The study groups comprised a total of 100 subjects of both sexes in age range of 20 and 60 years each who were subjected to panoramic radiography. A panoramic radiographic examination using digital panoramic machine was conducted on selected individuals. The TCI was calibrated using AGFA computer software for accuracy and precision. The values obtained were subjected to regression analysis, results calculated and correlated with chronologic age. In the present study a population of known age was studied and subjected to digital panoramic radiographic examination. The correlation between reduction of coronal pulp cavity and chronological age was examined. TCI was computed for each tooth and regressed on real age. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation co-efficient was used to find the significance of relationship between age and TCI. Regression analysis has been used for predicting age using TCI for premolar and molar. Inaccuracy and bias have been determined to assess the precision of prediction equations. Results and Conclusion: Prediction potential of TCI comes down for ages above 50 years and is comfortably good below 50 years without much difference between premolars and molars. This study demonstrates the potential value of TCI for age

  10. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  11. Strategies for Industry Internationalization Brazilian Pulp and Paper the Perspective of Eclectic Paradigm: A Case Study of Pulp and Paper Company Suzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  12. Effect of green banana pulp on physicochemical and sensory properties of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the potential of the green banana as a prebiotic, and for its content of resistant starch, fermented yogurts were produced by cultures composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as being enriched with three concentrations of industrialized green banana pulp (GBP (3%, 5% and 10% w/v. The green banana pulp added to the yogurt stimulated the multiplication of L. acidophilus after the first day of fermentation and B. bifidum after seven days in cold storage compared to the control that consisted of yogurt without the addition of green banana pulp. The dose-response effect was not observed; however, the results show that the green banana pulp has a prebiotic potential without interfering with either the physicochemical or sensorial characteristics.

  13. Pulping and papermaking properties of the leaf fiber and fibrous residue from Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, T.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Kanetsuna, H.; Iguchi, M.; Shirota, T.; Trujillo, J.J.; Herrera, T.

    1981-01-01

    The leaves and fibrous residue of A. tequilana had fibriles with parallel orientation and helical arrangement to the fiber axis and contained fibers in average length and width of 1.7 mm and 10.3 mu m and 0.8 mm and 25.5 mu m, respectively. The cell wall in leaves was thicker and narrower than those in fibrous residue, and leaves contained cellulose and lignin lower than fibrous residue did. Alkali sulfite cooking of leaves gave pulp, the yield of which was lower than that from fibrous residue. The H/sub 2/On retention and bulk density of leaf pulps increased rapidly on beating suggesting that an internal fibrillation in pulp occurs easily during beating. The breaking length and burst and tear factors of paper from leaf pulp were higher than those from fibrous residue.

  14. Paper pulp waste—A new source of raw material for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Most effluent pollution ... pollution caused by this waste material. .... (IV) The present study utilizes a solid waste of paper pulp industries thus minimizing the environmental pollution. ... Taylor J R and Bull A C 1986 Ceramics—glaze technology.

  15. Dental pulp-derived stem cells (DPSC) differentiation in vitro into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    survival and viability rates following freezing, long-term storage and thawing. Conclusions: The ... The working hypothesis was that dental pulp ... two hours was removed from the subsequent analysis. ... G6 digital camera (Tokyo, Japan) and.

  16. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  17. Odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells on tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: The 3D culture system improves odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The differentiation level of the cells in 3D culture is significantly lower than that of odontoblasts present in pulp tissue. TCP biomaterial possesses an odontogenic-inducing property.

  18. Ozone bleaching of South African Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulps containing high levels of hexenuronic acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone use in conjunction with chlorine dioxide during pulp bleaching offers several advantages over conventional bleaching sequences that make use of chlorine dioxide only. Despite this, in South Africa, only one mill uses ozone. The current study...

  19. Outcomes of different vital pulp therapy techniques on symptomatic permanent teeth: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After a mean follow-up time of 12.3 months, 93 treated teeth were radiographic/clinically successful; only one radiographic failure was observed in the DPC group.

  20. Improvement in Dissolution of Cotton Pulp with Ionic liquid by the Electron Beam Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Sil; Jung, Wong Gi; Sung, Yong Joo

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam treatment was applied for improving dissolution of cotton pulp with ionic liquids. Two ionic liquids, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl]: AC) and 1,3-dimethylimidzolium methlphosphite ([Dmim][(MeO)(H)PO2]: Me) were used for this experiment. Treatment with electron beams up to dose of 400 kGy resulted in the increase of hot water extract and alkali extract of cotton pulp and the great reduction in the molecular weight of cellulose. For the dissolution of cotton pulp with two ionic liquids, the electron beam treated samples showed faster dissolution. The dissolved cellulose with Me ionic liquid were regenerated with Acetonitrile and the structure of regenerated cellulose showed distinct difference depending on the electron beam treatment. Those results provide the electron beam pre-treatment could be applied as an energy efficient and environmentally benign method to increase the dissolution of cotton pulp with ionic liquids

  1. Effect of freezing and processing technologies on the antioxidant capacity of fruit pulp and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maso Jeusti Bof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of freezing and processing technology on the antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, strawberry (Fragaria x Anassa, pear (Pyrus communis L., guava (Psidium guajava L., and fig (Ficus carica L. was evaluated for 90 days. Under a storage temperature of -15 º C, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant capacity of grape and fig pulp, and a higher antioxidant capacity was found for guava pulp (27 µmol/g. While the technological processing did not affect the antioxidant capacity of pear and apple jellies, all other jellies studied showed a reduced antioxidant capacity. The processing reduced the antioxidant capacity of grapes in 45%. Among the fruit products, the highest antioxidant activities were found for guava pulp and jelly (27 and 25 µmol/g, respectively, followed by grape pulp (22 µmol/g.

  2. Application of Alkaline Ionic Liquids in the Pretreatment Process of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potential application of green solvent ionic liquids (ILs in the kraft pulping process, eucalyptus wood was pretreated by [Mmim]DMP before normal pulping. The results showed that materials pretreated shortly by the ionic liquid had a higher yield and viscosity coupled with a lower potassium permanganate value and residual lignin content in the pulp, as a result of the cooking process. It was also inferred that alkaline [Mmim]DMP pretreatment could dissolve lignin effectively from fiber to result in a stronger binding force and more entangled properties. Paper tensile and burst strength were improved by about 40% and 60%, respectively. These results provide a new way for eucalyptus to be utilized in the kraft pulping process.

  3. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  4. Molecular study of the dentin-pulp complex responses to caries progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dentin-pulp complex exhibits various responses to caries, including events of injury, defense, and repair. The overall responses dependent on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes, which regulate the behavior of these cells. The signals for tissue repair are thought to be mediated by dentin-bound growth factors released during caries progression. Growth factors are a key of molecules responsible for signaling a variety of cellular process following dental injury. The endogenous proteolytic enzymes (Matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs present in dentin matrix might also participate in releasing bioactive molecule. Several members of the MMP family are found in the soft and hard tissue compartment of dentin-pulp complex. Their presumed role in many physiological process during the development and maintenance of the dentin-pulp complex, they may also contribute to the pathogenesis of dentin caries and the responses elicited by caries.

  5. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  6. Collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage system information for the pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edde, H.

    1981-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage (TES) system technology for the pulp and paper industry with the intent of reducing fossil fuel usage is discussed. The study plan is described and a description presented of example TES systems.

  7. Analysis of emission reduction strategies for power boilers in the US pulp and paper industry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This paper first presents the background information for UISIS-PNP model by discussing different types of boilers installed throughout the pulp and paper sector, the...

  8. Influence of Various Pulp Properties on the Adhesion Between Tissue Paper and Yankee Cylinder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Boudreau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the adhesion between the paper and the drying Yankee cylinder is of great importance with respect to the final properties of a tissue paper product. Therefore, the effects of a few potentially important pulp properties have been evaluated in laboratory experiments. Four highly different kraft pulps were used, and the adhesion strength was measured by means of the force required when scraping off a paper from a metal surface with a specifically designed knife mounted on a moving cart. The adhesion strength was observed to increase with increasing grammage and increasing degree of beating of the pulp. It was also found that pulps containing more fines, or with higher hemicellulose content, gave rise to higher adhesion strength.

