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Sample records for pulp periodontal ligament

  1. Pulp response to the combined effects of cavity preparation and periodontal ligament injection.

    Plamondon, T J; Walton, R; Graham, G S; Houston, G; Snell, G

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen random-source dogs provided 54 experimental and 50 control teeth. Controls received either a periodontal ligament (PDL) injection only, or no injection, with deep cavities prepared and restored. Experimental teeth received both a PDL injection and the deep cavity preparation and were then restored with an IRM base and acid-etched composite. Teeth were surgically removed for observation periods of one and 18 weeks and prepared for histologic evaluation. Results indicated that, in this model system, there was little additive effect to the pulpal reaction due to the PDL injection. Controls that were prepared had essentially the same pulpal response as did the experimental teeth (PDL injection/preparation). In both experimental and control pulps, the effects were primarily related to the depth of the cavity preparation.

  2. Regeneration of dentin-pulp complex with cementum and periodontal ligament formation using dental bud cells in gelatin-chondroitin-hyaluronan tri-copolymer scaffold in swine.

    Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Huang, An-Ting; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, San-Tai; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Hsin-Chi; Chiang, Han; Chen, Min-Huey

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to use a tissue engineering approach for tooth regeneration. The swine dental bud cells (DBCs) were isolated from the developing mandibular teeth, expanded in vitro, and cultured onto cylinder scaffold gelatin-chrondroitin-hyaluronan-tri-copolymer (GCHT). After culturing in vitro, the DBCs/GCHT scaffold was autografted back into the original alveolar socket. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining combined with immunohistochemical staining were applied for identification of regenerated tooth structure. After 36-week post-transplantation, tooth-like structures, including well-organized dentin-pulp complex, cementum, and periodontal ligament, were evident in situ in two of six experimental animals. The size of the tooth structure (1 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm(3) and 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm(3) size) appeared to be dictated by the size of the GCHT scaffold (1 x 1 x 1.5 cm(3)). The third swine was demonstrated with irregular dentin-bony like calcified tissue about 1 cm in diameter without organized tooth or periodontal ligament formation. The other three swine in the experimental group showed normal bone formation and no tooth regeneration in the transplantation sites. The successful rate of tooth regeneration from DBCs/GCHT scaffolds' was about 33.3%. In the control group, three swine's molar teeth buds were removed without DBCs/GCHT implantation, the other three swine received GCHT scaffold implants without DBCs. After evaluation, no regenerated tooth was found in the transplantation site of the control group. The current results using DBSs/GCHT scaffold autotransplantation suggest a technical breakthrough for tooth regeneration.

  3. Review of common conditions associated with periodontal ligament widening

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. Materials and Methods An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Results Out of nearly 200 arti...

  4. Successful periodontal ligament regeneration by periodontal progenitor preseeding on natural tooth root surfaces.

    Dangaria, Smit Jayant; Ito, Yoshihiro; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2011-10-01

    The regeneration of lost periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone is the purpose of periodontal tissue engineering. The goal of the present study was to assess the suitability of 3 odontogenic progenitor populations from dental pulp, PDL, and dental follicle for periodontal regeneration when exposed to natural and synthetic apatite surface topographies. We demonstrated that PDL progenitors featured higher levels of periostin and scleraxis expression, increased adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential, and pronounced elongated cell shapes on barren root chips when compared with dental pulp and dental follicle cells. When evaluating the effect of surface characteristics on PDL progenitors, natural root surfaces resulted in elongated PDL cell shapes, whereas PDL progenitors on synthetic apatite surfaces were rounded or polygonal. In addition, surface coatings affected PDL progenitor gene expression profiles: collagen I coatings enhanced alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression levels and laminin-1 coatings increased epidermal growth factor (EGF), nestin, cadherin 1, and keratin 8 expression. PDL progenitors seeded on natural tooth root surfaces in organ culture formed new periodontal fibers after 3 weeks of culture. Finally, replantation of PDL progenitor-seeded tooth roots into rat alveolar bone sockets resulted in the complete formation of a new PDL and stable reattachment of teeth over a 6-month period. Together, these findings indicate that periodontal progenitor cell type as well as mineral surface topography and molecular environment play crucial roles in the regeneration of true periodontal anchorage.

  5. Cementum and Periodontal Ligament Regeneration.

    Menicanin, Danijela; Hynes, K; Han, J; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M

    2015-01-01

    The unique anatomy and composition of the periodontium make periodontal tissue healing and regeneration a complex process. Periodontal regeneration aims to recapitulate the crucial stages of wound healing associated with periodontal development in order to restore lost tissues to their original form and function and for regeneration to occur, healing events must progress in an ordered and programmed sequence both temporally and spatially, replicating key developmental events. A number of procedures have been employed to promote true and predictable regeneration of the periodontium. Principally, the approaches are based on the use of graft materials to compensate for the bone loss incurred as a result of periodontal disease, use of barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration and use of bioactive molecules. More recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been integrated into research and applications of regenerative dentistry, including periodontics, to aim to manage damaged and lost oral tissues, through reconstruction and regeneration of the periodontium and alleviate the shortcomings of more conventional therapeutic options. The essential components for generating effective cellular based therapeutic strategies include a population of multi-potential progenitor cells, presence of signalling molecules/inductive morphogenic signals and a conductive extracellular matrix scaffold or appropriate delivery system. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered suitable candidates for cell-based tissue engineering strategies owing to their extensive expansion rate and potential to differentiate into cells of multiple organs and systems. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from multiple tissue sources have been investigated in pre-clinical animal studies and clinical settings for the treatment and regeneration of the periodontium.

  6. Electrospun scaffold development for periodontal ligament regeneration

    Pourattar, Parisa

    Periodontitis is a major chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues and, ultimately, tooth loss. It is a major cause of tooth loss in adults and a substantial public-health burden worldwide. There is thus a significant need for periodontal ligament (PDL) regeneration to enable functional mechanical support of tooth prostheses and prevent occlusal overloading. The goal of stem cell-based dental tissue engineering, is to create tooth-like structures using scaffold materials to guide the dental stem cells. Current resorbable membranes act as an epithelial tissue down-growth into the defect, favoring the regeneration of periodontal tissues. In order to develop synthetic grafts for these applications, different biocompatible materials have been used to fabricate fibers with different structures and morphologies. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a composite material that combines the advantage of multiple materials to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol/ chitosan blend fiber scaffolds to promote PDL regeneration and to achieve a synthetic composite that match the native PDL modulus. Morphology, dispersibility, and mechanical properties of blend nanofibrous mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and tensile test.

  7. Periodontal ligament stem cells: an update and perspectives.

    Chamila Prageeth Pandula, P K; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, Chengfei

    2014-05-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a serious infectious and inflammatory oral disease of humans worldwide. Conventional treatment modalities are effective for controlling periodontal disease. However, the regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues remains a major challenge in clinical practice due to the complex structure of the periodontium. Stem cell-based regenerative approaches combined with the usage of emerging biomaterials are entering a new era in periodontal regeneration. The present review updates the current knowledge of periodontal ligament stem cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration, and elaborates on the potentials for clinical application.

  8. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  9. Histopathological Effect of Advanced Periodontal Disease on the Dental Pulp

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Many authors have claimed that pulpal inflammation may occur following periodontal diseases. Appropriate diagnosis of different lesions that have affected the dental pulp or periodontium is critical for prevention of unnecessary or harmful treatments; this must be taken into account before treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this study was histological evaluation of the pulp in the teeth with advanced periodontitis.Materials and Method: 30 permanent single teeth root that ...

  10. Human periodontal ligament stem cells repair mental nerve injury*

    Bohan Li; Hun-Jong Jung; Soung-Min Kim; Myung-Jin Kim; Jeong Won Jahng; Jong-Ho Lee

    2013-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament stem cells are easily accessible and can differentiate into Schwann cells. We hypothesized that human periodontal ligament stem cells can be used as an alternative source for the autologous Schwann cells in promoting the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. To validate this hypothesis, human periodontal ligament stem cells (1 × 106) were injected into the crush-injured left mental nerve in rats. Simultaneously, autologous Schwann cells (1 × 106) and PBS were also injected as controls. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that at 5 days after injection, mRNA expression of low affinity nerve growth factor receptor was sig-nificantaly increased in the left trigeminal ganglion of rats with mental nerve injury. Sensory tests, histomorphometric evaluation and retrograde labeling demonstrated that at 2 and 4 weeks after in-jection, sensory function was significantly improved, the numbers of retrograde labeled sensory neurons and myelinated axons were significantly increased, and human periodontal ligament stem cells and autologous Schwann cells exhibited similar therapeutic effects. These findings suggest that transplantation of human periodontal ligament stem cells show a potential value in repair of mental nerve injury.

  11. Review of common conditions associated with periodontal ligament widening

    Mortazavi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. Materials and Methods An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Results Out of nearly 200 articles, about 60 were broadly relevant to the topic. Ultimately, 47 articles closely related to the topic of interest were reviewed. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 entities were identified: occlusal/orthodontic trauma, periodontal disease/periodontitis, pulpo-periapical lesions, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, progressive systemic sclerosis, radiation-induced bone defect, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, and osteomyelitis. Conclusion Although PDL widening may be encountered by many dentists during their routine daily procedures, the clinician should consider some serious related conditions as well. PMID:28035300

  12. Promise of periodontal ligament stem cells in regeneration of periodontium

    Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

    2011-01-01

    A great number of patients around the world experience tooth loss that is attributed to irretrievable damage of the periodontium caused by deep caries, severe periodontal diseases or irreversible trauma. The periodontium is a complex tissue composed mainly of two soft tissues and two hard tissues; the former includes the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and gingival tissue, and the latter includes alveolar bone and cementum covering the tooth root. Tissue engineering techniques are therefore...

  13. The response of periodontal ligament collagen fibres and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Noengki Prameswari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that there were several reactions in cellular activity and periodontal ligament collagen fibre as a response after orthodontic force application. Cementum has function to give attachment to collagen fibres of the periodontal ligament, maintaining the integrity of the root, helping to maintain the tooth in its functional position in the mouth, and being involved in tooth repair and regeneration so in the orthodontic tooth movement can induce changes in the cementum. The aim of this research is to investigate that fixed orthodontic appliance can change the amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at pressure site of cementum. This experimental study was held in laboratory with post test only control group design. Twenty two (22 premolar sample from 11 patient were divided into 2 groups. K group as control group (without treatment and P group as treatment group (with using fixed orthodontic appliance. The amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles was examined by light microscopy and measured by image tool program. In the summary, there are increasing amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites as a normal response to remodeling and regenerating to orthodontic appliance and have function for strengthen adhering tooth cementum to the periodontal ligament.

  14. Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells on Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Elçin, Y Murat; İnanç, Bülend; Elçin, A Eser

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells' (hESCs) unlimited proliferative potential and differentiation capability to all somatic cell types makes them one of the potential cell sources in cell-based tissue engineering strategies as well as various experimental applications in fields such as developmental biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and genetics. Periodontal tissue engineering is an approach to reconstitute the ectomesenchymally derived alveolar bone, periodontal ligament apparatus, and cementum tissues lost as a result of periodontal diseases. Cell-based therapies may offer potential advantage in overcoming the inherent limitations associated with contemporary regenerative procedures, such as dependency on defect type and size and the pool and capacity of progenitor cells resident in the wound area. Further elucidation of developmental mechanisms associated with tooth formation may also contribute to valuable knowledge based upon which the future therapies can be designed. Protocols for the differentiation of pluripotent hESCs into periodontal ligament fibroblastic cells (PDLF) as common progenitors for ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone tissue represent an initial step in developing hESC-based experimental and tissue engineering strategies. The present protocol describes methods associated with the guided differentiation of hESCs by the use of coculture with adult PDLFs and the resulting change of morphotype and phenotype of the pluripotent embryonic stem cells toward fibroblastic and osteoblastic lineages.

  15. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  16. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Scheres, N; Laine, M L; de Vries, T J; Everts, V; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  17. Effects of Shuanghuangbu on the total protein content and ultrastructure in cultured human periodontal ligament cells

    许彦枝; 邹慧儒; 王小玲; 刘世正; 王永军

    2004-01-01

    Background Successful periodontal regeneration depends on the migration, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in periodontal defects. The total protein content and the ultrastructure demonstrate the metabolizability and activity of periodontal ligament cells. This study was conducted to observe the effects of Shuanghuangbu, a mixture of medicinal herbs, on the total protein content and the ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament cells.Methods Periodontal ligament cells were grown to confluence and then cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with Shuanghuangbu over the concentration range of 0 to 1000 μg/ml. The total protein content in cultured cells was determined by using Coommasie brilliant blue technique. Periodontal ligament cells were incubated in 0 and 100 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu decoction for 5 days, then observed through transmission electron microscope.Results The total protein content of human periodontal ligament cells increased in each experiment group added 10-1000 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu respectively, and the effect of 100 μg/ml was excellent. Under the transmission electron microscope, there were more rough endoplasmic reticulums and mitochodrias in the experiment group than those in the control group. Conclusion Shuanghuangbu stimulates the protein synthesis of human periodontal ligament cells and improves human periodontal ligament cells' metabolizability and activity.

  18. Histopathological Effect of Advanced Periodontal Disease on the Dental Pulp

    Seyedmajidi M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many authors have claimed that pulpal inflammation may occur following periodontal diseases. Appropriate diagnosis of different lesions that have affected the dental pulp or periodontium is critical for prevention of unnecessary or harmful treatments; this must be taken into account before treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this study was histological evaluation of the pulp in the teeth with advanced periodontitis.Materials and Method: 30 permanent single teeth root that had advanced periodontitis with attachment loss ≥ 5 mm at least in one surface were used. The teeth were not maintainable and did not have caries, restoration and any sign of primary trauma from occlusion and did not receive any periodontal professional treatment in the past 6 months with no background of trauma. After clinical and radiographical examination and confirmation of the existence of advanced periodontitis, the teeth were extracted. Then cracks were created in the teeth by special clips. After fixation of the teeth in 10% formalin solution and decalcification by 10% nitric acid, the sections were prepared and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and then evaluated from histological perspectives. The data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient ANOVA, t-test and Kruskal wallis tests.Results: In this survey, we did not find any significant correlation between clinical findings and histopathological situation. The relationship between clinical attachment loss and pulp diagnosis was statistically significant ( p =0.043. Also there was a statistically significant relationship between clinical attachment loss and calcification in the pulp ( p =0.014.Conclusion: According to the result of this research, it seems that periodontal condition affects the pulpal condition and it should be considered in future treatments on these teeth.

  19. Periodontitis promotes the proliferation and suppresses the differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Shi; Wang, Jianguo; Jin, Fang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontitis-associated changes in the number, proliferation and differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cultures of human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were established from healthy donors and donors with periodontitis. The numbers of stem cell were characterized using flow cytometry. PDLSCs were isolated from the PDLCs by immunomagnetic bead selection. Colony‑forming abilities, osteogenic and adipogenic potential, gene expression of cementoblast phenotype, alkaline phosphatase activity and in vivo differentiation capacities were then evaluated. Periodontitis caused an increase in the proliferation of PDLSCs and a decrease in the commitment to the osteoblast lineage. This is reflected by changes in the expression of osteoblast markers. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, PDLSCs from the healthy donors exhibited the capacity to produce cementum PDL‑like structures, whereas, the inflammatory PDLSCs transplants predominantly formed connective tissues. In conclusion, the data from the present study suggest that periodontitis affects the proliferation and differentiation potential of human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo.

  20. ELECTRIC PULP TEST OF TEETH WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE.

    Tsonko Uzunov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to investigate the change in pulp vitality of teeth with periodontal disease using electric pulp tester (EPT. Methods: Subjected to observation were 108 patients with chronic periodontitis. Vitality of 805 teeth with periodontal pocket depth greater than 4 mm was studied by EPT. The research was conducted with EPT "Yonovit ". Results: The highest percentage of surveyed teeth (68.4% respond to the norm when they are tested with EPT – values between 3 μA and 10 μA . Teeth that respond to EPT with values ​​below 3 μA and between 35-100 μA are relatively equal - respectively 4.3% and 3.3%. With increased threshold of irritation – 10-35 μA react 23.4% of teeth. Small number of teeth have threshold of irritation over 100 μA - 0.6%. Conclusion: The value of EPT among periodontal damaged teeth depends on many factors - patient's age, extent of periodontal affect, group affiliation of teeth, etc.

  1. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in the Periodontitis Microenvironment Are Sensitive to Static Mechanical Strain

    Jia Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthodontic treatment, periodontium remodeling of periodontitis patients under mechanical force was abnormal. We have previously confirmed the function impairment of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs in the periodontitis microenvironment which might be involved in this pathological process. However, the response of PDLSCs in periodontitis microenvironment to mechanical force remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we introduced a Flexcell tension apparatus and investigated the response of PDLSCs obtained from periodontal tissues of periodontitis patients (PPDLSCs and of those obtained from healthy periodontal tissues (HPDLSCs to different magnitudes of static mechanical strain (SMS. PPDLSCs showed increased proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity, activated osteoclastogenesis, and greater secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Different magnitudes of SMS exerted distinct effects on HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs. An SMS of 12% induced optimal effects in HPDLSCs, including the highest proliferation, the best osteogenic ability, the lowest osteoclastogenesis, and the lowest secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while the optimal SMS for PPDLSCs was 8%. Excessive SMS damaged PPDLSCs function, including decreased proliferation, an imbalance between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and an activated inflammatory response. Our data suggest that PPDLSCs are more sensitive and less tolerant to SMS, and this may explain why mechanical force results in undesirable effects in periodontitis patients.

  2. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in the Periodontitis Microenvironment Are Sensitive to Static Mechanical Strain

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shiyu; Gao, Jie; Qin, Wen; Song, Yang

    2017-01-01

    During orthodontic treatment, periodontium remodeling of periodontitis patients under mechanical force was abnormal. We have previously confirmed the function impairment of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in the periodontitis microenvironment which might be involved in this pathological process. However, the response of PDLSCs in periodontitis microenvironment to mechanical force remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we introduced a Flexcell tension apparatus and investigated the response of PDLSCs obtained from periodontal tissues of periodontitis patients (PPDLSCs) and of those obtained from healthy periodontal tissues (HPDLSCs) to different magnitudes of static mechanical strain (SMS). PPDLSCs showed increased proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity, activated osteoclastogenesis, and greater secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Different magnitudes of SMS exerted distinct effects on HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs. An SMS of 12% induced optimal effects in HPDLSCs, including the highest proliferation, the best osteogenic ability, the lowest osteoclastogenesis, and the lowest secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while the optimal SMS for PPDLSCs was 8%. Excessive SMS damaged PPDLSCs function, including decreased proliferation, an imbalance between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and an activated inflammatory response. Our data suggest that PPDLSCs are more sensitive and less tolerant to SMS, and this may explain why mechanical force results in undesirable effects in periodontitis patients. PMID:28316629

  3. A nonlinear poroelastic model for the periodontal ligament

    Favino, Marco; Bourauel, Christoph; Krause, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    A coupled elastic-poroelastic model for the simulation of the PDL and the adjacent tooth is presented. A poroelastic constitutive material model for the periodontal ligament (PDL) is derived. The solid phase is modeled by means of a Fung material law, accounting for large displacements and strains. Numerical solutions are performed by means of a multigrid Newton method to solve the arising large nonlinear system. Finally, by means of numerical experiments, the biomechanical response of the PDL is studied. In particular, the effect of the hydraulic conductivity and of the mechanical parameters of a Fung potential is investigated in two realistic applications.

  4. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Regulate Apoptosis of Neutrophils

    Wang, Qing; Ding, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are promising cell resource for the cell-based therapy for periodontitis and regeneration of bio-root. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDLSCs on neutrophil, a critical constituent of innate immunity, and the underlying mechanisms. The effect of PDLSCs on the proliferation and apoptosis of resting neutrophils and IL-8 activated neutrophils was tested under cell-cell contact culture and Transwell culture, with or without anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibody. We found that PDLSCs could promote the proliferation and reduce the apoptosis of neutrophils whether under cell-cell contact or Transwell culture. Anti-IL-6 antibody reduced PDLSCs-mediated inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. IL-6 at the concentration of 10ng/ml and 20ng/ml could inhibit neutrophil apoptosis statistically. Collectively, PDLSCs could reduce the apoptosis of neutrophils via IL-6.

  5. Capturing the Regenerative Potential of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    Christina Springstead Scanlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell population within the periodontal ligament (PDL tissue is remarkably heterogeneous1. Fibroblasts, a mixed population of cells, are the main cellular component of the PDL and the cell type most often studied for periodontal regeneration. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the bone side, while fibroblasts, macrophages, undifferentiated adult/mesenchymal stem cells, neural elements, and endothelial cells are found throughout the PDL. Epithelial rests of Malassez cells and cementoblasts are focused near the root surface. PDL tissue also includes loose connective tissue between dense fiber bundles that contain branches of the periodontal blood vessels and nerves2. The complexity of the PDL tissue, with its various cell types and cell progenitor components, explains the challenges involved in therapies to restore tissue following periodontal disease. Cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells must migrate, differentiate, and coordinately interact with a variety of soluble mediators to regenerate the periodontium3. Stem cells located in the PDL tissue are key contributors to this process4. Stem cells in the PDL are important not only for formation and maintenance of the tissue but also for repair, remodeling, and regeneration of adjacent alveolar bone and cementum5. Our laboratory has shown that progenitor cells isolated from PDL tissue by selection with cell surface markers STRO-1+ and CD146+ are capable of differentiating into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic phenotypes under appropriate culture conditions6.

  6. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review.

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-02-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp.

  7. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each o...... of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp....... of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type...

  8. Promise of periodontal ligament stem cells in regeneration of periodontium.

    Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

    2011-07-28

    A great number of patients around the world experience tooth loss that is attributed to irretrievable damage of the periodontium caused by deep caries, severe periodontal diseases or irreversible trauma. The periodontium is a complex tissue composed mainly of two soft tissues and two hard tissues; the former includes the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and gingival tissue, and the latter includes alveolar bone and cementum covering the tooth root. Tissue engineering techniques are therefore required for regeneration of these tissues. In particular, PDL is a dynamic connective tissue that is subjected to continual adaptation to maintain tissue size and width, as well as structural integrity, including ligament fibers and bone modeling. PDL tissue is central in the periodontium to retain the tooth in the bone socket, and is currently recognized to include somatic mesenchymal stem cells that could reconstruct the periodontium. However, successful treatment using these stem cells to regenerate the periodontium efficiently has not yet been developed. In the present article, we discuss the contemporary standpoints and approaches for these stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine in dentistry.

  9. Periodontitis

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001059.htm Periodontitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Periodontitis is inflammation and infection of the ligaments and ...

  10. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces

    L. Feller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.

  11. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration.

    Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration.

  12. EVALUATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES OF DENTAL PULP IN ADVANCED PERIODONTAL DISEASES

    2007-01-01

    Abstract- The adverse effects of periodontal disease on dental pulp has been debated for many years. This case- control study was performed to assess the possible effects of advanced periodontal disease on the structure of dental pulp. Fifty-two permanent teeth extracted because of advanced periodontitis with  5mm attachment loss and grade III mobility were compared to fifty-two control teeth, obtained from systemically healthy adults. Two groups were matched for age and teeth typ...

  13. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Methods Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. Results New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. Conclusions After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit. PMID:27800213

  14. The Effects of Dense/Nanometer Hydroxyapatite on Proliferation and Osteogenetic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate possible effects of nanometer powder of hydroxyapatite on proliferation of periodontal ligament cells. With sol-gel method, the nanometer hydroxyapatite powder were fabricated. The primary periodontal ligament cells were cultured on dense panicle hydroxyapatite and nanometer particle hydroxyapatite. The effects on proliferation of periodontal ligament cell were examined in vitro with MTT( methyl thiazolil tetracolium) test. The intercellular effects were observed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In addition, the influence of two materials on osteogenetic differentiation was determined with measurement of ALP ( alkaline phosphatase) activity. It is concluded that nanometer hydroxyapatite can promote proliiferation and osteogenetic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells and it may become absorbable agent in osseous restoration.

  15. Stem Cells Derived from Tooth Periodontal Ligament Enhance Functional Angiogenesis by Endothelial Cells

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Ceccarelli, Jacob; Vigen, Marina; Carrion, Bita; Putnam, Andrew J.; Tarle, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative medicine approaches involving cell therapy, selection of the appropriate cell type is important in that the cells must directly (differentiation) or indirectly (trophic effects) participate in the regenerative response. Regardless of the mode of action of the cells, angiogenesis underlies the success of these approaches. Stem cells derived from tooth tissues, specifically the periodontal ligament of teeth (periodontal ligament stem cells [PDLSCs]), have recently been identified as a good source of multipotent cells for cell therapies. PDLSCs have demonstrated properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), yet, unlike MSCs, their vascular potential has not been previously demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if PDLSCs could modulate angiogenesis. In comparison to MSCs and stem cells derived from tooth pulp tissues (SHEDs), we first determined if PDLSCs released soluble proangiogenic factors with the capacity to induce vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). Next, the ability of PDLSCs to modulate angiogenesis was examined through their cotransplantation with ECs in subcutaneous sites of immunocompromised mice. Finally, the stability of the PDLSC-mediated vasculature was determined through evaluation of the maturity and functionality of the vessels formed following PDLSC transplantation. It was determined that PDLSCs produced appreciable levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and additionally, were able to initiate in vitro angiogenesis of ECs comparable to MSC- and SHED-mediated angiogenesis. In vivo cotransplantation of ECs with PDLSCs significantly (>50% increase) enhanced the number of blood vessels formed relative to transplantation of ECs alone. Finally, vessels formed following PDLSC cotransplantation were more mature and less permeable than those formed after transplantation of EC alone. These data demonstrate for the first time that PDLSCs have vascular potential

  16. Dentists' level of knowledge of the treatment plans for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of th...

  17. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro.

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  18. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro

    A.D. Berendsen; T.H. Smit; X.F. Walboomers; V. Everts; J.A. Jansen; A.L.J.J. Bronckers

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  19. Periodontal Ligament Cell Sheet Engineering: A new Possible Strategy to Promote Periodontal Regeneration

    Dong-sheng Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osseointegration represents a direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant without the periodontium. As a result, im-plant fracture or aggressive bone loss sometime occurs because the patient cannot feel the mechanical overloads exerted on the implant. Until now, no available method has been used to solve this problem.The hypothesis: Periodontal ligament (PDL cells are a desirable cell population capable of regenerating a functional periodontal at-tachment apparatus. Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel alternative approach for periodontal tissue engineering without the disruption of both critical cell surface proteins such as ion channels, growth factor receptors and cell-to-cell junction proteins. PDL cells can be isolated from an extracted tooth and can be cultured on temperature-responsive culture dishes at 37°C. Transplantable cell sheets can be harvested by reducing the temperature to 20°C, and would be transplanted into the implant beds before insertion of the implant.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Controlling the differentiation of PDL cell sheets to different functional peri-implant periodontal tissues is very difficult. Further studies are required to determine the fate of implanted cells. Fluorescence protein-labeled cell sheets would be a good approach to investigate the fate of the grafted cell sheet.

  20. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Scheres, N.; Laine, M.L.; de Vries, T.J.; Everts, V.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  1. Relaxin stimulates MMP-2 and α-smooth muscle actin expression by human periodontal ligament cells

    Henneman, S.; Bildt, M.M.; Groot, J. de; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von den Hoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The main cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) are the fibroblasts, which play an important role in periodontal remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins in the PDL. Previous studies have indicated that MMP production

  2. Relaxin stimulates MMP-2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression by human periodontal ligament cells.

    Henneman, S.; Bildt, M.M.; Degroot, J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2008-01-01

    The main cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) are the fibroblasts, which play an important role in periodontal remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins in the PDL. Previous studies have indicated that MMP production

  3. Endocannabinoids and inflammatory response in periodontal ligament cells.

    Burcu Özdemir

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are associated with multiple regulatory functions in several tissues. The main endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG, have been detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients, but the association between periodontal disease or human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLCs and endocannabinoids still remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of AEA and 2-AG on the proliferation/viability and cytokine/chemokine production of hPdLCs in the presence/absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS. The proliferation/viability of hPdLCs was measured using 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT-assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 levels were examined at gene expression and protein level by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. AEA and 2-AG did not reveal any significant effects on proliferation/viability of hPdLCs in the absence of P. gingivalis LPS. However, hPdLCs viability was significantly increased by 10-20 µM AEA in the presence of P. gingivalis LPS (1 µg/ml. In the absence of P. gingivalis LPS, AEA and 2-AG did not exhibit any significant effect on the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 expression in hPdLCs, whereas IL-6 expression was slightly enhanced by 10 µM 2-AG and not affected by AEA. In P.gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs, 10 µM AEA down-regulated gene-expression and protein production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. In contrast, 10 µM 2-AG had an opposite effect and induced a significant up-regulation of gene and protein expression of IL-6 and IL-8 (P<0.05 as well as gene-expression of MCP-1 in P. gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs. Our data suggest that AEA appears to have an anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effect on hPdLCs' host response to P.gingivalis LPS, whereas 2-AG appears to promote detrimental inflammatory processes. In conclusion

  4. Endocannabinoids and inflammatory response in periodontal ligament cells.

    Özdemir, Burcu; Shi, Bin; Bantleon, Hans Peter; Moritz, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Andrukhov, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are associated with multiple regulatory functions in several tissues. The main endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), have been detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients, but the association between periodontal disease or human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLCs) and endocannabinoids still remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of AEA and 2-AG on the proliferation/viability and cytokine/chemokine production of hPdLCs in the presence/absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS). The proliferation/viability of hPdLCs was measured using 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were examined at gene expression and protein level by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. AEA and 2-AG did not reveal any significant effects on proliferation/viability of hPdLCs in the absence of P. gingivalis LPS. However, hPdLCs viability was significantly increased by 10-20 µM AEA in the presence of P. gingivalis LPS (1 µg/ml). In the absence of P. gingivalis LPS, AEA and 2-AG did not exhibit any significant effect on the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 expression in hPdLCs, whereas IL-6 expression was slightly enhanced by 10 µM 2-AG and not affected by AEA. In P.gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs, 10 µM AEA down-regulated gene-expression and protein production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. In contrast, 10 µM 2-AG had an opposite effect and induced a significant up-regulation of gene and protein expression of IL-6 and IL-8 (P<0.05) as well as gene-expression of MCP-1 in P. gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs. Our data suggest that AEA appears to have an anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effect on hPdLCs' host response to P.gingivalis LPS, whereas 2-AG appears to promote detrimental inflammatory processes. In conclusion, AEA and 2

  5. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Isolated from the Periodontium of Healthy Teeth and Periodontitis-Affected Teeth

    Sara Soheilifar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stem cell (SC therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients.Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment. Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test.Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035. The proliferation ability (population doubling time of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02.Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth.Keywords: Stem Cells; Periodontitis; Tooth; Regeneration

  6. Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Lauer, H.C.; Mueller, J.G.; Gross, J.; Horster, M.F.

    1987-07-01

    The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

  7. Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Suppakpatana, Prapan; Arayapisit, Tawepong; Rodsutthi, Jit-aree; Chunhabundit, Panjit; Boonanuntanasarn, Surintorn; Sripairojthikoon, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    This present study investigated the potential of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract to induce osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured in complete medium, ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate, or Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity compared to culturing in complete medium or ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate. Matrixcontaining mineralized nodules were formed only when the cells were cultured in the presence of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. These nodules showed positive alizarin red S staining and were rich in calcium and phosphorus according to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In conclusion, Morinda citrifolia leaf extract promoted osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells, a clear indication of the therapeutic potential of Morinda citrifolia leaves in bone and periodontal tissue regeneration.

  8. Transcriptome Reveals Cathepsin K in Periodontal Ligament Differentiation.

    Yamada, S; Ozaki, N; Tsushima, K; Yamaba, S; Fujihara, C; Awata, T; Sakashita, H; Kajikawa, T; Kitagaki, J; Yamashita, M; Yanagita, M; Murakami, S

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal ligaments (PDLs) play an important role in remodeling the alveolar bond and cementum. Characterization of the periodontal tissue transcriptome remains incomplete, and an improved understanding of PDL features could aid in developing new regenerative therapies. Here, we aimed to generate and analyze a large human PDL transcriptome. We obtained PDLs from orthodontic treatment patients, isolated the RNA, and used a vector-capping method to make a complementary DNA library from >20,000 clones. Our results revealed that 58% of the sequences were full length. Furthermore, our analysis showed that genes expressed at the highest frequencies included those for collagen type I, collagen type III, and proteases. We also found 5 genes whose expressions have not been previously reported in human PDL. To access which of the highly expressed genes might be important for PDL cell differentiation, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure their expression in differentiating cells. Among the genes tested, the cysteine protease cathepsin K had the highest upregulation, so we measured its relative expression in several tissues, as well as in osteoclasts, which are known to express high levels of cathepsin K. Our results revealed that PDL cells express cathepsin K at similar levels as osteoclasts, which are both expressed at higher levels than those of the other tissues tested. We also measured cathepsin K protein expression and enzyme activity during cell differentiation and found that both increased during this process. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that cathepsin K localizes to the interior of lysosomes. Last, we examined the effect of inhibiting cathepsin K during cell differentiation and found that cathepsin K inhibition stimulated calcified nodule formation and increased the levels of collagen type I and osteocalcin gene expression. Based on these results, cathepsin K seems to regulate collagen fiber accumulation during human PDL cell

  9. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Isolated from the Periodontium of Healthy Teeth and Periodontitis-Affected Teeth

    Soheilifar, Sara; Amiri, Iraj; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Hedayatipanah, Morad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Stem cell (SC) therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment). Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035). The proliferation ability (population doubling time) of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02). Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth.

  10. Dental trauma involving root fracture and periodontal ligament injury: a 10-year retrospective study

    Sônia Regina Panzarini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the cases of traumatic dental injuries involving root fracture and/or periodontal ligament injury (except avulsion treated at the Discipline of Integrated Clinic, School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil, from January 1992 to December 2002. Clinical and radiographic records from 161 patients with 287 traumatized teeth that had sustained root fracture and/or injuries to the periodontal ligament were examined. The results of this survey revealed that subluxation (25.09% was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury, followed by extrusive luxation (19.86%. There was a predominance of young male patients and most of them did not present systemic alterations. Among the etiologic factors, the most frequent causes were falls and bicycle accidents. Injuries on extraoral soft tissues were mostly laceration and abrasion, while gingival and lip mucosa lacerations prevailed on intraoral soft tissues injuries. Radiographically, the most common finding was an increase of the periodontal ligament space. The most commonly performed treatment was root canal therapy. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that traumatic dental injuries occur more frequently in young male individuals, due to falls and bicycle accidents. Subluxation was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury. Root canal therapy was the type of treatment most commonly planned and performed.

  11. Xeno-free culture of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Trubiani, Oriana; Diomede, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transplanting adult stem cells into damaged organs has opened a new prospective for the treatment of several human pathologies. Currently, in vitro expansion and culture of mesenchymal stem cells is founded on supplementing cell culture and differentiation medium with fetal calf serum (FCS) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) that contain numerous growth factors inducing cell attachment to plastic surfaces, proliferation, and differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with medium containing FCS or FBS are unusable in the cell therapy; in fact the central issues regarding limitations in using animal sera for cell therapy is that its components are highly variable and often unknown and may trigger a xenogenic immune response, immunological reactions, and the potential transmission of prion diseases and zoonoses. Here we describe the culture system protocols for the expansion and production of human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) using a new xeno-free medium formulation ensuring the maintenance of the stem cells features comprising the multiple passage expansion, mesengenic lineage differentiation, cellular phenotype, and genomic stability, essential elements for conforming to translation to cell therapy.

  12. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for Monitoring Changes in Periodontal Ligaments and Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    Carlo Camerlingo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Raman Spectroscopy is an efficient method for analyzing biological specimens due to its sensitivity to subtle chemical and structural changes. The aim of this study was to use micro-Raman spectroscopy to analyze chemical and structural changes in periodontal ligament after orthodontic force application and in gingival crevicular fluid in presence of periodontal disease. The biopsy of periodontal ligament samples of premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons and the gingival crevicular fluid samples collected by using absorbent paper cones; were analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Changes of the secondary protein structure related to different times of orthodontic force application were reported; whereas an increase of carotene was revealed in patients affected by periodontal inflammation.

  13. 人牙周膜干细胞与牙周膜细胞生物学特性的比较%Differences between biological characteristics of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells

    封艳; 粱学萍; 赵今; 孙玉亮; 钟良军

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The biological function of human periodontal ligament stem cells is a hot area of research in the treatment of periodontal disease. Human periodontal ligament cells are one of the end cells derived from human periodontal ligament stem cells;meanwhile, it can also provide supports to the development of human periodontal ligament stem cells. However, few studies are reported about the difference of biological characteristics between human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells. OBJECTIVE:To compare the differences of biological characteristics between human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells. METHODS:The human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were isolated and purified using tissue explant method and cellclone method, respectively, and then were observed under light microscope to compare the differences of morphology. cellproliferation curves of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were drawn respectively with cellcounting kit 8 assay. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect their cellcircles and their surface markers expressions. The alkaline phosphatase gene, proliferating cellnuclear antigen gene and Scleraxis gene of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were detected by Real-time PCR assay.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells showed a notable difference in morphology under the light microscope observation. During the first 5 days, the cellproliferation curve of human periodontal ligament stem cells was lower than that of human periodontal ligament cells, but 5 days later, the curve of human periodontal ligament stem cells was significantly higher than that of human periodontal ligament cells. The cellcircles of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were 41.1%and 23

  14. Degenerative alterations of the cementum-periodontal ligament complex and early tooth loss in a young patient with periodontal disease.

    Petruţiu, S A; Buiga, Petronela; Roman, Alexandra; Danciu, Theodora; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Mihu, D

    2012-01-01

    Premature exfoliation of primary or permanent teeth in children or adolescents is extremely rare and it can be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. This study aims to present the histological aspects associated with early tooth loss in a case of periodontal disease developed without local inflammation and with minimal periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The maxillary left second premolar was extracted together with a gingival collar attached to the root surface. The histological analysis recorded the resorption of the cementum in multiple areas of the entire root surface with the connective tissue of the desmodontium invading the lacunae defects. The connective tissue rich in cells occupied the periodontal ligamentar space and the resorptive areas. No inflammation was obvious in the periodontal ligament connective tissue. This report may warn clinicians about the possibility of the association of cemental abnormalities with early tooth loss.

  15. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement

    Jonsdottir, S.H.; Giesen, E.B.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five y

  16. Cytotoxicity evaluation of root repair materials in human-cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Voruganti Samyuktha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three root repair materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from healthy premolar extracted for orthodontic purpose. Cells in the third passage were used in the study. The cultured fibroblast cells were placed in contact with root repair materials: (a Biodentine, (b MTA, (c Endosequence, (d control. The effects of these three materials on the viability of Periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts were determined by trypan blue dye assay after 24 hours and 48-hour time period. Cell viability was determined using inverted phase contrast microscope. Statistical Analysis: Cell viability was compared for all the experimental groups with Wilcoxons matched pair test. Results: At the 24-hour examination period, all the materials showed increased cell viability. At 48-hour time period, there is slight decrease in cell viability. Mineral trioxide aggregate showed statistically significant increase in the cell viability when compared to other root repair materials. Conclusion: Mineral trioxide aggregate was shown to be less toxic to periodontal ligament fibroblasts than Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine.

  17. Chemically modified tetracyclines stimulate matrix metalloproteinase-2 production by periodontal ligament cells.

    Bildt, M.M.; Snoek-van Beurden, A.M.; Groot, J. de; El, B. van; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) on the production of gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9] by human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and on the activity of recombinant gelatinases. MATERIA

  18. Domain of dentine sialoprotein mediates proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Alkan Ozer

    Full Text Available Classic embryological studies have documented the inductive role of root dentin on adjacent periodontal ligament differentiation.  The biochemical composition of root dentin includes collagens and cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, such as dentin sialoprotein (DSP.  The high abundance of DSP in root dentin prompted us to ask the question whether DSP or peptides derived thereof would serve as potent biological matrix components to induce periodontal progenitors to further differentiate into periodontal ligament cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that domain of DSP influences cell fate. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the COOH-terminal DSP domain is expressed in mouse periodontium at various stages of root development. The recombinant COOH-terminal DSP fragment (rC-DSP enhanced attachment and migration of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC, human primary PDL cells without cell toxicity. rC-DSP induced PDLSC cell proliferation as well as differentiation and mineralization of PDLSC and PDL cells by formation of mineralized tissue and ALPase activity. Effect of rC-DSP on cell proliferation and differentiation was to promote gene expression of tooth/bone-relate markers, transcription factors and growth factors. The results for the first time showed that rC-DSP may be one of the components of cell niche for stimulating stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and a natural scaffold for periodontal regeneration application.

  19. Gomisin N Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Gomisin N, which is a lignan isolated from Schisandra chinensis, has some pharmacological effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N on periodontal disease are uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gomisin N on inflammatory mediator production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Gomisin N inhibited interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL20 production in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we revealed that gomisin N could suppress extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC though protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation was not suppressed by gomisin N treatment. In summary, gomisin N might exert anti-inflammatory effects by attenuating cytokine production in periodontal ligament cells via inhibiting the TNF-α-stimulated ERK and JNK pathways activation.

  20. Role of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez in the development, maintenance and regeneration of periodontal ligament tissues.

    Xiong, Jimin; Gronthos, Stan; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-10-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease that results in damage to the tooth-supporting tissues, potentially leading to tooth loss. Periodontal tissue regeneration is a complex process that involves the collaboration of two hard tissues (cementum and alveolar bone) and two soft tissues (gingiva and periodontal ligament). To date, no periodontal-regenerative procedures provide predictable clinical outcomes. To understand the rational basis of regenerative procedures, a better understanding of the events associated with the formation of periodontal components will help to establish reliable strategies for clinical practice. An important aspect of this is the role of the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in periodontal development and that of its descendants, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, in the maintenance of the periodontium. An important structure during tooth root development, the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath is not only a barrier between the dental follicle and dental papilla cells but is also involved in determining the shape, size and number of roots and in the development of dentin and cementum, and may act as a source of mesenchymal progenitor cells for cementoblasts. In adulthood, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez are the only odontogenic epithelial population in the periodontal ligament. Although there is no general agreement on the functions of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, accumulating evidence suggests that the putative roles of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez in adult periodontal ligament include maintaining periodontal ligament homeostasis to prevent ankylosis and maintain periodontal ligament space, to prevent root resorption, to serve as a target during periodontal ligament innervation and to contribute to cementum repair. Recently, ovine epithelial cell rests of Malassez cells have been shown to harbor clonogenic epithelial stem-cell populations that demonstrate similar properties to mesenchymal stromal

  1. 干细胞在牙周病学中的应用进展%The application of periodontal ligament stem cells in periodontal disease

    谢军; 陆玉林; 曹庆堂

    2014-01-01

    牙周病是造成牙齿缺失的常见病因之一。随着对干细胞的深入研究,牙周膜干细胞得以从牙周膜提取分离,具有分化成牙周组织细胞的能力。通过分析近年的组织工程学文章,探讨牙周膜干细胞的应用前景。%Periodontal disease is one of the common cause of tooth loss.With the in-depth study of stem cells,periodontal ligament stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament tissue, has the ability to differentiate into periodontal tissue cells. To analyze articles tissue engineering in recent years, this article discussed the application prospect of the periodontal ligament stem cell.

  2. DKK1 rescues osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments of patients with diabetes mellitus induced periodontitis.

    Liu, Qi; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Cui, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Kun; Deng, Chao; Xia, Jia-Jia; Wu, Yan; Liu, Lu-Chuan; Jin, Yan

    2015-08-17

    Multiple studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) have been utilized to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, impact of periodontitis with diabetes mellitus on PDLSCs and mechanisms mediating effects of complex microenvironments remain poorly understood. In this study, we found multiple differentiation potential of PDLSCs from chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus donors (D-PDLSCs) was damaged significantly. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling could rescue osteogenic potential of PDLSCs from simple chronic periodontitis patients (P-PDLSCs), whereas did not promote D-PDLSCs osteogenesis. In addition, we found expression of DKK1 in D-PDLSCs did not respond to osteogenic signal and decreased osteogenic potential of D-PDLSCs treated with DKK1 could be reversed. To further elucidate different character between P-PDLSCs and D-PDLSCs, we treated PDLSCs with TNF-α and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and find out AGEs which enhance effect of TNF-α in PDLSCs might mediate special personality of D-PDLSCs. The adverse effect of AGEs in PDLSCs could be reversed when PDLSCs were treated with DKK1. These results suggested DKK1 mediating WNT signaling might be a therapy target to rescue potential of PDLSCs in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration

    Gao H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hui Gao,1–3,* Bei Li,1,2,* Lingzhou Zhao,4 Yan Jin1,21State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 2Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 3Department of Stomatology, PLA 309th Hospital, Beijing, 4State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL stem cells (PDLSCs and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs layered on titanium (Ti provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL

  4. In vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue formation with porous poly-L-lactide matrix.

    Liao, Wen; Okada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Fumito; Okita, Naoya; Inami, Kaoru; Nishiura, Aki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to establish an in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue (HPdLLT) by three-dimensional culturing of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLFs) in a porous poly-L-lactide (PLLA) matrix modified hydrophilically with ammonia solution. After ammonia modification, the surface roughness and culture-medium-soaking-up ability of the PLLA matrix increased, whereas the contact angle of water drops decreased. The thickness, porosity, and pore size of the PLLA matrix were 400±50 μm, 83.3%, and 75-150 μm, respectively. HPdLFs (1×10(5) cells) were seeded on the modified PLLA matrix and centrifuged to facilitate seeding into its interior and cultured for 14 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, proliferation assay, picrosirius-red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for type-1 collagen (COL1), periodontal ligament associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA were conducted on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. HPdLFs were observed entirely from the surface to the rear side of the matrix. Cell proliferation analysis, SEM observation, and picrosirius-red staining showed both progressive growth of 3D-cultured HPdLFs and extracellular matrix maturation by the secretion of COL1 and type 3 collagen (COL3) from days 1 to 14. Expressions of COL1, PLAP-1, and FGF-2 mRNA suggested the formation of cellular components and supplementation of extracellular components. Expressions of ALP, COL1, and PLAP-1 mRNA suggested the osteogenic potential of the HPdLLT. The results indicated in vitro HPdLLT formation, and it could be used in future periodontal ligament tissue engineering to achieve optimal periodontal regeneration.

  5. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might

  6. A low-level diode laser therapy reduces the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontal ligament cell inflammation

    Huang, T. H.; Chen, C. C.; Liu, S. L.; Lu, Y. C.; Kao, C. T.

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytologic effects of inflammatory periodontal ligament cells in vitro after low-level laser therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured, exposed to lipopolysaccharide and subjected to low-level laser treatment of 5 J cm-2 or 10 J cm-2 using a 920 nm diode laser. A periodontal ligament cell attachment was observed under a microscope, and the cell viability was quantified by a mitochondrial colorimetric assay. Lipopolysaccharide-treated periodontal ligament cells were irradiated with the low-level laser, and the expression levels of several inflammatory markers, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1, and pErk kinase, were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The data were collected and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance; p low-level laser treatment of periodontal ligament cells increased their ability to attach and survive. After irradiation, the expression levels of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1 in lipopolysaccharide-exposed periodontal ligament cells decreased over time (p low-level diode laser treatment increased the cells’ proliferative ability and decreased the expression of the examined inflammatory mediators.

  7. Crucial role of Notch signaling in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in osteoporotic rats.

    Li, Ying; Li, S Q; Gao, Y M; Li, Jin; Zhang, Bin

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis typically occurs in postmenopausal women and has been strongly associated with periodontal diseases. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontal ligament can differentiate into many types of specialized cells, including osteoblast-like cells that contribute to periodontal tissue repair. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved and associated with self-renewal potential and cell-fate determination. Recently, several studies have focused on the relationship between Notch signaling and osteogenic differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. We have successfully isolated PDLSCs from both ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated rats. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Notch1 and Jagged1 were upregulated when PDLSCs were cultured in osteogenic induction media. Mineralization assays showed decreased calcium deposits in OVX-PDLSCs treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor compared with control cells. Thus Notch signaling is important in maintaining the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in osteoporotic rats, which help in the development of a potential therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women.

  8. The periodontal ligament (PDL) injection: an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Malamed, S F

    1982-02-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) injection for mandibular anesthesia in isolated regions was evaluated, using both a conventional syringe and two devices designed for this procedure. A high success rate was achieved, with a low incidence of adverse reaction and highly favorable comment from both patients and administrators. Duration of pulpal anesthesia following the technique described proved adequate for most dental procedures. The newer devices appear to have some advantage over the conventional syringe technique. However, the PDL injection technique can readily be used with any conventional syringe. Further study is recommended to determine the response of periodontal and pulpal tissues.

  9. Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

    Yan, X.Z.; Both, S.K.; Yang, P.S.; Jansen, J.A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Yang, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation th

  10. Jawbone microenvironment promotes periodontium regeneration by regulating the function of periodontal ligament stem cells

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Yihan; Zhao, Xicong; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Zhuojing; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    During tooth development, the jawbone interacts with dental germ and provides the development microenvironment. Jawbone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMSCs) maintain this microenvironment for root and periodontium development. However, the effect of the jawbone microenvironment on periodontium tissue regeneration is largely elusive. Our previous study showed that cell aggregates (CAs) of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promoted periodontium regeneration on the treated dentin scaffold. Here, we found that JBMSCs enhanced not only the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) but also their adhesion to titanium (Ti) material surface. Importantly, the compound CAs of PDLSCs and JBMSCs regenerated periodontal ligament-like fibers and mineralized matrix on the Ti scaffold surface, both in nude mice ectopic and minipig orthotopic transplantations. Our data revealed that an effective regenerative microenvironment, reconstructed by JBMSCs, promoted periodontium regeneration by regulating PDLSCs function on the Ti material. PMID:28053317

  11. Characterization of the autocrine/paracrine function of vitamin D in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.

    Kaining Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3, the precursor of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3, is abundant around periodontal soft tissues. Here we investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 is converted to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 in periodontal soft tissue cells and explore the possibility of an autocrine/paracrine function of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 in periodontal soft tissue cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts and human periodontal ligament cells from 5 individual donors. We demonstrated that 1α-hydroxylase was expressed in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, as was cubilin. After incubation with the 1α-hydroxylase substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3, human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells generated detectable 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 that resulted in an up-regulation of CYP24A1 and RANKL mRNA. A specific knockdown of 1α-hydroxylase in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells using siRNA resulted in a significant reduction in both 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 production and mRNA expression of CYP24A1 and RANKL. The classical renal regulators of 1α-hydroxylase (parathyroid hormone, calcium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide did not influence 1α-hydroxylase expression significantly, however, interleukin-1β and sodium butyrate strongly induced 1α-hydroxylase expression in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, the expression, activity and functionality of 1α-hydroxylase were detected in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, raising the possibility that vitamin D acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner in these cells.

  12. In vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue formation with porous poly-L-lactide matrix

    Liao, Wen [Graduate School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Okada, Masahiro [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Sakamoto, Fumito; Okita, Naoya [Graduate School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Inami, Kaoru; Nishiura, Aki [Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiya, E-mail: yoshiya@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoyuki [Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to establish an in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue (HPdLLT) by three-dimensional culturing of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLFs) in a porous poly-L-lactide (PLLA) matrix modified hydrophilically with ammonia solution. After ammonia modification, the surface roughness and culture-medium-soaking-up ability of the PLLA matrix increased, whereas the contact angle of water drops decreased. The thickness, porosity, and pore size of the PLLA matrix were 400 ± 50 μm, 83.3%, and 75–150 μm, respectively. HPdLFs (1 × 10{sup 5} cells) were seeded on the modified PLLA matrix and centrifuged to facilitate seeding into its interior and cultured for 14 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, proliferation assay, picrosirius-red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for type-1 collagen (COL1), periodontal ligament associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA were conducted on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. HPdLFs were observed entirely from the surface to the rear side of the matrix. Cell proliferation analysis, SEM observation, and picrosirius-red staining showed both progressive growth of 3D-cultured HPdLFs and extracellular matrix maturation by the secretion of COL1 and type 3 collagen (COL3) from days 1 to 14. Expressions of COL1, PLAP-1, and FGF-2 mRNA suggested the formation of cellular components and supplementation of extracellular components. Expressions of ALP, COL1, and PLAP-1 mRNA suggested the osteogenic potential of the HPdLLT. The results indicated in vitro HPdLLT formation, and it could be used in future periodontal ligament tissue engineering to achieve optimal periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • First report on ammonia treated PLLA matrix for in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue generation. • Good combination of matrix thickness, pore size, and porosity. • Biodegradable PLLA is also possible to be used in vivo.