  9. Topography of the pulp chamber in the maxillary primary molars of a Tunisian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz Baccouche

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Mesiodistal dimension of the pulp cavity is not proportional to that of the dental crown. Endodontic access cavity have to be shifted to the distal and vestibular sides from the first to the second upper molar.

  10. Modeling of thermal and optical effects in dental pulp during the irradiation with neodymium and diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Patricia Bahls de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    During the development of applications of high intensity lasers in the enamel and dentine, adverse thermal effects into the entire dental structure, including the pulp, must be verified. The measurement of the temperature in the intact pulp, however, is not a solved problem. For this purpose, models have been used frequently, using extracted teeth, with pulpal cavities filled with materials that simulate only thermal properties of the pulp. Current models, however, do not simulate optical properties of the pulp, not taking the remaining radiation in the pulp chamber into account. The aim of this study was to verify if the remaining radiation from neodymium and diode lasers that reach the pulp chamber, at the models using extracted bovine teeth, can cause local thermal effects. For this purpose, two models were developed, using extracted bovine teeth with their pulp chambers filled with water (simulating pulp thermal characteristics) without (model 1) and with (model 2) an optical absorbent. Models were radiated with 1 W. The obtained results show that, for both lasers, the temperature rise in model 2 pulp chamber is: up to 11 % higher than in the model 1 when the enamel is radiated; and up to 37% higher than in the model 1 when dentine is radiated (1 mm from the pulp), indicating that the level of the remaining radiation is relevant for the construction of models excited by the neodymium and diode lasers. (author)

  11. Prevalence of Coronal Pulp Stones and Its Relation with Systemic Disorders in Northern Indian Central Punjabi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Sandeep Kumar; Bhatia, Archana; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Biswal, Swati Swagatika; Kanth, Shashi; Nalla, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To estimate the prevalence of coronal pulp stones in the molar teeth of dental outpatients of Sunam, Sangrur district, Punjab, India, to report any association between occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, dental arch, side, and dental status and to find out correlation between pulp stones with dental and systemic diseases. Materials and Methods. 500 routine dental outpatients within age group of 18–67 years were involved in the study. Molar bitewing of left and right side of each patient was taken with XCP bitewing instrument and size 2 film. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. Chi-square analysis was used to record the prevalence of pulp stones and to compare it with demographic and systemic factors. Results. Overall prevalence of pulp stones was 41.8%. Pulp stones were significantly higher in maxilla (11.59%) than mandible (6.54%), left side than right side, and first molar than other molars. Higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with cardiovascular disease (38.89%) than with cholelithiasis and renal lithiasis. Conclusion. Pulp stones were higher in maxillary arch than mandibular arch and in females than males. Cardiovascular patients had higher number of pulp stones than other groups. PMID:24944821

  12. Stimulation of type I collagen activity in healing of pulp perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Kunarti, Sri

    2008-01-01

    Background: TGF-β1 is a connective tissue stimulant, potential regulator for tissue repair, and promoter in wound healing. The healing of pulp perforation is decided by quantity and quality of new collagen deposition. TGF-β1 upregulates collagen transcription. However, after several weeks production of type I collagen synthesis is stopped and enzymatic degradation of collagen matrix will occur. Purpose: Observe synthesis type I collagen during the process of pulp perforation healing in 7, 14,...

  13. Global cycle changes the rules for U.S. pulp and paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    1999-01-01

    As in other industries, the fortunes of the U.S. pulp and paper industry are now closely tied to the global economy. The U.S. pulp and paper sector exhibits fairly steady production and growth trends, but its economic fortunes have become intertwined with the bglobal cyclec of supply and demand. Exposure to the global cycle has increased for the U.S. in recent decades...

  14. Correlation between Histological Status of the Pulp and Its Response to Sensibility Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Mandana; Khayat, Akbar; Zamaheni, Sara; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests by correlating it with histologic pulp condition. Methods and Materials: Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms were performed on 65 permanent teeth that were scheduled to be extracted for periodontal, prosthodontic or orthodontic reasons. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable tooth conditions while irreversible pulpitis and necrosis were considered as untreatable conditio...

  15. Interleukin 1-beta analysis in chronically inflamed and healthy human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubarić Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proinflammatory cytokines can act like endogenous pyrogen interleukin 1 (IL-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF α which regulate the synthesis of secondary mediators and other proinflammatory cytokines through macrophages and mesenchymal cells. They stimulate acute-phase proteins and attract inflammatory cells. The aim of this study was to determine interleukin 1-β (IL-1 β concentrations in chronically inflamed and healthy dental pulps. Methods. A total of 41 pulps (19 from patients with pulpitis chronic causa and 22 from patients with pulpatis chronic aperta, divided into two groups, were obtained from teeth with chronic pulp inflammation. The control group consisted of 12 teeth with healthy pulp. After extirpation, pulp samples were immediately placed in sterile Eppendorf tubes and frozen. After that, homogenisation was performed by a Teflon® pestle in ice-cold phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 whose volume was adjusted according to the weight of tissue. The supernatant was then frozen at -70°C until the performance of appropriate biochemical analyses. Cytokine IL-1 β value was determined by a commercial enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test. We applied the high sensitivity system technique, which may register low levels of cytokines, ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 pg/mL for IL-1 β. Results. By comparing the mean value of IL-1β, in the pulps we can see a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01 among them. The highest value of IL-1 β was in the subjects with pulpitis chronica clausa and it was 6.21 ± 2.70 pg/mL. Conclusion. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β is present in detectable quantities in the pulp tissue of all vital pulps. Its highest concentrations were found in the sample group with pulpitis chronica clausa.

  16. Investigation of functional activity human dental pulp stem cells at acute and chronic pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustiashvili, M; Kordzaia, D; Mamaladze, M; Jangavadze, M; Sanodze, L

    2014-09-01

    It is already recognized that together with the other connective tissues organ-specific progenic stem cells are also found in postnatal dental pulp. This group of undifferentiated cells is only 1% of total cell population of the pulp. The aim of the study was the identification of stem cells in human dental pulp, detection of their localization and assessment of functional activity during inflammation process and/or at norm. The obtained results showed that at acute pulpitis the pulp stroma is hypocellular in comparison with the norm but cells proliferative activity is low. CD 133 and NCAM (CD 56) positive stem cells were found in perivascularl space of the pulp stroma and in Hohle layer. At process prolongation and transition to the chronic phase pulp stroma is hypercellular, the cells with large, rounded or oval-shaped nuclei with clear chromatin appear together with fibroblasts. They are distributed as about entire thickness of the stroma as especially Hohle layer. In such cells higher proliferative activity (Ki67 expression) was observed. The cells in the mentioned proliferation phase are intensively marked by CD133, the rate of which is high in Hohle layer and along it. A large number of NCAM (CD 56) positive cells appear in pulp stroma. During pulpitis an involvement of stem cells into the process of reparative dentinogenesis should be conducted stepwise. In acute cases of the disease, stem cell perivascularl mobilization and proliferation and its migration to Hohle layer occur in response to irritation /stimulation. Chronification of the process leads not only to the migration of stem cells to the periphery of the pulp but also s their В«maturationВ» (increase of NCAM expression in the stem cells), which causes an increase the number of dentin producing active odontoblasts and initiation of reparative dentinogenesis.

  17. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluen...

  18. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES OF Eucalyptus DISSOLVING PULPS USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY V. Chunilall1, J.Wesley-Smith2, T. Bush1 1CSIR, Forestry and Forest Product Research Centre, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, 4013, South Africa. 2Electron Microscope Unit, University of Kwa... pulp using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have reported increased cellulose fibril aggregation during processing, and a concomitant decrease in surface area available for chemical reaction1,2. These findings were subsequently confirmed...

  19. Investigation Characteristics Of Pulp Fibers AS Green Potential Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Masruchin, Nanang; Subyakto

    2012-01-01

    Three kinds of pulp fiber (i.e. kenaf, pineapple and coconut fiber)were characterized as reinforcing agents in compositematerials to be applied at automotive interior industry.Abetter understanding on characteristics of fiber will lead to enhance interface adhesion between fiber and matrices. Furthermore, it will improve the properties of polymer significantly. Chemical, surface compositions as well as morphology of pulp fiber were investigated using TAPPI standard test method, Fourier Transf...

  20. PENGGUNAAN ASAM PERASETAT PADA PROSES DELIGNIFIKASI PULP ACETOSOLV DARI AMPAS TEBU DAN BAMBU BETUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sapta Zuidar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetosolv process produced dark pulp because of the high lignin content.  Therefore ,  delignification  process is needed. This process uses peracetic acid to improve pulp qualities. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of different concentrations of peracetic acid against the characteristics of pulp acetosolv from bagasse and bamboo betung.  The research was arranged in a Complete Randomized Block Design with a single treatment and 4 replications.  The treatment used peracetic acid with six levels concentration (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%, 19% at a temperature of 85oC for 3 hours. The homogenity and additivity of the data were  analyzed using Bartlett and Tuckey Tests, then they were analyze for ANOVA to see if there is any difference among means, and then processed further using  Least Significant Difference at level of 1% and 5%.  The results showed that the concentration of peracetic acid had significant effect on yield, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and organoleptic color pulp from bagasse and bamboo betung.  The best results showed that the concentration of peracetic acid 15% with cooking duration of  3 hours gave the best pulp. The pulp contained 85.837% of cellulose , 7.757% of hemicellulose , 1.758% of lignin , 73.048% of yield  and  the average organoleptic score for the pulp color was 4.3. Keywords:   acetosolv pulp,  baggase, bamboo,  delignification, paracetic acid

  1. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Sriman; V Prabhakar; J S Bhuvaneswaran; N Subha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Materials and Methods: Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial ...

  2. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) in rat dental pulp mediates the inflammatory response during pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhai, Shafei; Wang, Haijing; Jia, Qian; Jiang, Wenkai; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Ansheng; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the inflammasome has been determined to play an important role in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of the inflammasome in pulpitis remains unclear. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a type of inflammasome that recognizes cytosolic double stranded DNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activating recruiting domain. In this study, we determined whether AIM2 was expressed in pulp cells and defined the role of AIM2 in the initiation of inflammation within the dental pulp. In the in vivo study, the right maxillary molars from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) were exposed to the pulp. In the in vitro study, the pulp cells isolated from the mandibular incisors of the Sprague-Dawley rats (2 weeks) were conventionally cultured. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the expression and distribution of AIM2 in the rat dental pulp tissues and cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory stimulation. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine whether there was a correlation between AIM2 expression levels and inflammation both in vivo and in vitro. In healthy dental pulp tissues and cells, AIM2 was only detected in the odontoblast layer. Stimulation significantly increased AIM2 expression in both the dental pulp tissues and cultured cells. The mRNA and protein levels of AIM2 were significantly up-regulated in response to inflammatory stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also found that AIM2 expression correlated with interleukin-1 levels. These results reveal a direct relationship between the AIM2 inflammasome and pulpitis. Our study demonstrates that AIM2 is expressed in dental pulp tissues and mediates the inflammatory response during pulpitis. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing AIM2 expression may be beneficial in the treatment of pulpitis. Copyright © 2013 American Association of

  3. Elimination of Phenol and Color from Pulping Black Liquor Using Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Rastegarfar; Rabi Behrouz; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    There are many non-wood lignocelluloses resources such as wheat, rice straw and other agriculture by- products with appropriate feature for pulp production in Iran. The most major deterrent to their use is presence of pulping black liquor that due to lignin of lignocelluloses solution contains significant amounts of color and phenol compounds. The aim of this paper was investigation of the ability to remove phenol and color as the most important organic pollutants from back liquor of agri-bas...

  4. Collection and dissemination of TES system information for the paper and pulp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Edde, H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and international paper and pulp mills using thermal energy storage (TES) systems as a part of their production processes was conducted to obtain sufficient operating data to conduct a benefits analysis encompassing: (1) an energy conservation assessment, (2) an economic benefits analysis, and (3) an environmental impact assessment. An information dissemination plan was then proposed to effectively present the benefits of TES to the U.S. paper and pulp industry.

  5. Cellulosic pulps of cereal straws as raw material for the manufacture of ecological packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas González, Fátima; González, Zoilo; Sánchez, Rafael; Jiménez, Luis; Rodríguez Pascual, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosit...

  6. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Heli Cheng; Huaiyu Zhan; Shiyu Fu; Lucian A. Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature) affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The...

  7. THE REACTIVITY OF PREHYDROLYZED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULPS AFTER PROLONGED COOKING FOLLOWED BY CHLORITE DELIGNIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Germgard; Muhammad Asif Javed

    2011-01-01

    In a laboratory study high-quality spruce chips were prehydrolyzed to remove hemicelluloses and then kraft cooked to different kappa numbers by varying the cooking time. Each pulp sample was then chlorite delignified to selectively remove the remaining lignin. The reactivities of the pulp samples before and after chlorite delignification were determined by Fock’s test, which is supposed to measure the pulp’s reactivity in the conventional viscose process. A number of analyses were carried out...

  8. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Preethy SP; Srinivasan T; Tholcopiyan L; Thamaraikannan P; Srinivasan V; Murugan P; Manjunath S; Kannan TA; Shalini R; Sunil PM; Manikandhan R; Muthu MS; Abraham S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs) which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth),the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAP)have the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4).This multipotential a...

  9. Colour removal from magnesium bisulphite pulp and paper mill effluent using lignite adsorption and salt coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliani, Galuh

    2017-01-01

    The removal of colour, organics and phosphorus from pulp and paper mill effluent and the development of colour of the wastewater were investigated. These contaminants are considered to be the most important due to their resistance over common treatment applied by the mill. Two approaches, adsorption and coagulation, were chosen for investigation of the removal of colour, organics and phosphorus from aqueous discharges of a bisulphite pulp and paper mill. Additionally, the colour generatio...

  10. Correlation between enamel morphological and dental pulp physiological outcomes as a function of lasing parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcoria, Charles J.; Wagner, Martin J.; Vitasek, Bunny A.

    1992-06-01

    Previous oral medicine research has insufficiently quantified and correlated laser effects on calcified/soft-tissue combinations. The purpose of this study was to explain lasing effects on outcome variables (pulp response and enamel condition). Vital animal molars were irradiated using several mediums, with predetermined energy densities serving as independent variables. Predetermined safe-tissue thresholds, including pulp/enamel conditions, can be demonstrated to display linear relationships using several laser systems.

  11. Effects of bleaching agents and adhesive systems in dental pulp: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Antonieta Veloso Carvalho de; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Magalhães, Denildo; Biffi, João Carlos Gabrielli

    2012-01-01

    The dental pulp may be exposed to several irritants that are potentially noxious to the health and functions of this tissue. Each type of irritant or injury has different effects on the pulp, which are generally characterized by acute inflammation, chronic inflammation or necrosis. Common examples of irritants are dental caries, cavity preparation procedures, traumatic injuries, and chemical substances like bleaching agents and adhesive systems. The present study aimed to review the current k...

  12. Inhibition of odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by dental resin monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Chul; Zhu, Tingting; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental resin monomers that are leached from the resin matrix due to incomplete polymerization can affect the viability and various functions of oral tissues and cells. In this study, the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were examined. To mimic clinical situations, dental pulp cells were treated with resin monomers for 24?h prior to the analysis of alkaline p...