  13. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  14. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  15. Dentists' level of knowledge of the treatment plans for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma.

    Pedrini, Denise; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Tiveron, Adelisa Rodolfo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Dental Research, and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis. Either the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was applied to assess associations among variables, at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that dentists experienced difficulty in establishing a treatment plan for subluxation, and for extrusive, lateral and intrusive luxations. In general, holding a dental specialty degree had no influence on the knowledge about treatment plan procedures for the most severe injuries. It could be concluded that the dentists participating in this study, whether specialists or not, did not have sufficient knowledge to treat most of the periodontal ligament injuries resulting from dentoalveolar trauma adequately.

  16. Dentists' level of knowledge of the treatment plans for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma

    Denise Pedrini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Dental Research, and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis. Either the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was applied to assess associations among variables, at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that dentists experienced difficulty in establishing a treatment plan for subluxation, and for extrusive, lateral and intrusive luxations. In general, holding a dental specialty degree had no influence on the knowledge about treatment plan procedures for the most severe injuries. It could be concluded that the dentists participating in this study, whether specialists or not, did not have sufficient knowledge to treat most of the periodontal ligament injuries resulting from dentoalveolar trauma adequately.

  17. Rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament in dogs

    AI Hong; XU Qing-feng; LU Hong-fei; MAI Zhi-hui; AN Ai-qun; LIU Guo-ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal models are needed for the study of rapid tooth movement into the extraction socket through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.Methods Modified distraction devices were placed on eight dogs between the first and third mandibular premolars on the left sides;similar placement of traditional straight wise appliances on the right sides served as the control.The experimental distractors were activated(0.25 mm/d)twice a day and the control devices were activated(100 g)for two weeks with consolidation periods at weeks two,three,six,and ten.Two dogs were sacrificed at each consolidation time point;rates and patterns of tooth movement,loss of anchorage,and periapical films were evaluated,and the aftected premolars and surrounding periodontal tissues were decalcified and examined histologically.General observations,X-ray periapical filming and histology examination were performed.Results Distal movement((3.66±0.1 4)mm)measured two weeks after modified distraction exceeded that achieved using the traditional device((1.15±0.21)mm;P<0.05).Loss of anchorage was minimally averaged(0.34±0.06)mm and (0.32±0.07)mm in the experimental and control sides,respectively.By radiography,apical and lateral surface root resorptions on both sides were minimal.Alveolar bone Iesions were never evident.Fibroblasts were endched in periodontal ligaments and bone spicules formed actively along directions of distraction.Conclusions The canine model is suitable for the study of rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.The technique accelerates tooth movement,periodontal remodeling,alveolar bone absorption,and may induce fibroblast formation,as compared to the traditional orthodontic method,without adversely affecting root absorption,bone loss,tooth mobility and anchorage loss.

  18. In vivo measurements and numerical analysis of the biomechanical characteristics of the human periodontal ligament.

    Keilig, L; Drolshagen, M; Tran, K L; Hasan, I; Reimann, S; Deschner, J; Brinkmann, K T; Krause, R; Favino, M; Bourauel, C

    2016-07-01

    The periodontal ligament is a complex tissue with respect to its biomechanical behaviour. It is important to understand the mechanical behaviour of the periodontal ligament during physiological loading in healthy patients as well as during the movement of the tooth in orthodontic treatment or in patients with periodontal disease, as these might affect the mechanical properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Up to now, only a limited amount of in vivo data is available concerning this issue. The aim of this study has been to determine the time dependent material properties of the PDL in an experimental in vivo study, using a novel device that is able to measure tooth displacement intraorally. Using the intraoral loading device, tooth deflections at various velocities were realised in vivo on human teeth. The in vivo investigations were performed on the upper left central incisors of five volunteers aged 21-33 years with healthy periodontal tissue. A deflection, applied at the centre of the crown, was linearly increased from 0 to 0.15mm in a loading period of between 0.1 and 5.0s. Individual numerical models were developed based on the experimental results to simulate the relationship between the applied force and tooth displacement. The numerical force/displacement curves were fitted to the experimental ones to obtain the material properties of the human PDL. For the shortest loading time of 0.1s, the experimentally determined forces were between 7.0 and 16.2N. The numerically calculated Young's modulus varied between 0.9MPa (5.0s) and 1.2MPa (0.1s). By considering the experimentally and numerically obtained force curves, forces decreased with increasing loading time. The experimental data gained in this study can be used for the further development and verification of a multiphasic constitutive law of the PDL.

  19. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  1. Assessment of Surface Markers Derived from Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study

    Zainab Kadkhoda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Periodontal tissue regeneration for treatment of periodontal disease has not yet been mastered in tissue engineering. Stem cells, scaffold, and growth factors are the three main basic components of tissue engineering. Periodontal ligament (PDL contains stem cells; however, the number, potency and features of these cells have not yet been understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize the properties of PDL stem cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, samples were isolated from the PDL of extracted teeth of five patients and then stained immunohistochemically for detection of cell surface markers. Cells were then examined by immuno-flow cytometry for mesenchymal markers as well as for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.Results: The isolated cell population had fibroblast-like morphology and flow cytometry revealed that the mesenchymal surface markers were (means: CD90 (84.55, CD31 (39.97, CD166 (33.77, CD105 (31.19, CD45 (32/44, CD44 (462.11, CD34 (227.33, CD38 (86.94, CD13 (34.52 and CD73 (50.39. The PDL stem cells also differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in osteogenic and adipogenic media, respectively.Conclusions: PDL stem cells expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers and differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in osteogenic and adipogenic media, respectively.Keywords: Adipocytes; Antigens; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells; Osteoblasts; Periodontal Ligament

  2. The research of periodontal ligament stem cells%牙周膜干细胞的研究进展

    张瑛; 宋莉

    2011-01-01

    背景:从牙周膜组织中分离出的牙周膜干细胞被认为是牙周组织工程的首选种子细胞,有自我更新能力,能分化形成牙周的3种组织:牙槽骨、牙周膜和牙骨质.目的:就近年来牙周膜干细胞的分离、鉴定、相关细胞因子等方面进行简要综述.方法:由第一作者检索Pubmed 数据库(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)、中国知网数据库(http://www.cnki.net/)2004-01/2010-09有关牙周膜干细胞分离、鉴定、相关细胞因子等方面的文献,英文检索词为"periodontal ligament stem cell",中文检索词为"牙周膜,干细胞".排除重复性研究,最终纳入35篇文献进行综述.结果与结论:牙周膜干细胞是一种很有潜力的牙周组织工程种子细胞,能构建组织工程牙周膜,促进牙周缺损的修复.随着研究的深入,影响牙周膜干细胞生物性能的因素逐渐被发现,但其研究还有待进一步完善.%BACKGROUND: Periodontal ligament stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament tissue is considered to be the preferred seed cells with self-renewal ability in periodontal tissue engineering and can differentiate to form three kinds of periodontal tissues: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. OBJECTIVE: To review the articles about isolation, identification, and relevant factors of periodontal ligament stem cells in recent years. METHODS: The first author searched PubMed databases and CKNI database (2004-01/2010-09) for articles regarding isolation, identification, and relevant factors of periodontal ligament stem cells using the keywords of “periodontal ligament stem cells” in English and “periodontal ligament, stem cells” in Chinese. Repetitive articles were excluded, and finally, 35 articles were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Periodontal ligament stem cells are a kind of potential seed cells for periodontal tissue engineering, which can reconstruct tissue-engineered periodontal ligament and improve the healing of

  3. Basic Finite Element Analysis of Para-periodontal Ligament in All-ceramic Zirconia Fixed Partial Denture.

    Nomoto, Syuntaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Sato, Toru; Yotsuya, Mamoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of incorporating a para-periodontal ligament in the test mold used in a basic fracture test of a zirconia all-ceramic fixed partial denture (FPD). A simplified three-dimensional finite element analysis model was designed based on the three-unit FPD fracture test. Two types of model, one with and one without a para-periodontal ligament between the abutment and base mold, were fabricated. Microfocus CT of the missing first molar area in a dry human mandible was performed. A three-dimensional model was then fabricated based on the data obtained. A load of 600 N was applied to the center of the pontic and stress distribution observed. The model with the para-periodontal ligament showed stress dispersion to the dental root with rotation of the abutment mold. Stress distribution in the finite element analysis model with a para-periodontal ligament showed greater similarity with that in the mandibular model than with that in the other two models without a para-periodontal ligament.

  4. Dynamic Mechanical and Nanofibrous Topological Combinatory Cues Designed for Periodontal Ligament Engineering.

    Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kang, Min Sil; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Complete reconstruction of damaged periodontal pockets, particularly regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been a significant challenge in dentistry. Tissue engineering approach utilizing PDL stem cells and scaffolding matrices offers great opportunity to this, and applying physical and mechanical cues mimicking native tissue conditions are of special importance. Here we approach to regenerate periodontal tissues by engineering PDL cells supported on a nanofibrous scaffold under a mechanical-stressed condition. PDL stem cells isolated from rats were seeded on an electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin directionally-oriented nanofiber membrane and dynamic mechanical stress was applied to the cell/nanofiber construct, providing nanotopological and mechanical combined cues. Cells recognized the nanofiber orientation, aligning in parallel, and the mechanical stress increased the cell alignment. Importantly, the cells cultured on the oriented nanofiber combined with the mechanical stress produced significantly stimulated PDL specific markers, including periostin and tenascin with simultaneous down-regulation of osteogenesis, demonstrating the roles of topological and mechanical cues in altering phenotypic change in PDL cells. Tissue compatibility of the tissue-engineered constructs was confirmed in rat subcutaneous sites. Furthermore, in vivo regeneration of PDL and alveolar bone tissues was examined under the rat premaxillary periodontal defect models. The cell/nanofiber constructs engineered under mechanical stress showed sound integration into tissue defects and the regenerated bone volume and area were significantly improved. This study provides an effective tissue engineering approach for periodontal regeneration-culturing PDL stem cells with combinatory cues of oriented nanotopology and dynamic mechanical stretch.

  5. Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.

    LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone of attachment", as

  6. Pneumatic pressure bioreactor for cyclic hydrostatic stress application: mechanobiology effects on periodontal ligament cells.

    Wenger, Karl H; El-Awady, Ahmed R; Messer, Regina L W; Sharawy, Mohamed M; White, Greg; Lapp, Carol A

    2011-10-01

    A bioreactor system was developed to provide high-amplitude cyclic hydrostatic compressive stress (cHSC) using compressed air mixed commercially as needed to create partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide appropriate for the cells under investigation. Operating pressures as high as 300 psi are achievable in this system at cyclic speeds of up to 0.2 Hz. In this study, ligamentous fibroblasts from human periodontal ligaments (n = 6) were compressed on two consecutive days at 150 psi for 3 h each day, and the mRNA for families of extracellular matrix protein and protease isoforms was evaluated by real-time PCR array. Several integrins were significantly upregulated, most notably alpha-3 (6.4-fold), as was SPG7 (12.1-fold). Among the collagens, Col8a1 was highly upregulated at 53.5-fold, with Col6a1, Col6a2, and Col7a1 also significantly upregulated 4.4- to 8.5-fold. MMP-1 was the most affected at 122.9-fold upregulation. MMP-14 likewise increased 17.8-fold with slight reductions for the gelatinases and a significant increase of TIMP-2 at 5.8-fold. The development of this bioreactor system and its utility in characterizing periodontal ligament fibroblast mechanobiology in intermediate-term testing hold promise for better simulating the conditions of the musculoskeletal system and the large cyclic compressive stresses joints may experience in gait, exertion, and mastication.

  7. Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review.

    Costa, Cláudio Rodrigues Rezende; Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; de Magalhães, Pérola; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments.

  8. LPS from P. gingivalis and Hypoxia Increases Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and Contributes to Periodontitis

    L. Gölz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays a key role in the progression of inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that hypoxic and inflammatory events induce oxidative stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL by activating NOX4. Human primary PDL fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG, a periodontal pathogen bacterium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. By quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunostaining, and a specific ROS assay we determined the amount of NOX4, ROS, and several redox systems. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were collected to evaluate NOX4 and redox systems by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly increased NOX4 levels after hypoxic or inflammatory stimulation in PDL cells (P<0.001 which was even more pronounced after combination of the stimuli. This was accompanied by a significant upregulation of ROS and catalase (P<0.001. However, prolonged incubation with both stimuli induced a reduction of catalase indicating a collapse of the protective machinery favoring ROS increase and the progression of inflammatory oral diseases. Analysis of inflamed tissues confirmed our hypothesis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the interplay of NOX4 and redox systems is crucial for ROS formation which plays a pivotal role during oral diseases.

  9. Periodontal ligament formation around different types of dental titanium implants. I. The self-tapping screw type implant system

    Warrer, K; Karring, T; Gotfredsen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a periodontal ligament can form around self-tapping, screw type titanium dental implants. Implants were inserted in contact with the periodontal ligament of root tips retained in the mandibular jaws of 7 monkeys. In each side of the mandible, 1 premolar......, a periodontal ligament can form on self-tapping, screw type titanium dental implants in areas where a void is present between the surrounding bone and the implant at the time of insertion....... and 2 molars were removed in such a manner that in approximately half the cases, the root tips were retained. Following healing, the experimental areas were examined on radiographs, and sites were selected for the insertion of the implants, so that every second implant would have a close contact...

  10. [Changes in the microvascular pattern of the periodontal ligament in an experimental tooth extrusion].

    Kobayashi, K

    1989-08-01

    Forty eight adult cats were employed to investigate the serial changes of vascular patterns of the periodontal ligament on tooth extrusion. The right upper canines have been successively extruded (initial load 40 gr) with a open coil spring. The experimental periods were set on 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. On each experimental period, the microvascular casts of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone around the experimental tooth were prepared for the scanning electron microscopy, utilizing the acrylic plastic injection method (Taniguchi and Ohta, et al. 1952 and 1955). And the serial sections of the surrounding tissues of the experimental tooth were made. In order to elucidate the mode of the tooth movement, the load of applied force and the distance of extrusion were measured. Results obtained were as follows: 1. The experimental tooth was extruded rapidly during first two weeks. The speed reduced gradually afterwards. 2. The new vascularization was seen around the apex first, then widely spread in the periodontal ligament. And the remarkable trabecula-shaped bone formation were observed around the venous networks of the root apex after two week period. 3. The tissue reactions after the tooth extrusion delayed in comparison with the movement of the tooth. 4. Although the tissue reactions of the root apex of the extruded tooth were originally similar to the one in the transverse tooth movement, slight differences were found in timing of the tissue change and shape of the capillary network. The findings of the tissue change showed that the light force was indicated in extrusion of the tooth. And the range of action of the force applied should be limited in orthodontic clinic.

  11. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J. [Department of Stomatology, Air Force General Hospital PLA, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  12. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their receptor (RAGE induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    D.X. Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their receptor (RAGE. We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, bovine serum albumin (BSA alone, or given no treatment (control. Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01 and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05. Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  13. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, PAGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  14. Biomaterials in periodontal regenerative surgery: effects of cryopreserved bone, commercially available coral, demineralized freeze-dried dentin, and cementum on periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    Devecioğlu, Didem; Tözüm, Tolga F; Sengün, Dilek; Nohutcu, Rahime M

    2004-10-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to achieve successful periodontal regeneration. The effects of different biomaterials, allogenic and alloplastic, used in periodontal surgeries to achieve regeneration have been studied in vitro on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. The materials tested included cryopreserved bone allograft (CBA), coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), demineralized freeze-dried dentin (DFDD), and cementum. CBA and CH revealed an increase in initial PDL cell attachment, whereas CH resulted in an increase in long-term PDL cell attachment. Mineral-like nodule formation was observed significantly higher in DFDD compared to other materials tested for osteoblasts. Based on the results of this in vitro study, we conclude that the materials used are all biocompatible with human PDL cells and osteoblasts, which have pivotal importance in periodontal regeneration.

  15. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid

    Jacqueline N. Zanoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and is essential for collagen synthesis. In aging process oxidative stress is elevated. This study aims to investigate the effects of AA supplementation on the periodontal ligament (PL of rats during aging. Twenty five rats were used and divided into groups: J90 (90-day-old control, E345 (345-day-old control, E428 (428-day-old control, EA345 (345-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on and EA428 (428-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on. We analyzed the thickness, density of fibroblasts and blood vessels and collagen fibers types in the PL. In group J90 there was predominantly type III collagen fibers (87.64%. In animals supplemented with AA, the area filled by type I fibers (group EA345: 65.67%, group EA428: 52.23% was higher than type III fibers. PL in group EA428 was thicker than the one observed in group E428 (P < 0.05. During natural aging process, AA promoted the maturation of collagen fibers and enhanced angiogenesis in periodontal ligament. One can conclude that the supplementation with AA represented a beneficial factor for the development of PL in aged rats.

  16. The pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of calprotectin on human periodontal ligament cells.

    Zheng, Yunfei; Hou, Jianxia; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

    2014-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis.

  17. The pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of calprotectin on human periodontal ligament cells.

    Yunfei Zheng

    Full Text Available Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9 and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis.

  18. Immunolocalization of FGF-2 and VEGF in rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement

    Milene Freitas Lima Salomão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article aimed at identifying the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the tension and pressure areas of rat periodontal ligament, in different periods of experimental orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: An orthodontic force of 0.5 N was applied to the upper right first molar of 18 male Wistar rats for periods of 3 (group I, 7 (group II and 14 days (group III. The counter-side first molar was used as a control. The animals were euthanized at the aforementioned time periods, and their maxillary bone was removed and fixed. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed and embedded in paraffin. FGF-2 and VEGF expressions were studied through immunohistochemistry and morphological analysis. RESULTS: The experimental side showed a higher expression of both FGF-2 and VEGF in all groups, when compared with the control side (P < 0.05. Statistically significant differences were also found between the tension and pressure areas in the experimental side. CONCLUSION: Both FGF-2 and VEGF are expressed in rat periodontal tissue. Additionally, these growth factors are upregulated when orthodontic forces are applied, thereby suggesting that they play an important role in changes that occur in periodontal tissue during orthodontic movement.

  19. Prolactin receptor and osteogenic induction of prolactin in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Surarit, Rudee; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin is an important hormone involved in the interaction between maternal, extraembryonic, and fetal tissues that remains in high levels during the entire duration of pregnancy. Although many systemic alterations occur during pregnancy, such as hormonal changes, that are known to be associated with periodontitis and tooth loss, PRL function in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) had never been studied. Herein, we investigated the role of PRL in the regulation of HPDLF proliferation and differentiation. HPDLF were cultured in differentiating medium with various concentrations of PRL. The present study demonstrated that HPDLF and primary human PDL cells that were extracted for orthodontic purpose expressed both short and long isoforms of PRLR mRNA and its proteins. An incubation with of high concentration of PRL (600 and 1,000 ng/mL) modestly decreased the HPDLF number. In contrast, PRL at a non-reproductive level (10 ng/mL) and pregnant level (100 ng/mL) significantly upregulated the markers of osteogenesis, such as RUNX2, BMP2, and POSTN, but not SOX9. Mineral nodule formation was induced, whereas proteoglycan accumulation was reduced by PRL suggesting that HPDLF were undergoing differentiation into preosteoblastic cells. In conclusion, the presence of hPRLR in human PDL together with PRL-induced upregulation of osteogenic markers strongly suggested a direct regulatory role of PRL in PDL and periodontal tissue development.

  20. Anabolic Properties of High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vitro

    Michael Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1 is mainly recognized as a chemoattractant for macrophages in the initial phase of host response to pathogenic stimuli. However, recent findings provide evidence for anabolic properties in terms of enhanced proliferation, migration, and support of wound healing capacity of mesenchymal cells suggesting a dual role of the cytokine in the regulation of immune response and subsequent regenerative processes. Here, we examined potential anabolic effects of HMGB1 on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in the regulation of periodontal remodelling, for example, during orthodontic tooth movement. Preconfluent human PDL cells (hPDL were exposed to HMGB1 protein and the influence on proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and biomineralization was determined by MTS assay, real time PCR, immunofluorescence cytochemistry, ELISA, and von Kossa staining. HMGB1 protein increased hPDL cell proliferation, migration, osteoblastic marker gene expression, and protein production as well as mineralized nodule formation significantly. The present findings support the dual character of HMGB1 with anabolic therapeutic potential that might support the reestablishment of the structural and functional integrity of the periodontium following periodontal trauma such as orthodontic tooth movement.

  1. Research progress on periodontal ligament stem cells%牙周膜干细胞的研究进展

    董正谋

    2012-01-01

    牙周组织工程是牙周病治疗研究的热点,牙周膜干细胞是其关键种子细胞之一.本文就牙周组织工程的相关研究和牙周膜干细胞的来源、分离与培养、细胞表型、生物学特性、功能影响因素和分子调控进行综述,并对其面临的挑战和前景作一讨论.%The periodontal tissue engineering has been a striking research on the treatment of periodontal disease, and the periodontal ligament stem cell is one of the key seed cells on the periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, a related research on periodontal tissue engineering, and the source, isolated and cultured, cell pheno-type, biological characteristics, influential factor of function, molecular regulation on the periodontal ligament stem cells would be reviewed, meanwhile the challenges and prospects on it would be discussed.

  2. Periodontal ligament stem cell niche and periodontal tissue regeneration%牙周膜干细胞巢与牙周组织再生

    孙静

    2011-01-01

    牙周膜干细胞巢是牙周膜干细胞周围的微环境,由干细胞周围的支持细胞、黏附分子和基质组成,其在牙周组织的发育、牙周病的发生与发展以及牙周组织再生等方面具有重要的作用。本文将从影响巢结构稳定的因素及其在牙周组织再生中的作用等方面作一综述。%Periodontal ligament stem cell niche is the micro-environment surrounding of the periodontal stem cells, containing the supporting cells of stem cells, adhesion molecules and matrix composition. It is maybe more reasonable to make the periodontal stem cells and their niche to be a whole functional subject during physiologic and pathologic processes. We will review the factors that related to periodontal ligament stem cell niche especially in the process of periodontal tissue regeneration.

  3. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene to human dental pulp stem cells under good manufacturing practice improves their potential for periodontal regeneration in swine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Periodontitis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in humans. We previously promoted significant periodontal tissue regeneration in swine models with the transplantation of autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and PDLSC sheet. We also promoted periodontal tissue regeneration in a rat model with a local injection of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the roles of the hepatocyte growth factor...

  4. Evaluation of fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-ß expression by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to root end filling materials

    Razmi H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several materials have been introduced for retrograde fillings, pulp capping and sealing root perforations, but their biological effect on vital tissues and cells is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to four root canal filling materials: Pro Root MTA, Root MTA, Portland cement and amalgam. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, impacted or semi impacted third molar teeth were extracted in aseptic conditions and tissues around the roots were used to obtain fibroblast cell line. After proliferation, cells were cultured in chamber slides and extracts of materials were added to wells. Fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-  expression were measured by immunocytochemistry method. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 using one way ANOVA and Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Collagen I expression was higher in Pro Root MTA group after 24 hours (p<0.05 and in Portland cement group and positive controls after 48  hours. Portland cement group showed the highest expression of collagen after 1 week. There was no significant difference in fibronectin expression after 24 hours. After 1 week the highest expression of fibronectin was seen in Portland cement, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups. TGF-  expression was higher in amalgam, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA specimens after 24 hours and was the highest in Pro Root MTA group after 48 hours. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Portland cement and Root MTA are comparable with Pro Root MTA and better than amalgam regarding their effects on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

  5. Effect of chlorophyllin on normothermic storage of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Chung, Won-Gyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Seung-Jong; Lee, Seung-Ae; Kim, Jin

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chlorophyllin could serve as an effective constituent of a storage medium to enhance the human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Freshly isolated PDL cells from premolars extracted from healthy people were stored at 37 degrees C for 6 h in various solutions: F-medium and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with chlorophyllin. From MTT viability assays, the highest cell viability was found in the PDL cells stored in HBSS supplemented with 500 nM chlorophyllin, and the chlorophyllin-treated cells showed a dose-dependent response to concentration. Additionally, the results from flow cytometry showed that 77 to 80% of the PDL cells were in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle, which suggested that most were in a stable stage. These result showed that HBSS, supplemented with chlorophyllin, may be a useful solution for preserving the viability of PDL cells.

  6. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of, and models for, the periodontal ligament: critical review of current literature.

    Fill, Ted S; Carey, Jason P; Toogood, Roger W; Major, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This review is intended to highlight and discuss discrepancies in the literature of the periodontal ligament's (PDL) mechanical properties and the various experimental approaches used to measure them. Methods. Searches were performed on biomechanical and orthodontic publications (in databases: Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). Results. The review revealed that significant variations exist, some on the order of six orders of magnitude, in the PDL's elastic constants and mechanical properties. Possible explanations may be attributable to different experimental approaches and assumptions. Conclusions. The discrepancies highlight the need for further research into PDL properties under various clinical and experimental loading conditions. Better understanding of the PDL's biomechanical behavior under physiologic and traumatic loading conditions might enhance the understanding of the PDL's biologic reaction in health and disease. Providing a greater insight into the response of the PDL would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable, and therefore more efficacious, orthodontic appliances.

  7. Cell Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Cells on Commercially Pure Titanium at the Early Stage

    周彬; 曹颖光; 吴丽娟; 袁艳祥; 曾引萍

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to study the character of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) attaching on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) by morphology and metrology on the early stage (24 h), 1×105/ml PDLCs in 2 ml culture medium were seeded on cpTi discs fixed in 24-well culture plates. Morphology of cell attachment was observed by contrast phase microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluroscence microscopy. Cell adhesion was analyzed by MTT at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h respectively. PDLCs could attach and spread on cpTi discs. SEM showed that PDLCs had pseudopod-like protuberance. PDLCs showed different attaching phases and reached saturation in cell number at 2 h. It was concluded that PDLCs had good biocompatibility with cpTi, and showed a regular and dynamic pattern in the process of attaching to cpTi.

  8. The biomechanical role of periodontal ligament in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth under cyclic biting forces

    Ya-Nan Zhu; Wei-Dong Yang; Paul V Abbott; Nicolas Martin; Wen-Jia Wei; Jing-Jing Li; Zhi Chen; Wen-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    After teeth are replanted, there are two possible healing responses:periodontal ligament healing or ankylosis with subsequent replacement resorption. The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of vertically fractured teeth after bonding the fragments under conditions simulating both healing modes. Thirty-two human premolars were vertically fractured and the fragments were bonded together with Super-Bond C&B. They were then randomly distributed into four groups (BP, CP, CA, BA). The BP and CP groups were used to investigate the periodontal ligament healing mode whilst the BA and CA groups simulated ankylosis. All teeth had root canal treatment performed. Metal crowns were constructed for the CP and CA groups. The BP and BA groups only had composite resin restorations in the access cavities. All specimens were subjected to a 260 N load at 4 Hz until failure of the bond or until 23106 cycles had been reached if no fracture occurred. Cracks were detected by stereomicroscope imaging and also assessed via dye penetration tests. Finally, interfaces of the resin luting agent were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results confirmed that the fatigue resistance was higher in the groups with simulated periodontal ligament healing. Periodontal reattachment showed important biomechanical role in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth.

  9. Combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic mechanical strain in inhibiting osteogenicity in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Sun, Chaofan; Chen, Lijiao; Shi, Xinlian; Cao, Zhensheng; Hu, Bibo; Yu, Wenbin; Ren, Manman; Hu, Rongdang; Deng, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in bone formation and resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The mechanism has not been fully studied, and the process becomes complex with increased amounts of periodontal patients seeking orthodontic care. Our aims were to elucidate the combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic strain (ICS) on the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells. Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were exposed to proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β 5 ng/mL and tumor necrosis factor-α 10 ng/mL) for 1 and 5 days, and ICS (0.5 Hz, 12% elongation) was applied for 4 h per day. The autocrine of inflammatory cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of osteoblast markers runt-related transcription factor 2 and rabbit collagen type I was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The osteogenic capacity was also detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, and alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that ICS impaired the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells when incubated with proinflammatory cytokines, as evidenced by the low expression of ALP staining, low ALP activity, reduced alizarin red staining, and reduced osteoblast markers. These data, for the first time, suggest that ICS has a negative effect on the inductive inhibition of osteogenicity in human PDL cells mediated by proinflammatory cytokines.

  10. In vitro viability of human periodontal ligament cells in green tea extract

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Abedian, Zeynab; Amir, Mahdi Pour; Feizi, Farideh; Gharekhani, Samane

    2015-01-01

    Context: Delayed replantation of avulsed teeth may be successful if the majority of periodontal ligament cells (PDL) survive. A proper transport medium is required when immediate replantation is not possible. Green tea extract (GTE) may be effective in preserving the cells because of its special properties. Aims: This study was done to evaluate the potential of GTE in periodontal ligament cells preservation. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four extracted human teeth with closed apices were randomly divided into three groups each with 18 teeth as follow: GTE, water (negative control), and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) (positive control). The specimens were immersed in the media for 1, 3, and 15 hours at 4°C (n = 6) and treated with collagenase 1A for 45 minutes. Cell viability was determined using the trypan blue exclusion technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc Tukey and paired t-test at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Means (standard deviation, SD) of viable cells in HBSS, water, and GTE were estimated 348.33 ± 88.49, 101 ± 14.18, and 310.56 ± 56.97 at 1 hours; 273.4 ± 44.80, 64.16 ± 16.44, and 310.2 ± 11.21 at 3 hours; and 373.72 ± 67.81, 14.41 ± 2.88 and 315.24 ± 34.48 at 15 hours; respectively. No significant differences were found between HBSS and GTE at all the time intervals. Both these solutions could preserve the cells more than water significantly. Conclusion: GTE and HBSS were equally effective in preserving the cells and were significantly superior to water. PMID:25657527

  11. Effect of Calcitriol on Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells to Osteoblasts

    Soheilifar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Periodontium may be able to respond to injuries by regeneration via the function of stem cells. Objectives This study sought to assess the differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs into osteoblasts in standard osteogenic medium and in a medium supplemented with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, PDLSCs were isolated under sterile conditions by scraping the periodontal ligament tissues attached to the middle third of the root surface of extracted teeth, which were obtained from patients who were candidates for orthodontics therapy in the dental faculty at Hamadan University. The collected cells were cultured on four culture plates for 24 hours. Group 1 contained a basic medium (α-MEM, containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, 5 mM β-glycerophosphate, and 50 μg/mL l-ascorbic acid, supplemented with 10 - 8 M dexamethasone. Group 2 contained a basic medium supplemented with vitamin D3. Group 3 contained a basic medium supplemented with vitamin D3 and dexamethasone, Group4 contained negative control cultures. Alizarin red staining (ARS, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and calcium content (CC tests were performed to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of third passage cells in the developing adherent layer. Results Quantitative analysis of ARS demonstrated that mineralized nodule formation was highest in the group supplemented with calcitriol and dexamethasone (P < 0.001. Results of the ALP test on day 28 demonstrated the highest ALP activity in the group supplemented with calcitriol (P < 0.001. The amount of CC was lowest in the control group at all-time points, and was highest in the group supplemented with both calcitriol and dexamethasone on day 28 (P < 0.001. Conclusions The combination of calcitriol with dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and beta-glycerophosphate (that is, the osteogenic medium may be beneficial for differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts.

  12. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement. PMID:26523145

  13. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with nanoscale hydroxyapatite induce osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    Wu XN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiaonan Wu,1 Leiying Miao,2,# Yingfang Yao,3 Wenlei Wu,1 Yu Liu,1 Xiaofeng Chen,1 Weibin Sun1,# 1Department of Periodontology, Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Eco-materials and Renewable Energy Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China #These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Periodontal repair is a complex process in which regeneration of alveolar bone is a vital component. The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability. Two types of composite fibrous scaffolds were produced by electrospinning, ie, type I collagen/poly(є-caprolactone (COL/PCL and type I collagen/poly(є-caprolactone/nanoscale hydroxyapatite (COL/PCL/nHA with an average fiber diameter of about 377 nm. After a simulated body fluid (SBF immersion test, the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold developed a rough surface because of the calcium phosphate deposited on the fibers, suggesting that the presence of nHA promoted the mineralization potential of the scaffold. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly showed the calcium and phosphorus content in the COL/PCL/nHA and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffolds, confirming the findings of nHA and calcium phosphate precipitation on scanning electron micrographs. Water contact analysis revealed that nHA could improve the hydrophilic nature of the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold. The morphology of periodontal ligament cells cultured on COL/PCL-SBF and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cells adhered to either type of scaffold and were slightly spindle-shaped in the beginning, then

  14. Periodontal regeneration in swine after cell injection and cell sheet transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells following good manufacturing practice

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans, results in the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of cell injection and cell sheet transplantation on periodontal regeneration in a swine model. Methods In the present study, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were transplanted into a swine model for periodontal regeneration. Twelve miniature pigs were used to generate periodontitis with bone d...

  15. Asiaticoside induces type I collagen synthesis and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Jitjaturunt, Peachaya; Manopattanasoontorn, Sukuman; Pavasant, Prasit

    2013-03-01

    Asiaticoside, an active ingredient extracted from Centella asiatica, has been widely used to promote wound healing. In this study, the effects of asiaticoside on proliferation, protein synthesis, and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLs) were investigated. HPDLs were treated with asiaticoside at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL. Cell number was determined by MTT assay. The mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to confirm protein synthesis. Osteogenic differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase activity, osteoblast marker gene expression, and in vitro mineralization. The results showed that asiaticoside treatment, ranging from 25 to 100 mg/mL, had no effect on cytotoxicity or cell proliferation. When HPDLs were treated with asiaticoside in serum-free medium, dose-dependent increases in the levels of fibronectin and collagen type I mRNA and protein were observed at 72 h. Moreover, asiaticoside attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-1 but enhanced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression. The addition of asiaticoside to osteogenic medium resulted in an increase in alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, up-regulation of osteoblast marker gene mRNA expression, and enhancement of mineralization by HPDLs. These results suggest the potential application of asiaticoside for enhancing periodontal tissue healing.

  16. Cytocompatibility of chitosan -based thermosensitive hydrogel to human periodontal ligament cell

    PAN Jian-feng; Ji Qiu-xia; Lv Bing-hua; Li Chang-chun; Wu Hong; Li Dan-dan; Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ef ect of thermosensitive chitosan /β-glycerophosphate (CS /β-GP)hydrogel on proliferation of human periodontal ligament cel s (HPDLCs). Methods:CS /β-GP were prepared into a thermosensitive hydrogel and its three -dimensional structure was observed under electron microscope.HPDLCs harvested and cultured in vitro were co -cultured with the thermosensitive CS /β-GP hydrogel.Growth of the cel s in the hydrogel was observed with HE staining,and the ef ect of the extract on proliferation of HPDLCs was exam-ined by CCK -8 assay.Results:Observations of SEMand HE staining showed that the thermosensitive CS /β-GP hydrogel was large in pore size and appropriate for cel growth.Dif erent levels of CS /α,β-GP extracts could promote proliferation of HPDLCs.Conclusion:Thermosensitive CS /β-GP hydrogel can promote proliferation of HPDLCs and be a good carrier for periodontal tis-sue engineering because of its thermosensitivity.

  17. Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Forces on Gene Transcription in Periodontal Ligament Cells in Vitro

    Seyed Nasser Ostad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological mechanisms of tooth movement are based on the response of periodontal tissues to mechanical forces. The final result of these responses is remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Tissue reactions may vary depending upon the type, magnitude and duration of the applied forces. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of centrifugal force on the transcription of collagen type-I (Col-I, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- 1 (TIMP-1 genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts obtained from the PDL were cultured and subjected to centrifugal forces (36.3 g/cm2 for 30, 60 and 90 min continuously. This was also carried out interruptedly, three times for 30 min and six times for 15 min. The mRNAs encoding for Col-I, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 were quantified using RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of Col-I and MMP-1 were increased when continuous force was applied for 30 min and 60 min respectively. The interrupted force had almost no effect on Col-I, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 genes. These results indicate that continuous forces may have a greater effect in inducing gene expression during the remodeling process of PDL compared to interrupted forces with short rest periods.

  18. Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells

    Kado, T.; Hidaka, T. [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Aita, H. [Division of Occlusion and Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Endo, K. [Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Furuichi, Y., E-mail: furuichi@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully

  19. IL-4 Modulates CCL11 and CCL20 Productions from IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Yoshitaka Hosokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: IL-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related with the pathological conditions of periodontal disease. However, it is uncertain whether IL-4 could control T cells migration in periodontal lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-4 on CCL11, which is a Th2-type chemokine, and CCL20, which is related with Th17 cells migration, productions from human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs. Methods: CCL20 and CCL11 productions from HPDLCs were monitored by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to detect phosphorylations of signal transduction molecules in HPDLCs. Results: IL-1β could induce both CCL11 and CCL20 productions in HPDLCs. IL-4 enhanced CCL11 productions from IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs, though IL-4 inhibited CCL20 production. Western blot analysis showed that protein kinase B (Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6 pathways were highly activated in IL-4/IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs. Akt and STAT6 inhibitors decreased CCL11 production, but enhanced CCL20 production in HPDLCs stimulated with IL-4 and IL-1β. Conclusions: These results mean that IL-4 enhanced Th2 cells migration in periodontal lesion to induce CCL11 production from HPDLCs. On the other hand, IL-4 inhibits Th17 cells accumulation in periodontally diseased tissues to inhibit CCL20 production. Therefore, IL-4 is positively related with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to control chemokine productions in periodontal lesions.

  20. Migration of periodontal ligament fibroblasts on nanometric topographical patterns: influence of filopodia and focal adhesions on contact guidance.

    Douglas W Hamilton

    Full Text Available Considered to be the "holy grail" of dentistry, regeneration of the periodontal ligament in humans remains a major clinical problem. Removal of bacterial biofilms is commonly achieved using EDTA gels or lasers. One side effect of these treatment regimens is the etching of nanotopographies on the surface of the tooth. However, the response of periodontal ligament fibroblasts to such features has received very little attention. Using laser interference lithography, we fabricated precisely defined topographies with continuous or discontinuous nanogrooves to assess the adhesion, spreading and migration of PDL fibroblasts. PDL fibroblasts adhered to and spread on all tested surfaces, with initial spreading and focal adhesion formation slower on discontinuous nanogrooves. Cells had a significantly smaller planar area on both continuous and discontinuous nanogrooves in comparison with cells on non-patterned controls. At 24 h post seeding, cells on both types of nanogrooves were highly elongated parallel to the groove long axis. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that PDL fibroblast movement was guided on both types of grooves, but migration velocity was not significantly different from cells cultured on non-patterned controls. Analysis of filopodia formation using time-lapse video microscopy and labeling of vinculin and F-actin revealed that on nanogrooves, filopodia were highly aligned at both ends of the cell, but with increasing time filopodia and membrane protrusions developed at the side of the cell perpendicular to the cell long axis. We conclude that periodontal ligament fibroblasts are sensitive to nanotopographical depths of 85-100 µm, which could be utilized in regeneration of the periodontal ligament.

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity of white MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Yoshino, Patrícia; Nishiyama, Celso Kenji; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sipert, Carla Renata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5x3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

  2. Trophic factors from adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells promote cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells

    Sawada, Keigo [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Takedachi, Masahide, E-mail: takedati@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Satomi; Morimoto, Chiaki; Ozasa, Masao; Iwayama, Tomoaki [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Lee, Chun Man [Medical Center for Translational Research, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Okura, Hanayuki; Matsuyama, Akifumi [Research on Disease Bioresources, Platform of Therapeutics for Rare Disease, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Stem and progenitor cells are currently being investigated for their applicability in cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration. We recently demonstrated that the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in beagle dogs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transplanted ADMPCs induce periodontal tissue regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, trophic factors released by ADMPCs were examined for their paracrine effects on human periodontal ligament cell (HPDL) function. ADMPC conditioned medium (ADMPC-CM) up-regulated osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcified nodule formation in HPDLs, but did not significantly affect their proliferative response. ADMPCs secreted a number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Among these, IGFBP6 was most highly expressed. Interestingly, the positive effects of ADMPC-CM on HPDL differentiation were significantly suppressed by transfecting ADMPCs with IGFBP6 siRNA. Our results suggest that ADMPCs transplanted into a defect in periodontal tissue release trophic factors that can stimulate the differentiation of HPDLs to mineralized tissue-forming cells, such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. IGFBP6 may play crucial roles in ADMPC-induced periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • ADMPC-derived humoral factors stimulate cytodifferentiation of HPDLs. • ADMPCs secret growth factors including IGFBP6, VEGF and HGF. • IGFBP6 is involved in the promotion effect of ADMPC-CM on HPDL cytodifferentiation.

  3. The potential of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells to osteogenic differentiation: An In vitro investigation

    Behzad Houshmand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs are considered as a type of mesenchymal stem cell that is beneficial target for numerous clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration therapy. Materials and Methods: This study examined the effects of dexamethasone (Dex on human PDLSCs in vitro. PDLSCs obtained from the roots of patient’s teeth were cultured with Dex (0.01 μM, and their proliferation was measured. The osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and Alizarin Red-S staining for calcium deposition. Results: After the administration of 0.01 μM Dex, the activity of ALP increased significantly. Furthermore, mineralized nodule formation showing the intracellular calcium deposition was significantly higher in the Dex-treated cells than that of the control cells. Conclusion: Collectively, Dex has positive effects on osteogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs in vitro. It is suggested that PDLSCs may serve as a potential material for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  4. Immunolocalization of lubricin in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Loreto, Carla; Talic, Nabeel; Caltabiano, Rosario; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Lubricin is a protein which contributes to the boundary lubrication, facilitating low friction levels at the interfacing surfaces of joints. In tendons and ligaments it facilitates the relative movement of collagen bundles. Its expression is affected by mechanical signals and cytokines. During application of orthodontic forces to teeth, there is a transduction of mechanical forces to the cells of the periodontal ligament (PDL), which triggers several biological reactions causing the synthesis of prostaglandins, cytokines and growth factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunolocalization of lubricin and to evaluate if it is time-dependently and differentially detected within the PDL following the application of orthodontic forces to create areas of compression and tension. This was achieved by placing elastic bands between the maxillary first and second molars of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats (each weighing 120-200g) for 12 and 24h. The molar-bearing segments were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Binding of a monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate lubricin localization using an indirect streptavidin/biotin immunperoxidase technique. Lubricin, was constitutively expressed in the PDL of rat molars. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, lubricin was down-regulated, on both sides (compression and tension) of the PDL, in a time-dependent fashion, although to a different extent, being at any time more expressed on the tension side. Furthermore, in every sample, almost all PDL cells in the adjacent tooth cementum and alveolar bone, were more heavily immunolabeled by lubricin antibody, contrary to those located in the central portion of the PDL. Lubricin expression therefore seems related to PDL remodeling and tooth displacement following the application of an orthodontic force, and it appears that lubricin may play an important role during tooth movement.

  5. In vitro clonogenic capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts cultured with Emdogain.

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Shaked, Ilanit

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of Emdogain (EMD) in preserving the size of the periodontal ligament progenitor pool (clonogenic capacity) and in promoting their proliferation. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) were obtained from explants of young permanent healthy tooth. After initial outgrowth (10 days to 2 weeks following explantation), the culture medium of experimental flasks was replaced with medium supplemented with 100 microg ml(-1) EMD, whereas the other served as controls and were fed with regular medium. Following 5 weeks, the cells were washed (3x), harvested (trypsin + EDTA), and evaluated for their viability. Viable cells from each group were inoculated into six 96-well plates at a concentration of one viable cell per two wells and were allowed to grow for 5 weeks. The percentage of cells with clonogenic capacity was determined as the number of colonies formed/number of cells seeded x 100 in the experimental and control groups. Three degrees of dish area coverage were utilized: up to 25%, between 25% and 75% and higher than 75%. This experiment was repeated four times from four different donors. A total of 2328 cells were evaluated, half of which, were cultured with EMD. The mean percentage of cells (from all donors) who exhibited any clonogenic capacity in the presence of EMD was comparable with that of cells cultured in the absence of EMD: 26.6 +/- 14.3% when compared with 34.6 +/- 20.6% respectively (P = 0.186). Similarly, the percentage of clones that proliferated to cover up to 25% of the well area was comparable in the two groups 7.5 +/- 8.6 for EMD-treated clones and 7.1 +/- 7.8 for untreated clones (P = 0.674). The percentage of clones that proliferated to cover 25% up to 75% of the well area was greater EMD-treated clones as compared with the untreated cells: 8.1 +/- 6.7% vs 3.8 +/- 3%. However this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.277). In contrast, the percentage of clones that covered

  6. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and β-TCP bioceramics

    L Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of akermanite as compared to β-TCP on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and actin filament labeling were used to reveal attachment and growth of hPDLCs seeded on β-TCP and akermanite ceramic. Cell proliferation was tested by lactic acid production and MTT analysis, while osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP expression and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis on markers of osteopontin (OPN, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP-1, and osteocalcin (OCN, and further detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA analysis for OCN expression. Besides, the ions released from akermanite and their effect on hPDLCs was also measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, MTT analysis, ALP expression and real-time PCR analysis. hPDLCs attached well on both ceramics, but showed better spreading on akermanite. hPDLCs proliferated more rapidly on akermanite than β-TCP. Importantly, osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was enhanced on akermanite compared to β-TCP. Besides, Ca, Mg and Si ions were released from akermanite, while only Ca ions were released from β-TCP. Moreover, more pronounced proliferation and higher osteogenic gene expression for hPDLCs cultured with akermanite extract were detected as compared to cells cultured on akermanite. Therefore, akermanite ceramic showed an enhanced effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which might be attributed to the release of ions containing Ca, Mg and Si from the material. It is suggested that akermanite ceramics may serve as a potential material for periodontal bone regeneration.

  7. Attachment, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells on various guided tissue regeneration membranes.

    Takata, T; Wang, H L; Miyauchi, M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane materials, per se, on the periodontal tissue regeneration. Rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived cells were used to study the attachment, proliferation and differentiation, in vitro, on various GTR membranes. Five commercially available membranes bovine type I collagen (BioMend; BM), bovine type I atelocollagen (Tissue Guide; TG), polylactic acid (Epi-Guide; EG), co-polymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid (Resolute; RL) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene: e-PTFE (Gore Tex; GT)-were examined. A 3 x 3 mm section of the membrane was fixed to the bottom of a 35 x 10 mm style culture dish and plated with 2 ml of cell suspension at an initial density of 5 x 10(4) cells/ml in culture medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. For cell growth analysis, the specimens were fixed with 10% buffered formalin and stained with hematoxylin at 1.5 hours and 1, 3 and 5 days after cell seeding. The number of cells included in a unit area of 0.25 mm2 were counted under light microscopy. As a comparative scaffold of cell proliferation, a plastic cover for cell culture slip (Celldesk; CD) was used. For analysis of cell differentiation, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcification were histochemically revealed after 2-week cultivation. The initial number of PDL cells attached to the membrane at 1.5 hours after cell seeding was different among membranes. RL, TG and EG had the same level of attached cell numbers as that on CD, while the cell numbers on GT and BM were significantly lower than that on CD (p membranes examined. RL and BM demonstrated a significantly higher number of cells at 5 days than at 1.5 hours (p 0.1). EG had a similar number of cell attachments to that at 1.5 hours throughout the experimental period. There was almost no cell proliferation on GT. Cell clusters of ALP positive cells and foci of calcification were seen on all membranes except for

  8. [Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on human periodontal ligament in vitro. Alterations of intracellular Ca2+].

    Satake, T; Yasu, N; Kakai, Y; Kawamura, T; Sato, T; Nakano, T; Amino, S; Ishiwata, Y; Saito, S

    1990-03-01

    The concept of orthodontic tooth movement is based on the hypothesis that teeth move as a result of the biological response of periodontal tissues to the mechanical forces applied. There is a widely held hypothesis that mechanical stress generates an electrical signal which sets in motion the subsequent events, as in bone exposed to mechanical forces electrical currents are produced affect bone growth and remodeling. This implies a transduction mechanism which translates the electrical signal into a biochemical message, recognizable by the cellular machine. This study is aimed at the identification of the message and the investigation of its control. In fact, the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) on the intracellular second messenger, cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts (HPLF) was investigated. The resting intracellular ionized calcium concentration ([Ca+2]i) of HPLF cells was 232.7 +/- 25.0 nM, and with PEMF [Ca2+]i increased from 12 hrs to 499.0 +/- 115.5 nM up to 12 hrs, then reached to a steady level through 24 hrs. The PEMF were also found to decrease the responses towards epidermal growth factor (EGF) and serum, when the degree of response was based on the intracellular Ca2+ transient. These effects of PEMF were mimicked by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C. Some reports have suggested that fibroblasts of the periodontal ligament contain high alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity as much as osteoblast. Since similar results concerning the [Ca2+]i were obtained in osteoblast (OB)-like cells, this experiment also supports the hypothesis that fibroblasts of periodontal ligament have osteoblastic features.

  9. microRNA-21 mediates stretch-induced osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Wei, Fulan; Liu, Dongxu; Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Shuangyan; Hu, Yijun; Ding, Gang; Wang, Songlin

    2015-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short 20- to 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. The expression of specific miRNAs and their roles in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exposed to mechanical stretch remain unclear. Here, we found that stretch induced both osteogenic differentiation and the differential expression of miR-21 in PDLSCs. Furthermore, we identified activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) as a target gene of miR-21. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-21 interacts directly with the 3'-untranslated repeat sequence of ACVR2B mRNA. Mechanical stretch suppressed ACVR2B protein levels in PDLSCs, and this suppressive effect was modulated when endogenous miR-21 levels were either enhanced or inhibited. Both stretch and the expression of miR-21 altered endogenous ACVR2B protein levels and thus the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. In addition, gain- and loss of function of ACVR2B mediated the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. This study demonstrates that miR-21 is a mechanosensitive gene that plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs exposed to stretch.

  10. Effect of Four Different Media on Periodontal Ligament Cells Viability of Dry- Stored Dog Teeth

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Asheghi, Bahar; Sahebi, Safoura

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The maintenance of viable periodontal ligament cells is the most important issue in the long-term preservation of avulsed teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess aloe vera as a new storage media in maintaining the cell viability of dry-stored teeth in comparison with soy milk, Hank`s balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk. Materials and Method: Twenty one extracted dog premolar teeth were dried for 30 minutes and stored in soy milk, HBSS, milk, and aloe vera extract (50%) for 45 minutes (n=6 for each). Furthermore, positive and two negative control groups (n=6), corresponding to 0 min, 30 min, and 2-hour drying times were also prepared respectively. The number of viable cells was counted following storage using Trypan blue exclusion. Data were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-HSD test. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in cell viability among aloe vera, soymilk, and HBSS- stored teeth; however, they were all superior to milk. Conclusion: Aloe vera extract can be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:28280756

  11. Investigation of the Cell Surface Proteome of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Jimin Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the cell surface proteome of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC compared to human fibroblasts. Cell surface proteins were prelabelled with CyDye before processing to extract the membrane lysates, which were separated using 2D electrophoresis. Selected differentially expressed protein “spots” were identified using Mass spectrometry. Four proteins were selected for validation: CD73, CD90, Annexin A2, and sphingosine kinase 1 previously associated with mesenchymal stem cells. Flow cytometric analysis found that CD73 and CD90 were highly expressed by human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts but not by keratinocytes, indicating that these antigens could be used as potential markers for distinguishing between mesenchymal cells and epithelial cell populations. Annexin A2 was also found to be expressed at low copy number on the cell surface of human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts, while human keratinocytes lacked any cell surface expression of Annexin A2. In contrast, sphingosine kinase 1 expression was detected in all the cell types examined using immunocytochemical analysis. These proteomic studies form the foundation to further define the cell surface protein expression profile of PDLSC in order to better characterise this cell population and help develop novel strategies for the purification of this stem cell population.