  13. Human dental pulp stem cells derived from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease demonstrate hepatic-like differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Huang, Anderson H C; Chan, Anthony W S; Lin, L M

    2016-06-01

    Reviewing the literature, hepatic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease has not been studied. This study is aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease could possess potential hepatic differentiation. Forty vital extracted teeth with disease recruited for hDPSCs isolation, stem cell characterization and hepatic differentiation were randomly and equally divided into group A (liquid nitrogen-stored dental pulp tissues) and group B (freshly derived dental pulp tissues). Samples of hDPSCs isolated from groups A and B but without hepatic growth factors formed negative controls. A well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was employed as a positive control. All the isolated hDPSCs from groups A and B showed hepatic-like differentiation with morphological change from a spindle-shaped to a polygonal shape and normal karyotype. Differentiated hDPSCs and the positive control expressed hepatic metabolic function genes and liver-specific genes. Glycogen storage of differentiated hDPSCs was noted from day 7 of differentiation-medium culture. Positive immunofluorescence staining of low-density lipoprotein and albumin was observed from day 14 of differentiation-medium culture; urea production in the medium was noted from week 6. No hepatic differentiation was observed for any of the samples of the negative controls. We not only demonstrated the feasibility of hepatic-like differentiation of hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease but also indicated that the differentiated cells possessed normal karyotype and were functionally close to normal hepatic-like cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Potential dental pulp revascularization and odonto-/osteogenic capacity of a novel transplant combined with dental pulp stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Jin; Zhao, Yin-Hua; Zhao, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nan-Xia; Lv, Xin; Li, Qiang; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Min

    2015-08-01

    Our aim is to investigate the cytobiological effects of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to explore the ectopic and orthotopic possibilities of dental pulp revascularization and pulp-dentin complex regeneration along the root canal cavities of the tooth by using a novel tissue-engineered transplant composed of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules. Canine DPSCs were isolated and characterized by assaying their colony-forming ability and by determining their cell surface markers and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential. The biological effects of autologous PRF on DPSCs, including cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and odonto-/osteogenic gene expression, were then investigated and quantified. A novel transplant consisting of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules was adopted to regenerate pulp-dentin-like tissues in the root canal, both subcutaneously in nude mice and in the roots of canines. PRF promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced the differentiation of DPSCs to odonto-/osteoblastic fates by increasing the expression of the Alp, Dspp, Dmp1 and Bsp genes. Transplantation of the DPSC/PRF construct led both to a favorable regeneration of homogeneous and compact pulp-like tissues with abundantly distributed blood capillaries and to the deposition of regenerated dentin along the intracanal walls at 8 weeks post-operation. Thus, the application of DPSC/PRF tissue constructs might serve as a potential therapy in regenerative endodontics for pulp revitalization or revascularization.

  15. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  16. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  17. Design and system developments of pulping and paper making equipment for reduction of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, A.

    1980-03-15

    Due to unprecedented price rise of energy, acute shortages and uncertainties in securing new and reliable energy sources, continuous technological developments have been taking place in equipment and system design in the field of pulp and paper industry. The possibility of energy reduction in areas of pulping, bleaching and cleaning of pulp, black liquor evaporation, approach flow system and drying of paper are analyzed. Specific energy consumption in terms of both heat and electricity can be considerably reduced by adopting continuous pulping methods, incorporating new concepts of counter-current impregnation, cooking high heat diffusion washing and displacement bleaching. Use of cleaners based on improved design can reduce electric energy use considerably by cleaning pulp at higher consistency and at reduced reject rates without impairing cleaning efficiency. Pre-evaporation of spent liquor in vapor recompression evaporators and use of falling film evaporation for scale forming black liquors can reduce steam demand in evaporation. Specific steam demand in paper drying can be reduced by 6 to 10% using thermo-rings or by modifications of dryer inner surface. Effects of energy consumption by integration of pulp and paper mills and by implementation of effluent treatment program are indicated.

  18. Pulp Obliteration in a Patient with Sclerodermatous Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Camilla Borges Ferreira; Treister, Nathaniel Simon; Miller, Brian; Armand, Philippe; Friedland, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Dental pulp calcification is a common finding associated with localized dental trauma, genetic disorders, and systemic inflammatory diseases. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a frequent complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) characterized by immune-mediated injury to the skin, mouth, eyes, liver, and other tissues, resulting in significant disability and reduced quality of life. We report a patient with sclerodermatous cGVHD who presented with general pulp calcification in all teeth 5 years after allo-HCT. A review of full mouth dental radiographs obtained just before allo-HCT revealed normal-appearing pulp chambers. Based on prior reports of generalized pulp calcification associated with progressive systemic sclerosis, we hypothesized that the etiology was likely related to the presence of cGVHD with associated vascular and fibrotic tissue changes within the pulp vasculature. Clinicians should consider cGVHD in the differential diagnosis of generalized pulp calcification. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  20. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  1. Biomimetic extracellular matrix mediated somatic stem cell differentiation: applications in dental pulp tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most widely prevalent infectious diseases in the world. It affects more than half of the world's population. The current treatment for necrotic dental pulp tissue arising from dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality making it prone for secondary infections. Over the past decade, several tissue-engineering approaches have attempted regeneration of the dental pulp tissue. Although several studies have highlighted the potential of dental stem cells, none have transitioned into a clinical setting owing to limited availability of dental stem cells and the need for growth factor delivery systems. Our strategy is to utilize the intact ECM of pulp cells to drive lineage specific differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. From a clinical perspective, pulp ECM scaffolds can be generated using cell lines and patient specific somatic stem cells can be used for regeneration. Our published results have shown the feasibility of using pulp ECM scaffolds for odontogenic differentiation of non-dental mesenchymal cells. This focused review discusses the issues surrounding dental pulp tissue regeneration and the potential of our strategy to overcome these issues. PMID:25954205

  2. Regenerative medicine in dental and oral tissues: Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality using cell, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies. Purpose. To describe the regenerative capacity of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell. Review. In dentistry, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies develop incredibly and attract great interest, due to the capacity to facilitate innovation in dental material and regeneration of dental and oral tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, periodontal ligament and dental follicle, can be isolated, cultured and differentiated into various cells, so that can be useful for regeneration of dental, nerves, periodontal and bone tissues. Tissue engineering is a technology in reconstructive biology, which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biological mediators to facilitate regeneration or reconstruction of a particular tissue. The multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility, make dental pulp as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. Revitalized dental pulp and continued root development is the focus of regenerative endodontic while biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum is the focus of regenerative periodontic. Conclucion. Dentin-derived morphogens such as BMP are known to be involved in the regulation of odontogenesis. The multipotency and angiogenic capacity of DPSCs as the regenerative capacity of human dentin / pulp complex indicated that dental pulp may contain progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. The human periodontal ligament is a viable alternative source for possible primitive precursors to be used in stem cell therapy.

  3. Morphological evaluation during in vitro chondrogenesis of dental pulp stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo-Ryung Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim was to confirm the stem cell-like properties of the dental pulp stromal cells and to evaluate the morphologic changes during in vitro chondrogenesis. Materials and Methods Stromal cells were outgrown from the dental pulp tissue of the premolars. Surface markers were investigated and cell proliferation rate was compared to other mesenchymal stem cells. Multipotency of the pulp cells was confirmed by inducing osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. The morphologic changes in the chondrogenic pellet during the 21 day of induction were evaluated under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. TUNEL assay was used to evaluate apoptosis within the chondrogenic pellets. Results Pulp cells were CD90, 105 positive and CD31, 34 negative. They showed similar proliferation rate to other stem cells. Pulp cells differentiated to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic tissues. During chondrogenesis, 3-dimensional pellet was created with multi-layers, hypertrophic chondrocyte-like cells and cartilage-like extracellular matrix. However, cell morphology became irregular and apoptotic cells were increased after 7 day of chondrogenic induction. Conclusions Pulp cells indicated mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics. During the in vitro chondrogenesis, cellular activity was superior during the earlier phase (within 7 day of differentiation.