  12. Experiment and hydro-mechanical coupling simulation study on the human periodontal ligament.

    Wei, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaoliu; Xu, Xiangrong; Chen, Xinyuan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a new method involving an experiment in vivo and hydro-mechanical coupling simulations was proposed to investigate the biomechanical property of human periodontal ligament (PDL). Teeth were loaded and their displacements were measured in vivo. The finite element model of the experiment was built and hydro-mechanical coupling simulations were conducted to test some PDL's constitutive models. In the simulations, the linear elastic model, the hyperfoam model, and the Ogden model were assumed for the solid phase of the PDL coupled with a model of the fluid phase of the PDL. The displacements of the teeth derived from the simulations were compared with the experimental data to validate these constitutive models. The study shows that a proposed constitutive model of the PDL can be reliably tested by this method. Furthermore, the influence of species, areas, and the fluid volume ratio on PDL's mechanical property should be considered in the modeling and simulation of the mechanical property of the PDL.

  13. Cryopreservation of periodontal ligament cells with magnetic field for tooth banking.

    Kaku, M; Kamada, H; Kawata, T; Koseki, H; Abedini, S; Kojima, S; Motokawa, M; Fujita, T; Ohtani, J; Tsuka, N; Matsuda, Y; Sunagawa, H; Hernandes, R A M; Ohwada, N; Tanne, K

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a long-term tooth cryopreservation method that can be used for tooth autotransplantation. Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were frozen in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) using a programmed freezer with a magnetic field. Cells were cryopreserved for 7 days at -150 degrees C. Immediately after thawing, the number of surviving cells was counted and the cells were cultured; cultured cells were examined after 48 h. Results indicated that a 0.01 mT of a magnetic field, a 15-min hold-time, and a plunging temperature of -30 degrees C led to the greatest survival rate of PDL cells. Based on these findings, whole teeth were cryopreserved under the same conditions for 1 year. The organ culture revealed that the PDL cells of cryopreserved tooth with a magnetic field could proliferate as much as a fresh tooth, although the cells did not appear in the cryopreserved tooth without a magnetic field. Histological examination and the transmission electron microscopic image of cryopreserved tooth with a magnetic field did not show any destruction of cryopreserved cells. In contrast, severe cell damage was seen in cells frozen without a magnetic field. These results indicated that a magnetic field programmed freezer is available for tooth cryopreservation.

  14. The secretome of periodontal ligament stem cells from MS patients protects against EAE.

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Diomede, Francesca; Ballerini, Patrizia; Paolantonio, Michele; Marchisio, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-12-07

    Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. We show that hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and induce anti-inflammatory IL-10. In addition, apoptosis related STAT1, p53, Caspase 3, and Bax expressions were attenuated. Our findings unravel the immunosuppressive effects of hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs in EAE mice, and suggest simple alternative autologous source for patient-customized cell-free targeting treatment in MS patients.

  15. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

    Jónsdóttir, S H; Giesen, E B W; Maltha, J C

    2012-10-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five young adult male beagle dogs were used to test the null hypothesis that the mechanical behaviour of the PDL is identical in normal and hyalinized PDL. Therefore, tooth transposition was measured after standardized force application by super-elastic nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs, exerting a constant force of 100 cN for 5 hours in both conditions. A rapid transposition during the first few seconds was found. However, it was significantly less for hyalinized than for non-hyalinized PDL. Subsequently, a short-lived creep movement was found for hyalinized PDL, while creep persisted at the non-hyalinized sides (analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons post hoc tests). The results showed substantial biomechanical differences between hyalinized and non-hyalinized PDL at different time points (Mann-Whitney). This indicates that FE models in the study of long-term orthodontic tooth movement, which are based solely on the characteristics of normal PDL should be reconsidered.

  16. Static compression regulates OPG expression in periodontal ligament cells via the CAMK II pathway

    YI Jianru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential role of CAMK II pathway in the compression-regulated OPG expression in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs. Material and Methods The PDL tissue model was developed by 3-D culturing human PDLCs in a thin sheet of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds, which was subjected to static compression of 25 g/cm2 for 3, 6 and 12 h, with or without treatment of KN-93. After that, the expression of OPG, RANKL and NFATC2 was investigated through real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Results After static compression, the NFATC2 and RANKL expression was significantly up-regulated, while partially suppressed by KN-93 for 6 and 12 h respectively. The OPG expression was significantly down-regulated by compression in 3 h, started to elevate in 6 h, and significantly up-regulated in 12 h. The up-regulation after 12 h was significantly suppressed by KN-93. Conclusions Long-term static compression increases OPG expression in PDLCs, at least partially, via the CAMK II pathway.

  17. Effect of propolis on survival of periodontal ligament cells: new storage media for avulsed teeth.

    Ozan, Fatih; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Er, Kürsat; Ozan, Ulkü; Değer, Orhan

    2007-05-01

    Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Propolis possesses several biologic activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, and tissue regenerative, among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of propolis to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 10% propolis solution, 20% propolis solution, long-shelf life light milk with lower fat content (milk), Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, tap water as the negative control, and DMEM as the positive control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was 5% (ppropolis was a more effective storage medium than other groups. In conclusion, propolis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth.

  18. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  19. Inclusion of the periodontal ligament in studies on the biomechanical behavior of fiber post-retained restorations: An in vitro study and three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    González-Lluch, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Forner, Leopoldo; Barjau, Amaya

    2016-03-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Periodontal ligament may influence fracture resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of including the periodontal ligament in biomechanical studies about endodontically treated and restored teeth. Forty human maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and randomly divided into four groups: non-crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) and crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) with glass-ceramic crowns. All groups received prefabricated glass-fiber posts and a composite resin core. Specimens were tested, under a flexural-compressive load, until failure occurred. The failure mode was registered for all specimens. The failure loads were recorded and analyzed using an analysis of variance test (p teeth and in core in non-crowned groups. For non-crowned teeth, adhesive failure occurred along the cement-enamel junction with a slight tendency in specimens without periodontal ligament. Furthermore, an unfavorable failure mode affects partially the root with no differences regarding non-crown specimens. In crowned teeth, the tendency was an adhesive failure along the cement-enamel junction. The model predicted a distribution of the safety factor consistent with these results. This study showed that inclusion of periodontal ligament is not particularly important on biomechanical behavior of post-retained restorations. However, we recommend its inclusion in fatigue studies.

  20. Effects of cathepsin K on Emdogain-induced hard tissue formation by human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Liu, Fen; Zhou, Zhi-Fei; An, Ying; Yu, Yang; Wu, Rui-Xin; Yin, Yuan; Xue, Yang; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-07-12

    Recent studies have shown that patients with pycnodysostosis caused by cathepsin K (CTSK) genetic mutations exhibit significantly abnormal periodontal hard tissue structure. This finding suggests that CTSK may play a role in regulating the development of alveolar bone and cementum. However, the source of CTSK in the periodontal environment and the role of CTSK in periodontal regeneration, particularly hard tissue regeneration and development, remain unclear. After the isolation, cultivation, identification, and multi-lineage induction of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), the present study used light and scanning electron microscopy, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, micro-computed tomography, immunohistochemical assays and ectopic hard tissue formation experiments to examine CTSK expression in hPDLSCs. The results indicated that CTSK expression was significantly upregulated in hPDLSCs during Emdogain induction but underwent minimal change during osteogenic or adipogenic induction. The present study also showed that the downregulation of CTSK expression inhibited osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation and ectopic hard tissue formation of hPDLSCs. It is therefore concluded that hPDLSCs expressed CTSK and that CTSK levels were significantly upregulated during Emdogain induction. Furthermore, CTSK promoted not only the osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs but also their ability to form ectopic hard tissue. These new findings may enhance the understanding of periodontal hard tissue development and functional regeneration. However, the specific underlying mechanisms require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Human periodontal ligament cells facilitate leukocyte recruitment and are influenced in their immunomodulatory function by Th17 cytokine release.

    Konermann, A; Beyer, M; Deschner, J; Allam, J P; Novak, N; Winter, J; Jepsen, S; Jäger, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to examine the immunomodulatory impact of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on the nature and magnitude of the leukocyte infiltrate in periodontal inflammation, particularly with regard to Th17 cells. PDL cells were challenged with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-17A, and IFN-γ) and analyzed for the expression of cytokines involved in periodontal immunoinflammatory processes (IL-6, MIP-3 alpha, IL-23A, TGFß1, IDO, and CD274). In order to further investigate a direct involvement of PDL cells in leukocyte function, co-culture experiments were conducted. The expression of the immunomodulatory cytokines studied was significantly increased under pro-inflammatory conditions in PDL cells. Although PDL cells did not stimulate leukocyte proliferation or Th17 differentiation, these cells induced the recruitment of leukocytes. The results of our study suggest that PDL cells might be involved in chronic inflammatory mechanisms in periodontal tissues and thus in the transition to an adaptive immune response in periodontitis.

  2. Research progress on periodontal ligament stem cell%牙周膜干细胞的研究进展

    鲁少文(综述); 税艳青(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dental plaque biofilm. It is a disease of the periodontium characterized by irreversible loss of connective tissue attachment and supporting alveolae, which may result in tooth loss. The aim of therapy is to regenerate the destroyed connective tissue attachment and supporting alveolae. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from periodontal ligament are multipotent cells. These cells proliferate and differentiate into different types of tissues. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells are valuable for periodontal regeneration and periodontal tissue engineering. This review provides an overview of periodontal ligament stem cells and discusses recent studies and research prospects.%牙周病是一种由菌斑微生物引起的慢性感染性疾病,可引起牙周支持组织的破坏和丧失,最终导致牙齿松动脱落。牙周病治疗的最终目标是修复和重建受损的牙周支持组织。从牙周膜中分离获取的间充质干细胞具有成体干细胞的特性及多重分化潜能,可以分化为骨组织和牙周支持组织等多种类型的组织,这对牙周组织修复再生和牙周组织工程具有重大意义,因而备受关注。本文就牙周膜干细胞、牙周膜干细胞的生物学特性、牙周膜干细胞的影响因素及其调控机制等研究进展作一综述。

  3. Effect of treatment delay upon pulp and periodontal healing of traumatic dental injuries -- a review article.

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Skeie, A; Hjørting-Hansen, E; Schwartz, O

    2002-06-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature concerning parameters influencing the prognosis of traumatic dental injuries, few studies were found to have examined possible relationships between treatment delay and pulpal and periodontal ligament healing complications. It has been commonly accepted that all injuries should be treated on an emergency basis, for the comfort of the patient and also to reduce wound healing complications. For practical and especially economic reasons, various approaches can be selected to fulfill such a demand, such as acute treatment (i.e. within a few hours), subacute (i.e. within the first 24 h), and delayed (i.e. after the first 24 h). In this survey the consequences of treatment delay on pulpal and periodontal healing have been analyzed for the various dental trauma groups. Applying such a treatment approach to the various types of injuries, the following treatment guidelines can be recommended, based on our present rather limited knowledge of the effect of treatment delay upon wound healing. Crown and crown/root fractures: Subacute or delayed approach. Root fractures: Acute or subacute approach. Alveolar fractures: Acute approach (evidence however questionable). Concussion and subluxation: Subacute approach. Extrusion and lateral luxation: Acute or subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Intrusion: Subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Avulsion: If the tooth is not replanted at the time of injury, acute approach; otherwise subacute. Primary tooth injury: Subacute approach, unless the primary tooth is displaced into the follicle of the permanent tooth or occlusal problems are present; in the latter instances, an acute approach should be chosen. These treatment guidelines are based on very limited evidence from the literature and should be revised as soon as more evidence about the effect of treatment delay becomes available.

  4. Aetiology, classification and pathogenesis of pulp and periapical disease.

    López-Marcos, Joaquín F

    2004-01-01

    At present, the majority of the treatments that are performed in the clinic are due to disease entities involving the dental pulp and periapex. Dental pulp is a richly vascularized and innervated tissue, enclosed by surrounding tissues that are incapable of expanding, such as dentin. It has terminal blood flow and small-gauge circulatory access the periapex. All of these characteristics severely constrain the defensive capacity of the pulp tissue when faced with the different aggressions it may be subjected to. Pulp tissue can also be affected by a retrograde infection, arising from the secondary canaliculi, from the periodontal ligament or from the apex during the course of periodontitis. Due to the fact that periapical disease is almost inevitably preceded by pulp disease, we shall begin by describing the causes of pulp disease and will then proceed to a discussion of the causes of periapical disease. The course of illness and classification of these pathological entities will depend on the aetiology involved. We will analyse pulp necrosis and pulp degeneration that are capable of triggering reversible apical periodontitis or irreversible apical periodontitis.

  5. Thymosin Beta-4 Suppresses Osteoclastic Differentiation and Inflammatory Responses in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Sang-Im Lee

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a key regulator for wound healing and anti-inflammation. However, the role of Tβ4 in osteoclast differentiation remains unclear.The purpose of this study was to evaluate Tβ4 expression in H2O2-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, the effects of Tβ4 activation on inflammatory response in PDLCs and osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs, and identify the underlying mechanism.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and Western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs using conditioned medium (CM from H2O2-treated PDLCs.Tβ4 was down-regulated in H2O2-exposed PDLCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide attenuated the H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2 and up-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 as well as reversed the effect on RANKL and OPG in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the activation of ERK and JNK MAPK, and NF-κB in PDLCs. Furthermore, Tβ4 peptide inhibited osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In addition, H2O2 up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and Ror2 in PDLCs. Wnt5a inhibition by Wnt5a siRNA enhanced the effects of Tβ4 on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenic cytokines as well as helping osteoclastic differentiation whereas Wnt5a activation by Wnt5a peptide reversed it.In conclusion, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that Tβ4 was down-regulated in ROS-stimulated PDLCs as well as Tβ4 activation exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and anti-osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Thus, Tβ4 activation might be a

  6. Altered distribution of extracellular matrix proteins in the periodontal ligament of periostin-deficient mice.

    Tabata, Chihiro; Hongo, Hiromi; Sasaki, Muneteru; Hasegawa, Tomoka; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Suzuki, Reiko; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Li, Minqi; Kudo, Akira; Iida, Junichiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2014-06-01

    Verifying whether periostin affects the distribution of type I collagen, fibronectin and tenascin C in the periodontal ligament (PDL) is important to contribute to a more thorough understanding of that protein's functions. In this study, we have histologically examined incisor PDL of mandibles in 20 week-old male wild-type and periostin-deficient (periostin-/-) mice, by means of type I collagen, fibronectin, tenascin C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP)-1 and F4/80-positive monocyte/macrophage immunostaining, transmission electron microscopy and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation. Wild-type PDL featured well-arranged layers of collagen bundles intertwined with PDL cells, whose longitudinal axis ran parallel to the collagen fibers. However, cells in the periostin-/- PDL were irregularly distributed among collagen fibrils, which were also haphazardly arranged. Type I collagen and fibronectin reactivity was seen throughout the wild-type PDL, while in the periostin-/- PDL, only focal, uneven staining for these proteins could be seen. Similarly, tenascin C staining was evenly distributed in the wild-type PDL, but hardly seen in the periostin-/- PDL. MMP-1 immunoreactivity was uniformly distributed in the wild-type PDL, but only dotted staining could be discerned in the periostin-/- PDL. F4/80-positive monocyte/macrophages were found midway between tooth- and bone-related regions in the wild-type PDL, a pattern that could not be observed in the periostin-/- PDL. In summary, periostin deficiency may not only cause PDL collagen fibril disorganization, but could also affect the distribution of other major extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and tenascin C.

  7. Surface Chemistry of Nanoscale Mineralized Collagen Regulates Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Fate.

    Fu, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Cui, Sheng-Jie; Kou, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Mo; Sun, Yue; Wang, Gao-Nan; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Yan-Heng

    2016-06-29

    The interplay between stem cells and their extracellular microenvironment is of critical importance to the stem cell-based therapeutics in regenerative medicine. Mineralized collagen is the main component of bone extracellular matrix, but the effect of interfacial properties of mineralized collagen on subsequent cellular behaviors is unclear. This study examined the role of surface chemistry of nanoscale mineralized collagen on human periodontal ligament stem cell (hPDLSC) fate decisions. The intrafibrillarly mineralized collagen (IMC), fabricated by a biomimetic bottom-up approach, showed a bonelike hierarchy with nanohydroxyapatites (HAs) periodically embedded within fibrils. The infrared spectrum of the IMC showed the presence of phosphate, carbonate, amide I and II bands; and infrared mapping displayed uniform and higher spatial distribution of mineralization in the IMC. However, the distribution of the phosphate group differed far from that of the amide I group in the extrafibrillarly mineralized collagen (EMC), in which flowerlike HA clusters randomly depositing around the surface of the fibrils. Moreover, a large quantity of extrafibrillar HAs covered up the C═O stretch and N-H in-plane bend, resulting in substantial reduction of amide I and II bands. Cell experiments demonstrated that the hPDLSCs seeded on the IMC exhibited a highly branched, osteoblast-like polygonal shape with extended pseudopodia and thick stress fiber formation; while cells on the EMC displayed a spindle shape with less branch points and thin actin fibril formation. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of EMC was much lower than that of IMC. Interestingly, even without osteogenic induction, mRNA levels of major osteogenic differentiation genes were highly expressed in the IMC during cultivation time. These data suggest that the IMC with a similar nanotopography and surface chemistry to natural mineralized collagen directs hPDLSCs toward osteoblast differentiation, providing a promising

  8. Expression of thymosin beta-4 in human periodontal ligament cells and mouse periodontal tissue and its role in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation.

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Deok-Won; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Cha, Hee-Jae; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon; Cho, Eui-Sic; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    A recent report showed that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is expressed during the development of tooth germ, but its effect on osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation is a controversial topic. Furthermore, the precise expression and function of Tβ4 in periodontal tissue remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of Tβ4 in the developing periodontium of mouse, the function of Tβ4 in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation, and the underlying mechanism regulating periodontal regeneration in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs), cementoblasts, and osteoblasts. Tβ4 expression was observed in differentiating hPDLCs, osteoblasts of the periodontium during development, as well as in mature tissue. Higher Tβ4 expression was observed in hPDLCs than in cementoblasts and osteoblasts in the developing periodontium. The expression of Tβ4 mRNA and protein gradually increased during PDL cell differentiation. The downregulation of Tβ4 expression by Tβ4 siRNA transfection inhibited osteoblastic differentiation by decreasing calcium nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression of differentiation markers in hPDLCs, cementoblasts, and osteoblasts. In contrast, Tβ4 activation using a Tβ4 peptide, promoted these processes by activation of Akt, p38, ERK MAPKs, and the NF-κB pathway. The expression of nuclear NFATc1 was upregulated by Tβ4 peptide in hPDLCs. Inhibition of the calcineurin/NFATc1 pathway by cyclosporin A and FK506, attenuated Tβ4-induced osteoblastic differentiation and activation of Wnt-related genes, as well as nuclear β-catenin in hPDLCs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that Tβ4 is expressed in developing periodontal tissue and that its expression is associated with osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation. These results suggests that Tβ4 is a potential therapeutic target for periodontal regeneration or bone disease.

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  10. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  11. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Katsura Saeki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry.

  12. Acute changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local clearance of /sup 125/I from the periodontal ligament

    Edwall, B.; Berg, J.O.; Gazelius, B.; Edwall L.; Aars, H.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local /sup 125/I clearance from the periodontal ligament (PDL) were monitored simultaneously in cats. Axial tooth movements, reflecting periodontal ligament volume changes, were measured with an ultrasonic transit time technique. Local blood flow changes in the PDL were studied indirectly by measuring the local clearance of /sup 125/I. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk caused an intrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant reduction of the /sup 125/I-clearance. Infusion of noradrenaline induced a similar respone. Stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve during systemic treatment with phentolamine caused an extrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant increase in the clearance of the tracer from the PDL. Intra-arterial infusion of the vasodilator substance P mimicked that response. Fization of the tooth to the jaw bone, thus preventing an intrusive movement, did not change the reductions in clearance seen on sympathetic stimulation, indicating that this blood flow reduction was not dependent on tooth movement. A qualitative relation between PDL blood flow (as measured by local /sup 125/I clearance) and PDL volume (as measured by tooth position) in shown. The two variables measured are suggested to reflect two aspects of blood flow in the PDL. 22 refs.

  13. "THE STUDY OF DOSE-RESPONSE MITOGENIC EFFECT OF L-DOPA ON THE HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLAST CELLS"

    M. Zarabian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion is one of the most serious emergencies in dental office. In the event of any problem, the tooth should be stored in a medium that supports the periodontal ligament cell viability. In other clinical situations, preserving media, growth factors and mitogenic products may be useful in repairing the traumatized tissues. It has been previously reported that levodopa (L-dopa accelerates healing by increasing the growth hormone level. In this study, the local effect of L-dopa, as a mitogen, on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF cells was evaluated. Samples from impacted or semiimpacted wisdom or canine teeth, which were devoid of inflammation, were taken. The cells obtained from this tissue were cultured in an appropriate medium. The passage numbers between 3-6 were taken for further experiments. The viability of HPLF cells, which were treated by L-dopa, was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and neutral red assay. Results indicated that low concentration of L-dopa produces significant increase of these cells compared to control group. These results confirmed previous studies about direct action of L- dopa on the viability of HPLF cells. On the basis of this study and previous reports, presence of L-dopa in preserving media may be useful in increasing the self-life transferring HPLF cells.

  14. Mechanical design, analysis, and laboratory testing of a dental implant with axial flexibility similar to natural tooth with periodontal ligament.

    Pektaş, Ömer; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-11-01

    At the interface between the jawbone and the roots of natural teeth, a thin, elastic, shock-absorbing tissue, called the periodontal ligament, forms a cushion which provides certain flexibility under mechanical loading. The dental restorations supported by implants, however, involve comparatively rigid connections to the jawbone. This causes overloading of the implant while bearing functional loading together with neighboring natural teeth, which leads to high stresses within the implant system and in the jawbone. A dental implant, with resilient components in the upper structure (abutment) in order to mimic the mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament in the axial direction, was designed, analyzed in silico, and produced for mechanical testing. The aims of the design were avoiding high levels of stress, loosening of the abutment connection screw, and soft tissue irritations. The finite element analysis of the designed implant revealed that the elastic abutment yielded a similar axial mobility with the natural tooth while keeping stress in the implant at safe levels. The in vitro mechanical testing of the prototype resulted in similar axial mobility predicted by the analysis and as that of a typical natural tooth. The abutment screw did not loosen under repeated loading and there was no static or fatigue failure.

  15. Effects of fixation and demineralization on the intensity of autoradiographic labelling over the periodontal ligament of the mouse incisor after administration of [3H]-proline

    Beertsen, W.; Tonino, G.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different histological procedures on the autoradiographic grain count over the periodontal ligament was studied quantitatively in autoradiographs made eight hours after administration of [3H]-proline. The lower jaws of 9 mice were fixed in Bouin's fixative, in 10 per cent formalin or i

  16. Autoregulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 in periodontal ligament cells in vitro

    Konermann, A.; Lossdorfer, S.; Jager, A.; Chen, Y.; Gotz, W.

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in tissue development and presumably also governs pathophysiology of the periodontal ligament (PDL). It has been the aim of this study to elucidate the specific expression pattern of IGF2 and IGFBP6 in PDL cells and to determine whe

  17. Gold Nanoparticles Promote Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells and Have Limited Effects on Cells Differentiation

    Chen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs had been widely applied in the practice and advancement of chemistry, biology, and medicine due to facility of synthesis and versatility in surface functionalization. Recent studies had shown that AuNPs can be applied to cells, affecting cellular physiological processes such as proliferation and differentiation. In this study, four diameters of AuNPs (20, 40, 60, and 80 nm were cocultured with human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs at six different concentrations. The optimal size and concentration of AuNPs were selected to treat human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs to evaluate proliferation. Moreover, the influence of AuNPs on multiple differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs was clarified. The results revealed that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs in vitro, slightly enhance osteoblastic differentiation, and have no effect on adipogenic differentiation. In addition, the expression of COL-1, Runx2, BSP, and OCN was upregulated in the presence of AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM. These results indicated that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs and have no significant effect on the differentiation of hPDLSCs. These results provide an insight on the advantage of implementing of AuNPs on hPDLSCs culture and expose the influence of these materials on periodontal tissue engineering.

  18. Conditioned media from differentiating craniofacial bone marrow stromal cells influence mineralization and proliferation in periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Jin, Zhenyu; Feng, Yuan; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports have mainly focused on the behavioral responses of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in interaction with tibia bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, there is little study on the biologic features of hPDLSCs under the induction of maxilla BMSCs (M-BMSCs) at different phases of osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that M-BMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation acted on the proliferation, differentiation, and bone-forming capacity of hPDLSCs. In this paper, primary hPDLSCs and human M-BMSCs (hM-BMSCs) were expanded in vitro. After screening of surface markers for characterization, hPDLSCs were cocultured with different phases of differentiating hM-BMSCs. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were examined, and mineralization-associated markers such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 of hPDLSCs in coculture with uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs were evaluated. hPDLSCs in hM-BMSCs-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM) group showed a reduction in proliferation compared with untreated hPDLSCs, while osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 10 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-10ds) and osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 15 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds) enhance the proliferation of hPDLSCs. hM-BMSCs of separate differentiation stages temporarily inhibited osteogenesis of hPDLSCs in the early days. Upon extending time periods, uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs markedly enhanced osteogenesis of hPDLSCs to different degrees. The transplantation results showed hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds treatment promoted tissue regeneration to generate cementum/periodontal ligament-like structure characterized by hard-tissue formation. This research supported the notion that hM-BMSCs triggered osteogenesis of hPDLSCs suggesting important implications for periodontal engineering.

  19. Effects of human relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligaments in rats

    Madan, Monica S.; Liu, Zee J.; Gu, Gao M.; King, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The rate-limiting step in orthodontic treatment is often the rapidity with which teeth move. Using biological agents to modify the rate of tooth movement has been shown to be effective in animals. Relaxin is a hormone present in both males and females. Its main action is to increase the turnover of fibrous connective tissues. Thus, relaxin might increase the amount and rate of tooth movement through its effect on the periodontal ligament (PDL). The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and PDL structures. Methods Bilateral orthodontic appliances designed to tip maxillary molars mesially with a force of 40 cN were placed in 96 rats. At day 0, the animals were randomized to either relaxin or vehicle treatment. Twelve rats in each group were killed at 2, 4, 7, and 9 days after appliance activation. Cephalograms were taken at appliance placement and when the rats were killed. Tooth movement was measured cephalometrically in relation to palatal implants. Fractal analysis and visual analog scale assessments were used to evaluate the effect of relaxin on PDL fiber organization at the tension sites in histologic sections. The in-vitro testing for PDL mechanical strength and tooth mobility was performed by using tissue from an additional 20 rats that had previously received the same relaxin or vehicle treatments for 1 or 3 days (n = 5). Results Both groups had statistically significant tooth movement as functions of time. However, relaxin did not stimulate significantly greater or more rapid tooth movement. Fractal and visual analog scale analyses implied that relaxin reduced PDL fiber organization. In-vitro mechanical testing and tooth mobility assessments indicated that the PDL of the mandibular incisors in the relaxin-treated rats had reduced yield load, strain, and stiffness. Moreover, the range of tooth mobility of the maxillary first molars increased to 130% to 170%, over vehicle-treated rats at day 1

  20. Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhances osteogenic gene expression in de-differentiated fat cells.

    Tansriratanawong, Kallapat; Tamaki, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Soh

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, de-differentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) have emerged in regenerative medicine because of their trans-differentiation capability and the fact that their characteristics are similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Even so, there is no evidence to support the osteogenic induction using DFAT cells in periodontal regeneration and also the co-culture system. Consequently, this study sought to evaluate the DFAT cells co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro in terms of gene expression by comparing runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) genes. We isolated DFAT cells from mature adipocytes and compared proliferation with PDLSCs. After co-culture with PDLSCs, we analyzed transcriptional activity implying by DNA methylation in all adipogenic gene promoters using combined bisulfite restriction analysis. We compared gene expression in RUNX2 gene with the PPARγ2 gene using quantitative RT-PCR. After being sub-cultured, DFAT cells demonstrated morphology similar to fibroblast-like cells. At the same time, PDLSCs established all stem cell characteristics. Interestingly, the co-culture system attenuated proliferation while enhancing osteogenic gene expression in RUNX2 gene. Using the co-culture system, DFAT cells could trans-differentiate into osteogenic lineage enhancing, but conversely, their adipogenic characteristic diminished. Therefore, DFAT cells and the co-culture system might be a novel cell-based therapy for promoting osteogenic differentiation in periodontal regeneration.

  1. Bioprinting 3D cell-laden hydrogel microarray for screening human periodontal ligament stem cell response to extracellular matrix.

    Ma, Yufei; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Guoyou; Ling, Kai; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-22

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease negatively affecting up to 15% of adults worldwide. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) hold great promises for periodontal tissue regeneration, where it is necessary to find proper extracellular matrix (ECM) materials (e.g., composition, concentration). In this study, we proposed a bioprinting-based approach to generate nano-liter sized three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogel array with gradient of ECM components, through controlling the volume ratio of two hydrogels, such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dimethacrylate. The resulting cell-laden array with a gradient of GelMA/PEG composition was used to screen human PDLSC response to ECM. The behavior (e.g., cell viability, spreading) of human PDLSCs in GelMA/PEG array were found to be depended on the volume ratios of GelMA/PEG, with cell viability and spreading area decreased along with increasing the ratio of PEG. The developed approach would be useful for screening cell-biomaterial interaction in 3D and promoting regeneration of functional tissue.

  2. Low-power laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    Jyun-Yi Wu; Chia-Hsin Chen; Li-Yin Yeh; Ming-Long Yeh; Chun-Chan Ting; Yan-Hsiung Wang

    2013-01-01

    Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J?cm22. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J?cm22 significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J?cm22 showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  3. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Tobias T Hägi

    Full Text Available There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts.Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR, b ultrasonication (US, c subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP and d subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX. The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz, the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD.After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10. The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10. Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm in comparison with US (14±12 µm, EAP (6±7 µm and EAP-CHX (11±10 µm. Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts.The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and results

  4. Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

    Xiang-Zhen Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs. Materials and Methods. STRO-1 positive hPDLCs were sorted and the sorted cells were expanded and compared with their unsorted parental cells. Thereafter, hPDLCs were treated with or without Wnt3a and the cell proliferation, self-renewal, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Results. No differences were measured between the expanded STRO-1-sorted cells and unsorted parental cells in terms of proliferation, CFU, and mineralization capacity. Wnt3a enhanced the proliferation and self-renewal ability of hPDLCs significantly as displayed by higher DNA content values, a shorter cell population doubling time, and higher expression of the self-renewal gene Oct4. Moreover, Wnt3a promoted the expansion of hPDLCs for 5 passages without affecting cell proliferation, CFU, and osteogenic capacity. Conclusions. Expanded STRO-1-sorted hPDLCs showed no superiority compared to their unsorted parental cells. On the other hand, Wnt3a promotes the efficient hPDLC expansion and retains the self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation capacity.

  5. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Injection and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular Primary Molars Pulpotomy: A Randomized Control Trial

    Haghgoo, Roza; Taleghani, Ferial

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block is a common technique for anesthesia of the primary mandibular molars. A number of disadvantages have been shown to be associated with this technique. Periodontal ligament (PDL) injection could be considered as an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PDL injection in the anesthesia of primary molar pulpotomy with mandibular block. Methods: This study was performed using a sequential double-blind randomized trial design. 80 children aged 3-7 years old who required pulpotomy in symmetrical mandibular primary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection on one side of the mandible and block on the other. Pulpotomy was performed on each patient during the same appointment. Signs of discomfort, including hand and body tension and eye movement, the verbal complaint and crying (SEM scale), were evaluated by a dental assistant who was blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Finally, the data were analyzed using the exact Fisher test and Pearson Chi-squared exact test. Results: Success rate was 88/75 and 91/25 in the PDL injection and nerve block groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (P = 0.250). Conclusion: Results showed that PDL injection can be used as an alternative to nerve block in pulpotomy of the mandibular primary molars. PMID:26028895

  6. Effectiveness and Safety of Computer-controlled Periodontal Ligament Injection System in Endodontic Access to the Mandibular Posterior Teeth

    Quan Jing; Kuo Wan; Xiao-jun Wang; Lin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a computer-controlled periodontal ligament (PDL) injection system to the local soft tissues as the primary technique in endodontic access to mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Methods A total of 162 Chinese patients who had been diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in their mandibular posterior teeth without acute infection or inflammation in the periodontal tissues were enrolled in this clinical study. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the position of the involved tooth:the premolar group (PM, n=38), first molar group (FM, n=66), and second molar group (SM, n=58). All the patients received computer-controlled PDL injection with 4%articaine and 1∶100 000 epinephrine. Immediately after the injection, endodontic access was performed, and the degree of pain during the treatment was evaluated by the patients using Visual Analogue Scale for pain. The success rates were compared among the 3 groups. The responses of local soft tissues were evaluated 3-8 days and 3 weeks after the procedure. Results The overall success rate was 76.5%. There was a significant difference in success rates among the PM, FM, and SM groups (92.1%, 53.0%, 93.1%, respectively;χ2=34.3, P Conclusion The computer-controlled PDL injection system demonstrates both satisfactory anesthetic effects and safety in local soft tissues as primary anesthetic technique in endodontic access to the mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  7. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells via the JNK Pathway

    Wang, Xingxing; Pang, Yanan; Yang, Su; Wei, Yibo; Gao, Haochen; Wang, Dalin; Cao, Zhizhong

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) shows great osteoinductive potential in bone regeneration. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with multi-differentiation capability and low immunogenicity are increasingly used as seed cells for periodontal regenerative therapies. In the present study, we investigated the potent osteogenic activity of BMP9 on human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs), in which the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is possibly involved. Our results showed that JNK inhibition by the specific inhibitor SP600125 or adenovirus expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting JNK (AdR-si-JNK) significantly decreased BMP9-induced gene and protein expression of early and late osteogenic markers, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN), in hPDLSCs. We also confirmed the in-vivo positive effect of JNKs on ectopic bone formation induced by hPDLSCs injected into the musculature of athymic nude mice and BMP9 ex vivo gene delivery. For the cellular mechanism, we found that BMP9 activated the phosphorylation of JNKs and Smad2/3, and that JNKs may engage in cross-talk with the Smad2/3 pathway in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. PMID:28052093

  8. Effects of IL-10 and glucose on expression of OPG and RANKL in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and glucose on mRNA and protein expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG, and its ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, were investigated in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs. Primary HPDLFs were treated with different concentrations of IL-10 (0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ng/mL or glucose (0, 5.5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mmol/L. Changes in mRNA and protein expression were examined using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. After IL-10 treatment, mRNA and protein levels of OPG were increased, while mRNA and protein levels of RANKL were decreased (P<0.05, both in a concentration-dependent manner. Glucose stimulation had the opposite concentration-dependent effect to that of IL-10 on OPG and RANKL expression. IL-10 upregulated OPG expression and downregulated RANKL expression, whereas high glucose upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG in HDPLFs. Abnormal levels of IL-10 and glucose may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  9. 生长因子对牙周膜细胞的影响%Effects of growth factors on periodontal ligament cells

    赵寰

    2008-01-01

    The periodontal regeneration is based on the proliferation and mult-differentiation of periodontal ligament cells.Thus,to find a method of enhancing the differentiation of periodontal ligament cells has been a hot point in studying periodontal disease.Many bioactive factors have important effects on the periodontal regeneration. Growth factors as bioactive factors have promotion effects on migration,growth,proliferation,differentiation,and protein synthesis.%牙周疾病发牛后,牙周组织的再生要依靠牙周膜细胞的增殖和分化能力.因此,找到可促进牙周膜细胞分化的方法成为研究牙周疾病治疗途径的热点.许多生物活性因子对牙周组织的再生有重要影响.作为生物活性因子的生长因子对牙周膜细胞的迁移、生长、增殖、分化和蛋白合成有促进作用.

  10. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar

    Sunyoung Choi; Tae-Jun Cho; Soon-Keun Kwon; Gene Lee; Jaejin Cho

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 μg ·L-1 TGF-β3 or 100 μg ·L-1 BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  11. Periodontal ligament stem cell differentiation and proliferation in periodontal tissue regeneration%牙周膜干细胞分化、增殖特性与牙周组织再生

    朱凌兰; 许生敏

    2015-01-01

    背景:牙周膜干细胞是牙周组织再生工程中理想的种子细胞之一,有关牙周膜干细胞的来源、生物学特性及影响因素等研究成为热点问题。目的:就近年来牙周膜干细胞的研究现状、生物学特性、功能影响因素及其在再生医学中的应用等研究进展作一综述,并对其应用前景及目前存在的问题进行讨论,为相关体内研究提供理论和实验依据。方法:由第一作者在PubMed和万方数据库检索2002至2015年有关牙周膜干细胞分化、增殖特性的相关英文和中文文献。中文检索词为“牙周膜干细胞,牙周组织,增殖,分化”,英文检索词为“periodontal ligament stem cel,periodontal tissue,proliferation, differentiation”,最终纳入47篇文献。结果与结论:牙周膜干细胞具有成纤维、成脂、成骨、成牙骨质分化的能力,细胞生长因子对牙周膜干细胞的增殖分化起重要作用,成纤维细胞生长因子、血管内皮生长因子和胰岛素样生长因子均可促进牙周膜干细胞增殖。干细胞载体生物膜材料的应用也能有效引导牙周组织再生,牙周膜干细胞的分离培养及其影响因素等还有待进一步完善,将干细胞与生物膜材料、生长因子联合应用达到理想的牙周组织功能性再生是今后的研究重点。%BACKGROUND:Periodontal ligament stem cels are one of the ideal seed cels in periodontal tissue regeneration. Sources, biological characteristics and influential factors of periodontal ligament stem cels have been an issue of concern. OBJECTIVE:To review the biological characteristics and functional factors of periodontal ligament stem cels as wel as relevant research status and progress in regenerative medicine, and to discuss the relevant application prospect and existing problems, thereby providing theoretical and experimental basis. METHODS:PubMed and Wanfang databases were searched by the first

  12. Focal adhesion kinase activation is required for TNF-α-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Ya-jing; Guo, Liu-yun; Wang, Guo-fang; Lu, Ke; Yue, Er-li

    2015-08-01

    Since focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was proposed as a mediator of the inflammatory response, we have investigated the role of this molecule in the release of inflammatory cytokines by cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs), cells that are thought to be important in the patient's response to periodontal infection. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and its effects on interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 release were measured by ELISA. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) protein was analysed by western blotting. The levels of IL6, IL8, and MMP2 mRNA were evaluated by real-time PCR. Tumor necrosis factor alpha dose-dependently induced the phosphorylation of FAK, whereas small interfering FAK (siFAK) inhibited TNF-α-induced FAK phosphorylation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha also stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of FAK significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of IL6 and IL8 mRNA and release of IL-6 and IL-8 protein in HPDLFs. Similarly, MMP-2 down-regulation was significantly prevented by siFAK. Our results strongly suggest that knockdown of FAK can decrease the production of TNF-α-induced IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-2 in HPDLFs. These effects may help in understanding the mechanisms that control expression of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  13. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor.

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Yasukawa, Takuya; Ibi, Haruna; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS) to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity) were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions.

  14. The osteogenetic rate in alveolar bone remodeling induced by distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament

    WANG Shuang; FENG Pei-xun; GUO Xiong; ZHOU Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe osteogenetic rate of alveolar bone on the tension side in orthodontic tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodental ligament quantificationally. Methods:The experiment was carried in 6 dogs. The left side of jaws of each one was set as test or control side, and the other side was control or test side. On the control side, the first premorlar was moved by traditional method on the test side. A self-made distraction device was used on the test side. The newly formed alveolar bone on the tension side of moved tooth was labeled by serial tetracycline fluorochrome. Sections were observed by fluorescence microscope and pictured. Newly formed bone was measured by computer image analysis. Results: The quantity of newly formed bone was significantly different between the two methods. Newly formed bone in rapid tooth movement by distraction osteogenesis of the periodental ligament was more than that in traditional method. Conclusion: The distraction through periodental ligament could induce more rapid bone formation and excite higher osteogenetic activity than traditional method.

  15. The stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells by the ionic products from Ca7Si2P2O16 bioceramics.

    Zhou, Yinghong; Wu, Chengtie; Xiao, Yin

    2012-07-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal tissue engineering is to produce predictable regeneration of alveolar bone, root cementum, and periodontal ligament, which are lost as a result of periodontal diseases. To achieve this goal, it is of great importance to develop novel bioactive materials which could stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic/cementogenic gene expression of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) for periodontal regeneration. In this study, we synthesized novel Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) ceramic powders for the first time by the sol-gel method and investigated the biological performance of PDLCs after exposure to different concentrations of Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) extracts. The original extracts were prepared at 200 mg ml(-1) and further diluted with serum-free cell culture medium to obtain a series of diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)). Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Ca deposition, and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression (ALP, Col I, Runx2 and CEMP1) were assayed for PDLCs on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the ionic products from Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders significantly stimulated the proliferation, ALP activity, Ca deposition and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression of PDLCs. In addition, it was found that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders had excellent apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids. This study demonstrated that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders with such a specific composition possess the ability to stimulate the PDLC proliferation and osteoblast/cemenoblast-like cell differentiation, indicating that they are a promising bioactive material for periodontal tissue regeneration application.

  16. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  17. EFFECTS OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR β AND RECOMBINANT HUMAN BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 2 ON HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLASTS

    司晓辉; 刘正

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of transforming growth factor β(TGF-β) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts ( HPDLFs ). Methods HPDLFs were done primary culture to detect the distinct concentrations of TGF-β and rhBMP2 on its proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin ( OC) synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules, respectively. Results TGF-β(5~100ng /ml) significantly stimulated the proliferation of HPDLFs. The ALP activity of HPDLFs was evaluated evidently by 5ng /ml TGF-β. TGF-β(0.5~100ng /ml) had no effects on OC synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules of HPDLFs. rhBMP2 (0.25~2mg/ ml) had no rernarkable effect on the proliferation of HPDLFs. The ALP activity, OC synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules of HPDLFs were significantly stimulated by 0.5~2mg/ml rhBMP2. Conclusion The effects of TGF-β and rhBMP2 on HPDLFs are dose-dependent. TGF-β can stimulate HPDLFs to express the early marker of osteoblastic phenotype , and it lacks the ability to promote maturation of the osteogenic phenotype. rhBMP2 can not only stimulate the expression but also promote the maturation of osteoblastic phenotype of HPDLFs.

  18. Differential Expression of Osteo-Modulatory Molecules in Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Response to Modified Titanium Surfaces

    So Yeon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed differential gene expression of signaling molecules involved in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs subjected to different titanium (Ti surface types. PDLSCs were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS, and four types of Ti discs (PT, SLA, hydrophilic PT (pmodPT, and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA with no osteoinductive factor and then osteogenic activity, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mRNA expression of runt-related gene 2, osterix, FOSB, FRA1, and protein levels of osteopontin and collagen type IA, were examined. The highest osteogenic activity appeared in PDLSCs cultured on SLA, compared with the TCPS and other Ti surfaces. The role of surface properties in affecting signaling molecules to modulate PDLSC behavior was determined by examining the regulation of Wnt pathways. mRNA expression of the canonical Wnt signaling molecules, Wnt3a and β-catenin, was higher on SLA and modSLA than on smooth surfaces, but gene expression of the calcium-dependent Wnt signaling molecules Wnt5a, calmodulin, and NFATc1 was increased significantly on PT and pmodPT. Moreover, integrin α2/β1, sonic hedgehog, and Notch signaling molecules were affected differently by each surface modification. In conclusion, surface roughness and hydrophilicity can affect differential Wnt pathways and signaling molecules, targeting the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.

  19. Conditioned medium of periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells exert anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse motoneurons.

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Trubiani, Oriana; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-11-15

    Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were performed. Increased level of TLR4 and NFκB, and reduced level of IκB-α were observed in LPS-stimulated motoneurons, which were modulated by pre-conditioning with hPDLSC-conditioned medium. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-10), neuroprotective markers (Nestin, NFL 70, NGF, GAP43), and apoptotic markers (Bax, Bcl-2, p21) were modulated. Moreover, extracellular vesicles of hPDLSC-conditioned medium showed the presence of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. Our results demonstrate the immunosuppressive properties of hPDLSC-conditioned medium of RR-MS patients in motoneurons subjected to inflammation. Our findings warrant further preclinical and clinical studies to elucidate the autologous therapeutic efficacy of hPDLSC-conditioned medium in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Periodontal ligament stem cells modulate root resorption of human primary teeth via Runx2 regulating RANKL/OPG system.

    Li, Bei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qingchao; Dong, Zhiwei; Shang, Linjuan; Wu, Lizheng; Wang, Xiaojing; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-15

    Physiological primary teeth exfoliation is a normal phenomenon during teeth development. However, retained primary teeth can often be observed in the patients with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) caused by mutation of Runx2. The potential regulative mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were derived from different resorbed stages of primary teeth and permanent teeth from normal patients and primary teeth from CCD patient. The proliferative, osteogenic and osteoclast-inductive capacities of PDLSCs from each group were detected. We demonstrated here that the proliferative ability of PDLSCs was reduced while the osteogenic and the osteoclast-inductive capacity of PDLSCs were enhanced during root resorption. The results also showed that PDLSCs from permanent teeth and CCD patient expressed low level of Runx2 and RANKL while high level of OPG. However, expression of Runx2 and RANKL were increased while expression of OPG was decreased in PDLSCs derived from resorbed teeth. Furthermore, Runx2 regulating the expression of RANKL and OPG and the osteoclast-inductive capacity of PDLSCs were confirmed by gain or loss of function assay. These data suggest that PDLSCs promote osteoclast differentiation via Runx2 upregulating RANKL and downregulating OPG, leading to enhanced root resorption that results in physiological exfoliation of primary teeth.

  1. Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials: Synthesis and in vitro delivery of diclofenac and biocompatibility with periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Peña, José A. [Departamento de Química, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Gutiérrez, Sandra J., E-mail: s.gutierrez@javeriana.edu.co [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Villamil, Jean C. [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Agudelo, Natalia A. [Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Pérez, León D., E-mail: ldperezp@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Macromoléculas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26–85, edificio 451 of. 449, Bogotá D.C. Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) based hybrid materials containing hydrophilic domains composed of N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP), and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The hybrid materials were obtained by RAFT copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and MPS using a pre-formed dixanthate-end-functionalized PCL as macro-chain transfer agent, followed by a post-reaction crosslinking step. The composition of the samples was determined by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystallinity of PCL decreases in the presence of the hydrophilic domains. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the samples present an interconnected porous structure on the swelling. Compared to PCL, the hybrid materials presented low water contact angle values and higher elastic modulus. These materials showed controlled release of diclofenac, and biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials • Moderated hydrophilic materials with high swelling resistance • Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were biocompatible.

  2. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  3. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  4. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway.

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  5. MicroRNA expression profile of human periodontal ligament cells under the influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is caused by bacterial infection and leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues and resorption of alveolar bone. Thus, special attention should be paid to the mechanism under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced periodontitis because LPS is the major cause of periodontitis. However, to date, miRNA expression in the LPS‐induced periodontitis has not been well characterized. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression patterns ...

  6. Influence of baicalin on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin in human periodontal ligament cells

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of baicalin on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(RANKL)and osteoprotegerin(OPG)in cultured human periodontal ligament(HPDL)cells.Methods Small interfering RNA(siRNA)eukaryotic expression vector targeted transforming growth factor βⅡ receptor(TGF-β RⅡ)was constructed and transfected into T cells.HPDL cells with T cells transfected with siRNA or not were placed in the culture medium that had been added with lipopolysaccharide(LPS)and baicalin.The ob...

  7. Generation of Neural Crest-Like Cells From Human Periodontal Ligament Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hynes, Kim; Ng, Jia; Menicanin, Danijela; Camp, Esther; Arthur, Agnes; Gronthos, Stan; Mark Bartold, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) hold great promise for tissue engineering, however the inability to easily obtain large numbers of NCC is a major factor limiting their use in studies of regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are emerging as a novel candidate that could provide an unlimited source of NCC. In the present study, we examined the potential of neural crest tissue-derived periodontal ligament (PDL) iPSC to differentiate into neural crest-like cells (NCLC) relative to iPSC generated from a non-neural crest derived tissue, foreskin fibroblasts (FF). We detected high HNK1 expression during the differentiation of PDL and FF iPSC into NCLC as a marker for enriching for a population of cells with NCC characteristics. We isolated PDL iPSC- and FF iPSC-derived NCLC, which highly expressed HNK1. A high proportion of the HNK1-positive cell populations generated, expressed the MSC markers, whilst very few cells expressed the pluripotency markers or the hematopoietic markers. The PDL and FF HNK1-positive populations gave rise to smooth muscle, neural, glial, osteoblastic and adipocytic like cells and exhibited higher expression of smooth muscle, neural, and glial cell-associated markers than the PDL and FF HNK1-negative populations. Interestingly, the HNK1-positive cells derived from the PDL-iPSC exhibited a greater ability to differentiate into smooth muscle, neural, glial cells and adipocytes, than the HNK1-positive cells derived from the FF-iPSC. Our work suggests that HNK1-enriched NCLC from neural crest tissue-derived iPSC more closely resemble the phenotypic and functional hallmarks of NCC compared to the HNK1-low population and non-neural crest iPSC-derived NCLC. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 402-416, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis

    Carlos Marcelo Archangelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removable partial denture (RPD is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]. Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0 was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.

  9. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    Parisa Salehi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method: Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results: In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion: From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth.

  10. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  11. Luteolin and apigenin activate the Oct-4/Sox2 signal via NFATc1 in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Liu, Lu; Peng, Zhengjun; Huang, Haoquan; Xu, Zhezhen; Wei, Xi

    2016-10-01

    Identifying small molecules to activate the Oct-4/Sox2-derived pluripotency network represents a hopeful and safe method to pluripotency without genetic manipulation. Luteolin and apigenin, two major bioactive flavonoids, enhance reprogramming efficiency and increase expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc, albeit the detailed mechanism regulating pluripotency in dental-derived cells remains unknown. In the present study, to elucidate the effect of luteolin/apigenin on pluripotency of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) through interaction with downstream signals, we examined cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc, and multilineage differentiation of PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment. Moreover, we profiled the differentially expressed pluripotency genes by PCR arrays. Our results demonstrated that luteolin/apigenin restrained cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and arrested PDLCs in G2/M and S phase. Luteolin and apigenin activated expression of Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and repressed lineage-specific differentiation. PCR arrays profiled multiple signals in PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment, among which NFATc1 was the major upregulated gene. Notably, blocking of the NFATc1 signal with INCA-6 significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc in PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment, indicating that NFATc1 may act as an upstream modulator of Oct-4/Sox2 signal. Taken together, this study showed that luteolin and apigenin effectively maintain pluripotency of PDLCs through activation of Oct-4/Sox2 signal via NFATc1.

  12. Distribution pattern of versican, link protein and hyaluronic acid in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Sato, R; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K; Yamauchi, M

    2002-02-01

    The ability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) to rapidly remodel is the basis of orthodontic tooth movement. During the tooth movement, matrix proteoglycans (PGs) may play important roles in spatial, mechanical and biological aspects for the maintenance and repair of the PDL. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of a large hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding proteoglycan, versican, link protein (LP) and HA in the rat molar PDL during experimental tooth movement by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Experimental tooth movement was performed according to Waldo's method. Histologically, regressive changes, such as decrease of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and exudative change of edema were observed in the compressive side and progressive changes, such as proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, in the strain side one day after treatment. By 3 days after tooth movement, regressive or progressive changes were not observed in either side. Using monoclonal antibodies specific to versican core protein or LP, the positive immunoreactivity for both molecules was constantly observed throughout the PDL. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, however, the immunostainings of versican and LP became significantly intense only in the compressive side but decreased in the strain side. The intensity in the compressive side was strongest one day after the force was applied and gradually diminished thereafter. HA of both sides did not change during experimental tooth movement. Since HA is present in the PDL, large amounts of versican and LP expressed in the compressive side may create large hydrated aggregates via their association with HA that dissipates the compressive force applied to this tissue.

  13. Characterization of the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells from human periodontal ligament based on cell surface markers

    Ruth Alvarez; Hye-Lim Lee; Cun-Yu Wang; Christine Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapy has been shown to be clinically effective in regenerating tissue defects. For improved regenerative therapy, it is critical to isolate homogenous populations of MSCs with high capacity to differentiate into appropriate tissues. The utilization of stem cell surface antigens provides a means to identify MSCs from various tissues. However, few surface markers that consistently isolate highly regenerative MSCs have been validated, making it challenging for routine clinical applications and making it all the more imperative to identify reliable surface markers. In this study, we used three surface marker combinations:CD51/CD140a, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146 for the isolation of homogenous populations of dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) from heterogeneous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that 24%of PDLCs were CD511/CD140a1, 0.8%were CD2711, and 2.4%were STRO-11/CD1461. Sorted cell populations were further assessed for their multipotent properties by inducing osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. All three subsets of isolated DMSCs exhibited differentiation capacity into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages but with varying degrees. CD2711 DMSCs demonstrated the greatest osteogenic potential with strong induction of osteogenic markers such as DLX5, RUNX2, and BGLAP. Our study provides evidence that surface marker combinations used in this study are sufficient markers for the isolation of DMSCs from PDLCs. These results provide important insight into using specific surface markers for identifying homogenous populations of DMSCs for their improved utilization in regenerative medicine.

  14. Application of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources for tendon tissue regeneration.

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Xu, Xingtian; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Snead, Malcolm L; Shi, Songtao

    2014-03-01

    Tendon injuries are often associated with significant dysfunction and disability due to tendinous tissue's very limited self-repair capacity and propensity for scar formation. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material present an alternative therapeutic option for tendon repair/regeneration that may be advantageous compared to other current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for successful implementation of MSC-mediated regenerative therapies. In the current study, a co-delivery system based on TGF-β3-loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres was developed for encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) or gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). The capacity of encapsulated dental MSCs to differentiate into tendon tissue was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulated dental-derived MSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Our results revealed that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs and GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to tendon regeneration (Scx, DCn, Tnmd, and Bgy) via qPCR measurement. In a corresponding in vivo animal model, ectopic neo-tendon regeneration was observed in subcutaneous transplanted MSC-alginate constructs, as confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining for protein markers specific for tendons. Interestingly, in our quantitative PCR and in vivo histomorphometric analyses, PDLSCs showed significantly greater capacity for tendon regeneration than GMSCs or hBMMSCs (P tissues can be considered as suitable stem cell sources for tendon engineering. PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in TGF-β3-loaded RGD-modified alginate microspheres are promising candidates for tendon regeneration.

  15. Pathological cyclic strain-induced apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells through the RhoGDIα/caspase-3/PARP pathway.

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available AIM: Human periodontal ligament (PDL cells incur changes in morphology and express proteins in response to cyclic strain. However, it is not clear whether cyclic strain, especially excessive cyclic strain, induces PDL cell apoptosis and if so, what mechanism(s are responsible. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which pathological levels of cyclic strain induce human PDL cell apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human PDL cells were obtained from healthy premolar tissue. After three to five passages in culture, the cells were subjected to 20% cyclic strain at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 6 or 24 h using an FX-5000T system. Morphological changes of the cells were assessed by inverted phase-contrast microscopy, and apoptosis was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The number of apoptotic human PDL cells increased in a time-dependent manner in response to pathological cyclic strain. The stretched cells were oriented parallel to each another with their long axes perpendicular to the strain force vector. Cleaved caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP protein levels increased in response to pathological cyclic strain over time, while Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (RhoGDIα decreased. Furthermore, knock-down of RhoGDIα by targeted siRNA transfection increased stretch-induced apoptosis and upregulated cleaved caspase-3 and PARP protein levels. Inhibition of caspase-3 prevented stretch-induced apoptosis, but did not change RhoGDIα protein levels. CONCLUSION: The overall results suggest that pathological-level cyclic strain not only influenced morphology but also induced apoptosis in human PDL cells through the RhoGDIα/caspase-3/PARP pathway. Our findings provide novel insight into the mechanism of apoptosis induced by pathological cyclic strain in

  16. Vitamin D reduces the inflammatory response by Porphyromonas gingivalis infection by modulating human β-defensin-3 in human gingival epithelium and periodontal ligament cells.

    De Filippis, Anna; Fiorentino, Margherita; Guida, Luigi; Annunziata, Marco; Nastri, Livia; Rizzo, Antonietta

    2017-04-03

    Periodontitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infection characterized by a destructive inflammatory process. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative black-pigmented anaerobe, is a major pathogen in the initiation and progression of periodontitis; it produces several virulence factors that stimulate human gingival epithelium (HGE) cells and human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells to produce various inflammatory mediators. A variety of substances, such as vitamin D, have growth-inhibitory effects on some bacterial pathogens and have shown chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory activity. We used a model with HGE and HPL cells infected with P. gingivalis to determine the influence of vitamin D on P. gingivalis growth and adhesion and the immunomodulatory effect on TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 and human-β-defensin 3 production. Our results demonstrated, firstly, the lack of any cytotoxic effect on the HGE and HPL cells when treated with vitamin D; in addition, vitamin D inhibited P. gingivalis adhesion and infectivity in HGE and HPL cells. Our study then showed that vitamin D reduced TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 production in P. gingivalis-infected HGE and HPL cells. In contrast, a significant upregulation of the human-β-defensin 3 expression in HGE and HPL cells induced by P. gingivalis was demonstrated. Our results indicate that vitamin D specifically enhances the production of the human-β-defensin 3 antimicrobial peptide and exerts an inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus suggesting that vitamin D may offer possible therapeutic applications for periodontitis.

  17. Effects of Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34 on Bone Differentiation in Stromal Precursor Antigen-1 Positive Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Xiaoxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the most common cause of tooth loss and bone destruction in adults worldwide. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs may represent promising new therapeutic biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Stromal precursor antigen-1 (STRO-1 has been shown to have roles in adherence, proliferation, and multipotency. Parathyroid hormone (PTH has been shown to enhance proliferation in osteoblasts. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare the functions of STRO-1(+ and STRO-1(− hPDLSCs and to investigate the effects of PTH on the osteogenic capacity of STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs in order to evaluate their potential applications in the treatment of periodontitis. Our data showed that STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs expressed higher levels of the PTH-1 receptor (PTH1R than STRO-1(− hPDLSCs. In addition, intermittent PTH treatment enhanced the expression of PTH1R and osteogenesis-related genes in STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs. PTH-treated cells also exhibited increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization ability. Therefore, STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs represented a more promising cell resource for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Intermittent PTH treatment improved the capacity for STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs to repair damaged tissue and ameliorate the symptoms of periodontitis.

  18. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

    Mao LX

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lixia Mao,1,* Jiaqiang Liu,1,* Jinglei Zhao,1 Jiang Chang,2 Lunguo Xia,1 Lingyong Jiang,1 Xiuhui Wang,2 Kaili Lin,2,3 Bing Fang11Center of Craniofacial Orthodontics, Department of Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Science, Top Priority Clinical Medical Center of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, School of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods] were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN, cementum attachment protein (CAP, and cementum protein (CEMP as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor

  19. Expression analysis of a-smooth muscle actin and tenascin-C in the periodontal ligament under orthodontic loading or in vitro culture

    Hui Xu; Ding Bai; L-Bruno Ruest; Jian Q Feng; Yong-Wen Guo; Ye Tian; Yan Jing; Yao He; Xiang-Long Han

    2015-01-01

    a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and tenascin-C are stress-induced phenotypic features of myofibroblasts. The expression levels of these two proteins closely correlate with the extracellular mechanical microenvironment. We investigated how the expression of a-SMA and tenascin-C was altered in the periodontal ligament (PDL) under orthodontic loading to indirectly reveal the intrinsic mechanical microenvironment in the PDL. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effects of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and mechanical tensile or compressive stress on myofibroblast differentiation from human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The hPDLCs under higher tensile or compressive stress significantly increased their levels of a-SMA and tenascin-C compared with those under lower tensile or compressive stress. A similar trend was observed in the tension and compression areas of the PDL under continuous light or heavy orthodontic load in rats. During the time-course analysis of expression, we observed that an increase in a-SMA levels was matched by an increase in tenascin-C levels in the PDL under orthodontic load in vivo. The time-dependent variation of a-SMA and tenascin-C expression in the PDL may indicate the time-dependent variation of intrinsic stress under constant extrinsic loading.

  20. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Symptomatic Immature Permanent Molar with Long-Term Success

    Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is the preferred conservative treatment for preservation of symptomatic pulps in immature permanent teeth. The present case report summarizes VPT of an immature permanent molar with irreversible pulpitis associated with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old boy. Cervical pulpotomy was performed and radicular pulp stumps were covered with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement; the tooth was then restored with stainless steel crown. After a 50-month follow-up period, the pulpotomized molar was clinically functional and asymptomatic. Moreover, radiographic evaluation revealed evidence of complete root development as well as normal periodontal ligament around the roots. The successful outcome achieved through VPT using CEM biomaterial in the reported case suggests that this method may produce favorable outcome for vital immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis and periapical disease. PMID:27790270

  1. SPARC and the N-propeptide of collagen I influence fibroblast proliferation and collagen assembly in the periodontal ligament

    Trombetta-eSilva, Jessica; Hepfer, Glenn; Yao, Hai; Bradshaw, Amy Dodd

    2017-01-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a fibrous connective tissue that anchors tooth cementum into alveolar bone. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a collagen-binding matricellular protein known to influence collagen fiber assembly in the PDL. In contrast, functional properties of the N-propeptide of collagen I, encoded in exon 2 of the COL1A1 gene, are poorly understood. In this study, the PDL of collagen I exon 2-deleted (wt/ko), SPARC-null (ko/wt), and double transgenic (ko/ko) mice were evaluated in terms of cellularity, collagen area, fiber morphology, and extraction force and compared to WT (wt/wt) mice. Picro sirius red staining indicated a decrease in total PDL collagen content in each of the transgenic mice compared to WT at 1 and 3 month age points. At 12 months, only SPARC-null (ko/wt) and double-null PDL demonstrated less total collagen versus WT. Likewise, an increase in thin PDL collagen fibers was observed at 1 and 3 months in each transgenic, with increases only in SPARC-null and double-null mice at 12 months. The force required for tooth extraction was significantly reduced in SPARC-null versus exon 2-deleted and WT mice, whereas double-null mice demonstrated further decreases in force required for tooth extraction. The number of proliferating fibroblasts and number and size of epithelial rests of Malassez were increased in each transgenic versus WT with double-null PDL exhibiting highest levels of proliferation and rests of Malassez at 1 month of age. Consistent with increases in PDL collagen in exon-2 deleted mice, with age, numbers of rests decreased at 12 months in this genotype. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of the N-propeptide in regulating collagen fiber assembly and cell behavior and suggest that SPARC and the N-propeptide of collagen I have distinct activities in regulating collagen fiber assembly and fibroblast function. PMID:28245286

  2. Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs

    Zhou, Qiang [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Ning [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Cheng, Jing-Tao [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhang, Bin [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Jie [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Chen, Yong-Jin, E-mail: cyj1229@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation

  3. Autologous periodontal ligament stem cells combined with composites repair periodontal bone defects in miniature pigs%小型猪自体牙周膜干细胞与复合材料修复牙周骨缺损**★

    杨斯惠; 钟良军; 张鹏涛; 张远; 张源明; 马路平; 徐艳

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have proved that autologous periodontal ligament stem cel s combined with scaffold materials can achieve better effect on the repair of periodontal bone defects. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of miniature pig autologous periodontal ligament stem cel s combined with hydroxyapatite bioceramic composites in the repair of category Ⅱ periodontal bone defects. METHODS:Six Guizhou miniature pigs were included, and were used to establish the miniature pig models of upper and lower jaw category Ⅱ periodontal bone defects. The bone defects were located between the third premolar and fourth premolar, and the near root of fourth premolar was exposed. The defects in the experimental group were repaired with periodontal ligament stem cel s obtained from the autologous maxil ary and mandibular canine and combined with hydroxyapatite bioceramic;the defects in the control group were repaired with hydroxyapatite bioceramic simplely;and the model group did not repaired. The defects in each group were covered with oral biofilm. At 12 weeks after modeling, the defect periodontal tissues were obtained from each group, and then the osteogenesis healing of the periodontal bone tissue was observed through clinical observation, heal spiral CT scanning, three-dimensional reconstruction and hematoxylin-eosin staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Clinical observation showed that healing of periodontal defects in the experimental group was the best. Head spiral CT scanning showed that there was no significant difference of bone mineral density between bone defect area and surrounding normal alveolar bone, and the defects in the control group and the model group were stil clear visible in the incomplete healing state. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the defect area in the experimental group was fil ed with newborn alveolar bone completely, and the normal calcified bone structure was established;in the control group, the defect area was fil ed with newborn alveolar bone

  4. Dental pulp stem cells

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors.......Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...

  5. A three-dimensional cell culture model to study the mechano-biological behavior in periodontal ligament regeneration.

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, which can eventually result in tooth loss. A three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture model was developed that may serve to grow a 3D construct that not only transplants into defective periodontal sites, but also allows to exa

  6. A three-dimensional cell culture model to study the mechano-biological behavior in periodontal ligament regeneration

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, which can eventually result in tooth loss. A three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture model was developed that may serve to grow a 3D construct that not only transplants into defective periodontal sites, but also allows to exa

  7. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Chronic Periodontitis

    Jôice Dias Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a member of the neurotrophic factor family. Outside the nervous system, BDNF has been shown to be expressed in various nonneural tissues, such as periodontal ligament, dental pulp, and odontoblasts. Although a role for BDNF in periodontal regeneration has been suggested, a function for BDNF in periodontal disease has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the BDNF levels in periodontal tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP and periodontally healthy controls (HC. All subjects were genotyped for the rs4923463 and rs6265 BDNF polymorphisms. Periodontal tissues were collected for ELISA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and microscopic analysis from 28 CP patients and 29 HC subjects. BDNF levels were increased in CP patients compared to HC subjects. A negative correlation was observed when analyzing concentration of BDNF and IL-10 in inflamed periodontium. No differences in frequencies of BDNF genotypes between CP and HC subjects were observed. However, BDNF genotype GG was associated with increased levels of BDNF, TNF-α, and CXCL10 in CP patients. In conclusion, BDNF seems to be associated with periodontal disease process, but the specific role of BDNF still needs to be clarified.

  8. 牙周膜干细胞生物学研究新进展%Advances In biological research of periodontal ligament stem cells

    贺慧霞; 刘洪臣

    2010-01-01

    牙周膜干细胞(periodontal ligament stem cell,PDLSC)是在干细胞理论和技术发展较为成熟的基础上提出的.PDLSCs具有分化形成牙槽骨、牙骨质和牙周膜的潜能,在牙周生理、病理和牙周病再生治疗中发挥极其重要的作用.对PDLSCs生物学的研究是解读这一系列事件的钥匙.本文就PDLSCs生物学作用、来源、组织学定位、分离和鉴定等方面研究的最新进展做一综述.

  9. 牙槽间隔减阻术后快速移动尖牙的临床初探%Rapid canine distalization through distraction of the periodontal ligament after reducing interseptal bone resistance

    马文盛; 董福生; 任贵云; 冯立晓; 侯彦

    2008-01-01

    root resorption or long-time change on pulp vitality after distraction. Conclusions The canine distalization through distraction of the periodontal ligament after reducing interseptal bone resistance was an effective approach to move canines rapidly.

  10. Biological Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the cells of Pulp and Periodontium.%bFGF对人牙髓、牙周膜成纤维细胞生物学效应的研究

    邓蔡; 陈建钢; 庞光明

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the biological effect of bFGF on fibroblasts from pulp and periodontal ligament and evaluate the value of bFGF in clinical pulpal and periodontal therapy.Method: DNA and collagen protein synthesis of human pulp and periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro were investigated in bFGF by 3H-TdR incorporation.Result: The results of 3H-TdR incorporation showed that 20 ng / mL~60 ng / mL bFGF significantly accelerated DNA synthesis of human pulp and periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro.bFGF did not stimulate collagen protein synthesis of human pulp and periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro.Conclusion: These results suggested that bFGF may stimulate DNA and protein synthesis of of human pulp and periodontal ligament, and may play an important role in pulp and periodontal tissue wound healing.%目的:了解碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF)对人牙髓、牙周膜成纤维细胞的生物学效应,为bFGF在牙髓、牙周病中的治疗研究提供新的实验依据.方法:利用H-TdR掺入法观察在bFGF作用下人牙髓、牙周膜成纤维细胞DNA和胶原蛋白合成的情况.结果:20 ng/mL~60 ng/mL bFGF可明显促进人牙髓、牙周膜成纤维细胞DNA的合成(P0.05).结论:人牙髓、牙周膜成纤维细胞是bFGF的靶细胞,其胞膜上可能有bFGF特异性受体的存在,也表明bFGF在牙髓、牙周组织的创伤愈合中可能起重要作用.

  11. Comparative analysis of the effects of TNF-α on proliferation of stem cells from apical papilla(SCAP)and periodontal ligament stem cells(PDLSCs)%TNF-α对根尖乳头干细胞与牙周膜干细胞增殖活性影响的比较研究

    赵璐; 吴佩玲; 于莉; 袁萍; 周春梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to culture rat cells from the apical papilla(SCAP) and periodontal ligament stem cells(PDLSCs) in vitro, to investigate the effects of TNF-α on proliferation of these cells and explore the possibility of their dentinogenesis under inflammation.Methods The apical papilla, as well as the periodontal ligament tissues from the mandibular teeth of young rats were digested in Hanks solution including collagenase and dispase. Characteristics of the immunophenotype of SCAP and PDLSCs was detected by immunolfuorescence technique. The third passage cells were challenged with different concentration of TNF-α and detected for the proliferation activity by MTT. One -Way ANOVA was conducted using SPSS11.0 software package.Results The apical papilla cells and periodontal ligament stem cells all presented elongated shape. They exhibited ifbroblastic characteristics. SCAP and PDLSCs all expressed the characteristic molecules of stem cells.The apical papilla cells had stronger proliferation activity than the dental pulp cells. At the concentration of 10ng/ml and 50ng/ml, TNF -α signiifcantly enhanced the proliferating activity of the two kinds of the cells (P<0.05).Conclusions Stronger proliferation activity of SCAP, especially under inlfammation, would possibly be beneifcial to continuing development of the root of young permanent tooth with dental pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis after appropriate treatment.%目的:体外培养鼠根尖乳头干细胞和牙周膜干细胞,比较研究肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)对两者增殖活性的影响,以期得出在炎症状态下两者用于牙本质再生的可能性。方法:取幼鼠根尖尚未发育完全的健康下颌牙,用酶消化法获得根尖乳头干细胞和牙周膜干细胞;免疫荧光法鉴定干细胞表面标志物;将含有TNF-α浓度为0、5、10、50 ng/ml 的培养液加入两者的第3代细胞中,使用MTT法检测以比较其对两种细胞增

  12. Future dentistry: cell therapy meets tooth and periodontal repair and regeneration.

    Catón, Javier; Bostanci, Nagihan; Remboutsika, Eumorphia; De Bari, Cosimo; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2011-05-01

    Cell-based tissue repair of the tooth and - tooth-supporting - periodontal ligament (PDL) is a new attractive approach that complements traditional restorative or surgical techniques for replacement of injured or pathologically damaged tissues. In such therapeutic approaches, stem cells and/or progenitor cells are manipulated in vitro and administered to patients as living and dynamic biological agents. In this review, we discuss the clonogenic potential of human dental and periodontal tissues such as the dental pulp and the PDL and their potential for tooth and periodontal repair and/or regeneration. We propose novel therapeutic approaches using stem cells or progenitor cells, which are targeted to regenerate the lost dental or periodontal tissue.

  13. Biological transport of tetracycline hydrochloride by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%人牙周膜成纤维细胞对四环素的跨膜转运

    刘宇; 刘洪臣; 吴霞; 鄂玲玲; 冷斌

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate biological transport of tetracycline hydrochloride by human periodontal ligament fibmblasts(HPDLF) for verifying the hypothesis of delivering medicine to the periodonfium and whole bodv through the root canal.Methods HPDLF and MC3,13-E1 cells were ineubated in antibiotics solutions. The intracellulaF antibiotics contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and the cell total protein was measured by bradford protein assay.Results The intracellular contents increased with ineubation time. The extracellular medicine concentration had effect on the intracellular contents. Conclusions Tetracycline hydrochloride can be transported into HPDLF with incubation and this transport is time-dependent and concentration-dependent.%目的 研究人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts,HPDLF)对四环素的跨膜转运,为通过根管局部或全身给药假说提供实验依据.方法 盐酸四环素溶液孵育HPDLF和MC3T3-E1细胞,超声破碎细胞后,高效液相色谱法测定胞内药物含量,考马斯亮蓝法测定细胞蛋白质量.结果 10 mg/L四环素孵育1、5、10 min后细胞内四环素含量与细胞蛋白质量的比值分别为(0.192±0.008)、(0.212±0.082)、(0.620±0.075)ng/μg.20 mg/L四环素孵育5 min后细胞内四环素含量与细胞蛋白质量的比值为(0.503±0.056)ng/μg.10 mg/L四环素孵育5 min后MC3T3-E1细胞内四环素含量与细胞蛋白质量的比值为(0.666±0.560)ng/μg.结论 HPDLF可跨膜转运四环素.转运与孵育时间及细胞外药物浓度相关.

  14. Effects of the. cap alpha. -adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat

    Edwall, B.; Gazelius, B.

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of /sup 125/I/sup -/ during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the ..cap alpha.. 1 and ..cap alpha.. 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response. 32 refs.

  15. Finite element analysis of equine incisor teeth. Part 2: investigation of stresses and strain energy densities in the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone during tooth movement.

    Schrock, P; Lüpke, M; Seifert, H; Staszyk, C

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the hypothetical contribution of biomechanical loading to the onset of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) and to elucidate the physiological age-related positional changes of the equine incisors. Based on high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) datasets, 3-dimensional models of entire incisor arcades and the canine teeth were constructed representing a young and an old incisor dentition. Special attention was paid to constructing an anatomically correct model of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Using previously determined Young's moduli for the equine incisor PDL, finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Resulting strains, stresses and strain energy densities (SEDs), as well as the resulting regions of tension and compression within the PDL and the surrounding bone were investigated during occlusion. The results showed a distinct distribution pattern of high stresses and corresponding SEDs in the PDL and bone. Due to the tooth movement, peaks of SEDs were obtained in the PDL as well as in the bone on the labial and palatal/lingual sides of the alveolar crest. At the root, highest SEDs were detected in the PDL on the palatal/lingual side slightly occlusal of the root tip. This distribution pattern of high SEDs within the PDL coincides with the position of initial resorptive lesions in EOTRH affected teeth. The position of high SEDs in the bone can explain the typical age-related alteration of shape and angulation of equine incisors.

  16. Fabrication of Core-Shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA Electrospun Scaffold for Gene Delivery to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Qiao Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering is the most promising technology for enhancing bone regeneration. Scaffolds loaded with osteogenic factors improve the therapeutic effect. In this study, the bioactive PEI (polyethylenimine/pBMP2- (bone morphogenetic protein-2 plasmid- PLGA (poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid core-shell scaffolds were prepared using coaxial electrospinning for a controlled gene delivery to hPDLSCs (human periodontal ligament stem cells. The pBMP2 was encapsulated in the PEI phase as a core and PLGA was employed to control pBMP2 release as a shell. First, the scaffold characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated. Then the gene release behavior was analyzed. Our results showed that pBMP2 was released at high levels in the first few days, with a continuous release behavior in the next 28 days. At the same time, PEI/pBMP2 showed high transfection efficiency. Moreover, the core-shell electrospun scaffold showed BMP2 expression for a much longer time (more than 28 days compared with the single axial electrospun scaffold, as evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot after culturing with hPDLSCs. These results suggested that the core-shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA scaffold fabricated by coaxial electrospinning had a good gene release behavior and showed a prolonged expression time with a high transfection efficiency.

  17. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory and Osteogenic Abilities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Cell-to-Cell Adhesion to Periodontal Ligament-Derived Fibroblasts

    Suzuki, Keita; Sawada, Shunsuke; Takizawa, Naoki; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in anti-inflammatory events and tissue repair; these functions are activated by their migration or homing to inflammatory tissues in response to various chemokines. However, the mechanism by which MSCs interact with other cell types in inflammatory tissue remains unclear. We investigated the role of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL-Fs) in regulating the anti-inflammatory and osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived- (BM-) MSCs. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-)1 was significantly enhanced by stimulation of PDL-Fs with inflammatory cytokines. MCP-1 induced the migratory ability of BM-MSCs but not PDL-Fs. Expression levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines were increased and decreased, respectively, by direct-contact coculture between MSCs and PDL-Fs. In addition, the direct-contact coculture enhanced the expression of MSC markers that play important roles in the self-renewal and maintenance of multipotency of MSCs, which in turn induced the osteogenic ability of the cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces the migration and homing of BM-MSCs into the PDL inflammatory tissue. The subsequent adherence of MSCs to PDL-Fs plays an immunomodulatory role to terminate inflammation during wound healing and upregulates the expression stem cell markers to enhance the stemness of MSCs, thereby facilitating bone formation in damaged PDL tissue. PMID:28167967

  18. A comparison of the postnatal development of muscle-spindle and periodontal-ligament neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus of the rat.

    Umemura, Tetsuhiro; Yasuda, Kouichi; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Hasumi-Nakayama, Yoko; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2010-04-05

    The trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) is known to include primary afferent neurons of jaw muscle spindles (MS neurons) and periodontal ligament receptors (PL neurons). The aim of this study was to clarify the postnatal development of Vmes neurons by comparing MS neurons with PL neurons using horseradish peroxidase labeling. We measured somal diameter and somal shape of MS and PL neurons in rats from postnatal day (P)7 to P70. No significant changes were seen between postnatal day P7 and P70 in somal diameter or somal shape of MS neurons. Conversely, PL neurons showed a larger somal diameter at P7 than at P14, and in terms of somal profile, multipolar neurons comprised 0% at P7, but 4.8% at P14 and 16.9% at P70. These findings suggest that PL neurons develop with the eruption of teeth, taking into account the fact that tooth eruption occurs from around P14 in rats. Conversely, the lack of postnatal changes in MS neurons is due to the fact that these neurons have been active since the embryonic period, as swallowing starts in utero.

  19. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory and Osteogenic Abilities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Cell-to-Cell Adhesion to Periodontal Ligament-Derived Fibroblasts

    Keita Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are involved in anti-inflammatory events and tissue repair; these functions are activated by their migration or homing to inflammatory tissues in response to various chemokines. However, the mechanism by which MSCs interact with other cell types in inflammatory tissue remains unclear. We investigated the role of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL-Fs in regulating the anti-inflammatory and osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived- (BM- MSCs. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-1 was significantly enhanced by stimulation of PDL-Fs with inflammatory cytokines. MCP-1 induced the migratory ability of BM-MSCs but not PDL-Fs. Expression levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines were increased and decreased, respectively, by direct-contact coculture between MSCs and PDL-Fs. In addition, the direct-contact coculture enhanced the expression of MSC markers that play important roles in the self-renewal and maintenance of multipotency of MSCs, which in turn induced the osteogenic ability of the cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces the migration and homing of BM-MSCs into the PDL inflammatory tissue. The subsequent adherence of MSCs to PDL-Fs plays an immunomodulatory role to terminate inflammation during wound healing and upregulates the expression stem cell markers to enhance the stemness of MSCs, thereby facilitating bone formation in damaged PDL tissue.

  20. Dental age estimation: periodontal ligament visibility (PLV)-pattern recognition of a conclusive mandibular maturity marker related to the lower left third molar at the 18-year threshold.

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Roberts, Graham

    2016-11-03

    The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of periodontal ligament visibility (PLV) at the 18-year threshold. This mandibular maturity marker is graded into four separate age related stages, PLV-A, PLV-B, PLV-C, and PLV-D. These are discernible on a dental panoramic tomograph (DPT). The sample comprised a total of 2000 DPTs evenly divided into half yearly age bands from 16.00 to 25.99 years with 50 females and 50 males in each age band. It was found that PLV-A and PLV-B had minimum values below the 18-year threshold. PLV-C and PLV-D in females had minimum values of 18.08 and 18.58 years, respectively. In males, the minimum values for PLV-C was 18.10 years and PLV-D was 18.67 years. It was concluded that the presence of PLV-C or PLV-D indicates that a subject is over 18 years with a very high level of probability.

  1. Modificações no periodonto de ratos diabéticos após a movimentação ortodôntica Periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement in diabetic rats

    Luis Alberto Sabino Vila Real

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as modificações do ligamento periodontal de incisivos de ratos diabéticos submetidos a forças ortodônticas. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos machos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus com 105 dias de idade foram empregados. Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: C - animais normoglicêmicos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; CAO - animais normoglicêmicos submetidos à movimentação dentária; D - animais diabéticos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; DAO - animais diabéticos submetidos à movimentação dentária. Os animais permaneceram com o dispositivo de movimentação dentária por 5 dias. Foram avaliados o número de vasos sangüíneos e a espessura do ligamento periodontal nos terços cervical, médio e apical dos cortes histológicos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: no lado de tensão, a movimentação dentária nos animais do grupo CAO resultou em um ligamento periodontal mais espesso (17,64% no terço apical, 39,28% no terço médio e 51,35% na região cervical, quando comparado ao grupo C (p 0,05. Ainda no lado de tensão, foram observadas lacunas de reabsorção nos animais dos grupos CAO, D e DAO. O lado de pressão não foi examinado nesta fase do estudo.AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement of the upper incisor in diabetic rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus with 105 days of age were used. The rats were divided in four groups: C - normoglicemic animals not submitted to dental movement; CAO - normoglicemic animals submitted to dental movement; D - diabetic animals not submitted the dental movement; DAO - diabetic animals submitted to dental movement. The animals had remained with dental movement devices during 5 days. The number of sanguine vessels and the thickness of the periodontal ligament were evaluated at cervical, medium and apical histological cut regions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At

  2. Influence of different concentrations of enamel matrix proteins on bioactivity of human periodontal ligament cells%不同质量浓度釉基质蛋白培养人牙周膜细胞的生物活性

    曲哲; 张静莹; 郭英; 马卫东; 马岚

    2015-01-01

      结果与结论:当釉基质蛋白质量浓度在0-100 mg/L范围内,随着其质量浓度的升高,细胞增殖、活性、碱性磷酸酶活性、骨钙素分泌均逐渐升高,以100 mg/L升高最明显;当釉基质蛋白质量浓度增至250 mg/L时,细胞增殖、活性、碱性磷酸酶活性、骨钙素分泌均有所下降,但仍高于0 mg/L组。100 mg/L组在初始观察6 h时,创缘周围的细胞开始向中心生长,待培养12 h时,创缘两侧细胞开始融合,培养20 h后创缘两侧细胞融合完全创缘完全关闭完全,创面愈合优于其他质量浓度组。结果表明釉基质蛋白具有促进牙周膜细胞增殖、分化与迁移的能力。%BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have confirmed that enamel matrix proteins can promote the regeneration of osteoblasts and cementoblast, and then it can achieve approaching physiological periodontal regeneration in the treatment of periodontal defects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of different concentrations of enamel matrix proteins on proliferation, viability, differentiation and migration of human periodontal ligament cels. METHODS: The human periodontal ligament cels at the third generation were gained, and then cultured in serum-free DMEM containing different concentrations of enamel matrix proteins (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 250 mg/L). After 24 hours of culture, proliferation and viability of periodontal ligament cels were measured using [(3)H]-thymidine uptake and MTT assay. After 48 hours of culture, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production were detected with commercial available test kits. When the cels grew as a monolayer, the cel culture fluid was removed, and then with a pipette head, a cel incision, 1 mm wideness, was prepared in a monolayer of cels to further observe the cel fusion continuously within 24 hours. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The proliferation, viability and differentiation of periodontal ligament cels were gradualy increased with

  3. 牙周组织工程中牙龈成纤维细胞的研究进展%Gingival fibroblasts in periodontal tissue engineering

    陈嵩

    2013-01-01

    随着牙周组织工程学的发展,如何选取理想的种子细胞已成为组织修复成功与否的关键.目前,牙周组织工程中应用包括骨髓基质细胞(bone marrow stem cells,BMSCs)、间充质干细胞(mesenchymal stem cells,MSCs)、脂肪干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ADSCs)、牙髓干细胞(dental pulp stem cells,DPSCs)和牙周膜细胞(periodontal ligament cells,PDLCs).它们的种子细胞各有自己的优势和不足.文中就近年来牙周组织工程种子细胞的应用现状及牙龈成纤维细胞的研究进展进行综述.%With the development of periodontal tissue engineering, to achieve ideal seed cells is becoming a key to the success of tissue repair. At present, the seed cells applied to periodontal tissue engineering include bone marrow stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament cells, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. This review updates the present application of seed cells in periodontal tissue engineering and the researches on gingival fibroblasts.

  4. Application of CBCT to evaluate autogenous tooth transplantation of periodontal ligament%应用锥形束CT评价自体牙移植后牙周膜愈合情况

    娄珊; 郑之峻

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of cone beam computed tomography in evaluation of periodontal ligament healing observation of autogenous tooth transplantation, and compare with the traditional X periapical films. Methods 20 patients with autotransplantation during Orthodontic treatment was selected, A total of 21 teeth,and the dentition has been basically aligning and leveling. Application of CBCT to formulate operation scheme of tooth transplantation before operation, after operation on transplantation broker orthodontic fixed, 2 weeks after applying orthodontic force properly, CBCT taken 8 weeks after operation, healing and to investigate the root, periodontal healing statistics. Results CBCT showed the periodontal healing in 9 cases, 10 teeth with tooth, periodontal healing ratio of 48%,While X periapical films shown periodontal healing in 5 cases, 5 teeth with tooth, periodontal healing ratio of 24%. Conclusion Compared with traditional X compared with splinters, CBCT on autotransplantation teeth after root whether periodontal ligament healing judgment more accurate and objective.%目的:用CBCT观察自体牙移植术后发生牙周膜愈合的情况,并且与传统的X根尖片进行对比观察。方法选择2010年3月至2013年3月贵阳市口腔医院收治的经CBCT术前分析评估确定行自体牙移植的20例患者,共21颗牙,牙列已基本排齐整平,应用CBCT对移植牙进行术前手术方案的制定,术后对移植牙行正畸固定,2周后施加适当的正畸力,术后8周摄CBCT,观察牙根愈合情况,并对牙周膜愈合进行统计。结果20例患者的21颗自体牙,CBCT示牙周膜愈合9例共10颗自体牙,牙周膜愈合比例为48%,而X根尖片示牙周膜愈合5例共5颗自体牙,牙周膜愈合比例为24%。结论与传统的X跟尖片相比,CBCT对自体牙移植后牙根是否发生牙周膜愈合情况的判断更加客观和准确。

  5. Purmorphamine promotes osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells under dynamic tensile%purmorphamine促进人牙周膜干细胞应力成骨

    常慧君; 申涛; 董世武; 杨彦春; 张洁; 周继祥

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究purmorphamine在动态张应力促人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem cells,PDLSCs)向成骨细胞分化过程中的作用.方法 分离培养鉴定PDLSCs,在矿化诱导环境中加入purmorphamine,采用Flexcell FX4000T应力加载系统对细胞加力24 h,以Red-time PCR检测成骨相关指标Runx2、alkaline phosphatase(ALP)以及Hedgehog(Hh)通路的标志物GLI1、Pathed1( PTCH1)、Smoothend(SMO).结果 动态张应力作用24 h后,成骨相关指标Runx2、ALP,Hh通路的标志物GHI1、PTCH1、SMO的表达水平明显升高(P<0.05);加入purmorphamine后,成骨相关指标Runx2、ALP,Hh通路的标志物GLI1、PTCH1、SMO的表达水平较加力组均有增强,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 purmorphamine可能通过激活Hh通路,进而增强人PDLSCs应力条件下向成骨细胞分化.%Objective To determine the effect of purmorphamine on the osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells ( PDLSCs) under dynamic strain. Methods PDLSCs were isolated from freshly extracted teeth and identified with flow cytometry for expression of STRO-1 and CD146, and then subcultured into six-well flexible-bottomed Uniflex culture plates. When 80% confluence was achieved, purmorphamine, an activator of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, was added into the wells in mineralization induction medium at the concentration of 1 μxmol/L, and dynamic strains were applied to PDLSCs with the Flex-cell FX-4000T Tension Plus System for 24 h. Then the mRNA expression of osteoblastic related indexes of Runx2, ALP and Hh pathway markers GLI1, PTCH1, SMO was detected by real-time PCR. Results After 24 h loading, the gene expression of osteogenic markers Runx2 and ALP and Hh pathway markers ( GLI1 , PTCH1 and SMO) was all increased (P<0. 05). And the group with purmorphamine treatment showed much higher expression of these genes than the control group and the only mechanical loading group (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion

  6. IRE1α促进人牙周膜成纤维细胞增殖%Effect of IRE1α on proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    彭志庆; 李苹苹; 初颜兵; 王燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究内质网跨膜蛋白IRE1α对人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts,hPDLFs)增殖的影响.方法 将成功构建的人IRE1α基因重组质粒染入hPDLFs细胞,采用免疫印迹法检测IRE1α重组基因在真核细胞内的表达情况,XTT法和流式细胞仪(FCM)检测转染后hPDLFs细胞增殖和细胞周期变化.结果 酶切及测序结果证实IRE1α重组质粒构建成功;免疫印迹分析结果证实,IRE1α重组质粒能在hPDLFs细胞内正确表达;在内质网应激(ERs)状态下,与衣霉素(tunicamycin,TM)对照组相比,XTT检测结果显示:IRE1 α实验组hPDLFs细胞增殖率明显增高(P<0.01);FCM结果分析显示:IRE1α实验组hPDLFs细胞s期比例增加而G1期减少(P<0.05).结论 在ERS状态下,IRE1α促讲hPDLFs细胞增殖,促进hPDLFs细胞从G1期进入S期.%Objective To study the effect of IRE1α on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs). Methods The IRE1α full-length eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transiently transferred into hPDLFs, and the expression of IRE1α was identified by Western blot analysis. The proliferation of hPDLFs was analyzed by XTT assay, and the changes of cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry ( FCM). Results Restriction enzyme digestion and gene sequencing identified that the IRE1α recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed, and the correct expression of IRE1α in hPDLFs was detected by Western blotting. Compared with the control group (tunicamycin), the XTT results showed that the cell proliferation rate of the IRE1α group increased significantly (P <0. 01) , and the FCM results showed that the cell proportion increased at S phase and decreased at G, phase in the IRE1α group (P <0. 05 ) . Conclu-sion IRE1α can improve hPDLFs proliferation, and promote hPDLFs from G1 phase into S phase.

  7. 釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞群骨钙素的影响%Effects of emdogain on the osteocalcin in human periodontal ligament cells

    钟永荣; 程燕飞; 轩东英; 冯二玫; 章锦才

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the expression changes of osteocalcin in human periodontal ligament cells under induction of emdogain (EMD). Methods Cultured human periodontal ligament cell populations (hPDLPs) were exposed to the conditioned culture media containing 100 mg/L EMD for six days. Expression of osteocalcin was detected by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. Results Immunohistochemistry results showed that yellow or brown granules in the cell cytoplasm were visited in the experimental group and the control group hPDLPs; the average optical density value of OCN in the experimental group hPDLPs was 0. 172 43 ±0. 014 85 , and that was 0. 167 01 + 0.017 03 in the control group hPDLPs, there was not statistically significant between the two groups (t = 0. 757 , P = 0.459). Real time polymerase chain reaction showed that the relative expression of osteocalcin is 1. 13 times in the experiment group, compared to the control group. Conclusion The expression of osteocalcin in human periodontal ligament cells induced was not affected by EMD.%目的 研究人牙周膜细胞群(human periodontal ligament cell populations,hPDLPs)在釉基质蛋白(emdogain,EMD)诱导下骨钙素(osteocalcin,OCN)表达的改变.方法 组织块法分离培养人牙周膜细胞,实验组用含100 mg/L EMD的培养液诱导6d,对照组不经EMD诱导培养.免疫细胞化学和实时定量聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)检测成牙骨质细胞矿化相关蛋白OCN的表达.结果 免疫细胞化学结果显示,实验组和对照组hPDLPs细胞胞浆均可见黄色或棕黄色颗粒,OCN表达呈阳性;实验组hPDLPs的OCN检测平均光密度值为0.172 43 ±0.014 85,对照组为0.167 01 ±0.017 03,组间差异无统计学意义(t=0.757,P=0.459);实时定量PCR检测结果显示,实验组骨钙素相对表达量是对照组的1.13倍.结论 EMD对hPDLPs的OCN表达无明显影响.

  8. Increased Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells on Polydopamine Film Occurs via Activation of Integrin and PI3K Signaling Pathways

    Jeong Seok Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA is known to be an effective bioadhesive and bioactive material for controlling stem cell fate, which is important in stem cell-based regenerative medicine; however, the effect of PDA on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the osteoinductive effect of PDA on PDLSCs and examined how this phenomenon is encouraged. Methods: Osteogenic induction of PDLSCs was established by culturing cells on PDA film or on an uncoated polystyrene surface as a control. Osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs was assessed by measurement of intracellular calcium levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as by evaluation of protein expression of osteocalcin (OCN, osterix (OSX, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2. Results: The PDLSCs cultured on PDA film showed higher osteogenic activity than those on the control surface. Moreover, PDLSCs on PDA film expressed increased levels of the integrin adhesion receptors integrin α5 and β1 compared to control cells. Expression of one isoform of the intracellular signaling protein phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, p110γ, was increased in PDLSCs on PDA film in a PDA dose-dependent manner. This signaling protein was found to interact with integrin β1, demonstrating integrin-linked PI3K activation in response to PDA. Finally, the blockage of PI3K reduced the PDA-induced osteogenic activity of PDLSCs. Conclusion: our findings suggest that the bioadhesive PDA stimulates osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs via activation of the integrin α5/β1 and PI3K signaling pathways.

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase acts as a negative regulator of high glucose-induced RANKL expression in human periodontal ligament cells

    FENG Yuan; LIU Jia-qiang; LIU Hong-chen

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that the function of periodontal ligament cells may be affected by high glucose levels.This study investigated the direct effect of high glucose on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in human PDL (hPDL) cells.In addition,we examined whether this effect was mediated via AMPK activation.Methods We examined the expression of osteoprotegerin in hPDL cells cultured at different concentrations of glucose using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),and Western blotting analysis.AMPK phosphorylation in hPDL cells was studied using immunoprecipitate kinase assay and Western blotting.The effect of AMPK activation on RANKL expression in hPDL cells was investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting.Results High glucose levels caused an increase in RANKL mRNA and protein expression in hPDL cells.Moreover,the amount of p-AMPK and AMPK activity was lower in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose levels than in cells exposed to normal glucose levels.Suppression of AMPK by Compound C augmented RANKL expression,and AMPK activation by metformin significantly decreased RANKL expression in hPDL cells.Additionally,metformin down-regulated RANKL expression in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose via AMPK activation.Conclusion High glucose-induced up-regulation of RANKL could be due to decreased AMPK activity,and AMPK activation may be involved in regulating of RANKL expression in hPDL cells.

  10. Preparation of the fast setting and degrading Ca-Si-Mg cement with both odontogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Wang, Kan; Shie, Ming-You

    2016-03-01

    Develop a fast setting and controllable degrading magnesium-calcium silicate cement (Mg-CS) by sol-gel, and establish a mechanism using Mg ions to stimulate human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs) are two purposes of this study. We have used the diametral tensile strength measurement to obtain the mechanical strength and stability of Mg-CS cement; in addition, the cement degradation properties is realized by measuring the releasing amount of Si and Mg ions in the simulated body fluid. The other cell characteristics of hPDLs, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were examined while hPDLs were cultured on specimen surfaces. This study found out the degradation rate of Mg-CS cements depends on the Mg content in CS. Regarding in vitro bioactivity; the CS cements were covered with abundant clusters of apatite spherulites after immersion of 24h, while less apatite spherulites were formatted on the Mg-rich cement surfaces. In addition, the authors also explored the effects of Mg ions on the odontogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation of hPDLs in comparison with CS cement. The proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, odontogenesis-related genes (DSPP and DMP-1), and angiogenesis-related protein (vWF and ang-1) secretion of hPDLs were significantly stimulated when the Mg content of the specimen was increased. The results in this study suggest that Mg-CS materials with this modified composition could stimulate hPDLs behavior and can be good bioceramics for bone substitutes and hard tissue regeneration applications as they stimulate odontogenesis/angiogenesis.

  11. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Oishi, Shuji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hosomichi, Jun; Kuma, Yoichiro; Maeda, Hideyuki; Nagai, Hisashi; Usumi-Fujita, Risa; Kaneko, Sawa; Shibutani, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ono, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis) in the mandibular first molar (M1) region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model. PMID:27695422

  12. Exposure to transforming growth factor-β1 after basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the fibroblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell lines.

    Kono, Kiyomi; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Teramatsu, Yoko; Hamano, Sayuri; Koori, Katsuaki; Akamine, Akifumi

    2013-05-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that promotes the regeneration of the periodontium, the specialized tissues supporting the teeth. bFGF, does not, however, induce the synthesis of smooth muscle actin alpha 2 (ACTA2), type I collagen (COL1), or COL3, which are principal molecules in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue, a component of the periodontium. We have suggested the feasibility of using transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) to induce fibroblastic differentiation of PDL stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of the subsequent application of TGFβ1 after bFGF (bFGF/TGFβ1) on the differentiation of PDLSCs into fibroblastic cells. We first confirmed the expression of bFGF and TGFβ1 in rat PDL tissue and primary human PDL cells. Receptors for both bFGF and TGFβ1 were expressed in the human PDLSC lines 1-11 and 1-17. Exposure to bFGF for 2 days promoted vascular endothelial growth factor gene and protein expression in both cell lines and down-regulated the expression of ACTA2, COL1, and COL3 mRNA in both cell lines and the gene fibrillin 1 (FBN1) in cell line 1-11 alone. Furthermore, bFGF stimulated cell proliferation of these cell lines and significantly increased the number of cells in phase G2/M in the cell lines. Exposure to TGFβ1 for 2 days induced gene expression of ACTA2 and COL1 in both cell lines and FBN1 in cell line 1-11 alone. BFGF/TGFβ1 treatment significantly up-regulated ACTA2, COL1, and FBN1 expression as compared with the group treated with bFGF alone or the untreated control. This method might thus be useful for accelerating the generation and regeneration of functional periodontium.

  13. Engineering the periodontal ligament in hyaluronan-gelatin-type I collagen constructs: upregulation of apoptosis and alterations in gene expression by cyclic compressive strain.

    Saminathan, Aarthi; Sriram, Gopu; Vinoth, Jayasaleen Kumar; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

    2015-02-01

    To engineer constructs of the periodontal ligament (PDL), human PDL cells were incorporated into a matrix of hyaluronan, gelatin, and type I collagen (COLI) in sample holders (13×1 mm) of six-well Biopress culture plates. The loading dynamics of the PDL were mimicked by applying a cyclic compressive strain of 33.4 kPa (340.6 gm/cm(2)) to the constructs for 1.0 s every 60 s, for 6, 12, and 24 h in a Flexercell FX-4000C Strain Unit. Compression significantly increased the number of nonviable cells and increased the expression of several apoptosis-related genes, including initiator and executioner caspases. Of the 15 extracellular matrix genes screened, most were upregulated at some point after 6-12 h deformation, but all were downregulated at 24 h, except for MMPs1-3 and CTGF. In culture supernatants, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) protein levels were upregulated at 24 h; receptor activator of nuclear kappa factor B (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were unchanged; and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) not detected. The low modulus of elasticity of the constructs was a disadvantage-future mechanobiology studies and tissue engineering applications will require constructs with much higher stiffness. Since the major structural protein of the PDL is COLI, a more rational approach would be to permeabilize preformed COLI scaffolds with PDL-populated matrices.

  14. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Shuji Oishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis in the mandibular first molar (M1 region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  15. The investigation of human periodontal ligament cell-sheet in vitro%人牙周韧带细胞膜片的体外实验研究

    张剑英; 付云; 俞少杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate human periodontal ligament cells' capacities of osteogenesis and adipogenesis,and to identify the expression of type-Ⅰ collagen,laminin and fibronectin which are the main components of extracellular matrix in human periodontal ligament cell sheet through establish cell sheet model in vitro experiment.Methods Human periondontal ligament cells were purified and cultured by using enzymes digesting/tissue culture method.Immunocytochemistry was applied to identify the source and putative stem-cell marker STRO-1 of hPDLCs.The second to fourth passages of hPDLCs were cultured in the osteogenic medium and adipogenic medium for indicated days.Alizarin red and Oil red O staining method were applied to identify capabilities of osteogenesis and adipogenesis of hPDLCs.Haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry were applied to identify expression of type-Ⅰ collagen,laminin and fibronectin in hPDLCs cell sheet.Results The cultured hPDLCs demonstrated extensive proliferation and could be expanded in vitro.Immunostaining demonstrated that the cells expressed intermediate filament protein vimentin and the mesenchymal stem-cell marker STRO-1.hPDLCs in the osteogenic medium formed alizarin red-positive nodules.When hPDLCs were incubated in adipogenic medium,the cells developed into oil red O-positive lipid clusters and a significant high expression of type-Ⅰ collagen,laminin and fibronectin in human periodontalligament cell sheet.Conclusions Our findings confirm that hPDLCs contained stem cells population from culture,source identification,expression of the mesenchymai stem cell marker STRO-1,multilineage differentiation potent under defined culture conditions.Our study indicates that the hPDLCs turn out to be an efficient source and cell sheet to be an excellent bio-material that can be used for periodontal tissue regeneration.%目的 观察体外培养人牙周韧带细胞(hPDLCs)的成骨、成脂能力;构建hPDLCs膜片并鉴定膜片

  16. Tumor necrosis factor- α infliximab inhibits osteoclast formation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but does not affect periodontal ligament fibroblast-mediated osteoclast formation

    de Vries, T.J.; Yousovich, J.; Schoenmaker, T.; Scheres, N.; Everts, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is elevated in inflamed periodontal tissues and may contribute to periodontitis progression. TNF-α stimulates formation and activity of osteoclasts, the cells that are recruited in periodontitis, that cause alveo

  17. Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura

    Carlos José Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10, embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours. Specimens were submitted to tangential load on the palatal surface at 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed until fracture. The fracture modes were analyzed as follows: 1 - coronal fracture; 2 - cemento-enamel junction fracture; 3 - partial root fracture; 4 - total root fracture. Statistical analyses by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do material de inclusão e da simulação de ligamento periodontal na resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos. Oitenta incisivos bovinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (n = 10 e, então, incluídos em cilindros com dois materiais, resina acrílica ou resina de poliestireno, usando-se quatro tipos de simulação do ligamento periodontal: 1 - ausência do ligamento; 2 - material de moldagem à base de poliéter; 3 - material de moldagem à base de polissulfeto; e 4 - material elastomérico à base de poliuretano. As amostras foram armazenadas em 100% de umidade a 37°C por 24 horas e então submetidas a carregamento tangencial na superfície palatina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/minuto até a fratura. Os padrões de fratura foram analisados de acordo com: 1 - fraturas coronais; 2 - fratura da junção esmalte-cemento; 3 - fratura parcial da raiz; 4 - fratura radicular total. A análise estatística empregou análise de variância fatorial e teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. Os resultados mostram que o método de inclusão e a simulação do ligamento periodontal

  18. 左旋聚乳酸羟基磷灰石材料上人牙周膜细胞的生长%Growth of human periodontal ligament cells on the poly-L-lactic acid hydroxyapatite

    高永志; 殷志远

    2016-01-01

      结果与结论:①经免疫组化染色,培养所得细胞波形蛋白、碱性磷酸酶染色均呈阳性表达,抗角蛋白染色呈阴性,表明所得细胞为实验所需人牙周膜细胞;②经MTT法检测,不同时间点2组细胞毒性的吸光度(A)值经比较差异均无显著性意义(P>0.05);2组人牙周膜细胞的生长曲线形态基本一致;③共培养1,2,3 d,2组碱性磷酸酶活性经比较差异均无显著性意义(P>0.05);④2组Ⅲ型胶原A值经比较差异均无显著性意义(P >0.05);⑤结果提示,人牙周膜细胞可以在左旋聚乳酸羟基磷灰石材料上正常生长与增殖,未出现细胞毒性等不良反应。%BACKGROUND:Inconstructing tissue-engineered periodontiumin vitto, the effective combination of seed cels with scaffold materials is the key to promote the quality of tissue-engineered periodontium,in which human periodontal ligament cels are commonly used. OBJECTIVE:To explore the growth of human periodontal ligament cels on the poly-L-lactic acid hydroxyapatite. METHODS:Human periodontal ligament cels were isolated and culturedin vitro, and passage 3 cels were chosen to be randomly divided into two groups: celscultured alone as control group, and cultured with poly-L-lactic acid hydroxyapatite as experimental group.After1, 2 and 3 days, alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of type III colagen in the two groups were detected, and the cel growth curve was depicted using MTT method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:By immunohistochemical staining,culturedcels were positive for vimentin and alkaline phosphatase staining and negative for anti-keratin staining, indicating that the cels wereidentifiedas human periodontal ligament cels. By MTT method, there was no significant difference in the absorbance value of two groups at different time points (P> 0.05). And after 1, 2 and 3-day co-culture, the alkaline phosphatase activity levels showed no significant differencebetween two groups

  19. Estrogen enhances the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide).

    E, Ling-Ling; Xu, Wen-Huan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yi; Cai, Dong-Qing; Wen, Ning; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of estrogen on the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on a collagen-based composite scaffold [nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA)]. For this purpose, 48 healthy 3‑month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 2 groups as follows: the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and sham‑operated rats. The PDLSCs were isolated at 3 months after surgery (by which time postmenopausal osteoporosis had developed). The effects of estrogen on the characteristics of these cells seeded in a culture plate and of the cells seeded on nHAC/PLA were then investigated. The PDLSC + nHAC/PLA constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 12 weeks in order to examine the role of estrogen in the bone formation ability of PDLSCs derived from osteoporotic rats. The results from methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that the proliferation of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly higher than that of the cells derived from the rats in the sham-operated group at the stage of logarithmic growth. The staining intensity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the mineralization of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly weaker than that of the cells from the rats in the sham-operated group. When the PDLSCs were seeded on nHAC/PLA, ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, mineral formation and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group were markedly decreased. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly weakened the proliferative ability of the cells derived from the OVX group rats, and enhanced their osteogenic differentiation ability and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, ERα and ERβ. When the constructs were implanted

  20. Root maturation and dentin–pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth

    Sherif S Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin–pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain® gel compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs’ teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino–pulpal complex regeneration.