  4. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  5. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  6. Method for Forming Pulp Fibre Yarns Developed by a Design-driven Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia-Maria Tenhunen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive method for producing water-stable pulp fibre yarns using a deep eutectic mixture composed of choline chloride and urea (ChCl/urea was developed in this work. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs are eutectic mixtures consisting of two or more components that together have a lower melting point than the individual components. DESs have been previously studied with respect to cellulose dissolution, functionalisation, and pre-treatment. This new method uses a mixture of choline chloride and urea, which is used as a swelling and dispersing agent for the pulp fibres in the yarn-forming process. Although the pulp seemed to form a gel when dispersed in ChCl/urea, the ultrastructure of the pulp was not affected. To enable water stability, pulp fibres were crosslinked by esterification using polyacrylic acid. ChCl/urea could be easily recycled and reused by distillation. The novel process described in this study enables utilisation of pulp fibres in textile production without modification or dissolution and shortening of the textile value chain. An interdisciplinary approach was used, where potential applications were explored simultaneously with material development from process development to the early phase prototyping.

  7. Pulp Calcification in Traumatized Primary Teeth - Classification, Clinical And Radiographic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Ana Maria Antunes; Bonini, Gabriela Azevedo Vasconcelos Cunha; Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti Del Conte; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    The aim of this study was to standardize the nomenclature of pulp alteration to pulp calcification (PC) and to classify it according to type, quantity and location, as well as relate it to clinical and radiographic features. The dental records of 946 patients from the Research and Clinical Center for Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth were studied. Two hundred and fifty PC-traumatized upper deciduous incisors were detected. According to radiographic analysis of the records, 62.5% showed diffuse calcification, 36.3% tube-like calcification, and 1.2% concentric calcification. According to the extension of pulp calcification, the records showed: 80% partial calcification, 17.2% total coronal calcification and partial radicular calcification, and 2.8 % total coronal and radicular calcification. As for location, only 2.4% were on the coronal pulp, 5.2% on the radicular pulp and 92.4% on both radicular and coronal pulp. Regarding coronal discoloration, 54% were yellow and 2% gray. In relation to periradicular changes, 10% showed widened periodontal ligament space, 3.1% internal resorption, 10% external resorption, 10.4% periapical bone rarefaction. Since PC is a general term, it is important to classify it and correlate it to clinical and radiographic changes, in order to establish the correct diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of each case.

  8. The number of bleaching sessions influences pulp tissue damage in rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Ferreira, Luciana Louzada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Ervolino, Edilson; Rahal, Vanessa; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching is claimed to cause alterations in dental tissue structures. This study investigated the influence of the number of bleaching sessions on pulp tissue in rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 5 groups (groups 1S-5S) of 10 each, which differed by the number (1-5) of bleaching sessions. In each session, the animals were anesthetized, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel was applied to 3 upper right molars. Two days after the experimental period, the animals were killed, and their jaws were processed for light microscope evaluation. Pulp tissue reactions were scored as follows: 1, no or few inflammatory cells and no reaction; 2, session, necrotic tissue in the pulp horns and underlying inflammatory changes were observed. The extent and intensity of these changes increased with the number of bleaching sessions. After 5 sessions, the changes included necrotic areas in the pulp tissue involving the second third of the radicular pulp and intense inflammation in the apical third. The number of bleaching sessions directly influenced the extent of pulp damage. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  11. Putative Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control group) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased group). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased group demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain putative cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426

  12. Properties of cellulose derivatives produced from radiation-Modified cellulose pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, Edward; Stupinska, Halina; Starostka, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of project was elaboration of radiation methods for properties modification of cellulose pulps using for derivatives production. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with energy 10 MeV in a linear accelerator. After irradiation pulps underwent the structural and physico-chemical investigations. The laboratory test for manufacturing carboxymethylocellulose (CMC), cellulose carbamate (CC) and cellulose acetate (CA) with cellulose pulps irradiated dose 10 and 15 kGy have been performed. Irradiation of the pulp influenced its depolimerisation degree and resulted in the drop of viscosity of CMC. However, the expected level of cellulose activation expressed as a rise of the substitution degree or increase of the active substance content in the CMC sodium salt was not observed. In the case of cellulose esters (CC, CA) formation, the action of ionising radiation on cellulose pulps with the dose 10 and 15 kGy enables obtaiment of the average values of polimerisation degree as required for CC soluble in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The properties of derivatives prepared by means of radiation and classic methods were compared

  13. Xylanase-Aided Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching of Bagasse Pulp to Reduce AOX Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase pretreatment was used to improve the chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase, which was followed by a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The HexA content of the pulp and the AOX content of the bleaching effluent were measured using UV-Vis and GC-MS methods, respectively. The results showed that a good correlation occurred between HexA and kappa number. HexA content of the pulp decreased significantly after the xylanase pretreatment. The AOX content of the bleaching effluent decreased as HexA was removed from the pulp. It was found that AOX could be reduced by up to 29.8%, comparing XD0 with a D0 stage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to determine the breakage of chemical bonds in the pulp. It revealed that some lignin and hemicellulose were removed after xylanase treatment. The GC-MS results showed that some toxic chloride such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol could be completely removed after xylanase pretreatment.

  14. The Relix process for the resin-in-pulp recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, F.L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Relix process is based on direct contact between an ion-exchange resin and undiluted pulp, thus avoiding prior solid-liquid separation. The resin particles float near the surface of the pulp, forming an inverted fluidized bed with the pulp flowing downwards. The basic idea was demonstrated on a full-scale pachuca tank at Stilfontein Gold Mine in 1970, followed by a small-scale demonstration run in a laboratory at the National Institute for Metallurgy. A pilot plant based on a throughput of 60 tons of ore per day was subsequently operated at West Driefontein Gold Mine for several periods over two years. Although the plant proved operable from a mechanical point of view, the metallurgical performance was not up to expectation. The basic cause of the poor metallurgical performance was shown to be backmixing of both the resin and the pulp between stages. The values obtained for resin losses were inconclusive. Further development of resin-in-pulp processes for the recovery of uranium should be focused on the performance of various techniques for the screening of resin from pulp [af

  15. The case study of energy flow analysis and strategy in pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Hsu, Chung-Hsuan; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry is a significant consumer of fossil energy in the Taiwanese manufacturing sector. The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) from manufacturing factory activities and vehicle emissions has increased remarkably. Notable energy savings can be achieved in the pulp and paper industry through energy flow analysis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the energy flow for three major energy consuming mills of the pulp and paper industry in Taiwan to make energy savings. In addition, potential technology options are examined for the capture of some of the energy that is currently lost in the processes and to identify the areas of energy saving potential that could have a large impact across more than one industry. The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of energy savings potential and opportunities for improving the efficiency of the pulp and paper industry. - Highlights: ► The aim of this paper was to analyze the energy flow for three pulps and paper firms in Taiwan. ► The results were used as the basis for developing a quantified list in terms of energy savings potential. ► Energy flow analysis results can serve as benchmarks for the current pulp and paper making operations.

  16. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Variation reduction of brightness and pH of pulp sent to a paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napassavong Rojanarowan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The variance of the brightness of pulp sent to the paper mill during the changing period of dry pulp grades affects the chemical control in the paper mill. This research aims to determine the mixing formula of pulp with different brightness from the EOP and D1 stages to handle this variation issue. This research uses response surface design with Central Composite Design type, regression technique and optimization technique to find the optimal setting of the mixing formula for each of the seven brightness levels to obtain the target brightness of 86% and the pH of 5.25. The mixing formulas are determined by the pulp mixing percentage and the sulfuric acid consumption. The experimental results reveal that when using higher EOP mixing ratio, the brightness decreases and the pH increases. Regarding the effect of the sulfuric acid, increasing the sulfuric acid makes the brightness and the pH decrease. After implementing the optimal formula in the production line, the mean of pulp brightness is closer to the target compared with the brightness before improvement and the brightness variation decreases without affecting the quality of other pulp grades, average of brightness decreased from 87.4% to 86.3% and standard deviation of brightness decreased from 1.09 to 0.46.