  1. Root maturation and dentin-pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth.

    Darwish, Sherif S; Abd El Meguid, Shadia H; Wahba, Nadia A; Mohamed, Ahmed A-R; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

    2014-01-01

    The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin-pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®) gel) compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs' teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino-pulpal complex regeneration.

  2. Effects icariin of on the alkline phosphatase activity of human periodontal ligament cells inhibited by LPS%淫羊藿苷对内毒素抑制牙周膜细胞ALP表达的影响

    姜瑛; 王祥; 许华; 刘英群

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of icariin (ICA) on proliferation of huaman periodontal ligament cells (human periodontal ligament cells, hPDLC) and the alkaline phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase, ALP) activity inhibited by LPS. Method: HPDLC were cultured in virto and stimulated with icariin with different concentrations (0, 10-5、 10-6、 10-7、 10-8、 10-9 mol / L) for 96 hours.The ability of proliferation of HPDLC was detected by MTT method.The activity of alkaline phosphatase and the expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was seperately determined by p-Nitrophnyl phosphate (pNPP) method and RT-PCR after being treated with icariin at the concentration of 10-6 mol / L inhibited by LPS. Result: icariin had a dose-dependent effect on the proliferation the hPDLC in a suitable concentration range from l0-6-10-8 mol / L. The alkaline phosphatase activity was remarkably inhibited by incubation of PDLC with 10 μg / mL LPS and was improved in the presence of icariin at the concentration of 10-6 mol / L. Conclusion: Icariin have the effect on the proliferation of PDLC and improve the ALP activity inhibited by LPS, which could help for Peri—apical tissue regeneration.%目的:探讨淫羊藿苷对人牙周膜细胞(periodontal ligament cells,PDLC)增殖及对内毒素(Lipopolysaccharide,LPS)干扰下碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)的影响.方法:原代培养PDLC,MTT法检测不同浓度(0、10-5~10-9 mol/L)淫羊藿苷对PDLC增殖的影响;RT-PCR、对硝基苯酚法测定淫羊藿苷对LPS抑制PDLC的ALP mRNA表达和分泌的影响.结果:淫羊藿苷在一定浓度下(10-6~10-7 mol/L)可促进PDLC增殖;10 μg/mL LPS可抑制PDLC的ALP活性;加入10-6 mol/L淫羊藿苷干扰后,对LPS抑制PDLC的ALP有拮抗作用,可提高其mRNA表达和活性.结论:淫羊藿苷在一定浓度时可促进PDLC增殖;可能通过拮抗LPS抑制其ALP的活性.

  3. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects

  4. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  5. Advanced tissue engineering in periodontal Regeneration

    Seyed Ali Banihashemrad

    2014-01-01

    The old wishes of people were to regenerate lost tissues of periodontium that this fact is achieved by gen and cell therapy .Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation around the tooth by microbes that causes destruction of supporting structure of tissue of tooth such as alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. For treatment of periodontal diseases we can use the biomaterials which help to regenerate the periodontal tissues like; autogenous bone grafts, allograft, guided tissue re...

  6. Abses Periodontal

    2011-01-01

    Abses periodontal adalah suatu inflamasi purulen yang terlokalisir pada jaringan periodonsium. Abses periodontal ini dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan lokasi abses (abses gingiva, abses periodontal dan abses perikoronal), berdasarkan jalannya lesi (abses periodontal akut dan abses periodontal kronis) dan berdasarkan jumlah abses (abses periodontal tunggal dan abses periodontal kronis). Abses periodontal merupakan kasus darurat penyakit periodontal ketiga yang paling sering ...

  7. Biological Behavior of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Simulated Microgravity Environment MA%模拟微重力培养环境下牙周膜干细胞生长状态的研究

    马兆峰; 李石; 牛忠英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth status of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in simulated microgravity in vitro. Methods HPDLSCs were isolated and cultivated, then characterized by immunohistochemis-try of stromal cell antigen-1 ( STRO-1). After 21 days of induction, the results were evaluated by Alizarin red staining and oil' 0' staining. HPDLSCs were co-incubated with microcarrier beads of Cytodex-3, and were placed in rotary cell culture system. Cells morphology and proliferation potential were examined. Results HPDLSCs were cultivated, and growth characteristics and multipotent differentiation were assessed. The results showed that hPDLSCs can be cultured in simulated microgravity environment. On the 1st day (t =5. 590, P =0. 005), the 3rd day ( t = 12. 238, P =0.000) , the 5th day (t = 19.124, P = 0.000), the 7th day (t=35. 103, P =0.000), simulated microgravity statistically promoted the proliferation potential compared with cells in normal gravity environment. Conclusion The simulated microgravity culture system has the potential to be used for the bioengineering reconstruction of the periodontal tissues.%目的 探讨模拟微重力培养体系下人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem cells,HPDLSCs)的生长特点.方法 在体外用有限稀释法克隆化生长获得HPDLSCs,接种于葡聚糖微载体,观察在旋转微重力细胞培养环境下与普通重力环境下细胞生长状态的差异.结果 利用克隆生长法成功获取具备多向分化潜能的HPDLSCs,在微重力环境下的微载体表面细胞多呈半球形,少数铺展为不规则扁平形或长梭形,与普通重力环境相比,细胞生长速度明显加快.结论 三维微重力培养环境可以迅速获得大量的HPDLSCs,为构建工程化牙周组织奠定了实验基础.

  8. P2X7受体对牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的作用%Role of P2X7 receptor in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells

    孙亚男; 魏建敏; 孙薇; 武俊杰; 吴礼安

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Ion channels related to the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cels have been studied. OBJECTIVE:To preliminarily investigate the effect of P2X7 receptor on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cels. METHODS:Human periodontal ligament stem cels were isolated and divided into four groups, cultured in 100 nmol/L adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium, osteogenic medium, 100 nmol/L adenosine triphosphate, and normal culture medium (control group), respectively. After induction for 7 and 14 days, osteogenic effect was detected by alizarin red staining, and expressions of OCN, Runx2 and P2X7 receptor at mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under alizarin red staining, the osteogenic effect of periodontal ligament stem cels was better in the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium than the osteogenic medium group at 7 days, but it was better in the osteogenic medium group than the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium at 14 days (P < 0.05). Results from qRT-PCR showed that, in the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium, the mRNA expression of Runx2 and OCN reached peak at 7 days, but decreased significantly at 14 days (P < 0.05). The expression of P2X7 receptor mRNA in the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium was significantly higher than that in the adenosine triphosphate group at 7 days (P < 0.05), but significantly lower than that in the adenosine triphosphate group at 14 days (P < 0.05). There was no expression of P2X7 receptor mRNA in the osteogenic medium group and control group. Western blot assay showed that at 7 days, the expression of P2X7 receptor peaked in the adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium group at 7 days, which was significantly higher than that in the adenosine triphosphate group, and there was a low expression of P2X7 receptor in the osteogenic medium group and no

  9. 牙周膜相关蛋白1在大鼠牙周组织及牙周膜细胞中表达的研究%Expression of periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 in normal periodontal tissues and cells in rat

    张盼盼; 李纾; 杨丕山; 孙静; 侯超

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究牙周膜相关蛋白1(periodontal ligament-associated protein-1,PLAP-1)在正常牙周组织及牙周膜细胞中的分布和表达,为进一步研究PLAP-1在牙周组织中的作用奠定基础.方法 用免疫组织化学、免疫细胞化学和反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术,对5只正常成年雄性SD大鼠磨牙牙周组织中PLAP-1的组织分布和牙周膜细胞mRNA的表达进行分析.结果 免疫组织化学结果表明,PLAP-1在牙周组织中强阳性表达于牙周膜,而在牙骨质、牙槽骨、牙龈中未见表达.免疫细胞化学结果显示,PLAP-1染色阳性细胞中着色定位于胞质中,胞核染色阴性.RT-PCR电泳结果显示350 bp处出现一条目的 条带,与PLAP-1 mRNA表达的预期结果相同,表明牙周膜细胞在mRNA水平表达PLAP-1.结论 在大鼠正常牙周组织中,PLAP-1在基因及蛋白水平均呈高表达且主要定位于牙周膜细胞中,PLAP-1是否参与调节胶原纤维的网络形成、牙周组织动态平衡等与牙周膜细胞密切相关的各种生理功能还有待进一步深入研究.%Objective To examine the expression of periodontal ligament-associated protein-1(PLAP-1) in the periodontal tissues and periodontal ligament cells(PDLC). Methods The PLAP-1 expression in normal periodontal tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression and mRNA transcription of PLAP-1 in PDLC were investigated by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results PLAP-1 was expressed in periodontium but not in cementum, alveolar bone and gingival tissues. PLAP-1 expression was observed in cell plasma, but not in nuclei. There was a 350 bp electrophoresis band representing PLAP-1 mRNA.Conclusions PLAP-1 may play a role in physiology of periodontal tissues and cells in normal adult rats.

  10. Potential Role of Dentin Sialoprotein by Inducing Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mineralization for Dental Tissue Repair

    Zhi Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentin sialoprotein (DSP is a dentin extracellular matrix protein, a unique marker of dentinogenesis and plays a vital role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin mineralization. Recently, studies have shown that DSP induces differentiation and mineralization of periodontal ligament stem cells and dental papilla mesenchymal cells in vitro and rescues dentin deficiency and increases enamel mineralization in animal models.The hypothesis: DSP as a nature therapeutic agent stimulates dental tissue repair by inducing endogenous dental pulp mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells into odontoblast-like cells to synthesize and to secrete dentin extracellular matrix forming new tertiary dentin as well as to regenerate a functional dentin-pulp complex. As DSP is a nature protein, and clinical procedure for DSP therapy is easy and simple, application of DSP may provide a new avenue for dentists with additional option for the treatment of substantially damaged vital teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Dental caries is the most common dental disease. Deep caries and pulp exposure have been treated by various restorative materials with limited success. One promising approach is dental pulp stem/progenitor-based therapies to regenerate dentin-pulp complex and restore its functions by DSP induction in vivo.

  11. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship

    Preshaw, P. M.; Alba, A. L.; Herrera, D.; Jepsen, S.; Konstantinidis, A.; Makrilakis, K.; Taylor, R

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). It is highly prevalent (severe periodontitis affects 10–15% of adults) and has multiple negative impacts on quality of life. Epidemiological data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear r...

  12. 人牙周膜干细胞的分离培养及体外诱导分化研究%Isolation, Identification and Differentiation Induction of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Vitro

    徐斌; 徐婕; 刘宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and identify the periodontal ligament stem cells. Methods: Periodontal ligament cells (PDLSCs) were obtained from healthy young human teeth extracted for orthodontic reason. PDLSCs were isolated by limited dilute method. Immunohistochemistry procedure was employed to detect the surface marker of the cloned cells. Multidirectional differentiation potential of PDLSCs were evaluated. Results: The acquired cells had clonality. The test of the cells in vimentin and STRO-1 proved positive, and their multidirectional differentiation ability was confirmed in vitro. Conclusion; Cloning incubation may be the effective way to isolate and purify the periodontal ligament stem cells. The acquired cells showed the characteristics of stem cells.%目的:从成体人牙周组织中分离培养牙周膜干细胞,研究其生物学特性并进行诱导分化,为牙周组织工程提供可靠的种子细胞来源.方法:选取12~20岁的年轻患者因正畸拔除的健康牙齿,采用酶消化组织块培养法得到牙周膜细胞,待细胞达一定量后用有限元稀释法进行单细胞克隆,筛选牙周膜干细胞( PDLSCs).计算细胞克隆形成率(CFU- F);免疫细胞化学染色检测细胞的表面蛋白表达;通过对牙周膜干细胞进行体外成骨、成软骨、成脂肪诱导,检测其多向分化潜能.结果:获得纯化的人牙周膜干细胞,其在体外具有一定的克隆形成能力,该细胞免疫细胞化学检测显示波形丝蛋白(vimentin)、STRO-1表达阳性,诱导条件下可向成骨细胞、软骨细胞、脂肪细胞方向分化,符合干细胞的特征.结论:从人年轻恒牙牙周膜中可以分离培养得到牙周膜干细胞,其具有较高的增殖能力和间充质干细胞表面特征,在体外诱导下能分化为成骨样细胞、软骨细胞、脂肪细胞,证实该细胞具有多向分化能力,具有作为牙周组织工程种子细胞来源的可能,为牙周组织工程的应用奠定了实验基础.

  13. 牙周膜干细胞膜片构建的生物性牙根生物学活性研究%Biological activity of biological roots constructed by periodontal ligament stem cell sheet

    唐雪鹏; 李适廷; 王崇; 管付岩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To co-culture the identified human periodontal ligament stem cell membranes (hPDLSC) respectively with pretreated dentin matrix (TDM) and hydroxyapatite /tricalcium (HA-TCP) , and evaluate the effects of different scaffolds on stem cell differentiation. Methods Monolayer periodontal ligament stem cell membrane was incubated with two different scaffold materials for 1 week, and implanted into osteoporosis rats. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological section, the microsture changes were dynamically observed. Results A lot of mineral deposition and fibrous tissue were formed in the dentin matrix (TDM) group and there was some irregular fibrous tissue regeneration in the HA-TCP group without obvious mineral material generation. Conclusions hPDLSC/TDM composite is more suitable for the stem cells to fully develope their own biological characteristics. It can be more suitable for hPDLSC to differentiate into periodontium in suitable microenvironment.%目的:将经过鉴定的人牙周膜干细胞(hPDLSC)膜片分别与支架材料预处理牙本质片(TDM)和羟基磷灰石/磷酸三钙(HA- TCP)进行体外共培养,评价不同支架对干细胞分化的影响。方法将单层牙周膜干细胞膜片与2种不同支架材料TDM和HA- TCP分别共培养1周,植入裸鼠皮下,通过扫描电镜和组织学动态观察复合体显微结构变化。结果细胞膜片与TDM边界处结合更为紧密;边界大量矿物沉积和纤维样组织生成;而在HA- TCP组只有单一的走形相对规则的纤维组织生成,未有明显矿化沉积生成。结论复合的hPDLSC/TDM组更适合具有生物学特点的干细胞发挥其特性,在合适的微环境下使hPDLSC向成牙周组织方向定向分化。

  14. Biological transport of cefotaxime sodium by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%人牙周膜成纤维细胞对头孢噻肟钠的跨膜转运

    刘宇; 刘洪臣; 吴霞; 鄂玲玲; 冷斌

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, HPDLF)对头孢噻肟钠的跨膜转运,为根管牙周局部及全身给药假说提供实验依据.方法:头孢噻肟钠溶液孵育HPDLF和MC3T3-E1细胞,超声破碎细胞后,HPLC测定不同时间点的胞内药物含量,考马斯亮蓝法测定细胞蛋白总量.结果:100 μg/ml的头孢噻肟钠孵育1、5、10 min时HPDLF胞内含量分别是(0.104±0.030) ng/μg、(0.151±0.007) ng/μg、(0.161±0.046) ng/μg;孵育5 min时, MC3T3-E1胞内含量(0.096±0.027) ng/μg.结论:HPLC可用于细胞内头孢噻肟钠的测定.头孢噻肟钠在HPDLF内存在跨膜转运,这种转运存在着细胞差异.%Objective: To investigate biological transport of cefotaxime sodium by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) to verify the hypothesis of delivering medicine to periodontium and the whole body through the root canal. Methods; HPDLF and MC3T3-El cells were incubated in cefotaxime sodium solutions. The intracellular antibiotics contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the total proteins were measured by Bradford protein assay. Results: The HPDLF intracellular contents were (0.104 ±0.030) ng/μg, (0. 151 ±0.007) ng/μg, (0. 161 ±0.046) ng/μg at 1, 5, 10 min respectively, when incubated in 100 μg/ml antibiotics solution. The MC3T3-E1 intracellular content was (0.096 ±0.027) ng/μg at 5 min, when incubated in 100 H#/ml antibiotics solution. Conclusion; HPLC is an accurate, sensitive method for measurement of the intracellular antibiotics. Cefotaxime sodium can be transported by HPDLF. The transport is time-dependent and cell specific.

  15. [The use of Emdogain in periodontal and osseous regeneration

    Sculean, A.; Rathe, F.; Junker, R.; Becker, J.; Schwarz, F.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i. e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in per

  16. Emdogain in regenerative periodontal therapy. A review of the literature.

    Sculean, A.; Windisch, P.; Dori, F.; Keglevich, T.; Molnar, B.; Gera, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the

  17. Additive Biomanufacturing : An Advanced Approach for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    Carter, Sarah-Sophia D; Vaquette, Cedryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, composed of hard (i.e. alveolar bone and cementum) and soft tissues (i.e. gingiva and periodontal ligament) surrounding and supporting the teeth. In severe cases, reduced periodontal suppo

  18. 乏氧微环境下机械应力对人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的影响%Effects of mechanical stress on osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells under hypoxia

    许悦; 李璐; 徐艳

    2016-01-01

    人牙周膜干细胞是牙周组织中具有自我更新和多向分化潜能的一类成体干细胞,在特定诱导条件下可以成骨分化。牙周膜处于一个相对乏氧的环境,人牙周膜干细胞在牙周膜中承载着多种机械应力。探讨乏氧环境下机械应力对人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的影响更接近于体内环境,更有助于获得真实的牙周组织改建的实验室资料。该文对乏氧微环境下机械应力对人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的影响做一系统性回顾。%Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), which reside in the perivascular space of the periodontium, are a kind of adult stem cells with self-renewal capacity and potential of multi-directional differentiation, and are able to induce osteogenic differentiation under specific condition. The periodontium exists in a hypoxic microenvironment and the hPDLSCs constitutively receive mechanical stress. The aim of this review is to get the laboratory data of periodontal tissue reconstruction by reviewing relevant literature that assesses the effects of tensile stress on osteogenic differentiation of hPLSCs under hypoxia.

  19. Migration and Differentiation of GFP-transplanted Bone Marrow-derived Cells into Experimentally Induced Periodontal Polyp in Mice.

    Matsuda, Saeka; Shoumura, Masahito; Osuga, Naoto; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Nakano, Keisuke; Okafuji, Norimasa; Ochiai, Takanaga; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Perforation of floor of the dental pulp is often encountered during root canal treatment in routine clinical practice of dental caries. If perforation were large, granulation tissue would grow to form periodontal polyp. Granulation tissue consists of proliferating cells however their origin is not clear. It was shown that the cells in granulation tissue are mainly from migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the bone marrow. Hence, this study utilized GFP bone marrow transplantation mouse model. The floor of the pulp chamber in maxillary first molar was perforated using ½ dental round bur. Morphological assessment was carried out by micro CT and microscopy and GFP cell mechanism was further assessed by immunohistochemistry using double fluorescent staining with GFP-S100A4; GFP-Runx2 and GFP-CD31. Results of micro CT revealed alveolar bone resorption and widening of periodontal ligament. Histopathological examination showed proliferation of fibroblasts with some round cells and blood vessels in the granulation tissue. At 2 weeks, the outermost layer of the granulation tissue was lined by squamous cells with distinct intercellular bridges. At 4 weeks, the granulation tissue became larger than the perforation and the outermost layer was lined by relatively typical stratified squamous epithelium. Double immunofluorescent staining of GFP and Runx2 revealed that both proteins were expressed in spindle-shaped cells. Double immunofluorescent staining of GFP and CD31 revealed that both proteins were expressed in vascular endothelial cells in morphologically distinct vessels. The results suggest that fibroblasts, periodontal ligament fibroblasts and blood vessels in granulation tissue were derived from transplanted-bone marrow cells. Thus, essential growth of granulation tissue in periodontal polyp was caused by the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow, which differentiated into fibroblasts and later on differentiated into

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

    Edgar Ledesma-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology.

  1. The application of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) in regenerative periodontal therapy: a review.

    Sculean, A.; Schwarz, F.; Becker, J.; Brecx, M.

    2007-01-01

    Regenerative periodontal therapy aims at reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures such as new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Findings from basic research indicate that enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) has a key role in periodontal wound healing. Hi

  2. Ligament reconstruction.

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  3. Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cell Populations to Cementoblasts under Induction of Emdogain: A Preliminary Study%Emdogain诱导人牙周膜细胞群向成牙骨质细胞分化的研究

    钟永荣; 轩东英; 黄雁红; 谢宝仪; 章锦才

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨人牙周膜细胞群(human periodontal ligament cell populations,hPDLPs)在Emdogain(EMD,商品化的猪釉基质蛋白)诱导下生物学特性的改变.方法 组织块法分离培养牙周膜细胞,用含100 mg/L EMD的培养液诱导6 d,光镜下观察细胞形态改变,扫描电镜观察细胞在牙骨质片上的形态变化.免疫细胞化学检测成牙骨质细胞相关矿化蛋白:骨涎蛋白(bone sialoprotein,BSP)、Ⅰ型胶原蛋白(collagen Ⅰ,COLⅠ)的表达.结果 EMD诱导后细胞由长梭形向多角形的类成牙骨质细胞分化.免疫组织化学检测结果显示诱导后BSP、COLⅠ的表达增强.结论 EMD可以诱导人牙周膜细胞群向类成牙骨质细胞方向分化.

  4. [Periodontitis and tissue regeneration].

    Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2005-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.

  5. 儿童恒牙全脱出牙周组织预后的回顾性研究%Retrospective study about periodontal ligament healing of replanted permanent teeth in children

    白洁; 赵玉鸣; 秦满

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the prognosis about periodontal ligament healing of replanted perma-nent teeth in children and to examine the associated factors.Methods: The sample consisted of 49 children with 61 avulsed permanent teeth, whose injuries had been managed in the period from 2000 to 2012.The clinical data of replanted teeth were collected, and the follow-up period was no less than 12 months .The factors were analyzed in relation to postoperative outcomes, classified as functional periodon-tal healing ( FH ) , infection-related ( inflammatory ) resorption ( IRR ) and replacement resorption ( RR) .Results:The functional healing rate was 23.0%, while replacement resorption rate was 72.1%. The replacement resorption ( ankylosis ) was usually observed earlier by clinical examination than by radiographic examination.86.0% (40/47) resorptive processes were diagnosed within the first year. Physiological storages, such as milk, saline and saliva were significantly better to periodontal ligament healing than nonphysiological storages, such as tap water and sterilizing solutions ( chloramine and alco-hol) .Functional healing was found significantly more frequent in canines and premolars.Conclusion:The factor significantly affecting periodontal ligament healing is storage medium.Replacement resorption is the most common type of root resorption.The replacement resorption diagnosis must combine the radio-graphic examination with the clinical examination.It is better to follow up more than 1 year after tooth re-plantation.%目的:对儿童恒牙全脱出后再植的病例进行回顾性研究,观察再植牙的牙周组织预后类型和各类根吸收出现的时间,分析影响再植牙牙周组织预后的可能因素。方法:对2000年至2012年在北京大学口腔医院就诊的儿童恒牙全脱出系统病历进行回顾性研究,要求观察期大于12个月,记录再植牙的预后和各类牙根吸收出现的时间,分析影响再植牙预后的相

  6. [The use of Emdogain in periodontal and osseous regeneration].

    Sculean, Anton; Rathe, Florian; Junker, Rüdiger; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank; Arweiler, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i. e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in periodontal wound healing. Histological results from experiments in animals and from human case reports have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD based on the existing evidence.

  7. Anesthetic effect on mandibular permanent molar by periodontal ligament injection using single tooth anesthetic delivery system%牙周韧带注射对下颌磨牙牙髓麻醉效果的临床观察

    杨勤; 杨素真; 张国金; 郑晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the anesthetic effect on mandibular permanent molar by periodontal ligament (PDL) injection using single tooth anesthetic (STA) delivery system. Methods 120 mandibular permanent molars diagnosised as deep caries, chronic pulpitis and acute pulpitis were randomly divided into two groups. Using STA system, 60 teeth received PDL injection by standard technique, 60 teeth received PDL injection by improved technique. After anesthetic injection, cavity filling treatment or root canal therapy was performed. Anesthetic effectiveness according to pain sense during treatment period was recorded. Results The anesthetic effect rate on mandibular permanet molars was 92.5%. In deep caries group, the anesthetic effect rate was 100. 0%. In chronic pulpitis group, the anesthetic effective rate was 90%. In acute pulpitis group, the anesthetic effect rate was 85% injected by standard technique and 90% injected by improved technique respectively. There was no significant statistic difference between standard and improved technique (χ2 = 9.445, P = 0.49 ). Conclusion It is a satisfied approach to use either standard or improved technique in PDL injection with STA system in mandibular permanent molar anesthesia.%目的 观察单颗牙麻醉(single tooth anesthesia,STA)系统对下颌磨牙进行牙周韧带(periodontal ligament,PDL)注射后的牙髓麻醉效果.方法 120颗患牙分为深龋、慢性牙髓炎、急性牙髓炎3组,每组各40颗.每组再按照随机原则平均分为2个亚组,分别采用STA系统标准法和改良法麻醉,其中标准法注射点为舌侧PDL,改良法注射点为颊侧PDL.观察记录患者治疗中的疼痛反应,评价牙髓麻醉效果.结果 STA系统对下颌磨牙进行PDL注射后牙髓麻醉的总有效率为92.5%.深龋组标准法和改良法的牙髓麻醉有效率均为100%;慢性牙髓炎组标准法和改良法的牙髓麻醉有效率均为90%;急性牙髓炎组标准法的牙髓麻醉有效率为85

  8. 糖基化终产物受体在大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞中的表达%Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-product in rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    邓天政; 吕晶; 冯岩; 李冬霞; 刘冰; 逄键梁; 柯杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) produced by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts ( PDL) cultured in vitro. Methods To collect rat periodontal ligament firbroblast induced by 50, 100, 200 mg/L advanced glycation end products-bovine serum albumin ( AGE-BSA) 200 mg/L BSA and blank control in DMEM in vitro, which were group A, B, C, D, E respectively. Detect mRNA of RAGE using RT-PCR and protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Results Immunohistochemistry showed the protein expression ofRAGE in group A, B, C, and the expression level elevated with the increase of AGE-BSA concentration. Group D and E did not express RAGE protein. RT-PCR proved the gene of RAGE expresses in group A, B, C. Group D expressed a little, group E did not express. Conclusion RAGE can be produced by PDL cultured in vitro induced by AGE-BSA.%目的 研究体外培养大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞在糖基化终产物诱导下糖基化终产物受体( receptor for advanced glycation end-product,RAGE)的表达情况.方法 收集第三代体外培养的大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞,在含有终浓度为50、100、200 mg/L的糖基化牛血清白蛋白、200 ms/L的牛血清白蛋白以及不含上述蛋白成分培养基内孵育48h,分别设为A组、B组、C组、D组、E组.免疫组织化学法、反转录-聚合酶链反应(reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)检测细胞内RAGE蛋白及mRNA表达.结果 免疫组织化学结果显示A、B、C组中牙周膜成纤维细胞内RAGE蛋白表达均为阳性,且随浓度增高,表达强度略有增强,而D及E组无表达;RT-PCR检测发现A、B、C组RAGE mRNA均表达且表达强度随浓度增高而增强,D组有少量表达,E组不表达.结论 体外培养的牙周膜成纤维细胞在糖基化终产物诱导下能够表达RAGE.

  9. 人参皂苷Rg1促进人牙周膜干细胞增殖与成骨分化%Promotion of ginsenoside Rg1 on proliferation and osteogenic potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells

    王萍; 周玥; 王亚平; 屈晨

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察人参皂苷Rg1对体外培养的人牙周膜干细胞(periodontal ligament stem cells,PDLSCs)增殖和成骨分化的影响.方法 选取第3代PDLSCs,采用MTT法和细胞周期检测不同浓度(0.25、0.5、1、2、4μmol/L)人参皂苷Rg1对PDLSCs增殖的影响;采用碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性、实时荧光定量RT-PCR和放免法检测人参皂苷Rg1对PDLSCs成骨分化的影响;采用ELISA方法检测人参皂苷Rg1对PDLSCs碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)表达的影响.结果 与对照组比较,浓度为0.5、1、2μmol/L的人参皂苷Rg1能明显提高PDLSCs的增殖能力(P<0.05),其中浓度为1μmol/L的促增殖作用最强,S+G2/M期细胞百分率明显高于对照组(P<0.05);浓度为1μmol/L的人参皂苷Rg1组ALP活性、骨钙素(osteocalcin,OCN)和bFGF的表达水平明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 人参皂苷Rg1对体外培养的PDLSCs有促进增殖和成骨分化的作用.%Objective To evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rgl on the proliferation and osteogenic potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).Methods PDLSCs at passage 3 were incubated with different concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 (0.25,0.5,1,2 and 4 μmol/L).The effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the proliferative ability of PDLSCs was evaluated by MTT assay,and flow cytometry was used for detecting cell cycle.The osteogenic potential of the cells was assayed by ALP enzymatic activity,realtime RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay,respectively.Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Compared with the control group,the proliferative ability of PDLSCs in ginsenoside Rg1 groups (0.5,1 and 2 μmol/L) was significantly enhanced (P <0.05),especially in the ginsenoside Rg1 group (1 μmol/L).Cell cycle analysis showed that ginsenoside Rg1 (1 μmol/L) significantly increased the proportion of PDLSCs in proliferative phase (S + G2/M phase).ALP activity and the

  10. Effect of platelet-derived growth factor beta on in vitro proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells%血小板衍化生长因子β对体外人牙周膜细胞增殖分化的影响

    林景广; 亓峰; 葛一鸣; 韩杰

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontal supporting tissues destroy and attachment losses are the main reasons for tooth loss. Cytokine can promote periodontal tissue regeneration.OBJECTIVE: To research the effect of platelet-derived growth factor- β (PDGF-β) in the human periodontal ligament cells proliferation.METHODS: Human fibroblasts were cultured with tissue block method in vitro. The passaged cells were identified by Bosi protein,keratin immunohistochemistry for qualitative analysis. PDGF-β was added to induce periodontal ligament cells proliferation, and the absorbance value was measured by MTT method.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cell proliferation was accelerated after adding 10 μg/L PDGF-β factor, the absorbance value of the experimental group was greater than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The findings demonstrated that PDGF-β can promote the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells.%背景:牙周支持组织破坏及附着丧失是导致失牙的最主要原因,细胞因子能促进牙周组织再生形成新附着.目的:观察血小板衍化生长因子β在人牙周膜成纤维细胞增殖过程中的作用.方法:体外利用组织块法培养人牙周膜成纤维细胞,对传代后细胞进行组织来源鉴定,通过波丝蛋白、角蛋白免疫组化染色进行定性分析,并加入生物因子血小板衍化生长因子β对人牙周膜成纤维细胞进行增殖诱导,采用MTT 法测定吸光度值.结果与结论:加入质量浓度为10 μg/L 的血小板衍化生长因子β后,细胞增殖加速,在加入生长因子血小板衍化生长因子β后,实验组的吸光度显著高于对照组,说明血小板衍化生长因子β对人牙周膜成纤维细胞的增殖具有明显的促进作用.

  11. Assessment of the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament in the lower third molars for the purpose of forensic age estimation in living individuals.

    Olze, Andreas; Solheim, Tore; Schulz, Ronald; Kupfer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The main criterion for dental age estimation in living individuals is the mineralisation of third molars. However, the mineralisation of third molars can be completed before the forensically relevant age of 18 years has been attained. In a material of 1,198 orthopantomograms from 629 females and 569 males aged between 15 and 40 years, the radiographic visibility of the periodontal membrane of fully mineralised third molars was assessed according to stages 0, 1, 2 and 3. Stage 0 first appeared at the age of 17.2 years in females and at the age of 17.6 years in males. Stage 1 was first achieved by females between 18.9 and 20.0 years and by males between 20.1 and 20.2 years. The earliest appearance of stage 2 was between 22.5 and 23.1 years in females and at 22.3 years in males. The occurrence of stage 3 was first found between 24.6 and 25.2 years in females and between 25.4 and 26.2 years in males. If stage 1 is determined, it is, therefore, possible to prove that an individual has already attained the legally relevant age of 18 years. For stages 2 and 3, it can be stated beyond reasonable doubt that a person is over 21 years of age.

  12. Regeneration of periodontal tissues: guided tissue regeneration.

    Villar, Cristina C; Cochran, David L

    2010-01-01

    The concept that only fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells have the potential to re-create the original periodontal attachment has been long recognized. Based on this concept, guided tissue regeneration has been applied with variable success to regenerate periodontal defects. Quantitative analysis of clinical outcomes after guided tissue regeneration suggests that this therapy is a successful and predictable procedure to treat narrow intrabony defects and class II mandibular furcations, but offers limited benefits in the treatment of other types of periodontal defects.

  13. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    Nourelahi; Roshannia; Kameli; Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodonta...

  14. 鼠根端乳头条件培养基诱导下的牙周膜细胞膜片与牙本质管和煅烧骨间的牙周膜再生%Periodontal ligament regeneration using apical tooth germ cell-conditioned medium induced periodontal ligamerit cells sheet between dental tube and ceramic biologic bone

    宁慧影; 刘宏伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用鼠根端乳头条件培养基(APTG-CM)与牙周膜细胞(PDLCs)建立间接共培养体系,探讨牙周组织再生的研究.方法 胶原酶联合组织块法获得人PDLCs,用波形蛋白和角蛋白鉴定PDLCs的来源.APTG-CM诱导PDLCs 28d,通过免疫细胞化学法检测PDLCs中骨钙素(OCN)、Ⅰ型胶原(COL Ⅰ)、骨涎蛋白(BSP)的表达;观察细胞外部形态.体外构建牙本质管与牙周膜细胞膜片和煅烧骨(CBB)颗粒移植体,植入裸鼠皮下8周,观察牙周组织再生情况.结果 体内实验结果显示:经过APTG-CM诱导后,PDLCs在牙本质和CBB表面均有牙骨样基质形成,且在CBB表面有纤维组织的黏附和垂直嵌入.对比而言,PDLCs的生长在CBB的表面要好于在牙本质管.而对照组无纤维的垂直嵌入.结论 经过APTG-CM孵育的PDLCs有向成牙骨质细胞谱系转化的功能,APTG-CM有利于牙周组织再生.%Objective The purpose of this study was to establish an indirect co-culture system of rat apical tooth germ-conditioned medium (APTG-CM) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Methods PDLCs were isolated and cultured through the method of enzyme-digestion. Vimentin and cytokeratin(CK) were used to demonstrate the ceils'mesenchymal derivation. Co-culture system of APTG-CM and PDLCs for 28 days, osteocalcin(OCN), collagen type Ⅰ(COL I ) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were detected in PDLCs by immunocytochemistry. Morphological changes were observed by inverted microscope. With building a transplant by dental tube, periodontal ligament cell sheet and ceramic biologic bone (CBB) in vitro, then, the combinations of dental tube and PDLCs incubated by APTG-CM were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice for 8 weeks. Results This study demonstrated that cellular cementum-like tissue formed along the dentin surface and CBB, with fibrous tissue adjacent or inserted into CBB in vivo. PDLCs were grown better in the CBB than in dentin tubes. And the vertical fibers can't embed

  15. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Periodontal regeneration

    Subramaniam M Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search. All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

  16. Periodontal cell implantation contributes to the regeneration of the periodontium in an indirect way

    Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Yan, X.; Jansen, J.A.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common human infectious disease. Regeneration of bone and soft tissue defects after periodontitis remains challenging, although the transplantation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells seems a liable strategy. However, little is known about the function of PDL cells after tr

  17. 两种细胞膜片对牙生物性种植体牙周再生影响的动物实验%Periodontal tissue in a bio-implant by periodontal ligament cells sheet and bone marrow stromal cells sheet

    孙传明; 刘宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的 应用牙周膜细胞(periodontal ligament cells,PDLC)膜片、骨髓基质细胞(bone marrow stromal cells,BMSC)膜片与自体牙根体外构建牙生物性种植体,研究构建具有新生牙周组织支持的生物性牙根的可行性.方法 拔除2只比格犬下颌两侧双尖牙制作缺牙区,将比格犬自体牙根预备成近似圆柱状.培养犬第3代PDLC和BMSC成细胞膜片,体外将PDLC和BMSC膜片单独或共同包裹于牙根表面构建自体牙根种植体,将种植体分为4组:①双膜片组(每只犬2颗),将PDLC、BMSC先后包裹于同一牙根表面;②PDLC膜片组(每只犬2颗),将PDLC单膜片包裹于牙根表面;③BMSC膜片组(每只犬2颗),将BMSC单膜片包裹于牙根表面;④无膜片组(空白对照组)(每只犬1颗),无膜片牙根.制作缺牙区手术8周后,将种植体植入自体缺牙区牙槽嵴,12周时取材制作石蜡切片行HE和Masson三色染色,观察各组切片的组织学结果.结果 PDLC膜片组种植体根面可见包括牙骨质、牙周膜及牙槽骨的牙周组织样结构,其中可见类似牙周穿通纤维样组织垂直插入根面及骨面;双膜片组种植体和BMSC膜片组种植体根面多为骨性结合;空白对照组亦未见牙周组织样结构形成.结论 PDLC膜片能促进牙生物性种植体的牙周再生,可部分再生出包括牙骨质、牙周膜和牙槽骨的复杂牙周组织.%Objective To fabricate the bio-implant supported by regenerated periodontal tissue utilizing periodontal ligament cells(PDLC)-bone marrow stromal cells(BMSC) sheet and natural root.Methods Premolars of 2 beagle dogs were extracted to prepare the implanted area.Autologous tooth roots were carved into cylinders.PDLC and BMSC separated from beagle dogs were cultured into cell sheets in medium.Tooth roots were wrapped by one type of cell sheets or both to fabricate bio-implant and divided into four groups,tooth roots were wrapped by PDLC sheets and BMSC sheets successively (2 samples

  18. PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress response is involved in osteodifferentiation of human periodontal ligament cells under cyclic mechanical force.

    Yang, Shuang-Yan; Wei, Fu-Lan; Hu, Li-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ling

    2016-08-01

    To prevent excess accumulation of unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), eukaryotic cells have signaling pathways from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus. These processes are known as the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response. Protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a major transducer of the ERS response and it directly phosphorylate α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in translational attenuation. Phosphorylated eIF2α specifically promoted the translation of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 is a known important transcription factor which plays a pivotal role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Furthermore, ATF4 is a downstream target of PERK. Studies have shown that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signal pathway mediated by ERS was involved in osteoblastic differentiation of osteoblasts. We have known that orthodontic tooth movement is a process of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) osteodifferentiation and alveolar bone remodeling under mechanical force. However, the involvement of PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signal pathway mediated by ERS in osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under mechanical force has not been unclear. In our study, we applied the cyclic mechanical force at 10% elongation with 0.5Hz to mimic occlusal force, and explored whether PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway mediated by ERS involved in osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under mechanical force. Firstly, cyclic mechanical force will induce ERS and intensify several osteoblast marker genes (ATF4, OCN, and BSP). Next, we found that PERK overexpression increased eIF2α phosphorylation and expression of ATF4, furthermore induced BSP, OCN expression, thus it will promote osteodifferentiation of hPDLCs; mechanical force could promote this effect. However, PERK(-/-) cells showed the opposite changes, which will inhibit osteodifferentiation of hPDLCs. Taken together, our study proved that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway

  19. Expression of TypeⅠCollagen mRNA in Rat Molar Periodontal Ligament Under Normal Bite Force%正常力大鼠磨牙牙周膜Ⅰ型胶原mRNA的表达

    刘飞; 赵云凤; 王华蓉; 李甘地

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The main component of the periodontal ligament(PDL) is collagen fiber, especially typeⅠcollagen, and collagen plays an important role in PDL. The aim of this study is to observe the expression of rat PDL mRNA under normal bite force and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of these changes in type Ⅰ collagen mRNA.Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were used, and animals were intra_cardiac perfused with a solution of 4% polyformaldehyde under anesthesia. Dissected mandibles were immersed in the same fixation for 6 hours and subsequently decalcified in EDTA. The demineralized specimens were embedded in paraffin and cut into slices with thickness 5 μm. The probe was synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin. Expression of typeⅠcollagen mRNA was measured by using in situ hybridization(ISH).Results: Under the normal bite force , the mRNA expression of typeⅠ collagen was very strong on the whole, including the alveolar bone side, the root side and the area between them. Positive signals were located mainly in the cytoplasm and some in the nuclei. But the mRNA expression of typeⅠ collagen still had spatial characteristics. The signals in some fibroblasts were apparently stronger than those in other fibroblasts in the apical 1/3 fragment of the roots. The signal of typeⅠ collagen mRNA was strong near the root sides. The expression signal on the proximal alveolar walls was strong,however, on the distal alveolar wall, there was no expression.Conclusion: The expression of typeⅠcollagen mRNA is closely related with bite force.%目的:初探正常咬合力下大鼠牙周膜Ⅰ型胶原在分子水平的改建情况。方法:选用雄性Wistar大鼠,采用地高辛标记寡核苷酸探针原位杂交法,检测大鼠牙周膜Ⅰ型胶原mRNA的表达情况。结果:大鼠磨牙牙周膜有很强的Ⅰ型胶原信号,分布基本均匀,但仍具有一定的空间特异性:近中侧牙槽骨骨壁上有较多致密信号,而远中侧无信号。结论:

  20. TGF-β-Operated Growth Inhibition and Translineage Commitment into Smooth Muscle Cells of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Smad- and p38 MAPK-Dependent Signals

    Mariko Yoshida, Naoto Okubo, Naoyuki Chosa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Miho Ibi, Masaharu Kamo, Seiko Kyakumoto, Akira Ishisaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal ligament (PDL is a fibrous connective tissue that attaches the tooth to the alveolar bone. We previously demonstrated the ability of PDL fibroblast-like cells to construct an endothelial cell (EC marker-positive blood vessel-like structure, indicating the potential of fibroblastic lineage cells in PDL tissue as precursors of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs to facilitate the construction of a vascular system around damaged PDL tissue. A vascular regeneration around PDL tissue needs proliferation of vascular progenitor cells and the subsequent differentiation of the cells. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is known as an inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT, however, it remains to be clarified what kinds of TGF-β signals affect growth and mesenchymal differentiation of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 not only suppressed the proliferation of the PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells, but also induced smooth muscle cell (SMC markers expression in the cells. On the other hand, TGF-β1 stimulation suppressed EC marker expression. Intriguingly, overexpression of Smad7, an inhibitor for TGF-β-induced Smad-dependent signaling, suppressed the TGF-β1-induced growth inhibition and SMC markers expression, but did not the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor SB 203580 suppressed the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of EC marker expression. In addition, the TGF-β1-induced SMC markers expression of the PDL-derived cells was reversed upon stimulation with fibroblast growth factor (FGF, suggesting that the TGF-β1 might not induce terminal SMC differentiation of the EPC-like fibroblastic cells. Thus, TGF-β1 not only negatively controls the growth of PDL-derived EPC-like fibroblastic cells via a Smad-dependent manner but also positively controls the SMC-differentiation of the cells possibly at

  1. 釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞生物学影响的体外研究%Effects of emdogain on human periodontal ligament cells in vitro

    张凤秋; 孟焕新; 韩劼; 刘凯宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of emdogain, enamel matrix derivative ( EMD) , on the proliferation, cell cycle, mineralization and ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro. Methods; The influence of cell growth on PDL cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) in the presence and absence of emdogain, after 1,3, and 5 d of culture. DNA synthesis and ultrastructure of PDL cells were observed by flow cytometry(FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the presence and absence of emdogain after 3 d of culture. The increasing of osteogenic capacity was verified by the expression changes of osteogenic differentiation markers of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) in emdogain-treated PDL cells by immunohistochemicl staining. Results; Incubation of PDL cells with emdogain after 3 d significantly stimulated cell growth and DNA synthesis. Emdogain enhanced the osteogenic potential of PDL cells by high expression of osteogenic diffe-rentiation markers of BSP and OPN. Conclusion: The data indicate that Emdogain enhances cell prolife-ration and promotes differentiation of PDL cells, which contributes to periodontal tissue regeneration .%目的:了解釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞的增殖、矿化、蛋白合成及超微结构的影响.方法:组织块法原代培养人牙周膜细胞,茜素红染色进行细胞表型的鉴定;采用细胞增殖试剂盒及流式细胞仪检测釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞增殖及细胞周期的影响;BCA蛋白定量试剂盒分析釉基质蛋白对牙周膜细胞蛋白合成的影响;并用透射电镜观察牙周膜细胞超微结构的改变;免疫组化染色观察釉基质蛋白作用下对牙周膜细胞骨涎蛋白和骨桥蛋白表达的影响.结果:釉基质蛋白可促进牙周膜细胞增殖,促进牙周膜细胞DNA的合成,使牙周膜细胞周期的G1期细胞所占百分比降低,而S期细胞所占百分比升高,并可提高牙周膜细胞蛋白

  2. Emdogain和辛伐他汀联合应用对人牙周膜细胞碱性磷酸酶活性的影响%Effects of Emdogain and Simvastatin on the ALP Activity in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    赵华; 熊红珍; 王小娟; 李毅; 赵红宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of combinated Emdogain and Simvastatin on the activity of ALP in human periodontal ligament cells ( HPLCs ) . Methods Four groups were enrolled including control group 1 ( to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM with 50μg/mL Emdogain for 3 days ), control group 2 (to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM with 0. 125 μmol/L Simvastatins for 3 days), control group 3 ( to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM without Simvastatins and Emdogain for 3 days), and treated group ( to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM with 0. 125 μmol/L Simvastatins and 50μg/mL Emdogain for 3 days). Then the activity of ALP activity in P5HPLCs was observed by PNPP. Results Optical density of ALP in control group 1 is 0. 193 ± 0. 002; optical density of ALP in control group 2 is 0. 197 ± 0.003; optical density of ALP in control group 3 is 0. 166 ±0.002;optical density of ALP in treated group is 0.325 ±0. 002. Compared with control groups, treated group can increase the ALP activity of HPLCs ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The combination of Emdogain and Simvastatin showed positive effects on the ALP activity of HPLCs, and it may give experimental proofs to the treatment of periodontal disease associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes.%目的 观察Emdogain、辛伐他汀联合应用对人牙周膜细胞碱性磷酸酶活性的影响.方法 取培养至第五代的人牙周膜细胞,分别用含50 μg/mL Emdogain、含0.125 μmol/L辛伐他汀、同时含50 μg/mL Emdogain和0.125 μmol/L辛伐他汀以及不含上述药物的4组无血清DMEM培养液培养,3 d后酶标仪检测各组细胞的碱性磷酸酶活性.结果 仅含Emdogain、仅含辛伐他汀以及不含上述药物的培养液培养的人牙周膜细胞碱性磷酸酶光密度值分别为0.193±0.002、0.197±0.003及0.166±0.002.同时含Emdogain和辛伐他汀的培养液培养的细胞碱性磷酸酶光密度值为0.325±0.002,与其他3组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Emdogain和辛伐他汀联合应用对

  3. Biocompatibility of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblast and Electrospun Nanofibers%牙周膜成纤维细胞与静电纺丝纳米纤维的生物相容性研究

    白轶; 陈亮; 施斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究不同比例的静电纺丝聚乳酸/聚己内酯(PLA/PCL)纳米纤维与牙周膜成纤维细胞(PDLF)的生物相容性,探索其作为牙周膜组织工程支架的可行性.方法 聚乳酸(PLA)和聚己内酯(PCL)分别按重量比75:25、50:50和25:75制成混合溶液,应用静电纺丝技术制成3种比例的纳米纤维支架.将PDLF接种于3种比例的支架上,经细胞培养,通过光学显微镜观察PDLF在3种支架上的形态;MTT法检测PDLF在支架上的增殖,荧光显微镜下计数细胞,检测粘附能力;活死细胞染色法比较PDLF在3种比例支架上的活力.结果 在体外培养条件下,PDLF在3种比例支架上均能生长,其中50:50支架上的PDLF增殖曲线最接近常规培养细胞的曲线,明显较其他2种支架上PDLF数量多;50:50支架对PDLF的粘附作用明显强于另外2种;50:50支架对PDLF活性的影响最小,优于其他比例的支架.结论 PDLF能在不同比例的PLA/PCL纳米纤维上生长,其中,按重量比为50:50合成的支架在与牙周膜成纤维细胞共培养时体现出较好的生物相容性,可作为牙周膜组织工程候选支架材料.%Objective To explore the cellular biocompatibility of electrospun PLA/PCL blending nanofibrous scaffolds in different composite ratios with periodontal ligament fibroblasts(PDLF). Methods PLA and PCL were blended in the weight composite ratios of 75 : 25 ,50 : 50 and 25 : 75. The nanofibrous scaffolds of such three blends were synthesized by the electro spinning technique and morphologically detected under the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. PDLF were seeded and cultured on the nanofibrous scaffolds to evaluate the morphology of the synthesis from three different ratios. MTT assay was used to investigate the proliferation and attachment of PDLF on nanofibrous scaffolds. The viability of PDLF was ex amined by living and dead cell staining. Results In vitro , PDLF can grow on the fibers synthesized from three

  4. Combination of aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheets, native dental pulp extracellular matrix and treated dentin matrix as substrates for tooth root regeneration.

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Jinlong; Yang, Bo; Li, Lei; Luo, Xiangyou; Zhang, Xuexin; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-06-01

    In tissue engineering, scaffold materials provide effective structural support to promote the repair of damaged tissues or organs through simulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments for stem cells. This study hypothesized that simulating the ECM microenvironments of periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complexes would contribute to the regeneration of tooth root. Here, aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheet (APES), treated dentin matrix (TDM) and native dental pulp extracellular matrix (DPEM) were fabricated and combined into APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM for periodontium and dental pulp regeneration, respectively. This study firstly examined the physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of both APES and DPEM in vitro, and further investigated the degradation of APES and revascularization of DPEM in vivo. Then, the potency of APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM in odontogenic induction was evaluated via co-culture with dental stem cells. Finally, we verified the periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complex regeneration in the jaw of miniature swine. Results showed that APES possessed aligned fiber orientation which guided cell proliferation while DPEM preserved the intrinsic fiber structure and ECM proteins. Importantly, both APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM facilitated the odontogenic differentiation of dental stem cells in vitro. Seeded with stem cells, the sandwich composites (APES/TDM/DPEM) generated tooth root-like tissues after being transplanted in porcine jaws for 12 w. In dental pulp/dentin complex-like tissues, columnar odontoblasts-like layer arranged along the interface between newly-formed predentin matrix and dental pulp-like tissues in which blood vessels could be found; in periodontium complex-like tissues, cellular cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues were generated on the TDM surface. Thus, above results suggest that APES and DPEM exhibiting appropriate physicochemical properties and well biocompatibilities, in accompany with TDM, could

  5. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship.

    Preshaw, P M; Alba, A L; Herrera, D; Jepsen, S; Konstantinidis, A; Makrilakis, K; Taylor, R

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). It is highly prevalent (severe periodontitis affects 10-15% of adults) and has multiple negative impacts on quality of life. Epidemiological data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear relationship between degree of hyperglycaemia and severity of periodontitis. The mechanisms that underpin the links between these two conditions are not completely understood, but involve aspects of immune functioning, neutrophil activity, and cytokine biology. There is emerging evidence to support the existence of a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with diabetes increasing the risk for periodontitis, and periodontal inflammation negatively affecting glycaemic control. Incidences of macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease are increased twofold and threefold, respectively, in diabetic individuals who also have severe periodontitis compared to diabetic individuals without severe periodontitis. Furthermore, the risk of cardiorenal mortality (ischaemic heart disease and diabetic nephropathy combined) is three times higher in diabetic people with severe periodontitis than in diabetic people without severe periodontitis. Treatment of periodontitis is associated with HbA(1c) reductions of approximately 0.4%. Oral and periodontal health should be promoted as integral components of diabetes management.

  6. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine.

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-06-26

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine.

  7. 双层左旋聚乳酸静电纺织纳米纤维支架与人牙周膜细胞的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold with human periodontal ligament cells

    孙文娟; 江浩顺; 黄南楠; 唐倩; 杨雨虹

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The morphological structure of nanofiber scaffold which fabricated by electrospinning technique is similar to the natural extracelular matrix, which provides a good microenvironment for cel growth and proliferation, and can also enhance cel adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To observe the biocompatibility of double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold and human periodontal ligament cels. METHODS: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare double layers poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold. The toxicity of different concentrations of (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold extracts to human periodontal ligament cels was evaluated by MTT assay. The double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold was co-cultured with human periodontal ligament cels. The cel adhesive capacity in early stage was determined by MTT assay. The growth of cels on the scaffold was observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Different concentrations of double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold extracts did not create any toxicity to human periodontal ligament cels. After co-culture for 2, 6, 24 hours, human periodontal ligament cels were poorly adherent onto the double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold. After 7 days of co-culture, human periodontal ligament cels adhered wel on the loose surface of scaffold, maintained the original shape, stretched wel, and interconnected processes were observed; on the dense surface of the scaffold, multi-layer cels were observed. The cels showed fusiform or polygonal appearance and were connected together. These results demonstrate that the double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold has good biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament cels.%背景:静电纺织制备的纳米纤维支架形态结构与天然细胞外基质

  8. Enamel matrix protein derivatives: role in periodontal regeneration

    Rathva VJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vandana J RathvaDepartment of Periodontics, KM Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep University, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: The role of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of lost periodontal structures, ie, new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The outcome of basic research has pointed to the important role of enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD in periodontal wound healing. Histologic results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of this paper is to review the existing literature on EMD.Keywords: enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain®, periodontal regeneration

  9. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    Tada, Hiroyuki [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@umin.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  10. Endo-periodontal lesion – endodontic approach

    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; C. Ionescu

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal t...

  11. Clinical guide to periodontology: reconstructive periodontal treatment.

    Floyd, P D; Ide, M; Palmer, R M

    2014-05-01

    Regeneration of the lost tissues of the periodontium is an ideal therapeutic goal and has been the subject of much research and ingenious clinical techniques. Reconstructive or regenerative techniques are used either singly or in combination for three main purposes: (1) to regain lost periodontal ligament attachment, (2) to provide a wider zone of attached gingiva, and (3) to cover previously exposed root surfaces.

  12. Effect of Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts on the Differentiation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.%牙周膜成纤维细胞对外周血单个核细胞分化的影响

    陈建明; 兰泽栋; 刘嵘

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨牙周膜成纤维细胞在破骨细胞形成过程中作用;观察破骨样细胞的生长过程.方法:本实验以含有1α,25(OH)2D3和地塞米松的培养基将牙周膜成纤维细胞、单个核细胞分别进行单独或直接共培养,每3d对TRAP阳性多核破骨细胞的数量及牙本质磨片的吸收陷窝数目和面积分别进行记录、计算.结果:不同时间段间的TRAP阳性单个核细胞与TRAP阳性多核细胞数目相比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时,不同组间的吸收陷窝数目和面积比较,差异具有显著性(P<0.001).牙周膜成纤维细胞明显增加了共培养组TRAP阳性多核细胞数量、吸收陷窝数目和面积.然而牙周膜成纤维细胞组与单个核细胞组之间的吸收陷窝数目与吸收陷窝面积差异无统计学意义.结论:末梢血单个核细胞需在牙周膜成纤维细胞存在的条件下,才能形成多核的破骨样细胞.%Objective: To investigate the effect of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) on the formation of osteoclast like cells(OLC) in vitro, and to probe the process of their growth. Methods: Human PDLF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were co-cultured in the presence of 1α.25(OH)2D3 and dexamethasone for 30 days. Then the numbers of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) positive multi-nucleate cells and resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits were recorded and accumulated every 3 days. Results: There was statistical significant difference in the numbers of TRAP positive multi-nucleate cells (P<0. 05) at different stages. So were the number of resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits (P<0. 001). And PDLF also significantly increased the number of OLC and resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits in PDLF-PBMC co-culture (P<0. 001). But no statistical significance had been found between PDLF culture and PBMC culture on the number of resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits

  13. Retinoic acid induces osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells from miniature swine in vitro%维甲酸诱导小型猪牙周膜干细胞的体外成骨

    张鹏涛; 钟良军; 张远; 张源明; 徐艳

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that retinoic acid can induce the osteogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cellsand multiple adult stem cells.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of retinoic acid on osteogenic differentiation of porcine periodontal ligament stem cellsCPDLSCs).METHOOS: Porcine PDLCs were harvested by using outgrowth method: PDLSCs were isolated by limited dilution of culture cellsfor single cell clone. Immunofluores cence was used to detect the expression of STRO-1 andimmunocytochemistry to detect theexpression of vimentin and pan-Cytokeratin(PCK) of porcine PDLSCs. Cell counting hits (CCIKB)was applied to evaluated Cellproliferation of PDLSCs. The colony formation of porcine PDLSCs ratio was assayed. Third passage PDLSCs were inducedwithmineralized conditional medium containing retinoic acid, ascorbic acid and β-glycerophBphate.Mineralzednodules werestudiedby Alizarin red S staining. Osteopontin. Osteocalcin. Collagen type I and collagen type III were detected byimmunocytochemistry.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Porcine PDLSCs expressed STRO-1 and vimentin. And the result of pan-Cytokeratin wasnegative. Porcine PDLSCs colony formation ratio was 2.8%. PDLSCs induced by retinoic acid showed positive expression ofak aline phosphatase at 14 days and positive expression of Alizarin red S at 21 days. Osteopontin. Osteocalon.colagent)pe Iwere positive but collagen type III was negative at21 days. These finding! Indicate that retinoic acid can be an effective inducerof osteogenic differentiation of porcine PDLSCs.%背景:近期研究发现维甲酸对胚胎干细胞及多种成体干细胞具有成骨方向诱导的作用.目的:观察维甲酸对小型猪牙周膜干细胞体外成骨作用的影响.方法:采用组织块法获得小型猪牙周膜细胞,有限稀释法纯化小型猪牙周膜干细胞,免疫荧光法检测STRO-1、免疫细胞化学法检测波形蛋白、角蛋白鉴定小型猪牙周膜干细胞.CCK8法测定小型猪牙周膜干细

  14. Periodontal Diseases

    ... many people, to the sometimes irreversible, severe, chronic periodontitis that badly erodes the bone and other supporting ... Smoking contributes significantly to the risk of having periodontitis. The risk is also higher in individuals with ...

  15. The application of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) in regenerative periodontal therapy: a review.

    Sculean, Anton; Schwarz, Frank; Becker, Jurgen; Brecx, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Regenerative periodontal therapy aims at reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures such as new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Findings from basic research indicate that enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) has a key role in periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. This review aims to present an overview of evidence-based clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD.

  16. miRNA-720 controls stem cell phenotype, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    Emilio Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Dental pulp cells (DPCs are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.

  17. The Relation of Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion and Therapy

    Trijani Suwandi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between endodontic-periodontal lesion has been documented well be researches. Endodontic lesion originates from pulp, while periodontal lesion originates from periodontal tissues. Anatomically they are connected by apical foramen, lateral canal and accessories, as well as dentin tubules. The correlation appeared as the endodontic defect can be from periodontal lesion, or a periodontal defect is from a pulp tissue. Together they can emerge and form a combination lesion. Endodontic infections have been highly correlated with deeper periodontal pockets and furcation involvement in mandibular, the causal relationship between the two pathoses has not yet been established. This consensus supports the influence of degenerated or inflamed pulp that can happen on the periodontium; but not all researchers agree about the effect of periodontal disease on the pulp. Conclusion: The mechanism of endo-perio lesion need to taken care in order to have appropriate diagnostic so that the right therapy would be able to keep the teeth in the oral cavity.

  18. Periodontal vaccine

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  19. Sequential process in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced functional periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Konishi, Akihiro; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kajiya, Mikihito; Matsuda, Shinji; Kittaka, Mizuho; Shiba, Hideki; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2016-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes periodontal tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to establish an essential component of a rational approach for the clinical application of BDNF in periodontal regenerative therapy. Here, we assessed the sequence of early events in BDNF-induced periodontal tissue regeneration, especially from the aspect of cementum regeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was applied into experimental periodontal defects in Beagle dogs. The localization of cells positive for neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, osteopontin, integrin αVβ3, and integrin α2β1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The effects of BDNF on adhesion of cultured human periodontal ligament cells was examined by an in vitro study. The results suggest that BDNF could induce rapid cementum regeneration by stimulating adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in the early regenerative phase, resulting in enhancement of periodontal tissue regeneration.

  20. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  1. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  2. PENYEMBUHAN LUKA SETELAH PERAWATAN BEDAH PERIODONTAL (Studi Pustaka

    Natalina Natalina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontal therapy for treatment of periodontitis involves the elimination of anatomic defect. There are two primary approaches to eliminating these anatomic defects : resective (gingivectomy, osseous resection, and apically positioned flaps, and regenerative surgery (osseous graft, guided tissue regeneration, resorbable barriers, coronally position flaps. Aims. The dentist know the outcomes after periodontal surgery. References. Periodontal regeneration means healing after periodontal surgery that results in the formation of a new attachment apparatus, consisting of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Periodontal repair implies healing without restoration of the normal attachment apparatus. Histologic evaluation is the only reliable method to determine the true efficacy of periodontal therapies. Discussion. The variables involved in periodontal wound healing to solve how to achieve periodontal regeneration are manipulation of progenitor cell, alteration of pathologically exposed root surfaces, exclusion of gingival epithelium, and wound stabilization. Conclusions. Periodontal surgery usually do not result in periodontal regeneration. Gingival epithelium that proliferates apically can be inhibited by stabilization of the flap margin and regenerative surgery.

  3. Osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells under the influence of three different materials

    Ajlan, S. A.; Ashri, N. Y.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regeneration of periodontal tissues is a major goal of periodontal therapy. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) show mesenchymal cell properties with the potential for dental tissue engineering. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are examples...

  4. [Comparative study of immunocompetent cells of dental pulp of intact teeth, teeth with carious lesion and its complications combined with parodontitis].

    Moskovskiĭ, A V

    2007-01-01

    Results of the comparative immunohistochemical study of dental pulp by means of monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD20, capital ES, CD68 are described. Pulp from the patients with caries, acute and chronic pulpitis in combination with periodontitis on different stages was studied, the qualitative and quantitative feature of dental pulp immune cells--T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages was determined.

  5. Emdogain in regenerative periodontal therapy. A review of the literature.

    Sculean, Anton; Windisch, Péter; Döri, Ferenc; Keglevich, Tibor; Molnár, Balint; Gera, István

    2007-10-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present, based on the existing evidence, the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD. Surgical periodontal treatment of deep intrabony defects with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. The application of EMD in the context of non-surgical periodontal therapy has failed to result in periodontal regeneration. Surgical periodontal therapy of deep intrabony defects with EMD may lead to significantly higher improvements of the clinical parameters than open flap debridement alone. The results obtained following treatment with EMD are comparable to those following treatment with GTR and can be maintained over a longer period. Treatment of intrabony defects with a combination of EMD + GTR does not seem to additionally improve the results compared to treatment with EMD alone or GTR alone. The combination of EMD and some types of bone grafts/bone substitutes may result in certain improvements in the soft and hard tissue parameters compared to treatment with EMD alone. Treatment of recession-type defects with coronally repositioned flaps and EMD may promote formation of cementum, periodontal ligament and bone, and may significantly increase the width of the keratinized tissue. Application of EMD seems to provide better long-term results than coronally repositioned flaps alone. Application of EMD may enhance periodontal regeneration in mandibular Class II

  6. Effects of Cyclic Tensile Stress on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts Apoptosis%周期性张应力对牙周膜成纤维细胞凋亡的影响

    尹崇英; 姚如永; 张广耘; 袁晓; 张月; 于江波; 郑如松; 陈正岗; 曹海萌; 仇静

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of cyclic stretch on Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts apoptosis and PI3k/Akt signaling pathway involved.Methods:In vitro culture -tensile stimulate models of HPDLFs were established by using a multi-passage load adding system.Cyclic stretch was applied on the fibroblasts in different groups for 1,6,12,and 24 h,respectively.The loading was set for 15% surface elongation,with frequency 1/6 Hz.Meanwhile,the blank normal control group and negative control group,0h+LY294002 was established by static group.The cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining.The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA was detected by RT-PCR.Results:Hoechst 33258 staining showed that after treatment with loading,the cell took the typical appearance of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies.RT-PCR displayed that the rate of Bcl-2 / Bax mRNA expression decreased in loaded HPDLFs group compared with that in unloaded HPDLFs(P < 0.01).The rate decreased to the lowest level at 12h following loading,and then enhanced gradually.Compared with that in the loading group,the HPDLFs apoptosis increased at corresponding time points in the LY294002 group (P <0.05).Conclusion:The cyclic stretch can promote the apoptosis of HPDLFs in a time-dependent manner,then the HPDLFs apoptosis was inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling pathway may participate in the regulation of apoptosis of HPDLFs induced by cyclic stretch.%目的:在体外条件下,探讨周期张应力作用对人牙周膜成纤维细胞凋亡的影响及PI3k/AKt信号通路在细胞凋亡中的作用.方法:应用多通道细胞牵张应力加载系统,以HPDLFs(人牙周膜成纤维细胞)为对象构建细胞体外培养-力学刺激模型,对照组为0h,0h+LY294002,加力组1h,6h,12 h,12 h+LY294002,24 h,力值定为15%,频率为1/6HZ,即10循环/分钟.采用Hoechst33258染色检测细胞形态和凋亡情况,应用RT-PCR技术检测Bcl-2、Bax的表达情况.结果:Hoechst33258细

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-1/chitosan/collagen composite scaffold and the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells%复合胰岛素样生长因子1壳聚糖胶原支架与人牙周膜细胞的增殖

    赵博; 王永兰

    2014-01-01

    背景:胰岛素样生长因子1具有促进成纤维细胞有丝分裂的作用,同时具有促进牙周细胞生长、分化及合成细胞外基质的作用。  目的:观察负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架对于人牙周膜细胞增殖的作用。  方法:将人牙周膜细胞分别接种于负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架与普通胶原支架上,于接种的1 h、24 h及1周检测重组人转化生长因子β1的释放,于第1,7,28天检测两组细胞的黏附和增殖情况。结果与结论:负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架组第1,24小时和第1周的重组人转化生长因子β1释放率明显低于普通胶原支架组(P 0.05),负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架组接种第7,28天的细胞黏附和增殖情况优于普通胶原支架组(P OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of chitosan/colagen composite scaffold carrying insulin-like growth factor-1 on proliferation of human periodontal ligament cels. METHODS: The human periodontal ligament cels were seeded on chitosan/colagen composite scaffold carrying insulin-like growth factor-1 and ordinary colagen scaffold. The release of recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 was detected at 1, 24 hours and 1 week after culture; celladhesion and proliferation were detected at days 1, 7 and 28. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The release rate of recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 in the composite scaffold was significantly lower than that in the ordinary colagen scaffold at 1, 24 hours and 1 week after cellseeding (P < 0.01). The celladhesion and proliferation showed no difference between two groups at day 1 after cellseeding, but became significantly higher in the composite scaffold than that in the ordinary colagen scaffold at days 7 and 28 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that chitosan/colagen composite scaffold carrying insulin-like growth factor-1 can significantly promote

  8. Periodontal tissue regeneration using enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without cell loading

    Yan, X.Z.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Cai, X; Yu, N.; Jansen, J.A.; Yang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility and periodontal regenerative potential of enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without incorporated periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). To this end, chitosan hydrogels, with (n=8; CHIT+CELL) or without (n=8; CHIT) fluorescen

  9. The effect of Smads signal pathway on the osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells in simtulated microgravity%微重力环境下Smads信号通路对人牙周膜干细胞成骨向分化的影响

    李彦; 李石; 牛忠英; 包博; 石馨

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解Smads信号通路在模拟微重力条件下对人牙周膜细胞成骨向分化的影响.方法:自手术拔除的人牙周膜中培养获得牙周膜细胞,利用有限稀释法培养获得人牙周膜细胞(human periodontal ligament cells,hPDLCs).采用旋转细胞培养系统(rotary cell cuhure system,RCCS)建立模拟微重力环境将细胞分为对照组(正常重力组)、模拟微重力组,应用实时定量PCR检测Smads信号分子表达及加入Smads抑制剂后成骨标志物的表达,流式细胞仪检测磷酸化Smad表达.采用SPSS13.0软件包对数据进行统计学处理.结果:与对照组相比,模拟微重力组Smads 2、3、4 mRNA表达量显著增加,呈时间依赖性,在2h达到峰值,随后开始下降.Smads7在2h时开始上升,观测时间内未捕捉到其下降.流式细胞检测发现.p-Smads在30min时开始出现高表达(29 39%),2h时达到峰值,表达量为91.32%.加入Smads抑制剂后,p-Smads表达下降至5.3%,成骨标志物COL1、ALP、OCN表达显著下降(P<0.05).结论:模拟微重力环境下Smads信号通路参与了hPDLSCs成骨向分化.%PIPOSE: To investigate the effect of Smads signal pathway on the osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament sterr cells (hPDLSCs) in simulated micmgravity. METHODS: Human periodmtal ligament stem cells were isolated from the ligament of surgically extracted human teeth.Through limiting dilution assay, mono-clone of the cell was obtained, hPDLSCs were isolated from MesenPRO RS medium. Rotary cell culture system (RCCS) was enrolled to set simulated microgravity (SMG). Samples were set to control group (normal gravity group, NG) and simulated microgravity group (SMG). Real-lime PCR was used to detect the expression of Smads signals and the expression of markers of osteogenesis before and after SIS3, The amount of phosphated-Smad was assayed by flow cyfometry. Statistical analysis of the data was done by ANOVA with SPSS 13.0 software package. RESULTS: Compared with

  10. Periodontal Microbiology.

    Harvey, John D

    2017-04-01

    This article provides a review of current information about periodontal bacteria, their activities within dental plaque biofilm, their interactions with the host immune system, and the infections with which they are associated. Periodontal disease, plaque formation, and the host immune response are also discussed, as are antimicrobial measures used to control the bacteria and the disease.

  11. An insight into the possibilities of fibroblast growth factor in periodontal regeneration

    Nath, Sameera G.; Raveendran, Ranjith

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is caused by bacterial biofilms and is modulated by a variety of risk factors. The periodontal ligament comprises heterogeneous cell populations which are lost in the disease process. A variety of regenerative therapies, such as bone grafts, guided tissue regeneration treatment, application of enamel matrix derivative, have been introduced, with some success in periodontal tissue regeneration. Topical application of recombinant cytokines is now one of the most effective methods ...

  12. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    ... gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and ... gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In periodontitis, gums pull away from the teeth ...

  13. Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures

    ... Periodontal Externships Scholarships & Grants Educators Residents Careers in Periodontics Competencies for Predoc Perio Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Career Options in Periodontics In-Service Examination Dental Hygiene Educators Periodontal Literature ...

  14. Periodontal Treatments and Procedures

    ... Periodontal Externships Scholarships & Grants Educators Residents Careers in Periodontics Competencies for Predoc Perio Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Career Options in Periodontics In-Service Examination Dental Hygiene Educators Periodontal Literature ...

  15. Periodontics in the next millennium.

    Vandersall, D C

    1998-07-01

    This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century.

  16. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  17. Bromelain: A potential strategy for the adjuvant treatment of periodontitis

    Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from different parts of pineapple, has been described to have therapeutic benefits in a diversity of inflammatory diseases. Such effects are associated to its proteolytic activity. As one of the most common and multifactorial diseases, periodontitis is a bacterial infection that results from the damage to the integrity of the tissues around the tooth, which includes gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. In periodontitis, the recruitment of defense cells occurs, which releases several pro-inflammatory cytokines. At elevated levels, they can potentiate the alveolar bone loss. Studies have been conducted trying to alleviate the damage to the periodontium, however, the regeneration of the periodontal tissues is still limited. The Hypotheses: Based on previous studies showing that bromelain can act by decreasing the periodontal microorganism growth by proteolytically cleaving important cell surface molecules in leucocytes, by reducing neutrophils migration to periodontal sites, by downregulating the inflammation mediator levels, and by decreasing alveolar bone loss in the periodontitis. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: In a first moment, to evaluate this hypothesis, could be used two animal models: the ligature or bacteria inoculation induced periodontitis. If studies using animal models show encouraging results, appropriate clinical trials should be designed to evaluate the effect of bromelain as a complementary treatment for periodontal disease in humans, during the active phase or after the healing phase of mechanical therapy could be tested; to conduct a placebo-controlled study where health and periodontitis patients could be used.

  18. Apoptosis of rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products and its receptor%糖基化终产物及其受体对牙周膜成纤维细胞凋亡影响的实验研究

    邓天政; 吕晶; 冯岩; 李冬霞; 刘冰; 逄键梁; 臧晓霞; 柯杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察糖基化终产物(advanced glycation end products,AGE)促进糖基化终产物受体(receptor for advanced glycation end products,RAGE)在大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞(periodontal ligament fibroblasts,PDLF)中的表达情况,并研究RAGE在大鼠PDLF凋亡中的作用.方法 第3代大鼠PDLF在含有终浓度为200 mg/L的糖基化牛血清白蛋白(advanced glycation end products-bovine serum albumin,AGE-BSA)培养基内培养,根据孵育时间分为实验组A1、A2、A3、A4组;相同条件下PDLF于终浓度200 mg/L的BSA孵育,按与A1 ~ A4组相同的孵育时间分为实验组B1、B2、B3、B4;在无AGE-BSA、BSA的培养基内培养第3代PDLF设为对照组C组.检测各组细胞活性、细胞凋亡情况、RAGE及细胞凋亡蛋白酶3 mRNA表达情况.结果 AGE干预的大鼠PDLF在细胞形态学及细胞活性检测方面均发生改变.相同时间点A、B各组细胞活性组间比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01),A1、A2、A3、A4 4组细胞活性的组间差异无统计学意义(F=2.353,P=0.088),B1、B2、B3、B44组的组间差异亦无统计学意义(F=0.468,P=0.706).经流式细胞术检测,实验组A1、A2、A3、A4组细胞凋亡比例依次明显增高,与C组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).受AGE干预的细胞可以表达RAGE且细胞凋亡蛋白酶3表达阳性.结论 AGE可以刺激大鼠PDLF表达RAGE,促进细胞凋亡.%Objective To detect receptor for advanced glycation end products expression level produced in rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts cultured in vitro, and to evaluate the mechanism of apoptosis in this progress. Methods Rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) , were collected and were devided into 8 groups according to the intervention time in vitro, while no interventions is control group. The cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H

  19. Periodontal materials.

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.

  20. Periodontal vaccine

    Ranjan Malhotra; Anoop Kapoor; Vishakha Grover; Aaswin Kaur Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of pe...

  1. Changes in the Distribution of Periodontal Nerve Fibers during Dentition Transition in the Cat.

    Koji Miki

    Full Text Available The periodontal ligament has a rich sensory nerve supply which originates from the trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. Although various types of mechanoreceptors have been reported in the periodontal ligament, the Ruffini ending is an essential one. It is unknown whether the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous teeth is identical to that in permanent teeth or not. Moreover, morphological changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers during resorption of deciduous teeth and eruption of successional permanent teeth in diphyodont animals have not been reported in detail. Therefore, in this study, we examined changes in the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in the cat during changes in dentition (i.e., deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition by immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5. During deciduous dentition, periodontal nerve fibers were concentrated at the apical portion, and sparsely distributed in the periodontal ligament of deciduous molars. During mixed dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of deciduous molars showed degenerative profiles during resorption. In permanent dentition, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent premolars, the successors of deciduous molars, increased in number. Similar to permanent premolars, the periodontal nerve fibers of permanent molars, having no predecessors, increased in number, and were densely present in the apical portion. The present results indicate that the distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition is almost identical to that in permanent dentition although the number of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition was low. The sparse distribution of periodontal nerve fibers in deciduous dentition agrees with clinical evidence that children are less sensitive to tooth stimulation than adults.

  2. A comparison of the effect of epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor on rat periodontal ligament fibroblast-like cells' DNA synthesis and morphology

    Blom, S; Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1994-01-01

    An enhanced formation of bone, dentin, and collagen fibers in periodontal wounds after application of polypeptide growth factors has recently been reported. However, the complex environment in vivo makes it impossible to determine the specific effects of growth factors on various cells involved...... nuclei. Incorporation of [3H]-thymidine was increased in a dose-dependent manner by all growth factors. Maximal effect on the DNA synthesis was: rEGF, 131%; nPDGF, 274%; and nFGF, 182%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  4. Diagnostic Applications of Cone-Beam CT for Periodontal Diseases

    Yousef A. AlJehani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper aims to review the diagnostic application of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT in the field of periodontology. Data. Original articles that reported on the use of CBCT for periodontal disease diagnosis were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1990 to January 2014, PubMed (using medical subject headings, and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “CBCT,” “volumetric CT,” “periodontal disease ,” and “periodontitis.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. Bony defects, caters, and furcation involvements seem to be better depicted on CBCT, whereas bone quality and periodontal ligament space scored better on conventional intraoral radiography. CBCT does not offer a significant advantage over conventional radiography for assessing the periodontal bone levels.

  5. Fighting for territories: time-lapse analysis of dental pulp and dental follicle stem cells in co-culture reveals specific migratory capabilities

    C Schiraldi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell migration is a critical step during the repair of damaged tissues. In order to achieve appropriate cell-based therapies for tooth and periodontal ligament repair it is necessary first to understand the dynamics of tissue-specific stem cell populations such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and dental follicle stem cells (DFSC. Using time-lapse imaging, we analysed migratory and proliferative capabilities of these two human stem cell lines in vitro. When cultured alone, both DPSC and DFSC exhibited low and irregular migration profiles. In co-cultures, DFSC, but not DPSC, spectacularly increased their migration activity and velocity. DFSC rapidly surrounded the DPSC, thus resembling the in vivo developmental process, where follicle cells encircle both dental epithelium and pulp. Cell morphology was dependent on the culture conditions (mono-culture or co-culture and changed over time. Regulatory genes involved in dental cell migration and differentiation such as TWIST1, MSX1, RUNX2, SFRP1 and ADAM28, were also evaluated in co-cultures. MSX1 up-regulation indicates that DPSC and DFSC retain their odontogenic potential. However, DPSC lose their capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts in the presence of DFSC, as suggested by RUNX2 up-regulation and TWIST1 down-regulation. In contrast, the unchanged levels of SFRP1 expression suggest that DFSC retain their potential to form periodontal tissues even in the presence of DPSC. These findings demonstrate that stem cells behave differently according to their environment, retain their genetic memory, and compete with each other to acquire the appropriate territory. Understanding the mechanisms involved in stem cell migration may lead to new therapeutic approaches for tooth repair.

  6. Advanced drug delivery approaches against periodontitis.

    Joshi, Deeksha; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums involving the degeneration of periodontal ligaments, creation of periodontal pocket and resorption of alveolar bone, resulting in the disruption of the support structure of teeth. According to WHO, 10-15% of the global population suffers from severe periodontitis. The disease results from the growth of a diverse microflora (especially anaerobes) in the pockets and release of toxins, enzymes and stimulation of body's immune response. Various local or systemic approaches were used for an effective treatment of periodontitis. Currently, controlled local drug delivery approach is more favorable as compared to systemic approach because it mainly focuses on improving the therapeutic outcomes by achieving factors like site-specific delivery, low dose requirement, bypass of first-pass metabolism, reduction in gastrointestinal side effects and decrease in dosing frequency. Overall it provides a safe and effective mode of treatment, which enhances patient compliance. Complete eradication of the organisms from the sites was not achieved by using various surgical and mechanical treatments. So a number of polymer-based delivery systems like fibers, films, chips, strips, microparticles, nanoparticles and nanofibers made from a variety of natural and synthetic materials have been successfully tested to deliver a variety of drugs. These systems are biocompatible and biodegradable, completely fill the pockets, and have strong retention on the target site due to excellent mucoadhesion properties. The review summarizes various available and recently developing targeted delivery devices for the treatment of periodontitis.

  7. Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain

    2008-01-01

    Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension

  8. Dental Investigations: Efficiency of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Moderate Chronic Periodontitis

    Mlachkova Antoaneta M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth caused by microorganisms in the dental biofilm, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation and gingival recession. Treatment of chronic periodontitis aims at arresting the inflammation and stopping the loss of attachment by removal and control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm and establishing a local environment and microflora compatible with periodontal health. The AIM of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical therapy (scaling and root planning in the treatment of moderate chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 30 patients aged between 33 and 75 years, of which 46.7% women and 53.3% men, diagnosed with moderate and, at some sites, severe periodontitis. They were treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy methods (scaling and root planning and curettage if indicated. Additionally, chemical plaque control with rinse water containing chlorhexidine was applied. The diagnostic and reassessment procedures included measuring the periodontal indices of 601 periodontal units before and after the therapy. The indices measured were the papillary bleeding index (PBI, the hygiene index (HI, the probing pocket depth (PPD and the clinical attachment level (CAL. RESULTS: Significant reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation was found in all treated patients; we also found a statistically significant reduction of periodontal pockets with clinically measured depth ⋋ 5 mm (PD ⋋ 5 mm. Pockets with PD > 5 mm did not show statistically significant lower incidence rates probably due to the initially small percentage of deep pockets in the patients studied. There was a statistically significant reduction of all sites with attachment loss, the highest significance found at sites where the attachment loss was greater than 5 mm. CONCLUSION

  9. Comparison of the Amount of IL-1ß in Periodontally Involved Patients’ Saliva and Healthy Subjects

    Azizi A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Periodontitis is a chronic multi-factorial infectious disease,characterized by irreversible destruction of collagen fibers and other matrix constituents of the gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and resorption of the alveolar bone around the teeth with formation of periodontal pocket. Cytokines such as IL-1β are one of the components of host’s immune system and seem to play an important role in periodontitisPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of IL-1β as a per-inflammatory cytokine in the saliva of periodontally involved patients (generalized aggressive periodontitis and mild to moderate periodontitis and subjects with normal periodontium.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, unstimulated saliva of 24 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, 15 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and 23 subjects with healthy periodontium was collected. The concentration of IL-1β was measured in the saliva samples by ELISA. Mann-Whitney test was used for analysis of data.Results: The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between mean level of IL-1ß in generalized aggressive periodontitis vs. control groups and chronic mild to moderate periodontitis vs. control groups ( p <0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the mean concentration of IL-1ß in the saliva of periodontally involved patients was greater than that of healthy subjects and this cytokine can be agood marker for determining the status of periodontal tissues.

  10. Three dimensional stress analysis of periodontal ligament of mandibular premolar with alveolar bone loss%不同牙槽骨吸收程度下颌前磨牙牙周膜应力分析的初步研究

    刘琳; 刘娜; 郭靖; 孙海阳; 李鸿波

    2015-01-01

    目的:确定下颌前磨牙牙体长轴和釉牙骨质界,建立三维有限元分析模型,研究牙槽骨吸收程度对下颌前磨牙牙周膜承受应力的影响。方法:选择离体下颌前磨牙,通过micro-CT扫描重建牙齿三维图像、通过锥形拟合法确定牙体长轴、手工划定釉牙骨质界,将牙根十等分、划分单元格、设定模型力学性质、设定加载,建立下颌前磨牙的三维有限元模型。加载力值100N;加载方向为与牙体长轴平行、与牙体长轴成45°、与牙体长轴垂直;加载位置位于牙体长轴与牙合面相交的点。分析不同牙槽骨吸收程度、不同加载方向下牙周膜所受的最大Von Mises应力值。结果:结合牙体长轴、釉牙骨质界的概念,建立了三维有限元分析模型。随着牙槽骨吸收程度的增加,下颌前磨牙牙周膜的Von Mises应力最大值显著增高。在与牙体长轴平行的加载力作用下,牙槽骨吸收达到50%时下颌前磨牙牙周膜承受的最大应力为牙槽骨无吸收时的2倍;在与牙体长轴垂直或与牙体长轴成45°的加载力作用下,下颌前磨牙牙槽骨吸收30%时牙周膜最大应力值达到牙槽骨无吸收时的2倍。结论:在建立三维有限元分析模型时结合牙体长轴、釉牙骨质界的概念,有利于规范和统一加载方向、模拟不同牙槽骨吸收量。对于下颌前磨牙牙周膜应力分析结果表明,当牙槽骨吸收至30%时将会对牙周组织造成损伤。%Objective:To establish three dimensional finite element analysis models based on tooth long axis, and to investigate the effects of alveolar bone loss on stress distribution of periodontal ligament of mandibular premolar.Methods:A sound extracted mandibular premolar was selected. Finite-analysis modeling procedures included micro-CT scanning, the digital tooth modeling, determining the long axis and the cemento-enamel junction, dividing the root into

  11. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review

    Karuppanan P Sasikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodontics. In the near term, these advances are likely to be applied to periodontal surgery; ultimately, they may facilitate approaches to regenerating whole lost periodontal structures.

  12. Volatile sulphur compounds elimination: A new insight in periodontal treatment

    Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidences had demonstrated a link between halitosis and apoptosis in periodontitis. Periodontal pathogenic micro-organisms produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs. VSCs are toxic to periodontal tissue. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to reveal the mechanism of VSCs in periodontal breakdown according to the most recent knowledges. Reviews: Halitosis is mainly attributed to VSCs such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. Several studies demonstrated a strong relationship between VSCs and periodontal disease progression. VSCs are released from amino acid breakdown from food, protein, cells, blood and saliva. In prone subjects, the VSCs may cause alteration in tissue integrity by increasing its permeability and facilitate the endotoxin to penetrate the tissue barrier. They may also causing apoptotic in gingival and periodontal tissue, which are considered the main pathogenesis in aggravating the periodontitis. VSCs may also initiate the increase of proinflammatory cytokines which is considered to have negative effects in host response. Conclusion: VSCs had been shown to have detrimental effects in gingival and periodontal ligament cells. The use of chlorine dioxine agent and topical antioxidant is beneficial in controlling the periodontal disease severity.Latar belakang: Penelitian terakhir menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara halitosis dengan terjadinya apoptosis pada periodontitis. Mikroorganisme penyebab periodontitis memproduksi volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs yang bersifat toksik terhadap jaringan periodontal. Tujuan: Tujuan penulisan ini adalah membahas mekanisme VSCs dalam menyebabkan kerusakan periodontal berdasarkan penelitian terakhir yang ada. Tinjauan pustaka: Halitosis seringkali dikaitkan dengan timbulnya VSCs seperti hidrogen sulfida, metil merkaptan, dan dimetil sulfida. Penelitian terakhir menunjukkan bahwa VSCs yang dilepaskan dari pemecahan asam amino makanan ternyata memiliki

  13. Effects of periodontal afferent inputs on corticomotor excitability in humans

    Zhang, Yang; Boudreau, Shellie; Wang, M.;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine in humans whether local anaesthesia (LA) or nociceptive stimulation of the periodontal ligaments affects the excitability of the face primary motor cortex (MI) related to the tongue and jaw muscles, as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS......). Twelve healthy volunteers (11 men, 1 woman, 25.3 +/- 4.2 years) participated in two 3-h sessions separated by 7 days. The LA carbocain or the nociceptive irritant capsaicin was randomly injected into the periodontal ligament of the lower right central incisor. In both sessions, TMS-motor evoked potential......-injection for the LA (anovas: P > 0.22) or capsaicin (anovas: P > 0.16) sessions. These findings suggest that a transient loss or perturbation in periodontal afferent input to the brain from a single incisor is insufficient to cause changes in corticomotor excitability of the face MI, as measured by TMS in humans....

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of heat shock proteins in the mouse periodontal tissues due to orthodontic mechanical stress*

    Muraoka R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The histopathology of periodontal ligament of the mouse subjected to mechanical stress was studied. Immunohistochemical expressions of HSP27 and pHSP27 were examined. Experimental animals using the maxillary molars of ddY mouse by Waldo method were used in the study. A separator was inserted to induce mechanical stress. After 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 9 hours and 24 hours, the regional tissues were extracted, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.05 M phosphate-buffered fixative solution. Paraffin sections were made for immunohistochemistry using HSP27 and p-HSP27. In the control group, the periodontal ligament fibroblasts expressed low HSP27 and p-HSP27. However, in the experimental group, periodontal ligament fibroblasts expressed HSP27 10 minutes after mechanical load application in the tension side. The strongest expression was detected 9 hours after inducing mechanical load. p-HSP27 was also expressed in a time-dependent manner though weaker than HSP27. The findings suggest that HSP27 and p-HSP27 were expressed for the maintenance of homeostasis of periodontal ligament by the activation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts on the tension side. It also suggests that these proteins act as molecular chaperones for osteoblast activation and maintenance of homeostasis.

  15. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

    Preethy SP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth,the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAPhave the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4.This multipotential ability of DPSCs is being researched for clinical application for treating a variety of diseases like myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, neuro-degenerative disorders, cartilage replacement, tooth regeneration and for repair of bone defects to mention a few. Moreover, the isolation of stem cells from teeth is minimally invasive, readily accessible and the non immunogenic characteristic of dental stem cells has paved the way for efforts to store the exfoliated deciduous teeth or milk teeth which is usually discarded, for use in the future. In this study we have isolated and expanded in vitro, the cells obtained from human dental pulp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining written informed consent, 24 teeth that were extracted for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons from 16 patients were used in this study. The specimens were transported from the clinic to NCRM lab taking 6 to 48 Hrs. For removal of the pulp tissue, the teeth were split obliquely at the Cementoenamel junction and the pulp tissue was isolated using brooches. The extracted pulp tissues were subjected to digestion using Collagenase type-I and type II at 37˚C for 15- 30 minutes. The digested cells were filtered with 70µm filter and centrifuged at 1800 rpm for 10 minutes. The pellet was then suspended in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM/Ham’s F12 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum , 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin,2 m M L -glutamine, and 2 m M nonessential amino

  16. Emphasizing the Correlation of Periodontal Diseases with Cardiovascular Disorders in the Educational Curriculum of Dental and Medical Students

    Atefeh Ansarian; Maryam Khosravi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is caused by specific microorganisms and leads to progressive destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone along with pocket formation, attachment loss or both (1). Generally, periodontal diseases are chronic infections caused by special groups of bacteria, have long been considered a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases and thrombolytic events (2). Heaton et al. (3) carried out a co...

  17. 血管内皮生长因子和骨形成蛋白2诱导犬恒牙原位牙髓再生%Regeneration of dental pulp tissue in mature dog teeth with apical periodontitis using vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 2

    周俊; 王兆晶; 陈文瑨; 陈文霞

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过选择犬根尖孔发育完成的恒牙建立根尖周炎模型,探索血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和骨形态生成蛋白2(BMP2)诱导原位牙髓再生的可能性.方法 2只10~12月龄的杂种犬,选择根尖孔发育完成的14颗恒前牙建立根尖周炎模型,分别将VEGF(VEGF组)、BMP2(BMP2组)单独和VEGF+BMP2联合(VEGF+BMP2组)与水凝胶复合植入感染控制后的根管腔内,对照组仅植入水凝胶.8周后组织学观察根管内组织再生情况.结果 植入8周后,VEGF组和VEGF+BMP2组根管腔内可见含有大量成纤维样细胞和血管的新生组织形成;而BMP2组和对照组根管腔内见均质状物质,未见细胞、血管形成.结论 VEGF或VEGF+BMP2复合水凝胶支架可以诱导犬根尖发育成熟的根尖周炎患牙在根管腔内生成含有血管的疏松结缔组织.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of dental pulp regeneration in mature teeth with apical periodontitis on situ using vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)and bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP2). Methods Apical periodontitis model was established in 14 mature anterior teeth in 2 dogs(10-12 months). The disinfected root canals were filled with peptide hydrogel scaffold composited with different cytokines:VEGF group,BMP2 group,VEGF+BMP2 group and a control group(without cytokines). Eight weeks after the operation,a histological observation was undertaken to evaluate the regeneration tissue in the root canals. Results Eight weeks after the operation,newly formed vascularized connective tissue were found in the root canals which filled with VEGF and VEGF+BMP2. No cells and vessels were observed in the root canals in BMP2 group and control group. Conclusion VEGF alone or combinated with BMP2 can induce pulp-like tissue regeneration within the root canals of the mature teeth with apical periodontitis.

  18. Periodontal Proteomics: Wonders Never Cease!

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are integral components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. Periodontal tissues comprise multicompartmental groups of interacting cells and matrices that provide continuous support, attachment, proprioception, and physical protection for the teeth. The proteome map, that is, complete catalogue of the matrix and cellular proteins expressed in alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament, and gingiva, is to be explored for more in-depth understanding of periodontium. The ongoing research to understand the signalling pathways that allow cells to divide, differentiate, and die in controlled manner has brought us to the era of proteomics. Proteomics is defined as the study of all proteins including their relative abundance, distribution, posttranslational modifications, functions, and interactions with other macromolecules, in a given cell or organism within a given environment and at a specific stage in the cell cycle. Its application to periodontal science can be used to monitor health status, disease onset, treatment response, and outcome. Proteomics can offer answers to critical, unresolved questions such as the biological basis for the heterogeneity in gingival, alveolar bone, and cemental cell populations.

  19. A comparative study on the biological characteristics of human periodontal ligament cells and orofacial bone marrow stromal cells%颌骨骨髓基质细胞与牙周膜细胞的生物学特性比较

    王欣; 房明; 刘敏杰; 董广英; 王新文; 刘玲侠; 王勤涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较颌骨骨髓基质细胞与牙周膜细胞的基本生物学特性.方法:分离颌骨来源骨髓基质细胞和牙周膜细胞,进行改良体外原代培养.倒置显微镜观察细胞生长及克隆形成情况;CCK-8检测细胞生长曲线;免疫荧光染色检测STR0-1表达;成脂诱导后检测脂滴形成,矿化诱导后检测碱性磷酸酶的变化并用RT-PCR检测7、14 d成骨相关基因OCN的表达水平.结果:两种细胞体外培养均呈成纤维样细胞外形,能克隆生长,均具有活跃的增殖能力;两种细胞STR0-1表达阳性;成脂诱导后可见脂滴形成;矿化诱导后骨髓基质细胞的碱性磷酸酶活性较强,而且OCN基因表达较早且较强.结论:颌骨来源骨髓基质细胞具有较强的增殖及成骨分化能力,具有干细胞特性,可能是有较大临床应用潜力的组织工程种子细胞.%AIM:To compare the biological characteristics of human orofacial bone marrow stromal cells and periodontal ligament cells in vitro. METHODS: Primary human orofacial bone marrow stromal cells and periodon-tal ligament cells (PDLCs) were isolated and cultured in vitro. Cell morphology, growth curve, colony formation ratio (CFR) , expression of STRO- 1 were analyzed by inverted contrast microscope, cck-8 and immunofluorescence staining. After osteogenic induction, alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) were tested by ELISA and RT-PCR. The adipogenic differentiation potential was identified by oil red 0 staining. RESULTS: Both BMSCs and PDLCs showed fibroblast-like morphology and clonal growth pattern. They proliferated and expanded rapidly in vitro. Both cells expressed the stem cell marker STRO-1. Alkaline phosphatase activity of BMSCs was higher than that of PDLCs on 7 and 14 days after osteogenic induction. BMSCs expressed OCN gene after 7 days of induction, while PDLCs didn' t express it. Lipid droplets were observed in both cells after adipogenic induction

  20. Effects of MAPK pathways on ET-induced IL-6 expression in periodontal ligament cells%MAPK信号通路抑制剂对内皮素-1诱导牙周膜细胞分泌白介素-6的影响

    梁莉; 刘洪臣; 王东胜; 鄂玲玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究丝裂原激活蛋白激酶(Mitogen-activated protein kinases,MAPKs)信号途径对内皮素-1(endothelin-1,ET-1)诱导牙周膜细胞分泌白介素-6(interleukin-6,IL-6)的调控作用,为探讨ET-1在牙周炎发病机制中的作用奠定基础.方法:体外培养牙周膜细胞,于加ET-1处理前30min分别向培养基中加入ERK通路抑制剂PD98059(10μM),JNK通路抑制剂SP600125(10μM),p38α通路抑制剂SB203580(10μM).再加入100nM ET-1,以未作任何处理的牙周膜细胞为空白对照.刺激12h后提取细胞培养上清液和细胞裂解物,采用实时定量PCR及ELISA检测各组牙周膜细胞IL-6基因及蛋白表达的改变.结果:与对照组相比,ET-1对牙周膜细胞IL-6 mRNA(1.3615±0.0137)及蛋白(352.1252±6.7851 ng/ml)分泌具有显著促进作用,PD98059和SB203580可抑制ET-1对牙周膜细胞IL-6 mRNA及蛋白表达的促进效应,但SP600125的抑制作用不明显.结论:ET-1可激活多条MAPKs信号通路调控牙周膜细胞IL-6的表达.%Objective: To determine whether endothelin-1 modulate the expression of interleukin-6(IL-6) via multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells.Methods: The PDL cells were stimulated with endothelin-1 (100nM) and PD98059(10μM), a biochemical inhibitors of ERK, SP600125(10μM), a biochemical inhibitors of JNK; SB203580(10μM), a biochemical inhibitors of p38 MAPK for 12 hours, respectively.The untreated PDL cells served as normal control.The effects of biochemical inhibitors of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK on IL-6 mRNA and protein levels were detected by Real time PCR and ELISA.Results: The IL-6 mRNA and protein levels were enhanced by ET-1 stimulation.Both PD98059 and SB203580 may suppress induction of IL-6 by ET-1, whereas SP600125 had little effect on ET-stimulated IL-6 biosynthesis.Conclusion: ET-1 may modulate IL-6 expression through multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in periodontal ligament cells.

  1. 复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂对人牙周膜细胞增殖的影响%Effects of compound ornidazole-pefloxacin mesylate sustained-release preparation on human periodontal ligament cell proliferation

    刘宁; 刘鲁川; 董正谋; 刘娜; 安建平

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察不同浓度复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂对人牙周膜细胞(human periodontal ligament cells,HPDLC)生长及ki-67表达的影响.方法组织块法培养原代HPDLC,MTT法检测HPDLC在复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂的不同浓度(0、1.25、2.5、5、10、20 g/L)下的光密度值,检测细胞的相对增殖率;采用流式细胞仪检测细胞周期;免疫荧光法检测ki-67的阳性表达率.结果在1.25、2.5 g/L的浓度下对HPDLC的生长和ki-67的表达与对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);而5、10 g/L浓度组的光密度值有所增大,细胞增殖指数提高,ki-67的阳性表达率也有所增加,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高浓度药物20 g/L对HPDLC的生长有一定的抑制作用.结论 5、10 g/L的复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂对体外培养的HPDLC的生长增殖有一定促进作用.%Objective To study the effects of different concentrations of compound ornidazolepefloxacin mesylate sustained-release preparation on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) and the expression of ki-67. Methods Primary HPDLCs were isolated through tissue explant culture technique, and cultured in media containing different concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g/L) of compound ornidazole-pefloxacin mesylate sustained-release preparation. MTr assay was then utilized to measure the OD values of HPDLCs to reflect the relative growth rates. Cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. The positive expression rates of ki-67 were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Results In the 1.25 and 2.5 g/L groups, HPDLC proliferation and ki-67 expression showed no significant difference from the control group (P >0.05). In the 5 and 10 g/L groups, the OD values, cell proliferation indexes, and ki-67 positive expression rates increased significantly, with statistical differences from the control group ( P <0.05 ). In the 20 g

  2. 硝苯地平对静态拉伸下牙周膜细胞MMP-1及MMP-8的表达影响%Effects of Nifedipine and Mechanical Strain on the Expression of MMP-1 and MMP-8 of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    王旭; 张苗苗; 刘鹤婷

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究静态机械拉伸作用下,硝苯地平对人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, HPLFs)中基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteinase) MMP-1及MMP-8的调节作用.方法:体外培养HPLFs,按弹性形变将细胞随机分为4组(0%、8%、12%、16%),每组再按硝苯地平(nifedipine, NIF)药物浓度随机分为4个亚组(0 μm、10 μm、30 μm、50 μm).用机械力装置使细胞持续静态拉伸12 h后,免疫组化检测硝苯地平对HPLFs胞浆中MMP-1和MMP-8的表达所产生的影响.结果:弹性形变0%时,各浓度硝苯地平对MMP-1和MMP-8表达均无明显影响(P>0.001);形变8%、12%、16%,硝苯地平0 μm时,二者表达随形变增大而增强;加入硝苯地平后,随药物浓度的升高,二者表达逐渐减弱(P<0.001).结论:硝苯地平可以抑制静态机械拉伸诱导的HPLFs中MMP-1和MMP-8的表达.

  3. Effects of oxymatrine on the proliferation and expression of tumor necrosis factor-αin human periodontal ligament cells treated with lipopolysaccharide%氧化苦参碱对内毒素作用的人牙周膜细胞增殖和分泌肿瘤坏死因子-α的影响

    骆书美

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察氧化苦参碱(OMT)对内毒素(LPS)作用下的人牙周膜细胞(HPDLC)增殖和分泌肿瘤坏死因子-α( TNF-α)的影响.方法 体外原代培养HPDLC,采用MTT法观察OMT对LPS作用的HPDLC增殖活性的影响,采用酶联免疫方法检测培养上清液中的TNF-α水平.结果100 μg/mL LPS可抑制HPDLC的增殖活性并刺激其分泌TNF-α,而在加入LPS同时分别给予1~25μg/mL OMT能在一定程度上恢复HPDLC的增殖活性并抑制LPS刺激的HPDLC TNF-α的分泌.结论 OMT对LPS作用的HPDLC具有保护作用.%Purpose To investigate the effects of oxymatrine ( OMT) on the proliferation and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α) in human periodontal ligament cells ( HPDLC) treated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS). Methods HPDLC were primarily cultured in vitro. MTT colorimetric assay was performed to detect the cell proliferation. ELISA was applied to detect the level of TNF-α in the culture supernatant. Results The proliferation was remarkably inhibited by incubation of HPDLC with 100 μg/ mL LPS of E. coli, while the level of TNF-α was significantly increased. After adding different concentrations of OMT from 1 to 25 μg/mL, the proliferation was greatly improved and the production of TNF-α was decreased. Conclusion OMT may have protective effects on HPDLC treated with LPS.