  18. An in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of curcumin against human dental pulp fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveenkumar S Mandrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of curcumin to primary dental pulp fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp fibroblasts from primary maxillary central incisors were cultured and used for cytotoxicity tests after the fourth passage. Ninety-five percent curcumin was diluted with dimethylsulfoxide to prepare 100%, 50%, and 25% concentrations. Each concentration of curcumin was added in triplicate into 96-well microtiter plate containing the fibroblast culture at 104/well. Cells without treatment served as a control group. The number of viable cells after 48 hrs incubation at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 and 95 % air was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The relative viability of pulp cells was expressed as color intensity of the number in the experimental wells relative to that of the control group. Absorbances were read at 492 nm on a microplate reader with a background subtraction at 620 nm. Results: Cell viability of primary dental pulp fibroblasts to 25%, 50%, and 100% curcumin concentration was 174%, 310%, and 317%, respectively. Conclusions: Curcumin promotes cell viability and induces proliferation of primary dental pulp fibroblasts and has the potential to be developed into an economical and reliable medicament for vital pulp therapy.

  19. Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Tissue Under Oscillatory Shear and Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Burak; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat

    2016-06-01

    Availability of material as well as biological properties of native tissues is critical for biomaterial design and synthesis for regenerative engineering. Until recently, selection of biomaterials and biomolecule carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been done randomly or based on experience mainly due to the absence of benchmark data for dental pulp tissue. This study, for the first time, characterizes the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of human dental pulp tissue harvested from wisdom teeth, under oscillatory shear and compression. The results revealed a gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps. Uniaxial compression tests generated peak normal stress and compressive modulus values of 39.1 ± 20.4 kPa and 5.5 ± 2.8 kPa, respectively. Taken collectively, the linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the human dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the better tailoring of biomaterials or biomolecule carriers to be employed in dental pulp regeneration.

  20. The dynamics of TGF-β in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Takahiko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Hajime; Karakida, Takeo; Chiba, Risako; Hu, Jan C-C; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Simmer, James P; Margolis, Henry C; Gomi, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-13

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11). Activated TGF-β1 enhances the mRNA expression levels of MMP20 and full-length dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in dental pulp cells, coinciding with the induction of odontoblast differentiation. Latent TGF-β1 synthesized in odontoblasts is primarily activated by MMP2 and MMP20 in both odontoblasts and dentin. The activity level of TGF-β1 was reduced in the dentin of MMP20 null mice, although the amount of latent TGF-β1 expression did not change between wild-type and MMP20 null mice. TGF-β1 activity was reduced with the degradation of DSPP-derived proteins that occurs with ageing. We propose that to exert its multiple biological functions, TGF-β1 is involved in a complicated dynamic interaction with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and/or DSPP-derived proteins present in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

  1. Photobiomodulation changes type 1 collagen gene expression by pulp fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Ribeiro Vitor, Luciana; Tavares Oliveira Prado, Mariel; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Cardoso de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Ferreira Santos, Carlos; Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate type 1 collagen (COL1) gene expression by human pulp fibroblasts from primary teeth (HPF) after the variation of photobiomodulation (PBM) parameters. HPF were obtained from a biorepository, used at 4th passage, and irradiated (InGaAlP—660 nm) varying the power and application time according to the following groups: G1: 1.2 J cm‑2–05 mW–10 s G2: 2.5 J cm‑2–05 mW–20 s G3: 3.7 J cm‑2–05 mW–30 s G4: 5.0 J cm‑2–05 mW–40 s G5: 6.2 J cm‑2–05 mW–50 s G6: 2.5 J cm‑2–10 mW–10 s G7: 3.7 J cm‑2–15 mW–10 s G8: 5.0 J cm‑2–20 mW–10 s G9: 6.2 J cm‑2–25 mW–10 s. The control group (G10) was not irradiated and maintained with DMEM  +  10% SFB. RT-PCR was used to evaluate COL1 gene expression at 6, 12, and 24 h after irradiation. Intra- and intergroup comparisons were performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p  differences among periods (p  differences (p  >  0.05). The energy densities from 2.5 to 5 J cm‑2, regardless of the variation in PBM parameters, biomodulated the COL1 gene expression. At the energy density of 6.2 J cm‑2, longer application time and smaller power changed the pattern of COL1 gene expression by pulp fibroblasts from human primary teeth.

  2. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  3. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  4. Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of

  5. Prevalence of Coronal Pulp Stones and Its Relation with Systemic Disorders in Northern Indian Central Punjabi Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bains, Sandeep Kumar; Bhatia, Archana; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Biswal, Swati Swagatika; Kanth, Shashi; Nalla, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To estimate the prevalence of coronal pulp stones in the molar teeth of dental outpatients of Sunam, Sangrur district, Punjab, India, to report any association between occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, dental arch, side, and dental status and to find out correlation between pulp stones with dental and systemic diseases. Materials and Methods. 500 routine dental outpatients within age group of 18–67 years were involved in the study. Molar bitewing of left and right side of each ...

  6. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganda-Putra, G.P; Wrasiati, L.P; Wartini, N.M

    2010-01-01

    Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG) and pectin metyl esterase (PME) and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics o...

  7. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Sonoda; Haruyoshi Yamaza; Lan Ma; Yosuke Tanaka; Erika Tomoda; Reona Aijima; Kazuaki Nonaka; Toshio Kukita; Songtao Shi; Fusanori Nishimura; Takayoshi Yamaza

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we...

  8. Ash from a pulp mill boiler--characterisation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana S M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Davim, Erika J R; Fernandes, M Helena V

    2010-07-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the ash resulting from a pulp mill boiler was performed in order to investigate the valorisation of this waste material through the production of added-value glassy materials. The ash had a particle size distribution in the range 0.06-53 microm, and a high amount of SiO(2) (approximately 82 wt%), which was present as quartz. To favour the vitrification of the ash and to obtain a melt with an adequate viscosity to cast into a mould, different amounts of Na(2)O were added to act as fluxing agent. A batch with 80 wt% waste load melted at 1350 degrees C resulting in a homogeneous transparent green-coloured glass with good workability. The characterisation of the produced glass by differential thermal analysis and dilatometry showed that this glass presents a stable thermal behaviour. Standard leaching tests revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leaching solution was lower than those allowed by the Normative. As a conclusion, by vitrification of batch compositions with adequate waste load and additive content it is possible to produce an ash-based glass that may be used in similar applications as a conventional silicate glass inclusively as a building ecomaterial. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  10. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  11. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  12. Grouping eucalyptus species in kraft pulp process for cost reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiwan Pichayadecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the level of the important factors that can decrease total cost of pulp production. First of all, experts and experienced users identify the factors that affect the total production cost by applying the principle of 4M 1E cause and effect diagram. Then the primary factors were chosen based on 80% of their significance and tested by hypothesis for two population means. It was found that at the 95% confidence level the significant factors that have effects on the total production cost are amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. However, the proportion of easy delignification according to Eucalyptus species is considered as a significant factor based on various studies. Box-Behnken experiment is designed with respect to 3 mentioned factors and 3 levels of each factor. The response surface method (RSM is employed to determine the non-linear relation between the total cost as the response and the proportion of easy delignification, amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. To minimize the total cost, the optimal values of each factor are 75% of easy delignification, 112 grams per liter of Effective alkali in white liquor and 13.5 of kappa number. Under this optimal condition, the average total cost per ton of Eucalyptus is 13,393.91 Baht which is significantly less than the total cost of 15,517.06 Baht per ton before improvement.