  4. 骨形成蛋白2基因转染的人牙周膜成纤维细胞的生物学特性%The Biological Characterization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Gene Transfected Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    司晓辉; 刘正

    2001-01-01

    Objective To establish the human periodontal ligament fibroblasts(HPDLFs)that express BMP2 and observe their biologicl characterization. Methods A phagemid expression vector for BMP2 (pBK-B2) was transfected into HPDLFs by using LipofectAMINE. The BMP2 expression was determined by the immunohistochemical ABC method. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OC) production and capacity of mineralization were measured in the transfected cells. Results BMP2 protein was expressed in HPDLFs after gene transfection. The BMP2 gene transfected cells showed prominently elevated ALP activity, OC production and increase in mineralized nodules. Conclusion The results indicate that BMP2 is expressed in HPDLFs and is involved in inducing differ- entiation of HPDLFs into osteoblast-like cells.%目的建立表达骨形成蛋白2(BMPS)的人牙周膜成纤维细胞(HPDLFS)并观察其生物学特性。方法利用脂质体将BMP2噬菌粒表达载体pBK-B2转染至HPDLFs,免疫组化ABC法检测BMP2基因的表达,并检测转染细胞的碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活力、骨钙素(OC)含量和矿化能力。结果转染BMP2基因后,HPDLFs内有BMP2蛋白的表达,ALP活力、OC含量和矿化结节数量均显著增加。结论BMP2基因在HPDLFs中得到表达并促进其向成骨样细胞分化。

  5. REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP

    Sabina Rawshan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2009-01-01

    Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. ...

  6. Endoscopic Intermetatarsal Ligament Decompression.

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Morton neuroma is an entrapment of the intermetatarsal nerve by the deep intermetatarsal ligament. It is usually treated conservatively. Surgery is considered if there is recalcitrant pain that is resistant to conservative treatment. The surgical options include resection of the neuroma or decompression of the involved nerve. Decompression of the nerve by release of the intermetatarsal ligament can be performed by either an open or minimally invasive approach. We describe 2-portal endoscopic decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve. The ligament is released by a retrograde knife through the toe-web portal under arthroscopic guidance through the plantar portal.

  7. Enhanced proliferation, attachment and osteopontin expression by porcine periodontal cells exposed to Emdogain.

    Rincon, J C; Xiao, Y; Young, W G; Bartold, P M

    2005-12-01

    Emdogain (EMD) is an enamel matrix derivative extracted from developing porcine teeth with demonstrated periodontal regenerative potential. EMD has been shown to influence a number of properties of periodontal ligament cells including proliferation, cell attachment and matrix synthesis. To date, the effect of EMD on the epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) is unknown. In this study, periodontal ligament fibroblasts, ERM, alveolar bone cells and gingival fibroblasts were obtained from porcine periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva. This study investigated, in vitro, the effect of EMD at three concentrations on proliferation, cell attachment and expression of mRNA for two mineralised tissue-related proteins (osteopontin and bone sialoprotein). As for other periodontal cells, the ERM proliferative response was enhanced by EMD. Attachment assays revealed a highly significant increase for ERM and gingival fibroblasts after EMD treatment at all concentrations. This study has also shown that EMD stimulated expression of osteopontin mRNA by ERM and alveolar bone cells. The results from this study provide evidence that EMD enhanced cellular events related with proliferation, attachment and osteopontin mRNA expression by porcine periodontal cells, in a manner consistent with its role in periodontal regenerative therapy.

  8. 糖基化终末产物对脂多糖介导下人牙周膜干细胞增殖和骨向分化能力的影响%Effect of advanced glycation end products on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human periodontal ligament stem cells

    王岚; 夏佳佳; 邓超; 伍燕; 刘琪; 金岩

    2011-01-01

    AIM : To investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products ( AGEs) on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of lipopolysaccharide ( LPS)-stimulated human periodontal ligament stem cells ( HPDLSCs).METHODS : The effects of LPS and AGEs on the proliferation of HPDLSCs were analyzed by MTT assay.The expressions of interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) and Runt-related transcription factor-2 ( RUNX-2) mRNA of HPDLSCs which were stimulated by LPS ( 1O μg/mL) and AGEs (100 μg/mL) were detected by RT-PCR.RESULTS : MIT assay showed that LPS and AGEs inhibited the proliferation of HPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner.LPS stimulation significantly increased IL - 6 expression and inhibited ALP and RUNX-2 expression in HPDLSCs.Co -stimulation of HPDLSCs with LPS and ACEs markedly enhanced the effects of LPS on IL-6, ALP and RUNX -2 expression.CONCLUSION : LPS and ACEs inhibited the proliferation of HPDLSCs in a concentration-dependent manner.AGEs can enhance the stimulatory effects of LPS in up - regulating IL-6 expression and the inhibitory effects of LPS in down-regulating osteogenic factors expression.Our results suggest that diabetes may increase the degree of periodontal inflammation in patients with periodontitis.%目的:探讨糖基化终末产物(AGEs)对脂多糖(LPS)介导下的人牙周膜干细胞(HPDLSCs)增殖和骨向分化能力的影响.方法:HPDLSCs培养和鉴定;MTT法检测不同浓度LPS和AGEs对HPDLSCs增殖能力的影响;Real Time-PCR检测10μg/mL LPS和100μg/mL LAGE刺激HPDLSCs后白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和Runt-related transcription factor2(RUNX-2)mRNA的表达水平.结果:与正常组比较,10、100μg/mL LPS均抑制HPDLSCs的增殖,50、100、200 μg/mL AGEs均抑制HPDLSCs的增殖,100、200 μg/mL AGEs比50μg/mL AGEs抑制明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);在成骨诱导下10μg/mL LPS刺激HPDLSCs 6 d和10μg/mL LPS刺激HPDLSCs 3 d后再加10 μg/mL LPS/100μg/mL AGES共同刺激3

  9. Effects of cyclic-tension strain on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8/13 mRNA in human periodontal ligament cells%循环张应力对牙周膜细胞基质金属蛋白酶-8和13表达的影响

    岑玉锋; 李雪; 韩光丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 以同一频率下不同力值、不同时间的循环张应力对人牙周膜细胞(HPDLC)中的基质金属蛋白酶(MMP)一8、13表达的影响,探讨生物力介导下牙周组织细胞外基质代谢调节的分子机制和牙周组织改建的分子生物学基础.方法 对培养在弹性硅胶膜6孔板上的HPDLC施加0.1Hz,硅胶膜形变率分别为6%、12%和18%的周期性循环张应力,分别在加载2、6、12h后检测HPDLC的MMP一8、13的表达.结果 体外培养的HPDLC的生长方向顺应力的方向改变,HPDLC表达MMP一8、13.MMP一8在加载6%、12%形变率循环张应力后,表达量随时间增加而明显增加;加载18%形变率组,各时间段的表达量都增加,但12h较6h表达水平低.MMP-13在6%形变率的循环张应力刺激下,表达量随时间增加而增加;在12%、18%形变率组,各时间段表达量都增加,12h较6h表达水平低,但差异没有统计学意义.结论 循环张应力可影响HPDLC中MMP一8、13的表达水平,MMP一8、13可能参与正畸力下牙周组织的改建.%Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of extracellular matrix (ECM)metabolism regulation and the molecular biological basis of periodontal tissue remodeling, by which MMP-8/13 expression in the condition of cyclic mechanical strain with the same frequency and different strength and time to human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Methods HPDLC were cultured on flexible substrates and subjected to 6%, 12%, 18% elongation by strain unit at 0.1 Hz for 2, 6, 12h, expression and secretion of MMP-8/13 mRNA were determined after loading cyclic tension strain. Results After loading cyclic tension strain, the cell growth direction was changed to force direction, HPDLC expression of MMP-8 and MMP-13. After loading of 6% and 12% cyclic tensile strain, the expression of MMP-8 mRNA was increased significantly and it was raised with time increased, in 18% group with different time, the levels

  10. Critical analysis of biomarkers in the current periodontal practice.

    Khiste, Sujeet V; Ranganath, V; Nichani, Ashish S; Rajani, V

    2011-04-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic microbial infection that triggers inflammation-mediated loss of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone that supports the teeth. Because of the increasing prevalence and associated comorbidities, there is a need for the development of new diagnostic tests that can detect the presence of active disease, predict future disease progression, and evaluate the response to periodontal therapy, thereby improving the clinical management of periodontal patients. The diagnosis of active phases of periodontal disease and the identification of patients at risk for active disease represent challenges for clinical investigators and practitioners. Advances in diagnostic research are moving toward methods whereby the periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by objective measures using biomarkers. Patients with periodontitis may have elevated circulating levels of specific inflammatory markers that can be correlated to the severity of the disease. Advances in the use of oral fluids as possible biological samples for objective measures of the current disease state, treatment monitoring, and prognostic indicators have boosted saliva- and other oral-based fluids to the forefront of technology. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is an inflammatory exudate that can be collected at the gingival margin or within the gingival crevice. This article highlights recent advances in the use of biomarker-based disease diagnostics that focus on the identification of active periodontal disease from plaque biofilms, GCF, and saliva.

  11. Sclerostin expression in periodontal ligaments during movement of orthodontic teeth in rats%大鼠正畸牙移动过程中牙周膜骨硬化蛋白的表达

    陈一文; 刘志辉; 高尚; 许彤彤; 张佳慧; 李金城; 李金成; 张慧彦; 卢金金; 胡敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:  观察正畸牙移动过程中大鼠牙周组织中骨硬化蛋白(Sclerostin)的表达及分布,研究Sclerostin在正畸牙移动骨改建中的作用。方法  选取24只Wistar大鼠,安装加力装置,加载50 g力近中移动左侧第一磨牙,分别于安装加力装置后的0、1、3、5、7、14 d处死大鼠,用苏木精-伊红(HE)染色观察第一磨牙牙周组织形态学变化,抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶(TRAP)染色观察破骨细胞的数量变化,免疫组织化学染色方法探究第一磨牙牙周膜中Sclerostin的表达变化。结果  HE染色显示随加力时间的延长压力侧骨组织破坏逐渐加重,免疫组织化学染色显示Sclerostin的表达逐渐增加,5 d时达到高峰,之后又逐渐降低,压力侧表达多于张力侧。结论  Sclerostin可能通过Wnt信号通路或者直接或间接控制骨形态发生蛋白参与了正畸牙移动骨改建过程。%Objective This study aims to observe the expression of Sclerostin during movement of orthodontic teeth and determine the effect of this protein on remodeling of periodontal tissues. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats were chosen. Orthodontic forces were applied between the bilateral incisor and first molar to achieve mesial movement. Rats in each group were executed at different time points (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 d). Morphology of periodontal tissue was observed by hematoxylineosin( HE) staining. The number of osteoclasts were observed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Sclerostin expression were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Results HE staining revealed that the resorption of alveolar bone intensified with prolonged movement. Results of immunohistochemical and TRAP staining revealed that Sclerostin expression and number of osteoclasts were related to duration of movement of orthodontic tooth. After staining for 5 days, the number of osteoclasts and Sclerostin expression reached

  12. Endoscopic Intermetatarsal Ligament Decompression

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Morton neuroma is an entrapment of the intermetatarsal nerve by the deep intermetatarsal ligament. It is usually treated conservatively. Surgery is considered if there is recalcitrant pain that is resistant to conservative treatment. The surgical options include resection of the neuroma or decompression of the involved nerve. Decompression of the nerve by release of the intermetatarsal ligament can be performed by either an open or minimally invasive approach. We describe 2-portal endoscopic ...

  13. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    Nourelahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and risk of cancer in the oral cavity and some related factors. Evidence Acquisition Evidence suggests that oral cavity cancer is significantly more prevalent in patients with periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene or more missing teeth. Clinically, gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC usually appears as an exophytic mass with a granular, papillary or verrucous surface or presents as an ulcerative lesion. Some reported cases of GSCC mimicking periodontal disease include gingival enlargement with no bone invasion, dentoalveolar abscess, erosive erythematosus lesion with keratotic papules, root exposure and tooth mobility, verrucous leukoplakia, verruciform xanthoma and development of hyperplastic granulation tissue after tooth extraction. Greater burden of oral flora that produce carcinogenic metabolites, human papilloma virus (HPV and other viruses that are residents of periodontal pocket, increased amount of inflammatory mediators and markers and some periodontal pathogens affecting cell cycle leading to mutation and dysplasia are considered as the rational for the relationship between malignant lesions of oral cavity and periodontal disease. Results Cancer of the oral cavity and periodontal disease are related from different aspects. Periodontal disease and tooth loss are considered as independent risk factors for cancer. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can also mimic periodontal disease leading to misdiagnosis and delayed commencement of appropriate

  14. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  15. Periodontal regeneration.

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  16. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    Eugene Chen; Abbott, Paul V

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse o...

  17. Gene Transfer and Expression of Platelet-derived Growth Factors Modulate Periodontal Cellular Activity

    Zhu, Z.; Lee, C. S.; Tejeda, K.M.; Giannobile, W.V.

    2001-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of wound healing. PDGF gene therapy may promote greater periodontal regeneration than local protein application, due to sustained growth factor delivery to the target tissue. This investigation tested the ability of recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) encoding PDGF-A or PDGF-1308 (a PDGF-A dominant-negative mutant that disrupts endogenous PDGF bioactivity) to affect cells derived from the periodontium. Osteoblasts, periodontal ligament ...

  18. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury

    ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... may be injured. This is a medical emergency. Prevention Use proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. ...

  19. Ankle ligament injuries

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  20. Pregnancy and periodontal disease

    SAĞLAM, Ebru; SARUHAN, Nesrin; Çanakçı, Cenk Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Some maternal immunological changes due to pregnancy increases susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, the main cause is plaque, is a common disease which is seen multifactorial and varying severity. There are many clinical criteria for diagnosis of periodontal disease. Correlation between pregnancy and periodontal inflammation is known for many years. Periodontal disease affects pregnant’s systemic condition and also has negative effects on fetus. Periodontal disease increases the...

  1. Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus

    Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    There is general agreement that there is a significant relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. Many studies have shown a high prevalence of periodontitis in diabetic patients. In addition a higher prevalence and more aggressive periodontitis are found in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The duration of having diabetes is an important factor that affects the progression and severity of periodontitis. Alterations in the host response in diabetics to existing periodontal pa...

  2. Comparative molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with periodontal disease.

    De Iuliis, V; Ursi, S; Di Tommaso, L M; Caruso, M; Marino, A; D Ercole, S; Caputi, S; Sinjari, B; Festa, F; Macri, M; Martinotti, S; Vitullo, G; Toniato, E

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disorder affecting the supporting teeth structures, including gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing loss of connective tissue, reabsorption of alveolar bone and formation of periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to find a correlation between bacterial growth and periodontal disease. Fifty-seven patients aged between 21 and 65 years, median age 46 years, were enrolled. According to gingival pocket depth, ranging from 3 to 7 mm, patients were divided into two groups: the first (30 patients, 53%) with deep pockets ³ 5 mm and the second (27 patients, 47%) less than 5 mm. The samples taken were processed for microbiological analysis by absolute quantitative real-time Taq-Man technique. Patients affected by periodontal disease were 32 (56%) and patients with gingival bleeding were 35 (61%). This data showed that the presence, the type and the bacterial load in gingival pockets were strongly correlated with gingival depth, periodontal disease and gingival bleeding. Quantitative microbiological analysis is a key point to improve patient compliance, allowing to choose the specific antibiotic treatment. avoiding antibiotic resistance and ensuring the successful outcome of therapy for periodontal disease.

  3. Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up

    Ticiane Cestari Fagundes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.

  4. 釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞群在牙骨质上附着与增殖的影响%Effects of enamel matrix protein on the attachment and proliferation of human periodontal ligament cell populations to root cementum chips

    钟永荣; 程燕飞; 高文峰; 黄雁红; 李杏; 章锦才

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究釉基质蛋白(emdogain,EMD)对体外培养的人牙周膜细胞群(human periodontal ligament cell populations,hPDLPs)在牙骨质片上附着、增殖的影响,为EMD联合hPDLPs应用于牙周组织缺损修复提供实验依据.方法 采用组织块法分离培养hPDLPs,制备人牙骨质片,实验组用含100 mg/mL EMD的培养液包被处理牙骨质片,对照组用不含EMD的培养液处理.分别于细胞接种牙骨质片上16 h(观察附着情况)和72 h(观察增殖情况),用噻唑蓝比色法检测牙骨质片上的细胞数;同时,用扫描电镜观察牙骨质片上的细胞数.结果 噻唑蓝比色法检测,实验组细胞附着数(t=-3.318,P=0.008)、增殖数(t=-6.499,P<0.001)明显多于对照组,两组之间差异有统计学意义.扫描电镜观察计数,实验组hPDLPs附着数(t=8.001,P<0.001)、增殖数(t=13.046,P<0.001)较对照组多,差异有统计学意义.结论 EMD可促进hPDLPs在牙骨质表面的附着和增殖,提示EMD和hPDLPs可联合应用修复牙周组织缺损.

  5. 小肠黏膜下层对牙周膜干细胞体外增殖、骨向分化的影响%Effects of small intestinal submucosa on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells in vitro

    张红梅; 荀文兴; 王江; 张晓梅; 李蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察小肠黏膜下层(SIS)与人牙周膜干细胞(PDLSCs)的生物相容性及其作为支架材料对 PDLSCs 的骨向分化诱导作用。方法体外分离培养 PDLSCs,分别用四唑盐比色法(MTS)、茜素红染色法、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和逆转录聚合酶链式反应(RT -PCR)方法观察 SIS 生物材料对 PDLSCs 增殖活性和骨向分化能力的影响。结果SIS 显著地刺激体外培养的PDLSCs 增殖,诱导了细胞的矿化和提高细胞 ALP 活性。RT -PCR 结果显示 SIS 诱导后细胞 mRNA 水平表达骨涎蛋白(BSP)和骨钙素(OCN)。结论体外培养条件下,SIS 与 PDLSCs 有良好的生物相容性,能够诱导 PDLSCs 骨向分化。%Objective To observe the adhesion and growth of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs)seeded on small in-testinal submucosa (SIS)in vitro and the osteogenic induction of SIS.Methods PDLSCs were successfully isolated and cultured. The compatibility of the biomaterial was evaluated by MTS assay.The osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs induced by SIS was meas-ured by using Alizarin red staining,the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)activity and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)assay.Results The proliferation of PDLSCs in SIS groups was obviously higher than that in the control groups.The higher lev-els of ALP activity,the larger mineralizing nods were also detected in the experiment groups.RT-PCR demonstrated mRNA expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP)and osteocalcin (OCN)in PDLSCs induced by SIS.Conclusions SIS possesses a good cellular compati-bility with PDLSCs.It can induce the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.

  6. Effects of IL-l β and TNF-α on the expression of LIF mRNA in periodontal ligament cells%IL-lβ和TNF-α对人牙周膜细胞内LIF表达的影响

    梁又德; 周毅; 杨旭; 王贻宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨白细胞介素-lβ(IL-lβ)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)对牙周膜细胞内白血病抑制因子(LIF)表达的影响。方法:体外分离培养鉴定人牙周韧带细胞(HPDLC),取第3代细胞用于实验,利用牙周改建中高表达因子TNF-α和IL-1β刺激HPDLC后,实时定量反转录-聚合酶链反应检测LIF mRNA的表达。结果:IL-1β在浓度为0.1 ng/mL和5 ng/mL时,均显著促进LIF的分泌(P <0.01)。TNF-α在浓度为10 ng/mL时,明显促进LIF的分泌(P <0.05)。结论:牙周改建中高表达细胞因子IL-1β和TNF-α可促进牙周膜细胞中LIF的表达。%Objective:To investigate the effects of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) on the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)mRNA in the human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs). Method:Human periodntal tissue was obtained from the extracted healthy premolar for orthodontic reasons. The HPDLCs used in this study underwent three passages. The expression of LIF mRNA in HPDLCs with or wihout IL-1β and TNF-α. Treatment was determined by realtime RT-PCR. Result:The expression of LIF mRNA was significantly induced by IL-1βin both 0.1 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL (P <0.01). The expression of LIF mRNA was markedly enhanced by TNF-α(P <0.05). Conclusion:Cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β highly expressed during periodontium remolding which dramatically stimulated the secretion of LIF in HPDLCs.

  7. 牙周膜干细胞对脐血单个核细胞分化为破骨样细胞的影响%Periodontal ligament stem cells improve peripheral blood mononuclear cells differentiation into osteoclast-like cells

    刘一涵; 刘洪臣; 刘文佳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) on osteo-clasts differentiation (luring periodontal remodeling in order to elucidate the roles of static force and inducible factors in the regulation of osteoclasts differentiation by PDLSCs. Methods PDLSCs were isolated and cultured from freshly extract teeth by using the limiting dilution technique. Mononuclear cells of umbilical cord blood (UBMC) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. After identification, the two kinds of cells were co-cultured in direct- and in Transwell co-culture system. The co-culture system were further treated by static force (120 kPa for 1 h per day, for 3 d) , or inducible factors (1 × 10-8 mol/L α-25(OH)2D3 and 1 × 1(T6 mol/L PGE2 for 7 d) to induce osteoclast-like cells (OLC). The cells without treatment served as control. Cell morphology was observed by phase contrast microscopy. TRAP staining was used to identify the OLCs. And the bone-resorption capacity was assessed by lacunae forming ability on bone slice. Results Under static force, there were more OLCs in direct co-culture system than in the Transwell co-culture system (P <0. 01). While, the treatment of inducible factors resulted more OLCs in the Transwell co-culture system than in direct co-culture system (P <0. 01). Conclusion PDLSCs promote mononuclear cells differentiate into OLC, especially under the continuous static force and the two cells contact directly.%目的 研究牙周组织改建过程中,牙周膜干细胞对破骨细胞形成的影响,初步探讨静压力和诱导因子对牙周膜干细胞调控破骨细胞形成的作用机制.方法 有限稀释法克隆化培养牙周膜干细胞,密度梯度离心法分离脐血,收集单个核细胞.建立直接共培养和Transwell间接共培养体系.实验分组:A组,对照组(单纯共培养);B组,静压力组,共培养后第2天即对共培养细胞施加120 KPa压力,持续作用1h后继续培养;C组,诱导因

  8. periostin null mice exhibit dwarfism, incisor enamel defects, and an early-onset periodontal disease-like phenotype.

    Rios, Hector; Koushik, Shrinagesh V; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Ming; Lindsley, Andrew; Rogers, Rhonda; Chen, Zhi; Maeda, Manabu; Kruzynska-Frejtag, Agnieszka; Feng, Jian Q; Conway, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first exon with a lacZ reporter gene. Surprisingly, although periostin is widely expressed in many developing organs, periostin-deficient (peri(lacZ)) embryos are grossly normal. Postnatally, however, approximately 14% of the nulls die before weaning and all of the remaining peri(lacZ) nulls are severely growth retarded. Skeletal analysis revealed that trabecular bone in adult homozygous skeletons was sparse, but overall bone growth was unaffected. Furthermore, by 3 months, the nulls develop an early-onset periodontal disease-like phenotype. Unexpectedly, these mice also show a severe incisor enamel defect, although there is no apparent change in ameloblast differentiation. Significantly, placing the peri(lacZ) nulls on a soft diet that alleviated mechanical strain on the periodontal ligament resulted in a partial rescue of both the enamel and periodontal disease-like phenotypes. Combined, these data suggest that a healthy periodontal ligament is required for normal amelogenesis and that periostin is critically required for maintenance of the integrity of the periodontal ligament in response to mechanical stresses.

  9. Periodontal Disease and Systemic Health

    ... Periodontal Externships Scholarships & Grants Educators Residents Careers in Periodontics Competencies for Predoc Perio Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Career Options in Periodontics In-Service Examination Dental Hygiene Educators Periodontal Literature ...

  10. The use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of internal root resorption associated with chronic apical periodontitis: a case report.

    Perlea, Paula; Nistor, Cristina Coralia; Iliescu, Mihaela Georgiana; Iliescu, Alexandru Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Internal root resorption is a consequence of chronic pulp inflammation. Later on, the pulp necrosis followed by a chronic apical periodontitis is installed. Hence, usually, in clinical practice, both lesions have to be simultaneously managed. Conventional periapical radiograph is mandatory in diagnosis. Improving the diagnosis and management of both lesions, cone beam computed tomography proves to be more reliable than conventional radiography.

  11. Will mineral trioxide aggregate replace calcium hydroxide in treating pulpal and periodontal healing complications subsequent to dental trauma?

    Bakland, Leif K; Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has over the last two decades begun to take the place of calcium hydroxide (CH) in the treatment of a variety of pulpal and periodontal healing complications following dental trauma. These conditions include teeth with: (i) exposed pulps, (ii) immature roots...... and pulp necrosis, (iii) root fractures and pulp necrosis located in the coronal part of the pulps, and (iv) external infection-related (inflammatory) root resorption. The main reasons for replacing CH with MTA in these situations have generally been the delayed effect when using CH to induce hard tissues...

  12. The influence of orthodontic treatment on dental pulp and periapical tissues%正畸治疗对牙髓及根尖周组织的影响

    张笑维; 梁景平

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulpal and periapical diseases is related with not only bacterial infection but also physicochemical irritations such as trauma and thermal changes.During orthodontic therapy,the application of orthodontic forces on teeth may produce a series of changes in periodontal ligament,alveolar bone and pulpo-dentinal complex.This article reviewed the influences of orthodontic therapy on dental pulp and periapical tissues.%引起牙髓病和根尖周病的病因除常见的细菌感染外,还有创伤、温度等物理和化学刺激.在正畸治疗过程中,正畸力可引起牙周组织及牙髓组织发生一系列变化.本文的目的是探究正畸治疗带来的牙髓及根尖周组织的变化,就正畸治疗对牙髓及根尖周组织的影响作一综述.

  13. Expression of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein mRNA in human periodontal ligament cell osteogenic differentiation%细胞外基质磷酸化糖蛋白mRNA在人牙周韧带细胞成骨分化过程中的表达

    吴莉萍; 韦曦; 凌均棨; 刘路

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mineralization capacity of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLC) by determining the mRNA expressions of alkaline phesphatase (ALP), osteocalein (OCN) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and to explore the potential of MEPE as a differentiation marker for PDLC, and its possible function in PDLC osteogenic differentiation. Methods PDLC were digested and cultured by a solution containing collagenase type Ⅰ and dispase. PDLC were preceded to osteogenic induction for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively, and the cells before induction served as controls.Mineralization nodules and the expression of OCN in PDLC were investigated by alizarin red and immunohistochemistry respectively. The expressions of ALP, OCN and MEPE mRNA were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences of mRNA expression levels among cell samples collected at different time points. Results The mRNA expressions of ALP, OCN and MEPE in PDLC before induction were 72, 1.1 and 534 respectively, but increased time-dependently in the induction cultures. The mRNA expressions of ALP, OCN and MEPE were 78,9.56 and 629.6 on day 7;290, 133 and 638.3 on day 14;1108, 925 and 2261.1 on day 21 respectively. The relative mRNA levels of OCN,ALP on day 14 and 21, MEPE on day 21 were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05 ). Conclusions PDLC showed analogously temporal expression of ALP, OCN and MEPE mRNA while differentiating into cementoblast/osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MEPE may play a regulatory role in PDLC osteogenie differentiation, and may be a potential osteogenic differentiation marker along with ALP and OCN.%目的 检测人牙周韧带细胞(periodontal ligament stem cell,PDLC)诱导矿化过程中碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)、骨钙素(osteocalcin,OCN)和细胞外基质磷酸化糖蛋白(matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein,MEPE)mRNA的表达,探讨MEPE能否作

  14. Construction of lentiviral RNAi vectors containing human smoothened gene and its inhibitory effect on proliferation and differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells%Smoothened慢病毒干扰载体的构建及其对人牙周膜干细胞增殖与分化的影响

    张洁; 常慧君; 李雨轩; 舒绍兵; 罗金英; 徐志玲; 汤玲; 杨彦春; 周继祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct the lentiviral vector of human smoothened (SMO) gene which can down-regulate the SMO expression in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).Methods According to the human SMO gene,3 sequences were designed to build RNA interference lentiviral vector.All the 3 vectors were packaged in 293FT cells,and then transfected into the 293A cells.The interference efficiency was evaluated by quantitative PCR,and the optimal one were transfected into the PDLSCs.Western blotting were used to detect the interference effect of SMO gene and the effect on differentiation in PDLSCs.CCK-8 assay was used to test the effect of recombinant lentivirus on the proliferation of PDLSCs.Results Three SMO lentiviral RNAi vectors were constructed successfully and the lentiviral vector 1 was considered as the optimal one by quantitative PCR.The mRNA level of SMO was reduced by (28.5 ± 2.5) % by this vector.The protein expression of SMO was decreased by 80% in the PDLSCs after transfected by the lentivector vector 1 when compared with the cells without transfection.This transfection also resulted in a decreased cell proliferation (1.090 9 ± 0.199 2 vs 1.863 0 ± 0.206 2,P < 0.01) and a decreased expression of bone differentiation marker,RUNX2.Conclusion A lentiviral vector of SMO is successfully constructed,and SMO interference suppresses the proliferation in PDLSCs,and inhibits the differentiation of PDLSC to osteoblasts.%目的 体外构建及筛选人Smoothened(SMO)基因的慢病毒干扰载体,使用此载体下调人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem ceils,PDLSCs)中SMO基因表达并检测其对细胞增殖与分化的影响.方法 针对人SMO 基因设计3条干扰序列,构建RNA干扰慢病毒载体,在293FT细胞中包装病毒液并转染293A细胞,通过实时荧光定量PCR检测干扰效率,得到具有最佳干扰效率的病毒后,转染PDLSCs,用Western blot检测其对PDLSCs中SMO基因的干扰效果

  15. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  16. Cruciate ligament reflexes

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten

    2002-01-01

    The idea of muscular reflexes elicited from sensory nerves of the cruciate ligaments is more than 100 years old, but the existence of such reflexes has not been proven until the recent two decades. First in animal experiments, a muscular excitation could be elicited in the hamstrings when the ant...

  17. Histological assessment of pulp condition after apical vital root transection in one root of multirooted teeth in dogs: a preliminary study.

    Yaghmaiee, Massoud; Yavari, Amir Saeed; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Afshin; Farnia, Pupak; Sharifi, Davoud; Ghanavi, Jalaledin; Eslami, Behnan

    2007-09-01

    One of the most important aspects in surgery is the healing process after the periapical surgery. Past studies have shown occasional encounters with vital root resection and have noted varying degrees of pulpal response after root resection in periodontal disease. The purpose of this investigation was to observe the pulpal and periapical responses to intentional apical vital root transection in one root of multirooted teeth of German-Canadian dogs over a 6-month postoperative period. This is an experimental study performed on left maxillary and mandibular quadrants of four adult German-Canadian dogs after a 3- and 6-month period. Four teeth were assessed in each interval. One of the roots of multirooted teeth in the left quadrant of both maxillary and mandibular jaws was surgically transected. Tissue blocks were prepared by routine histological methods after 12 and 24 weeks after the surgery. The results showed a disruption of the normal pulpal architecture, with initial pulpal degeneration and subsequent early replacement by the periodontal ligament tissue after 24 weeks. Hypercementosis was seen around the apical portion of the root in all specimens. Pulpal regeneration was seen in the both upper and lower molars (p = 0.03). Resorption took place only in two specimens (p = 0.46). The inflammation in the 12th week was more than the 24th week. The pulp of multirooted teeth remains vital after transection of the apical part of the root in dogs. Longer follow-up periods are recommended because root canal therapy or extraction is indicated if resorption, necrosis, or ankylosis is seen.

  18. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin extract (PRFe) on Periodontal ligament cell%富血小板纤维蛋白提取液对牙周膜成纤维细胞成骨能力影响的实验研究

    韩晓鹏; 董凯; 李黛; 张晓洁; 柳忠豪

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin extract (PRFe) on proliferation and bone differentiation of Periodontal ligament cell. Methods: Trials are divided into the experimental group(P) and the control group(D), group P use the osteogenic induction α-MEM(10% FBS, penicillin100 mg/L, streptomycin100mg/L, 10-2mol/L sodium β-glycerophosphate, 10-7mol/L dexamethasone, 5mg/L vitamin C) containing PRFe, while group D just use the osteogenic induction α-MEM. MTT assay to detect the number of the osteoblasts at 1d, 3d, 5d;the activity of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) to detect the differen-tiation of osteoblast at 1d, 3d, 5d; mean while,the level of osteogenetic biomarkers Runx2 and OCN at 3d, 7d were quantified by real-time PCR. Results: MTT assay: At 1d, 3d, 5d, a significant increase of absorbance were showed in group P(1d: 0.235±0.012, 3d: 0.270±0.014, 5d: 0.686±0.040) than group D (1d:0.201 ±0.011, 3d: 0.286 ±0.020, 5d: 0.426 ±0.024)(P<0.05). ALP activity: At 1d, 3d, 5d, the ab-sorbance of group P (1d:0.124 ±0.018,3d:0.176 ±0.013,5d:0.361 ±0.021)was significant higher than group D(1d:0.103±0.011,3d:0.123±0.012,5d:0.162±0.014)(p<0.05). Realtime PCR: As the standard-ization in the group,the gene expression level of group D at 3d were defined as 1, the Runx2 and OCN gene expression in group P (Cfba1, 3d:1.751 ±0.136, 7d: 2.287 ±0.165; OCN, 3d:1.510 ±0.129, 7d:2.103 ±0.042) are larger than group D (Cfba1, 3d:1, 7d:1.367 ±0.121; OCN, 3d:1, 7d: 1.208 ±0.051) (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our work confirmed that PRFe is useful in stimulating the proliferation and bone differentiation of Periodontal ligament cell.%目的:探讨富血小板纤维蛋白提取液(Platelet-rich fibrin extract, PRFe)对牙周膜成纤维细胞(Periodon-tal ligament cell PDLC)增殖、成骨分化的影响,以期为富血小板纤维蛋白在临床的应用提供理论基础。方法:实验分为实验组(P组)和对照组(D组), P组使用

  19. The use of platelet rich plasma with guided tissue regeneration in defects caused by periodontal diseases.

    Holly, D; Mracna, J

    2009-01-01

    The goal of periodontal treatment in not only the stabilization of disease but also the regeneration of the destructed tissue. In the past few years various procedures have been created to achieve this. The guided tissue regeneration is a surgical procedure developed on the basis of experimental studies. It enables the creation of periodontal tissues affected by periodontitis, the so called reattachment. It stands for formation of new attachment--meaning the regeneration of cementum, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This surgical procedure of the treatment of periodontitis is based on the principle of exclusion of the epithelium and also the gingival connective tissue from the root surface so the precursor cells (desmodontal cells) can occupy the defect and pursue their differentiation. Periodontal ligament containing cells with regenerative potential are the exclusive ones to have the ability to regenerate structures affected by periodontitis. The use of growth factors offer new aspects to the therapy (Fig. 7, Ref. 11). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  20. Perkembangan Terkini Membran Guided Tissue Regeneration/Guided Bone Regeneration sebagai Terapi Regenerasi Jaringan Periodontal

    Cindy Cahaya

    2015-06-01

    kombinasi prosedur-prosedur di atas, termasuk prosedur bedah restoratif yang berhubungan dengan rehabilitasi oral dengan penempatan dental implan. Pada tingkat selular, regenerasi periodontal adalah proses kompleks yang membutuhkan proliferasi yang terorganisasi, differensiasi dan pengembangan berbagai tipe sel untuk membentuk perlekatan periodontal. Rasionalisasi penggunaan guided tissue regeneration sebagai membran pembatas adalah menahan epitel dan gingiva jaringan pendukung, sebagai barrier membrane mempertahankan ruang dan gigi serta menstabilkan bekuan darah. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas sekilas mengenai 1. Proses penyembuhan terapi periodontal meliputi regenerasi, repair ataupun pembentukan perlekatan baru. 2. Periodontal spesific tissue engineering. 3. Berbagai jenis membran/guided tissue regeneration yang beredar di pasaran dengan keuntungan dan kerugian sekaligus karakteristik masing-masing membran. 4. Perkembangan membran terbaru sebagai terapi regenerasi penyakit periodontal. Tujuan penulisan untuk memberi gambaran masa depan mengenai terapi regenerasi yang menjanjikan sebagai perkembangan terapi penyakit periodontal.   Latest Development of Guided Tissue Regeneration and Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane as Regenerative Therapy on Periodontal Tissue. Periodontitis is a patological state which influences the integrity of periodontal system that could lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissue and end up with tooth loss. Currently, there are so many researches and efforts to regenerate periodontal tissue, not only to stop the process of the disease but also to reconstruct the periodontal tissue. Periodontal regenerative therapy aims at directing the growth of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament on the affected teeth. Regenerative procedures consist of soft tissue graft, bone graft, roots biomodification, guided tissue regeneration and combination of the procedures, including restorative surgical procedure that is

  1. [Biologico-periodontal considerations in restoration of teeth partially destroyed by caries or traumatism].

    Carrillo Martínez, J J; Zermeño Ibarra, J A; Mercado Martínez, E G; Villanueva Neuman, Y; Castellanos Olmedo, R

    1990-01-01

    Since a great number of teeth could be rehabilitated and not extracted, in this paper we analyze the relation Perio-protesis by the point of the biology of marginal periodontal ligament, and the different options to establish this relations when are lost by decay or traumatism. We discuss the contraindications to avoid greater problems than benefits when intend to rehabilitate lost teeth.

  2. Qat Habit in Yemen Society: A Causative Factor for Oral Periodontal Diseases

    Aiman A. Ali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a common habit among Yemeni population on the periodontal status was investigated. This cross-sectional study was done on 2500 Yemenis with mean age 27.01 years (1818 males and 682 females. Among these 1528 were qat chewers and 972 were non-chewers. Detailed questionnaire and pre-designed scoring system for the periodontal status were employed for each case. Study results indicated that out of 972 non-chewers 116(12% had periodontal pocketing and 18 (1.9% cases had gingival recession. On the other hand, out of 1528 chewers, 468 (31.8% had periodontal pockets and 98 (6.4% with gum bleeding, p<0.05. These effects were found to increase with increased frequency and duration of chewing. It was concluded that habit of qat can cause damage to the periodontal ligament as pocketing and gum recession.

  3. Modeling susceptibility to periodontitis

    Laine, M.L.; Moustakis, V.; Koumakis, L.; Potamias, G.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis have a complex pathogenesis and a multifactorial etiology, involving complex interactions between multiple genetic loci and infectious agents. We aimed to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms and bacteria on chronic periodontitis risk. W

  4. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological ...

  5. Periodontal regeneration: a challenge for the tissue engineer?

    Hughes, F J; Ghuman, M; Talal, A

    2010-12-01

    Periodontitis affects around 15 per cent of human adult populations. While periodontal treatment aimed at removing the bacterial cause of the disease is generally very successful, the ability predictably to regenerate the damaged tissues remains a major unmet objective for new treatment strategies. Existing treatments include the use of space-maintaining barrier membranes (guided tissue regeneration), use of graft materials, and application of bioactive molecules to induce regeneration, but their overall effects are relatively modest and restricted in application. The periodontal ligament is rich in mesenchymal stem cells, and the understanding of the signalling molecules that may regulate their differentation has increased enormously in recent years. Applying these principles for the development of new tissue engineering strategies for periodontal regeneration will require further work to determine the efficacy of current experimental preclinical treatments, including pharmacological application of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) or Wnts, use of autologous stem cell reimplantation strategies, and development of improved biomaterial scaffolds. This article describes the background to this problem, addresses the current status of periodontal regeneration, including the background biology, and discusses the potential for some of these experimental therapies to achieve the goal of clinically predictable periodontal regeneration.

  6. Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration: a review of ceramics and polymers.

    Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect.

  7. Estimation of periodontal ligament’s equivalent mechanical parameters for finite element modeling

    Xia, Zeyang; Jiang, Feifei; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (v) of the periodontal ligament are needed in a finite element analysis for investigating the biomechanical behavior of a tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex. However, large discrepancies in E (0.01–1,750 MPa) and v (0.28–0.49) were reported previously. The objective of this study was to narrow the ranges and to provide equivalent E and v pairs suitable for finite element modeling of a tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex by using a reported crown load-displacement relationship as the criterion. Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of a 3-tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex, consisting of a maxillary central incisor with 2 adjacent teeth, from a cone-beam computed tomography scan was created. The dimensions, constraints, and loading condition were kept similar to those reported in the human study. With the load applied to the crown, both v and E were adjusted independently, and the corresponding crown displacements were calculated. The resulting load-displacement curves were compared with those reported in the human study. The mean absolute displacement difference method was used to find the best fit. The E and v pairs that generated the minimum mean absolute displacement difference were identified. Results The finite element model with 1 of the 3 E and v pairs (v = 0.35, E = 0.87 MPa; v = 0.4, E = 0.71 MPa; and v = 0.45, E = 0.47 MPa) simulated the tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex well. The mean absolute displacement differences were 0.0135, 0.0138, and 0.0138 mm, respectively; these are less than 8% of 0.175 mm, which was the crown displacement of the tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex under the load of 500 cN. Conclusions The E and v values close to the 3 pairs might be used for finite element modeling of the tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex. PMID:23561409

  8. EVALUATION OF CONDITION OF THE PULP BY PULSE OXIMETRY.

    Dimitar Kosturkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct pulse oximetry (PO and electric pulp test (EPT on intact frontal teeth in clinically healthy patients aged between 18 and 25 years who do not have periodontal disease. Material/Methods: To achieve the aim 1058 teeth of 31 patients were studied. The following inclusion criteria for the study were set: 1. Age – 18-25 years. 2. Clinically healthy patient, who does not have any systemic diseases, do not take any medicine systematically. 3. Intact frontal teeth – without carious lesions, restorations or root canal treatment. 4. Lack of periodontal disease. Research was conducted with a pulse oximeter Contec™ - CMS60D and a custom made probe holder. Results: Average values obtained by pulse oximetry in upper jaw vary between 83% and 85%. In lower jaw – between 82% and 85%. 99% is the maximum and 48% is the minimum registered value. The average value of the measurement of all the teeth is 84%. The average saturation measured on the small finger of the right hand of the patient is 98%. The average value of EPT for all teeth is 4 μA. The maximum measured value is 20 μA, and the minimum - 1 μA. Conclusions: 1. Adequate study of the pulp includes two complementary methods – electric pulp test (evaluation of innervation and pulse oximetry (assessment of pulp microcirculation. 2. Teeth that are larger in size have larger values of PO and EPT, which is in direct relation to the size of their pulp chamber. 3. The total saturation, measured in the little finger of the right hand is greater than the one of the teeth.

  9. [Pathogenic potential of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, the red bacterial complex associated with periodontitis].

    Bodet, C; Chandad, F; Grenier, D

    2007-01-01

    Periodontitis are mixed bacterial infections leading to destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, including periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Among over 500 bacterial species living in the oral cavity, a bacterial complex named "red complex" and made of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia has been strongly related to advanced periodontal lesions. While periodontopathogenic bacteria are the primary etiologic factor of periodontitis, tissue destruction essentially results from the host immune response to the bacterial challenge. Members of the red complex are Gram negative anaerobic bacteria expressing numerous virulence factors allowing bacteria to colonize the subgingival sites, to disturb the host defense system, to invade and destroy periodontal tissue as well as to promote the immunodestructive host response. This article reviews current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria of the red complex leading to tissue and alveolar bone destruction observed during periodontitis.

  10. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  11. Chitosan as a barrier membrane material in periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Xu, Chun; Lei, Chang; Meng, Liuyan; Wang, Changning; Song, Yaling

    2012-07-01

    Periodontal regeneration is defined as regeneration of the tooth-supporting tissues including cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been demonstrated to be an effective technique to achieve periodontal regeneration. In the GTR procedures, various kinds of membranes play important roles. Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin, is biocompatible, biodegradable, and antimicrobial. It acts as hydrating agent and possesses tissue healing and osteoinducing effect. Chitosan can be easily processed into membranes, gels, nanofibers, beads, nanoparticles, scaffolds, and sponges forms and can be used in drug delivery systems. Here, we review the bioproperties of chitosan and report the progress of application of chitosan as membranes in GTR and guided bone regeneration (GBR), which indicates that chitosan could be a good substrate candidate as the materials for the GTR/GBR membranes.

  12. Faktor-Faktor Periodontal yang Harus Dipertimbangkan pada Perawatan dengan Gigi Tiruan Cekat

    Riemawati A. Lesmana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the treatment with fixed restoration especially the crowns and bridges is to maintain the remaining teeth of dentition and the whole masticatory system. This treatment can be successful if periodontal consideration of the abutments and the fixed restoration is given. The periodontal of a tooth are gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and cementum. The most common type of periodontal disease is gingivitis that usually caused by bacterial plaque attached to tooth or crown surface. The other disease that involve the tooth supporting tissue is called periodontitis, it can be preceded by long standing chronic gingivitis. Trauma from occlusion presents two predominant clinical features, increasing tooth mobility and widening of the periodontal space. Periodontal pocket is a disease of periodontal attachment unit that is caused by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment. Periodontal atrophy occurs as a result of repeated traumatic that cause reduction in height of periodontium. All gingival and periodontal diseases and trauma from occlusion must be eliminated before restorative procedures are begun. Dental fixed restoration and periodontal health are inseparably interrelated. The adaptation of the margins and the contours of the restoration, the surface smoothness, the embrasure and the pontic of a bridge, have a critical biologic impact on the gingiva and supporting periodontal tissue. Dental fixed restoration therefore play a significant role in maintaining gingival and periodontal health. Plaque control must be maintained regularly and the occlusion must be checked at regular intervals after the fixed prosthesis is inserted. The occlusal relationships change with time as the result of micromovement of the natural dentition and the wear of restorative materials.

  13. Chronic stress enhances progression of periodontitis via α1-adrenergic signaling: a potential target for periodontal disease therapy.

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan

    2014-10-17

    This study assessed the roles of chronic stress (CS) in the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and explored the underlying mechanisms of periodontitis. Using an animal model of periodontitis and CS, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the protein levels of the α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) were assessed. Furthermore, human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the process of inflammation. The proliferation of the HPDLFs and the expression of α1-AR and β2-AR were assessed. The inflammatory-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were detected after pretreatment with the α1/β2-AR blockers phentolamine/propranolol, both in vitro and in vivo. Results show that periodontitis under CS conditions enhanced the expression of TH, α1-AR and β2-AR. Phentolamine significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, we observed a marked decrease in HPDLF proliferation and the increased expression of α1-ARfollowing LPS pretreatment. Pretreatment with phentolamine dramatically ameliorated LPS-inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, the blocking of α1-ARsignaling also hindered the upregulation of the inflammatory-related cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. These results suggest that CS can significantly enhance the pathological progression of periodontitis by an α1-adrenergic signaling-mediated inflammatory response. We have identified a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in those patients suffering from concurrent CS.

  14. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  15. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review

    Karuppanan P Sasikumar; Sugumari Elavarasu; Jayaprakash S Gadagi

    2012-01-01

    Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodon...

  16. Regenerative effect of hOPG gene-modified autologous PDLs in combination with cell transplantation on periodontal defection in beagle dogs.

    Jiang, Su; Tang, Kunqi; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the ability of human osteoprotegerin gene-modified autologous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) in combination with cell transplantation to promote periodontal regeneration in beagle dogs. Adenovirus Ad5-hOPG-EGFP-transfected PDLCs and BME-10X collagen membranes were fabricated and used for periodontal repair. Buccal periodontal defects (mesiodistal width × depth: 5 × 5 mm) were created on the second, third, and fourth mandibular premolars in six normal beagle dogs, and the defects were histologically and histomorphometrically assessed for periodontal regeneration in the following four groups: (1) hOPG-PDLCs + BME-10X, (2) mock-PDLCs + BME-10X, (3) PDLCs + BME-10X, and (4) BME-10X. The radiographic and histological results suggested that hOPG-PDLCs significantly promoted periodontal defect repair. This study demonstrates the potential of hOPG-modified PDLCs for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  17. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  18. Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Cultured on Lattice-like and Non-woven Electrospun Poly(L-lactide) Nanofiber Scaffolds in vitro%牙周膜细胞在网格型与无纺型聚乳酸纳米纤维支架材料上体外培养的研究比较

    张静; 梅芳; 蔡晴; 徐青青; 邓旭亮; 杨小平

    2009-01-01

    研究对比牙周膜细胞在无纺型和网格型聚乳酸纳米纤维膜上的生长行为,探讨支架结构对细胞生长的影响.采用静电纺丝技术,用金属平板或金属网分别接收,得到无纺型和网格型聚乳酸纳米纤维膜;通过SEM观察两种支架形貌差异,并测试比较它们的力学性能.通过MTT测试和SEM观察,比较无纺型和网格型纳米纤维膜对细胞生长的影响.实验结果:网格型膜的纤维直径平均为500~600 nm;无纺型膜的纤维直径大于网格型膜,平均直径约为700 nm,但网格型膜的拉伸断裂应变略大.牙周细胞与支架联合培养的MTT结果显示,与在聚苯乙烯(TCPS) 培养板上的培养比较,两种纳米纤维膜都显示出促进细胞增殖的效果,其中网格膜的促进效果比无纺膜更加明显.SEM观察的结果显示,细胞无法进入无纺型膜内部生长,而网格型膜中由疏松纤维堆积形成的大孔结构则非常有利于细胞进入支架内部,细胞在后者上生长良好.因此,网格型纳米纤维支架是一种优于纤维为完全无纺排布的支架,更适用于组织工程研究.%The goal of this study is to investigate the growth behavior of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) seeded on the poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) nanofibrous matrix. The lattice-like PLLA scaffold was prepared by electrospinning with a metal mesh as collector, while the non-woven PLLA scaffold was collected by a metal plate. The mechanical property of both scaffolds was tested by INSTRO-1121 universal materials test machine followed GB13022-91. The cell compatibility of the electrospun scaffolds was evaluated by MTT-extract assay. The adhesion and proliferation of the cells were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean diameter of the fibers in lattice-like PLLA scaffolds was 500~600 nm, larger than the fibers in non-woven PLLA scaffolds whose diameter was around 700 nm, but the two PLLA scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical

  19. Effect of microRNA-17 on osteogenic differentiation of advanced glycation end products-stimulated human perio-dontal ligament stem cells%微小RNA-17在糖基化终末产物刺激下人牙周膜干细胞骨向分化过程中的调控作用

    邓超; 伍燕; 杨琨; 崔晓霞; 刘琪; 金岩

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to detect microRNA-17(mir-17) expression on the osteogenic differentiation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-stimulated hunman periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSCs) and to analyze the influence of these cells on this process. Methods HPDLSCs were isolated using limited dilution technique. After osteogenic differentiation occurred, different time points of mir-17 expression in the experimental groups were detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mir-17 overexpression and inhibition were evaluated using cell transfection technique. Differences in gene expressions were detected by real time PCR; differences in protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results The mir-17 expression was reduced after osteogenic differentiation occurred at 3, 7, and 14 d compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of bone sialoprotein(BSP), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the experimental groups were lower than those in the mimic control group when mir-17 expression increased. In addition, the protein expression levels of Runx-2 in the experimental groups were lower than those in the control group. The expression levels of BSP, Runx-2 and ALP in the experimental groups were higher than those in the inhibitor control group when mir-17 expression decreased. Likewise, the protein expression levels of Runx-2 in the expe-rimental groups were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion AGEs inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of HPDLSCs by affecting mir-17 expression.%目的:检测微小RNA-17(mir-17)在糖基化终末产物(AGEs)刺激下人牙周膜干细胞(HPDLSCs)骨向分化过程中的表达,并分析其对该过程的影响。方法体外组织块法和有限稀释法克隆化培养HPDLSCs。实时定量聚合酶链反应(real time PCR)检测实验组细胞在骨向分化过程中不同时间点mir-17的表达;采

  20. 离心作用下人牙周膜细胞内诱导型一氧化氮合酶和胱硫醚分解酶的表达%Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in cultured human periodontal ligament cells following centrifugal force stimulation

    廖崇珊; 华咏梅; 冯欣华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究在离心力作用下人牙周膜细胞内的诱导型一氧化氮合酶(inducible nitric oxide synthase,iNOS)和硫化氢合酶胱硫醚分解酶(cystat hionine-γ-lyase,CSE)的表达变化.方法 采用组织块-酶消化联合法培养人牙周膜细胞,对细胞施加离心力(167 g),SABC法染色及胞浆透光度检测iNOS和CSE在10、30、60、90、120和240 min不同加力时间点的表达变化.结果 正常人牙周膜细胞内几乎无iNOS和CSE表达;加力10 min,iNOS和CSE有表达(P<0.01);之后两种酶表达逐渐加强,加力60 min,iNOS和CSE表达达到高峰(P<0.01);之后逐渐减弱,加力240min,iNOS和CSE恢复到基础水平.结论 离心力可诱导人牙周膜细胞内iNOS和CSE的表达短暂性升高,提示一氧化氮(N())和硫化氢(H2S)可能参与了牙周组织改建中的力学信号转导过程.%Objective This study was to examine the changes of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthase,cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in cultured Human periodontal ligament fibrohlasts (HPDLFs)in response to centrifugal force stimulation. Methods Cultured HPDLFs with the method of tissue-enzymatic digestion were stimulated mechanically by centrifugal force (167 g) for 10,30,60,90,120 and 240 min,respectively.The expression of iNOSand CSE were analyzed by Streptavidin-biotin complex (SABC) immunocytochemistry combined with cytoplasmic light transmission measurement.Results The basal levels of iNOS and CSE in the HPDLFs were very low.Application of centrifugal force for 10 min resulted in a rapid increase in the iNOS and CSE expression (P<0.01).The expression levels gradually increased to a peak 60 min after applying force (P<0.01),then declined to the basal level at 240 min of sustained force.Conclusions Centrifugal force induced the expression of HPDLFs iNOS and CSE in the same pattern within a narrow time frame,suggesting iNOS and CSE may play an essential role in periodontium remodeling.

  1. 不同离体时间和保存液对犬离体牙牙周膜细胞活力影响的实验研究%Effects of different extra-oral storage time and storage medium on the viability of periodontal ligament cells from avulsed dog teeth

    刘勇; 周三玲; 高黎; 冀坤; 轩昆; 文玲英

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨完全脱位牙不同离体时间和保存液对牙周膜细胞活力的影响.方法:麻醉拔除犬牙35个,首先将20个牙随机分为5组,分别为室温干燥放置0、30、60、120、240 min组,另15个牙室温干燥放置30 min后,随机分为3组,分别放入牛奶、HBSS液,100 g/L蜂胶液中浸泡2h.各组处理完成后,采用全牙消化法获得牙周膜细胞,并通过4 g/L台盼蓝染色法检测各组牙周膜活细胞数和存活率.结果:室温干燥放置30、60、120、240 min后,牙周膜细胞存活率依次为33.6%、23.6%、18.5%、0.8%,而0 min的牙周膜细胞存活率可达95.5%.拔后30 min,经牛奶、HBSS液和100 g/L蜂胶液中保存2h后,牙周膜细胞均有活力,其细胞存活率大小依次为100 g/L蜂胶液、HBSS液和牛奶,其中100 g/L蜂胶液与HBSS液相比无统计学差异(P>0.05),但与牛奶组相比,均有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:随着离体时间延长,完全脱位牙根面牙周膜细胞活力明显下降.100 g/L蜂胶液和HBSS液保存犬牙牙周膜细胞活力优于牛奶液.%AIM: To evaluate the effects of different extra-oral storage time and storage medium on the via-bility of periodontal ligament cells from avulsed dog teeth. METHODS: Thirty-five dog teeth were extracted under local anesthesia and were randomly assigned to different treatment groups. Twenty teeth were stored at room temperature for 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 min, with 4 teeth in each time point group. The PDL cells were subsequently isolated by direct enzymatic digestion method. The viabilities of the cells were examined by 0.4% Trypan Blue Stains. The other 15 teeth were stored at room temperature for 30 min. Then they were divided into HBSS, milk and 10% Propolis group (with 5 teeth in each group) and stored in the respective medium for 2 hours. Cell viability were assessed in the same way. RESULTS: The number of viable PDL cells decreased with the increase of storage time. At 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240

  2. The effects of H.pylori on the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%幽门螺杆菌对人牙周膜成纤维细胞的增殖和细胞周期的影响

    许丹; 阎璐; 任吉芳

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) on the cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs). METHODS: hPDLFs (hPDLFlOO) and H. Pylori NCTC11637 were cultured in vitro. H. Pylori at the density ( cfu/mL) of 1× 108, 2 × 107, 4 × 106 and 8 × 105 cfu/mL were cocultured with PDLFs for 6h, 12 h and 24 h respectively , the proliferation of hPDLFs was examined by MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution was observed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: OD value of hPDLFlOO cells decreased with the increace of H. Pylori density and the increace of coculture time (p < 0. 05 ) . H. Pylori changed the cell cycle distribution of hPDLFlOO cells by increace of GoG1 -phase cell number and decreace of S and G2M—phase cell number(P<0.05). CONCLUTION: H. Pylori may inhibit the mitosis and proliferation of PDLFs.%目的:观察幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori对人牙周膜成纤维细胞(PDLFs)的增殖和细胞周期的影响.方法:体外分别培养PDLFs细胞株(hPDLF100)和H.pylori)国际标准产毒株NCTC11637,将不同浓度(1 ×108、2×107、4×106、8×105cfu/mL)H.pylori分别与PDLFs共同培养,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(Methyl thiazolyl tetraxolium,MTT)和流式细胞术(Flow cytometry,FCM),观察不同浓度H.pylori对PDLFs的生长增殖和细胞周期的影响.结果:各浓度H.pylori作用于PDLFs 6、12、24 h后,与对照组相比,OD值均明显减小(P<0.05),说明不同浓度的H.pylori均能抑制PDLFs的生长;并且随着H.pylori浓度的增加,OD值逐渐减小;相同浓度时,时间越长,OD值也逐渐减小.H.pylori作用于PDLFs 12 h后,随着H.pylori浓度的增加,细胞周期中GoG1期比例逐渐增高,而S期和G2M期的比例则呈下降趋势(P<0.05).结论:H.pylori能抑制PDLFs的增殖并阻遏其分裂和DNA合成.

  3. rhBMP2作用下人牙周膜成纤维细胞中OCIF、ODF的表达研究%Study of the expression variety of OCIF and ODF in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts with rhBMP2 reaction

    吉玲玲; 鲍庆江; 李昂; 饶国州; 周洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective By RT-PCR to investigating the effects of rhBMPs in different concentration on the expression of OCIF,ODF in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. To clarify the molecular mechanism of BMPs' regulation to the HPDLfs, which contribute to the bone rebuilding. Methods The 6th generation well-grown primary culture fibrocyte from HPDLfs were used in the experiment. The cells were subjected to different doses of rhBMP2 (25ng/ml,50ng/ml and 100ng/ml) for 1,3,5,7 days in this experiment. mRNA expression of OCIFsODF were determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR approach, electrophoresis tape brightness was analyzed by graphical analysis software Image Pro Plus5.0. Results The expression varieties between cbfart and OCIF in different concentration were compared. At primary stage, their expression varieties were concordance and presented positive correlation. But the variety correlation between cbfort and OCIF was no more definitude after OCIF reaching peak value with the action time prolonging. Conclusion Based on the varieties of expression between OCIF and ODFjt showed that the formation of osteclasts was restrained intensively by HPDLfs at primary stage with the action of rhBMP2. With the action time prolonging.the restraining effect was changed into the activation effect.%目的:本研究通过反转录聚合酶链反应来测定不同浓度的重组人骨形成蛋白2(rhBMP2)对人牙周膜成纤维细胞中OCIF、0DFmRNA在不同作用时间点表达的影响,了解rhBMP2对骨改建相关基因的调控方式。方法:原代培养人牙周膜成纤维细胞,取生长良好的第六代细胞,分别用25ng/ml、50 ng/ml及100 ng/ml的rhBMP2作用于细胞,于作用1、3、5、7天后收集细胞。反转录聚合酶链反应检测各组细胞四个时间作用点OCIF、ODF mRNA含量,PCR产物1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳后,采用Image Pro Plus5.0图像分析软件对电泳胶带亮度进行分析。结果:在rhBMP2作用初期,由于OCIF m

  4. Bone morphogenetic proteins-ERK5 signaling pathway mediates osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells%BMPs-ERK5信号通路调控人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的研究

    蒋琳; 周鹏飞; 王佳; 张燕

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较骨形态发生蛋白(bone morphogenetic proteins,BMP)2、7、9对人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem cells,hPDLSCs)成骨分化的诱导作用,探讨BMPs-ERK5信号通路在成骨分化中的作用.方法 首先采用组织块酶消化法分离培养原代hPDLSCs并鉴定,利用腺病毒载体介导的GFP、BMP2、BMP7和BMP9(Ad-GFP、Ad-BMP2、Ad-BMP7、Ad-BMP9)分别感染hPDLSCs,通过早期成骨分化指标碱性磷酸酶活性定性和定量检测、茜素红染色检测晚期成骨分化指标钙盐结节沉积情况、qRT-PCR检测细胞成骨分化相关基因骨钙蛋白和骨桥蛋白mRNA表达,比较发现BMP9对细胞成骨分化的作用最强;采用Ad-BMP9感染hPDLSCs 24 h后,检测BMP9作用PDLSCs后对ERK5磷酸化水平的影响和ERK5信号通路特异性抑制剂BIX02189预处理后BMP9-ERK5通路对hPDLSCs成骨分化的影响.结果 ①分离培养的hPDLSCs为成纤维细胞样,呈漩涡状生长,抗波形蛋白表达阳性,抗角蛋白表达阴性,具有间充质属性和克隆形成能力.②BMP2、BMP7和BMP9均有促进细胞成骨分化作用,其中3组的碱性磷酸酶定量结果和成骨分化相关基因相对表达量与GFP组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),且BMP9效力最强.③Western blot检测显示BMP9增强p-ERK5的表达.而抑制剂BIX02189呈剂量依赖性地抑制p-ERK5的表达.BIX02189预处理细胞后、感染Ad-BMP9的结果显示,BMP9对细胞的促成骨作用较未处理组明显降低,其中BMP9组的碱性磷酸酶定量分析结果与成骨分化相关基因相对表达量与BIX02189处理组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 BMP9具有较强的促hPDLSCs成骨分化作用,ERK5信号转导途径在BMP9诱导hPDLSCs成骨分化过程中发挥了正向调节作用.

  5. Correlation between Histological Status of the Pulp and Its Response to Sensibility Tests

    Naseri, Mandana; Khayat, Akbar; Zamaheni, Sara; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests by correlating it with histologic pulp condition. Methods and Materials: Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms were performed on 65 permanent teeth that were scheduled to be extracted for periodontal, prosthodontic or orthodontic reasons. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable tooth conditions while irreversible pulpitis and necrosis were considered as untreatable conditions. The teeth were then extracted and sectioned for histological analysis of dental pulp. Histologic status and classification corresponded to the treatable or untreatable pulp condition. Comparisons between histological treatable and untreatable pulp condition were performed with chi-square analysis for sensibility test responses. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy to detect untreatable from treatable pulp condition were calculated for each test. Results: A significant difference was detected in the normal and a sharp lingered response to heat and cold tests. There was significant difference in the negative response to EPT between histological groups. The kappa agreement coefficient between clinical and histological diagnosis of pulp condition was about 0.843 (P<0.001). The accuracy of cold and heat tests and EPT to detect treatable pulp or untreatable pulp states were 78, 74 and 62%, respectively. The sensibility tests diagnosed untreatable pulpitis with a higher probability (NPV=63%-67% -54%, PPV=83%-91% -95% for heat, cold and EPT, respectively). Conclusion: Sensibility test results were more likely to diagnose pulpal disease or untreatable pulp conditions. However, to increase the diagnostic accuracy patient history, clinical signs and symptoms and also radiographic findings in conjunction with sensibility tests must be used. The result of this small study demonstrated a good agreement between clinical and histological pulp

  6. Regeneração periodontal em cães Periodontal regeneration in dogs

    Emily Correna Carlo Reis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A doença periodontal pode ser definida como a condição inflamatória dos tecidos de suporte do dente em resposta ao acúmulo do biofilme. A consequencia é a formação de graves defeitos ósseos, devido à perda dos tecidos periodontais, levando, em última instância, à perda dos dentes, predisposição a fraturas de mandíbula e formação de comunicações oronasais. O principal tratamento é a prevenção, incluindo a escovação dentária diária e a profilaxia periodontal, procedimento realizado pelo médico veterinário para remoção do biofilme e cálculo dentário acumulados. A recuperação dos tecidos perdidos, ou seja, a regeneração periodontal, é um processo mais complexo, pois envolve a formação de três tecidos intimamente ligados: osso alveolar, ligamento periodontal e cemento. Assim, diversos materiais e técnicas foram e são constantemente desenvolvidos, incluindo membranas para regeneração tecidual guiada e a aplicação de enxertos e biomateriais, amplamente estudados na odontologia humana e já disponíveis para aplicação na rotina clínica veterinária. Adicionalmente, novas possibilidades surgem com a associação dessas técnicas a fatores de crescimento e células-tronco e o desenvolvimento das membranas multifuncionais.Periodontal disease can be defined as the inflammatory condition of the tooth-supportive tissues as a response to biofilm accumulation. The consequence is the formation of severe bone defects due to the loss of periodontal tissues that ultimately lead to tooth loss, predispose to mandible fractures and formation of oronasal communications. The main treatment is prevention, including daily tooth brushing and periodontal prophylaxis, a procedure done by veterinaries to remove retained biofilm and calculus. Recovering lost tissues, i.e. periodontal regeneration, is a more complex process involving the formation of three tissues highly connected: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and

  7. Survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells in cell sheets%骨髓间充质干细胞和牙周膜干细胞膜片体内活性的动物实验

    安康康; 刘宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究犬骨髓间充质干细胞(bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,BMMSC)膜片和牙周膜干细胞(periodontal ligament stem cells,PDLSC)膜片移植于裸鼠体内后BMMSC/PDLSC细胞活性的变化.方法 原代培养犬BMMSC和PDLSC,使用慢病毒分别转染绿色荧光蛋白(green fluorescent protein,GFP)基因和红色荧光蛋白(red fluorescent protein,RFP)基因;对GFP-BMMSC和RFP-PDLSC经流式细胞术进行免疫表型鉴定,并进行成骨和成脂诱导分化鉴定;制备两种细胞的细胞膜片,经Bio-Gide胶原膜包裹并移植于裸鼠背部皮下,应用小动物活体荧光成像技术对比分析移植后第1、2、4、8周两种细胞膜片内细胞的GFP和RFP表达情况,并经组织学方法确认.结果 GFP标记的犬BMMSC和RFP标记的犬PDLSC表面抗原CD29和CD44均为阳性,CD34表达较低;两种细胞诱导后均能进行成骨和成脂分化;两种细胞制备成膜片并移植于裸鼠体内后,小动物活体荧光成像显示GFP-BMMSC在移植术后第1、2、4、8周平均光强依次减弱,分别为(83.1±3.1)×10b、(65.1±2.3)×106、(51.5±2.3)×106及(33.8±2.0)×106 ph/s;RFP-PDLSC在移植术后第1、2、4周平均光强也依次减弱,分别为(53.8±3.0)×106、(42.2±2.6)×1 06、(34.5±2.1)×106 ph/s,第8周平均光强[(45.1±2.9)×106 ph/s]与第4周相比显著增强(P<0.01).组织切片及免疫组化检测发现移植后膜片中RFP-PDLSC的数量明显多于GFP-BMMSC.结论 经慢病毒转染荧光蛋白基因后的犬GFP-BMMSC和RFP-PDLSC具有相似的干细胞生物学特性,但PDLSC更耐受细胞膜片制备过程中的高密度培养微环境,与BMMSC相比细胞膜片技术更适用于PDLSC.%Objective To evaluate the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC) and periodontal ligament stem cells(PDLSC) in BMMSC/PDLSC cell sheets which transplanted ectopically into subcutaneous dorsum of nude mice.Methods The canine BMMSC and PDLSC from primary culture were tranfected with

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway regulates the endothelial differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells%细胞外调节蛋白激酶信号通路调控牙周膜干细胞内皮分化的机制研究

    朱宏; 罗兰堃; 王颖; 谈珺; 薛芃; 王勤涛

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨细胞外调节蛋白激酶(extracellular signal-regulated kinase,ERK)通路在牙周膜干细胞(periodontal ligament stem cells,PDLSC)内皮向分化中的作用,为PDLSC分化调控提供实验基础.方法 使用血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,b-FGF)联合诱导PDLSC向内皮细胞分化(诱导组),对诱导分化的细胞使用ERK1/2磷酸化阻断剂U0126进行处理(诱导+U0126组),同时用二甲基亚砜(dimethylsulfoxide,DMSO)作为对照(诱导+DMSO组),空白对照组为未经诱导的PDLSC;蛋白质印迹法检测诱导组0、1、3、6及12h的胞内磷酸化ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2)表达水平;各组诱导7d后提取细胞RNA,实时荧光定量PCR法检测细胞内CD31、血管内皮钙黏素(vascular endothelial-cadherin,VE-cadherin)和VEGF mRNA的表达情况;各组诱导14d,流式细胞计数法检测CD31+和VE-cadherin+细胞比例,基质胶管腔形成实验检测细胞的管腔形成能力.计量资料采用均值±标准差表示,两组间比较采用独立样本t检验;多组间比较采用单因素方差分析.结果 诱导1、3h后p-ERK1/2与ERK1/2比值分别升高至1.24±0.12、1.03±0.24,均显著高于诱导前(0.58±0.17)(P<0.01);实时荧光定量PCR结果显示,诱导+U0126组CD31、VEGF mRNA相对表达水平分别降至0.09±0.18、0.49±0.17,均显著低于诱导组细胞(P<0.05);流式细胞检测结果显示,诱导+U0126组CD31+、VE-cadherin+细胞比值分别降至5.22±0.85、3.56±0.87,均显著低于诱导组细胞(P<0.05);基质胶管腔形成实验显示诱导组的分支节点数、管腔数目、管腔长度分别升高至62.3±10.0、145.0±14.8及(32 129.7±4 413.9)像素,而诱导+U0126组分别下降至7.0±2.7、33.5±6.4及(15 951.0±758.1)像素,均显著低于诱导组(P<0.05).结论 PDLSC内皮分化过程受ERK通路正向调控,阻断ERK1/2磷酸化可以

  9. Diabetes and periodontitis

    Deshpande Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the "certain" articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1 Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2 Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3 What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4 What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene.

  10. Viable bacteria in root dentinal tubules of teeth with apical periodontitis

    Peters, LB; Wesselink, P.R.; Buijs, JF; van Winkelhoff, AJ

    2001-01-01

    Two sets of teeth with apical periodontitis were collected at different geographic locations to study the identity of bacteria left in the root dentinal tubules. Root dentin of 20 of these teeth was cultured from three locations between pulp and cementum (A, B, and C). In addition dentin from eight

  11. Stem cell-delivery therapeutics for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Sun, Hai-Hua; Lu, Hong; Yu, Qing

    2012-09-01

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Attempts to regenerate the complex system of tooth-supporting apparatus (i.e., the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and root cementum) after loss/damage due to periodontitis have made some progress recently and provide a useful experimental model for the evaluation of future regenerative therapies. Concentrated efforts have now moved from the use of guided tissue/bone regeneration technology, a variety of growth factors and various bone grafts/substitutes toward the design and practice of endogenous regenerative technology by recruitment of host cells (cell homing) or stem cell-based therapeutics by transplantation of outside cells to enhance periodontal tissue regeneration and its biomechanical integration. This shift is driven by the general inability of conventional therapies to deliver satisfactory outcomes, particularly in cases where the disease has caused large tissue defects in the periodontium. Cell homing and cell transplantation are both scientifically meritorious approaches that show promise to completely and reliably reconstitute all tissue and connections damaged through periodontal disease, and hence research into both directions should continue. In view of periodontal regeneration by paradigms that unlock the body's innate regenerative potential has been reviewed elsewhere, this paper specifically explores and analyses the stem cell types and cell delivery strategies that have been or have the potential to be used as therapeutics in periodontal regenerative medicine, with particular emphasis placed on the efficacy and safety concerns of current stem cell-based periodontal therapies that may eventually enter into the clinic.

  12. Chronic stress accelerates ligature-induced periodontitis by suppressing glucocorticoid receptor-α signaling.

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan; Zhao, Lisheng

    2016-03-25

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that chronic stress (CS) might modulate periodontal disease, but there are few models of CS-induced periodontitis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study established a rat model of periodontitis associated with CS induced by nylon thread ligatures. The severity of periodontitis was evaluated in this model by radiographic and pathological examination. The inflammatory reaction indicated by the elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) expressions were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Open-field tests and serum corticosterone were used to evaluate CS. The results showed that CS induced behavioral changes and increased corticosterone levels of the animals with periodontitis. CS stimulation markedly increased alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket depth and the number of plaques. It also enhanced the inflammatory reaction. These results suggest that CS accelerated the ligature-induced pathological changes associated with periodontitis. Further analysis of the mechanisms involved showed that GR-α expression was significantly downregulated in periodontal tissues of the animals undergoing CS. Blocking GR-α signaling in lipopolysaccharide and corticosteroid-treated human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells in vitro significantly upregulated the expression of p-Akt (protein kinase B) and TLR4, promoted nuclear factor-κB activity and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. This research suggests that CS might accelerate the pathological progression of periodontitis by a GR-α signaling-mediated inflammatory response and that this may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in patients with CS.

  13. Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration

    Inukai, Takeharu, E-mail: t-inukai@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Katagiri, Wataru, E-mail: w-kat@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Yoshimi, Ryoko, E-mail: lianzi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Osugi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kawai, Takamasa, E-mail: takamasa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hibi, Hideharu, E-mail: hibihi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ueda, Minoru, E-mail: mueda@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  15. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article

    Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  17. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  18. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    Torkzaban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and to find an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis. We evaluated the articles published in English language between 1990 and 2013 with the search terms ‘‘periodontal health and smoking’’, ‘‘periodontal treatment and smoking’’, and ‘‘tobacco smokers and oral hygiene’’. Results Of the total yield of 145 identified publications, 72 were selected for this literature review. The results of the selected papers reflect the effect of smoking on oral hygiene, gingival inflammation and vasculature, gingival crevicular fluid, subgingival microflora in periodontitis, fibroblast function, genetic polymorphism, initiation and progression of periodontal disease and its effect on passive smokers, and host response to periodontal treatment. Conclusions Smoking is a significant risk factor for impaired periodontal health and treatment.

  19. Development and Characterization of Novel Medicated Nanofibers Against Periodontitis.

    Joshi, Deeksha; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums involving degeneration of periodontal ligaments, creation of periodontal pocket and resorption of alveolar bone, thus disrupting the support structure of teeth causing their loosening and finally removal. Since this disease is mainly confined to the periodontal pocket, so site specific drug delivery of an antibiotic is the best suitable option. This also eradicates the demerits of oral dosing like low drug concentration reaching the target site and the various systemic side effects. In the present work, an efficient and easy technique of electrospinning has been used to develop non-woven drug loaded and biodegradable nanofiber patch with inbuilt property of high surface area to volume ratio. Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been used specifically as the polymer since it possesses remarkable properties like providing an extracellular matrix supporting tissue regeneration, anti-inflammation and mucoadhesion. A blend of this natural polymer with another polymer (Polyvinyl alcohol) has been tried since HA alone cannot be electrospun efficiently as it shows very high viscosity at very low polymer concentration. The developed formulation presented controlled release behavior with good mucoadhesive strength. The in vivo studies confirmed the maintenance of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) over an extended period of time in addition to a significant antiinflammatory effect. All these observations suggested that the above formulation forms a stable intra periodontal pocket drug delivery system.

  20. Treatment of lateral periodontal cyst with guided tissue regeneration.

    Meseli, Suleyman Emre; Agrali, Omer Birkan; Peker, Onder; Kuru, Leyla

    2014-07-01

    Lateral periodontal cyst (LPC), originated from epithelial rests in the periodontal ligament, is a noninflammatory cyst on the lateral surface of the root of a vital tooth. LPC is generally asymptomatic and presents a round or oval uniform lucency with well-defined borders radiographically. In this case report, clinical, histological and radiographical findings and periodontal treatment of 32-year-old female patient, who was referred to Department of Periodontology Clinic of Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University with a painless hyperplastic lesion on the distobuccal site of the tooth number 12, were presented. The tooth number 12 was vital and a well-defined round radiolucent area with corticated borders was determined radiographically. Preliminary diagnosis was LPC based on clinical and radiographical findings. Mechanical periodontal treatment consisted of oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planing was applied and flap operation was performed to gain access to the lesion. Following enucleation of the lesion, alveolar bone destruction shaped as a tunnel from labial to palatinal site was observed. The bone cavity was grafted with bovine-derived xenograft, followed by placement of a resorbable collagen membrane. Tissues removed from of the lesion were examined histologically. Hematoxylen-eosin stained sections showed vasculature granulomatous structure underlying squamous epithelium, and destructed bone spaces, all of which were consisted with LPC. Acceptable clinical healing was achieved at 6 months follow-up period. Satisfactory clinical and radiographical outcome can be achieved in the treatment of LPC using regenerative periodontal approach.

  1. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  2. Terapia periodontal del futuro.

    Roger Mauricio Arce

    2009-01-01

    La investigación biomédica en odontología genera una importante cantidad de evidencia científica que mejora los actuales esquemas de tratamiento de las enfermedades que afectan la cavidad oral en los humanos. Este artículo revisa el diagnóstico de la periodontitis, la etiopatogénesis de la enfermedad periodontal y las repercusiones de estos avances en el tratamiento convencional de las periodontitis.

  3. Terapia periodontal del futuro.

    Roger Mauricio Arce

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La investigación biomédica en odontología genera una importante cantidad de evidencia científica que mejora los actuales esquemas de tratamiento de las enfermedades que afectan la cavidad oral en los humanos. Este artículo revisa el diagnóstico de la periodontitis, la etiopatogénesis de la enfermedad periodontal y las repercusiones de estos avances en el tratamiento convencional de las periodontitis.

  4. Pulp revascularization of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Thibodeau, Blayne; Teixeira, Fabricio; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Caplan, Daniel J; Trope, Martin

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the ability of a collagen solution to aid revascularization of necrotic-infected root canals in immature dog teeth. Sixty immature teeth from 6 dogs were infected, disinfected, and randomized into experimental groups: 1: no further treatment; 2: blood in canal; 3: collagen solution in canal, 4: collagen solution + blood, and 5: negative controls (left for natural development). Uncorrected chi-square analysis of radiographic results showed no statistical differences (p >or= 0.05) between experimental groups regarding healing of radiolucencies but a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.058) for group 1 versus group 4 for radicular thickening. Group 2 showed significantly more apical closure than group 1 (p = 0.03) and a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.051) for group 3 versus group 1. Uncorrected chi-square analysis revealed that there were no statistical differences between experimental groups for histological results. However, some roots in each of groups 1 to 4 (previously infected) showed positive histologic outcomes (thickened walls in 43.9%, apical closure in 54.9%, and new luminal tissue in 29.3%). Revascularization of disinfected immature dog root canal systems is possible.

  5. SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Grover Harpreet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

  6. Systemic antibiotics in periodontics.

    Slots, Jørgen

    2004-11-01

    This position paper addresses the role of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal disease. Topical antibiotic therapy is not discussed here. The paper was prepared by the Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. The document consists of three sections: 1) concept of antibiotic periodontal therapy; 2) efficacy of antibiotic periodontal therapy; and 3) practical aspects of antibiotic periodontal therapy. The conclusions drawn in this paper represent the position of the American Academy of Periodontology and are intended for the information of the dental profession.

  7. Periodontal manifestation of osteosarcoma of the fibula: a case report and review of literature

    Saif Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignant mesenchymal tumor. It usually presents in the long bones about a decade prior to that in jaws. This clinical condition is characterized by radiolucent to radiopaque masses, sunburst appearance, codman’s triangle and periodontal ligament space widening in the jaws. A male aged thirty years reported to us with chief complaint of severe pain in gums in the lower left back region. Intraoral examination revealed tobacco stains on his teeth revealing his habit of tobacco chewing and bidi smoking. There was moderate amount of plaque deposition and periodontal pocket ranged from 2 to 5 mm in depth. Orthopantogram revealed widening of periodontal ligament space in the 35, 36, 37, 38 region. The patient also gave history of severe bone pain in left leg for last 3 years and was referred to orthopedic department where he was diagnosed as a case of osteosarcoma of left fibula after various hematological and radiological investigations. Clinical acumen in detecting unusual periodontal ligament widening with no apparent cause as in this case lead to detection of osteosarcoma in the left fibula after clinical, radiological and histopathological correlation emphasizing the role of inter disciplinary approach.

  8. Effect of Cytokines on Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption during Mechanical Force Loading of the Periodontal Membrane

    Hideki Kitaura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical force loading exerts important effects on the skeleton by controlling bone mass and strength. Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. In a mouse model of orthodontic tooth movement, TNF-α was expressed and osteoclasts appeared on the compressed side of the periodontal ligament. In TNF-receptor-deficient mice, there was less tooth movement and osteoclast numbers were lower than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that osteoclast formation and bone resorption caused by loading forces on the periodontal ligament depend on TNF-α. Several cytokines are expressed in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement. Studies have found that inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-γ strongly inhibit osteoclast formation and tooth movement. Blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor by using anti-c-Fms antibody also inhibited osteoclast formation and tooth movement. In this review we describe and discuss the effect of cytokines in the periodontal ligament on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading.

  9. Synchrotron radiation analysis of possible correlations between metal status in human cementum and periodontal disease

    Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Edwards, M.; Mithoowani, H.; Stakiw, J. (UWO); (Saskatchewan)

    2010-03-16

    Periodontitis is a serious disease that affects up to 50% of an adult population. It is a chronic condition involving inflammation of the periodontal ligament and associated tissues leading to eventual tooth loss. Some evidence suggests that trace metals, especially zinc and copper, may be involved in the onset and severity of periodontitis. Thus we have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging on cross sections of diseased and healthy teeth using a microbeam to explore the distribution of trace metals in cementum and adhering plaque. The comparison between diseased and healthy teeth indicates that there are elevated levels of zinc, copper and nickel in diseased teeth as opposed to healthy teeth. This preliminary correlation between elevated levels of trace metals in the cementum and plaque of diseased teeth suggests that metals may play a role in the progress of periodontitis.

  10. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    Rekha Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient′s informed consent, relevant medical history, oral manifestations including periodontal findings and oral hygiene index simplified index were recorded. In these patients, oral changes included restricted mouth opening and, resorption of the mandible. The periodontal changes observed were gingival recession, absence or minimal gingival bleeding on probing, and widened periodontal ligament space, radiographically. Patients with systemic sclerosis often show wide range of oral manifestations, which is of major concern for the dentist.

  11. Biomaterials for promoting periodontal regeneration in human intrabony defects: a systematic review.

    Sculean, Anton; Nikolidakis, Dimitris; Nikou, George; Ivanovic, Aleksandar; Chapple, Iain L C; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Intrabony periodontal defects are a frequent complication of periodontitis and, if left untreated, may negatively affect long-term tooth prognosis. The optimal outcome of treatment in intrabony defects is considered to be the absence of bleeding on probing, the presence of shallow pockets associated with periodontal regeneration (i.e. formation of new root cementum with functionally orientated inserting periodontal ligament fibers connected to new alveolar bone) and no soft-tissue recession. A plethora of different surgical techniques, often including implantation of various types of bone graft and/or bone substitutes, root surface demineralization, guided tissue regeneration, growth and differentiation factors, enamel matrix proteins or various combinations thereof, have been employed to achieve periodontal regeneration. Despite positive observations in animal models and successful outcomes reported for many of the available regenerative techniques and materials in patients, including histologic reports, robust information on the degree to which reported clinical improvements reflect true periodontal regeneration does not exist. Thus, the aim of this review was to summarize, in a systematic manner, the available histologic evidence on the effect of reconstructive periodontal surgery using various types of biomaterials to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration in human intrabony defects. In addition, the inherent problems associated with performing human histologic studies and in interpreting the results, as well as certain ethical considerations, are discussed. The results of the present systematic review indicate that periodontal regeneration in human intrabony defects can be achieved to a variable extent using a range of methods and materials. Periodontal regeneration has been observed following the use of a variety of bone grafts and substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, biological factors and combinations thereof. Combination approaches appear to

  12. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  13. Tissue engineered periodontal products.

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W

    2016-02-01

    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer.

  14. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal dise

  15. PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN EUROPE

    PILOT, T; MIYAZAKI, H

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present overview is to evaluate the periodontal conditions in European populations. Study was made of a number of extensive surveys of periodontal diseases carried out in a number of European countries, primarily North West Europe. These surveys often provide considerable detail. Howe

  16. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    ... THIS TOPIC Jumper's Knee Safety Tips: Basketball Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  17. PRACTICAL PERIODONTAL SURGERY: AN OVERVIEW

    Krishna; Chandrashekar; Anuroopa; Senthil; Syed; Sandeep S; Kumuda; Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of periodontal surgery in the treatment of periodontal diseases not yet been systematically evaluated. The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the efficacy of periodontal surgical procedures in the various treatment modalities. Periodontal disease is multifaceted in nature and scope. The problems created due to this inflammatory condition are different eg. gingival enlargement, osseous deformities, mucogingival problem which ultimately may ...

  18. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Takenori, E-mail: tnozaki@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Toshie, E-mail: nagayasu_toshie@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Terashima, Akio, E-mail: terashima_akio@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Asano, Taiji, E-mail: asano_taiji@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  19. Nicotine and periodontal tissues

    Malhotra Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients′ oral and general health.

  20. NEW TRENDS IN PERIODONTICS.

    Kiran Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New research is demonstrating that a person’s total health is indeed related to their oral health. Elimination of all oral infectio ns, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is important to overall health. The article reviews va rious trends in nonsurgical and surgical therapy that will successfully arrest periodontal inf ections. Opportunities for early diagnosis and prevention will play an increasing role in dental practice in the future as patients understand the importance of oral health to overall health. There is an urgent need to educate the public as to the importance of periodontal health . All of these findings indicate that periodontal disease must be viewed from a whole new perspective, particularly since some form of periodontal disease is present in a large per centage of the population. A prospective approach of prevention and early intervention in trea ting the disease is more important than ever before.

  1. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  2. Pulp response to Streptococcus mutans.

    Paterson, R C; Pountney, S K

    1987-09-01

    The maxillary molar pulps of germ-free rats were mechanically exposed, and suspensions of a strain of freshly grown Streptococcus mutans were applied to the pulp wounds. The pulps were left open to the oral environment, and the animals were maintained in the isolator until they were killed in groups after 2, 7, and 28 days. After 2 days there was little evidence of any pulp response. In the 7-day group early pulp necrosis was present. No evidence of inflammatory infiltration was detected in either the 2- or 7-day animals. After 28 days there was extensive pulp necrosis in many specimens. Dentine bridges were present in fewer than one fourth of the teeth.

  3. [Orthodontic treatment in periodontal patients].

    Krausz, E; Einy, S; Aizenbud, D; Levin, L

    2011-07-01

    Orthodontic treatment poses a significant challenge in patients suffering from periodontal disease. Providing orthodontic treatment to periodontal patients should be carefully planned and performed in a tight collaboration between the orthodontist and periodontist. Resolution and stabilization of the periodontal condition is a pre-requisite for orthodontic treatment initiation. Careful oral hygiene performance and highly frequent recall periodontal visits are also crucial. Pre- or post- orthodontic periodontal surgery might help providing better treatment outcomes.

  4. Indirect pulp therapy in a symptomatic mature molar using calcium enriched mixture cement

    Hassan Torabzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp has the ability of repair/regeneration. Indirect pulp therapy (IPT is recommended for pulp preservation in asymptomatic teeth with extremely deep caries as well as teeth with clinical symptoms of reversible pulpitis. In this case study, we performed IPT with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement on a symptomatic permanent molar. After clinical/radiographic examinations the tooth was diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and associated apical periodontitis. IPT involved partial caries removal, the placement of CEM cement pulp cap and overlying adhesive permanent restoration. At the 1 week follow-up, patient′s spontaneous symptoms had resolved. One-year follow-up demonstrated pulp vitality, clinical function, as well as the absence of pain/tenderness to percussion/palpation/cold sensitivity tests; periapical radiograph showed a healing periradicular lesion with newly formed bone, that is normal pulp with normal periodontium. These favorable results indicate that IPT/CEM may be a good treatment option in comparison to endodontic treatment in young patients. IPT of deep-caries lesion is an easier, more practical and valuable treatment plan than complete caries removal.

  5. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  6. Freeze gelated porous membranes for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Qasim, Saad B; Delaine-Smith, Robin M; Fey, Tobias; Rawlinson, Andrew; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2015-09-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes have been used for the management of destructive forms of periodontal disease as a means of aiding regeneration of lost supporting tissues, including the alveolar bone, cementum, gingiva and periodontal ligaments (PDL). Currently available GTR membranes are either non-biodegradable, requiring a second surgery for removal, or biodegradable. The mechanical and biofunctional limitations of currently available membranes result in a limited and unpredictable treatment outcome in terms of periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, porous membranes of chitosan (CH) were fabricated with or without hydroxyapatite (HA) using the simple technique of freeze gelation (FG) via two different solvents systems, acetic acid (ACa) or ascorbic acid (ASa). The aim was to prepare porous membranes to be used for GTR to improve periodontal regeneration. FG membranes were characterized for ultra-structural morphology, physiochemical properties, water uptake, degradation, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility with mature and progenitor osteogenic cells. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite and its interaction with chitosan. μCT analysis showed membranes had 85-77% porosity. Mechanical properties and degradation rate were affected by solvent type and the presence of hydroxyapatite. Culture of human osteosarcoma cells (MG63) and human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitors (hES-MPs) showed that all membranes supported cell proliferation and long term matrix deposition was supported by HA incorporated membranes. These CH and HA composite membranes show their potential use for GTR applications in periodontal lesions and in addition FG membranes could be further tuned to achieve characteristics desirable of a GTR membrane for periodontal regeneration.

  7. Application of dedifferentiated fat cells for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Sugawara, Atsunori; Sato, Soh

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases result from inflammation by bacterial infection in plaques, leading to tooth loss. However, regenerative approaches with periodontal tissue regeneration by guided tissue regeneration and enamel matrix derivative are not yet well established. Tissue regeneration requires three factors: cells, scaffold, and growth factors. Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATs) are pluripotent with the same differentiation capacities as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Access to MSCs is limited, whereas donor cells for DFATs are abundant in adipose tissues and can be non-invasively obtained. Therefore, we tested DFATs as a new source for periodontal tissue regeneration in an experimental periodontal tissue loss model in rats by transplanting DFATs on an atelocollagen scaffold using DFATs isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP-DFAT cells were transplanted on the palatal side of the upper left first molar in SD rats and detected by H&E staining, GFP, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. DFAT differentiation was also evaluated in three-dimensional cultures. GFP positive cells were detected in the regenerated tissue by the DFATs/scaffold mixture at 4 weeks after transplantation, and PCNA-positive cells were significantly increased in the periodontal ligament along the new bone in the DFATs/scaffold group more than in the scaffold-only group, suggesting that DFATs differentiate in the same manner as MSCs and regenerate in the defective areas. Consistent with previous reports, DFATs differentiation was slower than that with stem cells. The present study demonstrates that DFATs are pluripotent and an effective new source of cells for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  8. Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease.

    2014-09-26

    k 7RD-A157 116 PHARMRCOLOGY’ OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE(U) UNIVERSITY OF i/ I HEALTH SCIENCES/CHICAGO MEDICAL SCHOOL DEPT OF I PHARMACOLOGY S F HOFF 24...Region Bethesda, MD 20814-5044 • .RE: Annual Letter Report , ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 "Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" Dear Capt. Hancock...Annual Letter Report ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 1,! t "Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" f Steven F. Hoff, Ph.D. (Principal Investigator) A

  9. Pulp microbiology of complete teeth with idiopathic apical lesions.

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical changes named as lesions, in teeth with full crown integrity and without history of trauma, do not show a clear aetiology. Objective: To determine the presence of microorganisms in pulp dental tissue will clarify the cause of its death and therefore the damage to periodontal tissues. Materials and methods: From people between 10 and 39 years old, 23 teeth were selected. The samples were taken with paper points and 0.8 sterile files, and were transported in VMGA III medium, to be processed in the following 24 hours after they were taken and sowed in Brucella-agar. Results: The most affected teeth were upper central incisors, 43.8%. From the 23 studied teeth, microbiological grow was seen on 20 teeth. The following microorganisms species were identified: Fusobacterium spp., 25%, Eubacterium spp., 15%; Peptostreptococcus spp., 10%; Campylobacter spp., 10%; gram negative enteric bacteria, 10%; Porphyromonas gingivalis, 10%; Prevotella intermedia, 5%; Eikenellia corrodens, 5%; Dialister pneumosintes, 5%; and yeasts, 5%. There was no growing evidence of Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis and Streptococcus β  hemolytic. Discussion and conclusions: Sound pulp dental tissue is sterile; an injury over it will cause its inflammation, degeneration, death and bacterial contamination. Results in the present study clearly show the presence of microorganisms in closed apical dental lesions of endodontic origin. In same manner, it was seen that a great part of microorganisms species found can be regarded as periodontal pathogens. This could suggest a management with an endodontic, a periodontic and a pharmacological combined treatment.

  10. Leptin Effects on the Regenerative Capacity of Human Periodontal Cells

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is increasing throughout the globe and characterized by excess adipose tissue, which represents a complex endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secrets bioactive molecules called adipokines, which act at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels. Obesity has recently been shown to be associated with periodontitis, a disease characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, and also with compromised periodontal healing. Although the underlying mechanisms for these associations are not clear yet, increased levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, as found in obese individuals, might be a critical pathomechanistic link. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of leptin on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal ligament (PDL cells and also to study the local leptin production by these cells. Leptin caused a significant downregulation of growth (TGFβ1, and VEGFA and transcription (RUNX2 factors as well as matrix molecules (collagen, and periostin and inhibited SMAD signaling under regenerative conditions. Moreover, the local expression of leptin and its full-length receptor was significantly downregulated by inflammatory, microbial, and biomechanical signals. This study demonstrates that the hormone leptin negatively interferes with the regenerative capacity of PDL cells, suggesting leptin as a pathomechanistic link between obesity and compromised periodontal healing.

  11. Additive Biomanufacturing: An Advanced Approach for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration.

    Carter, Sarah-Sophia D; Costa, Pedro F; Vaquette, Cedryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, composed of hard (i.e. alveolar bone and cementum) and soft tissues (i.e. gingiva and periodontal ligament) surrounding and supporting the teeth. In severe cases, reduced periodontal support can lead to tooth loss, which requires tissue augmentation or procedures that initiate a repair, yet ideally a regenerative response. However, mimicking the three-dimensional complexity and functional integration of the different tissue components via scaffold- and/or matrix-based guided tissue engineering represents a great challenge. Additive biomanufacturing, a manufacturing method in which objects are designed and fabricated in a layer-by-layer manner, has allowed a paradigm shift in the current manufacturing of medical devices and implants. This shift from design-to-manufacture to manufacture-to-design, seen from a translational research point of view, provides the biomedical engineering and periodontology communities a technology with the potential to achieve tissue regeneration instead of repair. In this review, the focus is put on additively biomanufactured scaffolds for periodontal applications. Besides a general overview of the concept of additive biomanufacturing within this field, different developed scaffold designs are described. To conclude, future directions regarding advanced biomaterials and additive biomanufacturing technologies for applications in regenerative periodontology are highlighted.

  12. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease...... health', 'periodontal disease', 'mouth disease', 'gingivitis', and 'periodontitis'. RESULTS: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease...... in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%-79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among...

  13. Autologous Stem Cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) Using PDLSCs Directly From an Extracted Tooth···An Insight.

    Vandana, K L; Desai, Rajendra; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2015-11-01

    Periodontal regeneration represents the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The current regenerative techniques have limited success rates especially in advanced periodontal defects. Currently the research is focused on novel cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration to overcome the limitations of existing treatment. The human clinical trial on stem cells based periodontal regeneration is promising. The plethora of animal studies provide sound evidence to support the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be used for periodontal regeneration. The direct application of autologous periodontal stem cells in treatment of intrabony defects is attempted for the first time in periodontal literature. Stem cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) using direct PDLSCs has overcome the limitations and concerns of ex- vivo stem cell culture methods like high cost, technique sensitivity, loss of stemness during cell passage, genetic manipulation and tumorigenic potential. Clinical feasibility, success and cost effectiveness over currently available techniques are encouraging. The clinical utility of this novel idea is recommended.

  14. Autologous Stem Cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) Using PDLSCs Directly From an Extracted Tooth···An Insight

    Vandana, KL; Desai, Rajendra; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration represents the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The current regenerative techniques have limited success rates especially in advanced periodontal defects. Currently the research is focused on novel cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration to overcome the limitations of existing treatment. The human clinical trial on stem cells based periodontal regeneration is promising. The plethora of animal studies provide sound evidence to support the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be used for periodontal regeneration. The direct application of autologous periodontal stem cells in treatment of intrabony defects is attempted for the first time in periodontal literature. Stem cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) using direct PDLSCs has overcome the limitations and concerns of ex- vivo stem cell culture methods like high cost, technique sensitivity, loss of stemness during cell passage, genetic manipulation and tumorigenic potential. Clinical feasibility, success and cost effectiveness over currently available techniques are encouraging. The clinical utility of this novel idea is recommended. PMID:26634072

  15. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  16. ALKALINE PULP OF CORN STALKS

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum

    2004-01-01

    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  17. Aggressive periodontitis: A review

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to highlight the current etiological and therapeutic concepts of aggressive periodontitis which is rapidly progressing and aggressive in nature. It leads to destruction of periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. We need advanced diagnostic techniques to learn about current disease activity and rate of progression. We also require strategies to keep the disease under control with proper maintenance regime and prevent tooth loss, because it can result into complicated prosthetic rehabilitation in a very young patient. The evidence suggests that aggressive periodontitis is influenced by microbiological, genetic, and host factors. This paper reviews clinical, microbiological, immunological, and genetic aspects of pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as well as diagnostic criteria of the disease and appropriate nonsurgical and surgical treatment options.

  18. Periodontitis and osteoporosis.

    Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela; Deglovic, Juraj; Varga, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Today's knowledge and studies show a firm correlation between osteoporosis and periodontitis, particularly in postmenopausal women. This review study deals with epidemiological and etiopathogenetic association between chronic periodontitis and an osteoporosis. A special emphasis is put on explanation of possible relations between a premature tooth loss and decrease of length and density of jaw bones, particularly their alveolar prolongations. The second part of the paper deals with principles of treatment in patients suffering of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis reduces density of jaw bones and decreases a number of teeth in jaws, but it does not affect other clinical signs and markers of periodontitis such as inflammation, bleeding and the depth of periodontal pockets and microbial plaque.

  19. Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.

    Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved.

  20. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    Torkzaban; Khalili; Ziaei

    2013-01-01

    Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspe...

  1. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  2. Adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: the keys to functional periodontal tissue engineering.

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Numerous different types of periodontal tissue regeneration therapies have been developed clinically with variable outcomes and serious limitations. A key goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the destroyed periodontal tissues including alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. The critical factors in attaining successful periodontal tissue regeneration are the correct recruitment of cells to the site and the production of a suitable extra cellular matrix consistent with the periodontal tissues. Adipose tissue, from which mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested easily and safely, is an especially attractive stem cell source, because adipose-derived stem cells have a strong potential for cell differentiation and growth factor secretion. Meanwhile, the usefulness of platelet-rich plasma in the field of dental surgery has attracted attention. Therapeutic effects of platelet-rich plasma are believed to occur through the provision of concentrated levels of platelet-derived growth factors. Further, recent reports suggested the effect of platelet-rich plasma on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, differentiation and survival rate. Therefore, the admixture of mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma may indicate the great potential for tissue regenerations including periodontal tissue regeneration. In this review, the potential of adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma is introduced. Of particular interest, the usefulness in periodontal tissue regeneration and future perspective is discussed.

  3. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

  4. Periodontal disease in primary Sjögren's Syndrome

    Schjødt, Morten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease, xerostomia, oral manifestations......Sjögren's syndrome, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease, xerostomia, oral manifestations...

  5. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Shijie Liu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization has been examined in this study. Because of the fiber morphology: slender in shape, fiber size distribution characterization is a very difficult task. Traditional technique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuring the weight fractions. The particle fractions obtained may or may not reflect the desired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique through optical measurement of fiber length is limited by its inability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail to generate identical results, either one was accepted to be of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwood kraft, and their mixture samples have been measured for their fiber length distributions using an optical fiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained from FQA are extensively studied to investigate more reliable way of representing the fiber length data and thus examining the viable route for measuring the fiber size distributions. It has been found that the fiber length averaged length 11 is a viable indicator of the average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fraction and/or distribution can be represented by the fiber "length" fractions.

  6. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    ShijieLiu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization hasbeen examined in this study. Because of the fibermorphology: slender in shape, fiber size distributioncharacterization is a very difficult task. Traditionaltechnique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuringthe weight fractions. Themay or may not reflect theparticle fractions obtaineddesired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique throughoptical measurement of fiber length is limited by itsinability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail togenerate identical results, either one was accepted tobe of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwoodkraft, and their mixture samples have been measuredfor their fiber length distributions using an opticalfiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained fromFQA are extensively studied to investigate morereliable way of representing the fiber length data andthus examining the viable route for measuring thefiber size distributions. It has been found that thefiber length averaged length 1~ is a viable indicator ofthe average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fractionand/or distribution can be represented by the fiber"length" fractions.

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament allograft transplantation for intraarticular ligamentous reconstruction.

    Goertzen, M; Dellmann, A; Gruber, J; Clahsen, H; Bürrig, K F

    1992-01-01

    A multiplicity of surgical operations have been developed in an attempt to achieve satisfactory function after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair. None of these procedures have been able to reproduce the fiber organization anatomy of attachment site, vascularity, or function of the ACL. Twenty-nine foxhounds received a deep-frozen bone-ACL-bone allograft and a ligament augmentation device (LAD). Biomechanical, microvascular, and histological changes were evaluated 3, 6, and 12 months following implantation. The maximum loads of the allograft/LADs were 34.3% (387.2 N) after 3 months, 49.3% (556.6 N) after 6 months, and 61.1% (698.8 N) after a year. The maximum load was 69.1% (780 N). In general, after 6 months the allografts showed normal collagen orientation. The allografts demonstrated no evidence of infection or immune reaction. No bone ingrowth into the LAD was observed. Polarized light microscopy and periodic acid-schiff staining showed that the new bone-ligament substance interface had intact fiber orientation at the area of the ligament insertion. Microvascular examination using the Spalteholtz technique revealed revascularization and the importance of an infrapatellar fat pad for the nourishment of ACL allografts.

  8. Potential Role of Dentin Sialoprotein by Inducing Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mineralization for Dental Tissue Repair

    Zhi Chen; Shuo Chen; Li-An Wu; Guo-Hua Yuan; Guo-Bin Yang

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) is a dentin extracellular matrix protein, a unique marker of dentinogenesis and plays a vital role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin mineralization. Recently, studies have shown that DSP induces differentiation and mineralization of periodontal ligament stem cells and dental papilla mesenchymal cells in vitro and rescues dentin deficiency and increases enamel mineralization in animal models.The hypothesis: DSP as a nature therapeutic agent stimu...

  9. Mesenchymal dental pulp cells attenuate dentin resorption in homeostasis.

    Zheng, Y; Chen, M; He, L; Marão, H F; Sun, D M; Zhou, J; Kim, S G; Song, S; Wang, S L; Mao, J J

    2015-06-01

    Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone-derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal

  10. Effects of orthodontic forces on pulp tissue

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches on pulp tissue changes caused by orthodontic forces have been performed, among others are: pulp angiogenesis, pulp tissue respiration rate, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities; micro vascular response inside the pulp and the effect of dental movement i.e. extrusion, intrusion, and torque. The result is still controversial, as some researchers claim that orthodontic force has a negative effect, others deny by saying there is no such effect on pulp tissue.

  11. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease.

  12. Fenestration defects in the rabbit jaw: an inadequate model for studying periodontal regeneration.

    Oortgiesen, Daniel A W; Meijer, Gert J; Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A

    2010-02-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the support of the teeth, eventually leading to loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Effective procedures for periodontal tissue engineering or regeneration require preclinical models before market introduction. Research has been performed in either small or large animals. Unfortunately, there is no intermediate-sized in vivo model available for periodontal regeneration studies, such as, for instance, rabbits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rabbit as a new experimental model to study periodontal regeneration. In 12 rabbits, periodontal defects were created in a 4 x 6 mm bone window. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Up to 6 weeks, the fenestration defects healed partly by repair and partly by regeneration. After 6 weeks the root had erupted to such an extent that the original root defect shifted into the oral cavity.