  13. Purification of pulp and paper mill effluent using Eichornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, S; Mitra, A; Bandyopadhyay, M

    2002-04-01

    Konark Pulp and Paper Industries Private Limited is a medium size industry producing 1600 m3 of wastewater a day. The existing water treatment system of the industry was found to be ineffective both in performance and economy. In the present study, a new system of treatment has been developed using water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes, coagulation by lime and alum, followed by rapid sand filtration. The performance efficiency of each unit viz. Eichornia treatment; coagulation with lime, with alum, and with lime:alum combinations, and filtration was studied. Water quality parameters considered were Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolve Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids, turbidity, percentage transmission, and water colour. Based on the individual performance of each unit, a continuous system has been designed and was tested. The new system of treatment could treat the wastewater to the discharge standards and also was found economically feasible. Testing culture of fish (tilapia) proved that the treated water could be safely discharged into natural waters. All fish tested, survived and remained healthy throughout the period of testing. Culture of fish further improved the water quality.

  14. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  15. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  16. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  17. Hygroscopic trend of lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Conegero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangaba is a widely-consumed fruit in the Northeast of Brazil, which is usually exploited through extractivism. This fruit is rich in various nutrients, especially in vitamin C, with pleasant taste and aroma. The lyophilization process transforms these fruits into amorphous powders, which must be analyzed regarding their properties and hygroscopic trend. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the physico-chemical properties of adsorption isotherms of the lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder, with addition of maltodextrin (DE 20. The pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and water activity were analyzed. Regarding the isotherms, the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Oswin, and Henderson were used at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. The obtained powder presented pH of 3.14, titratable acidity of 1.95 mg of citric acid 100g-1 of powder, soluble solid contents of 99 ºBrix, ascorbic acid content of 55.97 mg 100g-1 and water activity of 0.16. Henderson was the mathematical model that best fitted the data of the adsorption isotherms at the four evaluated temperatures, with average errors ranging from 5.76 to 9.70% and R2 from 0.9974 to 0.9995.

  18. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.

    2010-01-01

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose from Organosolv Straw Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, V. A.; Yaschenko, O. V.; Shniruk, O. M.

    2017-03-01

    The object of this work is to present a study of nanocellulose preparation from organosolv straw pulp (OSP) and its properties. OSP was obtained through thermal treatment in the system of isobutyl alcohol-H2O-KOH-hydrazine followed by processing in the mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide for bleaching and removal of residual non-cellulosic components. We have obtained nanocellulose from OSP through acid hydrolysis with lower consumption of sulfuric acid and followed by ultrasound treatment. The structural change and crystallinity degree of OSP and nanocellulose were studied by means of SEM and XRD techniques. It has been established that nanocellulose has a density up to 1.3 g/cm3, transparency up to 70%, crystallinity degree 72.5%. The TEM and AFM methods shown that nanocellulose have diameter of particles in the range from 10 to 40 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that nanocellulose films have more dense structure and smaller mass loss in the temperature range 220-260 °C compared with OSP. The obtained nanocellulose films had high Young's modulus up to 11.45 GPa and tensile strength up to 42.3 MPa. The properties of obtained nanocellulose from OSP exhibit great potential in its application for the preparation of new nanocomposite materials.

  20. The effect of pulping concentration treatment on the properties of microcrystalline cellulose powder obtained from waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwonna, Okumneme O

    2013-10-15

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder was isolated from three grades of waste paper: book, Groundwood/Newsprint and paperboard, through the processes of pulping and hydrolysis. Pulping treatment on these grades of waste paper was done using varying concentrations of caustic soda. Effects of the concentration of the pulping medium on the thermal and kinetic properties were investigated. Also determined were the effects of this on the physico-chemical properties. The chemical structure was characterized using an infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results showed these properties to be affected by the concentration of the pulping medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  2. Davallialactone reduces inflammation and repairs dentinogenesis on glucose oxidase-induced stress in dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Go-Eun; Song, Yong-Beom; Paudel, Usha; Lee, Nan-Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2013-11-01

    The chronic nature of diabetes mellitus (DM) raises the risk of oral complication diseases. In general, DM causes oxidative stress to organs. This study aimed to evaluate the cellular change of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress by glucose oxidase with a high glucose state. The purpose of this study was to test the antioxidant character of davallialactone and to reduce the pathogenesis of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress. The glucose oxidase with a high glucose concentration was tested for hydroxy peroxide (H2O2) production, cellular toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, induction of inflammatory molecules and disturbance of dentin mineralization in human dental pulp cells. The anti-oxidant effect of Davallilactone was investigated to restore dental pulp cells' vitality and dentin mineralization via reduction of H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, ROS formation and inflammatory molecules. The treatment of glucose oxidase with a high glucose concentration increased H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, and inflammatory molecules and disturbed dentin mineralization by reducing pulp cell activity. However, davallialactone reduced H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, ROS formation, inflammatory molecules, and dentin mineralization disturbances even with a long-term glucose oxidative stress state. The results of this study imply that the development of oral complications is related to the irreversible damage of dental pulp cells by DM-induced oxidative stress. Davallialactone, a natural antioxidant, may be useful to treat complicated oral disease, representing an improvement for pulp vital therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An experimental study on the effect of irradiation on deciduous dental pulp and periodontal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Takehiko

    1986-01-01

    Left mandibular third deciduous molars of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray and the effect on the dental pulp and periodontal membrane was investigated histopathologically. 1. From 3rd to 7th days after irradiation, localized inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in part in the dental pulp tissue. No abnormal findings were observed in the periodontal membrane. 2. On 14th day after irradiation in the coronal dental pulp, cells decreased; karyopycnosis occurred; cells were connected only by cellular processes, and large and small reticular networks were formed. In the periodontal membrane, fibers ran irregularly although in part and findings of atrophy were seen. Fibroblasts showed a decreasing tendency. 3. In the cases from 1 to 2 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue showed marked atrophy of odontoblasts and the dental pulp showed hyalinization-like changes. In the periodontal membrane, Sharpey's fibers ran irregularly or became indistinct, and fibroblasts decreased extensively. The periodontal membrane in general showed hyalinization. 4. In the cases of 4 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue on the whole showed marked atrophy and disappearance of odontoblast layers. In the periodontal membrane, inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in part and membrane fibers, as those in 2nd month, showed marked atrophy, became enlarged, and presented findings of hyalinization. 5. At 8th month, the necleoli nearly disappeared in the pulp tissue from the crown to the root and the cells were connected like filaments by cellular processes. Nearly all the blood vessels and fibers disappeared. In the periodontal membrane, most of Sharpey's fibers disappeared. Fibroblasts showed marked atrophy and disappearance, and few normal fibloblasts could be found. (J.P.N.)

  4. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  5. Investigation on anatomical, chemical and pulping characteristics of Silybum marianum stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Yadollahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the possibility of using plant Silybum marianum in paper industry, its stem yield potential, chemical properties, fiber indices and pulping was evaluated. Mean value of fiber length and diameter of Silybum marianumstem harvested in early June, were calculated 178 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Dry weight of whole stem determined 4710 kg per hectar. Mean value of fiber length, diameter, cavity diameter and wall thickness were obtained 1194, 16.06, 9.06, and 3.66 μm, respectively. Raunkel, flexibility, and slenderness ratios of its fibers were determined 80.83, 56.39, and 74.37, respectively. Results of chemical analysis showed that the stem comprises %70.35 holocellulose, %39.25 cellulose, %13.13 lignin, %3.09 acetone-soluble, %18 hot water-soluble extractives, and %11/85 ash. Soda pulp was obtained at 165 °C pulping time, 25% alkaline and 10:1 ratio of liquor to chips. Results of pulping showed that with increasing of pulping time from 30 to 210 minutes, the kappa number and yield decreased from 77.32 to 32.13 and 43.6 to 36.5, respectively; whereas accepted pulp yield (passed from 20 mesh increased from 17.4 to 35.5% paper made of pulp with kappa number 32 had 36.82 Nm/g tensile index, 3.76 km breaking length and 1.75 Kpa.m2/g burst strength. In general, achieved results have shown that the present studied species could be regarded more for papermaking because of the suitable fiber biometrical and chemical properties as compared to other non-woody plants.

  6. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. His-topathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tis-sue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposedwith a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Port-land cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral triox-ide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Al-though the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45% and the least increase in fibrous tissue were ob-served adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp cap-ping in dog teeth.

  8. Aging of in vitro pulp illustrates change of inflammation and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Go-Eun; Cho, Hye-Jin; Yu, Mi-Kyoung; Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Nan-Hee; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2013-03-01

    Dental pulp functions include pulp cell activity involvement in dentin formation. In this study we investigated the age-related changes in dental pulp cells that may influence pulp cell activity for restoring pulp function. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were serially subcultured until spontaneously arrested. Altered expression of chronic inflammatory molecules and age-related molecules were determined by Western blotting. Odontogenic functions impaired by senescence were assayed by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red S staining. To understand the mechanism of aging process by stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), the cells were treated with H(2)O(2). Replicative senescence and SIPS were also compared. Replicative senescence of HDPCs was characterized by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and reactive oxygen species formation. These cells exhibited altered expression of chronic inflammatory molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, and heme oxygenase-1 and age-related molecules such as p53, p21, phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-myb. SIPS cell results were similar to replicative senescence. Furthermore, HDPCs decreased odontogenic markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix-1 and osteogenic markers such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -7, runt-related transcription factor-2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation by replicative senescence and SIPS. This study suggests that development of aging-related molecules in pulp cells offers understanding of cellular mechanisms and biological events responsible for tooth preservation and maintenance strategies for healthy teeth across the life span. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrimination between intact and decayed pulp regions in carious teeth by ADC mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Nemeth, Lidija; Bajd, Franci; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, in the functional assessment of carious teeth. 38 extracted human teeth with scores of 0, 3 and 6 according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were screened and subsequently analyzed by MRI at 2.35 T. Histology sectioning of teeth was used for the gold standard by analyzing two extreme cases (intact and severely decayed). ADC maps of the same teeth were calculated from corresponding diffusion-weighted images and used to obtain ADC distributions along dental pulp as functions of the relative pulp length measured from the occlusal pulp side. The measured distributions were analyzed for the best fit by a four-parameter three-segment linear regression model for ADC distribution along the pulp. MRI results were in good agreement with findings in histological sections of identical teeth. The best fit model parameters, relative decayed region depth, relative transition region width and ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue, showed statistically significant differences between the ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue (1.0 × 10(-9) m(2)/s vs. 0.74-0.89 × 10(-9) m(2)/s) and the relative decayed region depth progressing with ICDAS score (3 vs. 46% with ICDAS 3 vs. ICDAS 6). The results of this feasibility study confirmed relevance of ADC mapping for the discrimination and localization of intact and decayed regions in dental pulps of carious teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A First Step in De Novo Synthesis of a Living Pulp Tissue Replacement Using Dental Pulp MSCs and Tissue Growth Factors, Encapsulated within a Bioinspired Alginate Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoj, Manasi; Zhang, Chengfei; Green, David W

    2015-07-01

    A living, self-supporting pulp tissue replacement in vitro and for transplantation is an attractive yet unmet bioengineering challenge. Our aim is to create 3-dimensional alginate-based microenvironments that replicate the shape of gutta-percha and comprise key elements for the proliferation of progenitor cells and the release of growth factors. An RGD-bearing alginate framework was used to encapsulate dental pulp stem cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a ratio of 1:1. The alginate hydrogel also retained and delivered 2 key growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 and fibroblast growth factor, in a sufficient amount to induce proliferation. A method was then devised to replicate the shape of gutta-percha using RGD alginate within a custom-made mold of thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide. Plugs of alginate containing different permutations of growth factor-based encapsulates were tested and evaluated for viability, proliferation, and release kinetics between 1 and 14 days. According to scanning electron microscopic and confocal microscopic observations, the encapsulated human endothelial cells and dental pulp stem cell distribution were frequent and extensive throughout the length of the construct. There were also high levels of viability in all test environments. Furthermore, cell proliferation was higher in the growth factor-based groups. Growth factor release kinetics also showed significant differences between them. Interestingly, the combination of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor synergize to significantly up-regulate cell proliferation. RGD-alginate scaffolds can be fabricated into shapes to fill the pulp space by simple templating. The addition of dual growth factors to cocultures of stem cells within RGD-alginate scaffolds led to the creation of microenvironments that significantly enhance the proliferation of dental pulp stem cell/human umbilical vein endothelial cell combinations. Copyright

  11. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  12. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  13. Predictive values of thermal and electrical dental pulp tests: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Chávez, Carlos E; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P; Zavala-Alonso, Norma V; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel A; Medina-Solís, Carlo E

    2013-08-01

    For a diagnostic test to be useful, it is necessary to determine the probability that the test will provide the correct diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the predictive value of diagnostics. The aim of the present study was to identify the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and reproducibility of thermal and electrical tests of pulp sensitivity. The thermal tests studied were the 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane (cold) and hot gutta-percha (hot) tests. For the electrical test, the Analytic Technology Pulp Tester (Analytic Technology, Redmond, WA) was used. A total of 110 teeth were tested: 60 teeth with vital pulp and 50 teeth with necrotic pulps (disease prevalence of 45%). The ideal standard was established by direct pulp inspection. The sensitivities of the diagnostic tests were 0.88 for the cold test, 0.86 for the heat test, and 0.76 for the electrical test, and the specificity was 1.0 for all 3 tests. The negative predictive value was 0.90 for the cold test, 0.89 for the heat test, and 0.83 for the electrical test, and the positive predictive value was 1.0 for all 3 tests. The highest accuracy (0.94) and reproducibility (0.88) were observed for the cold test. The cold test was the most accurate method for diagnostic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

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    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  15. Can Dental Pulp Calcification Predict the Risk of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease?

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    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD using digital panoramic dental radiographs.Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated.Results: Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  16. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp.

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    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo; Lacerda de Carvalho, Acácia Fernandes; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Pereira, Lygia da Veiga; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp is a source of mesenchymal stem cells. To better understand the biological properties of these cells we isolated and characterized stem cells from the dental pulp of EGFP transgenic mice. The pulp tissue was gently separated from the roots of teeth extracted from C57BL/6 mice, and cultured under appropriate conditions. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR, light microscopy (staining for alkaline phosphatase) and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of stem cell markers. The presence of chromosomal abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase. The karyotype was normal until the 5th passage. The Pou5f1/Oct-4 and ZFP42/Rex-1, but not Nanog transcripts were detected in mDPSC. Flow cytometry and fluorescence analyses revealed the presence of a heterogeneous population positive for embryonic and mesenchymal cell markers. Adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation was achieved after two weeks of cell culture under chemically defined in vitro conditions. In addition, some elongated cells spontaneously acquired a contraction capacity. Our results reinforce that the dental pulp is an important source of adult stem cells and encourage studies on therapeutic potential of mDPSC in experimental disease models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

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    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  18. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

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    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  19. Dynamic simulation of the carbon-in-pulp and carbon-in-leach processes

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    L. R. P. de Andrade Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-in-leach and carbon-in-pulp are continuous processes that use activated carbon in a cascade of large agitated tanks, which have been widely used to recover or concentrate precious metals in gold extraction plants. In the carbon-in-pulp process adsorption occurs after the leaching cascade section of the plant, and in the carbon-in-leach process leaching and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes the activated carbon is moved from one tank to another in countercurrent with the ore pulp until the recovery of the loaded carbon in the first tank. This paper presents a dynamic model that describes, with minor changes, the carbon-in-leach, the carbon-in-pulp, and the gold leaching processes. The model is numerically solved and calibrated with experimental data from a plant and used to perform a study of the effect of the activated carbon transfer strategy on the performance of the adsorption section of the plant. Based on the calculated values of the gold loss in the liquid and of the gold recovered in the loaded activated carbon that leaves the circuit, the results indicate that strategies in which a significant amount of activated carbon is held in the first tank and the contact time between the carbon and the pulp is longer are the best carbon transfer strategies for these processes.

  20. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

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    Ji-Hyun Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs, the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs, the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs, and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR. The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.