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Sample records for pulp mill effluent

  1. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A. (Stanley Industrial Consultants, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Smith, D.W. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O[sub 3]/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the [open quote]t[close quote] test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

    2013-12-15

    Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 μg/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high.

  3. The Relationship Between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-02-21

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark eighty-one effluents from twenty mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlate with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified, causative agents are involved. Recycled fibre mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and the GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98 % BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings towards the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  4. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent.

  5. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Izharul Haq; Vineeta Kumari; Sharad Kumar; Abhay Raj; Mohtashim Lohani; Ram Naresh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to ...

  6. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  7. Altered reproduction in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents: roles of individual compounds and mill operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, L Mark; Kovacs, Tibor G; Dubé, Monique G; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Martel, Pierre H; McMaster, Mark E; Paice, Michael G; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; van der Kraak, Glen J

    2008-03-01

    For the last 20 years, studies conducted in North America, Scandinavia, and New Zealand have shown that pulp and paper mill effluents affect fish reproduction. Despite the level of effort applied, few leads are available regarding the factors responsible. Effluents affect reproduction in multiple fish species, as evidenced by decreased gonad size, decreased circulating and gonadal production of reproductive steroids, altered expression of secondary sex characteristics, and decreased egg production. Several studies also have shown that effluent constituents are capable of accumulating in fish and binding to sex steroid receptors/ binding proteins. Studies aimed at isolating biologically active substances within the pulping and papermaking process have provided clues about their source, and work has progressed in identifying opportunities for in-mill treatment technologies. Following comparisons of manufacturing processes and fish responses before and after process changes, it can be concluded that effluent from all types of mill processes are capable of affecting fish reproduction and that any improvements could not be attributed to a specific process modification (because mills normally performed multiple modifications simultaneously). Improved reproductive performance in fish generally was associated with reduced use of molecular chlorine, improved condensate handling, and liquor spill control. Effluent biotreatment has been effective in reducing some effects, but biotreated effluents also have shown no difference or an exacerbation of effects. The role of biotreatment in relation to effects on fish reproduction remains unclear and needs to be resolved.

  8. ALTERED DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION IN MOSQUITOFISH EXPOSED TO PULP AND PAPER MILL EFFLUENT IN THE FENHOLLOW RIVER, FLORIDA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitofish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent (PME) in the Fenholloway River, Florida, USA have masculinized secondary sex characteristics and altered aromatase enzyme activity. We and others have shown that the Fenholloway River PME contains androgenic and progesto...

  9. Biological activity of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents before and after activated sludge and ozone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alessandra Cunha; Mounteer, Ann H; Stoppa, Teynha Valverde; Aquino, Davi Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp production, an important sector of the Brazilian national economy, is responsible for generating large volume, high pollutant load effluents, containing a considerable fraction of recalcitrant organic matter. The objectives of this study were to quantify the biological activity of the effluent from a eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill, characterize the nature of compounds responsible for biological activity and assess the effect of ozone treatment on its removal. Primary and secondary effluents were collected bimonthly over the course of one year at a Brazilian bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill and their pollutant loads (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), lignin, extractives) and biological activity (acute and chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity) quantified. The effluent studied did not present acute toxicity to Daphnia, but presented the chronic toxicity effects of algal growth inhibition and reduced survival and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia, as well as estrogenic activity. Chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity were reduced but not eliminated during activated sludge biological treatment. The toxicity identification evaluation revealed that lipophilic organic compounds (such as residual lignin, extractives and their byproducts) were responsible for the toxicity and estrogenic activity. Ozone treatment (50 mg/L O(3)) of the secondary effluent eliminated the chronic toxicity and significantly reduced estrogen activity.

  10. A survey of Canadian mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents: insights concerning the potential to affect fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS). Each sample was further subjected to solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation for the determination of resin/fatty acids and for the estimation of a gas chromatography (GC) profile index. Each mill effluent was assessed for the potential to affect fish reproduction in the laboratory using a five day adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) egg production bioassay with exposures to 100% effluent. The seven effluents were found to have substantial variation both in terms of chemical characterization and effects on fish reproduction. Temporal variations were also noted in effluent quality at mills sampled on different occasions. Similar to what has been observed for kraft mills, a general trend of greater reductions in egg production caused by effluents with greater BOD concentrations and GC profile indices was noted. Effluents with BOD > 25 mg/L and GC Profile indices >5.0 caused a complete cessation of egg production. At the same time, about half of the total effluents sampled had BOD reproductive effects caused by such effluents is presently unclear. The effluent quality parameters considered in this study may require further refinement to address their utility in predicting the adverse reproductive effects induced by effluents from mechanical pulp and paper mills.

  11. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-01-10

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H2O2/Fe2+), UV, UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H2O2) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H2O2/Fe2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used.

  12. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  13. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, N.D.; Kocerha, J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, Timothy; Holm, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  15. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  16. Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Waye, Andrew; Lado, Wudu E; Martel, Pierre H; Arnason, John T.; Vance L Trudeau

    2014-01-01

    Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by indus...

  17. Evaluation of total phosphorus and total nitrogen methods in pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D L; Frum, N L

    2004-01-01

    Under the Clean Water Action Plan, the US Environmental Protection Agency is requiring states to establish numeric criteria for phosphorus and nitrogen. In preparation for the development of nutrient criteria NCASI undertook a research project to conduct a comparative study of methods for the determination of total phosphorus and total nitrogen in pulp and paper mill matrices. This paper presents results of a single laboratory method evaluation and comparative study of digestion techniques and analytical methods for the determination of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in pulp and paper mill secondary treated effluents. Analytical methods included EPA Methods 365.2 and 365.4 for TP. TN and total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) methods included EPA Methods 351.2, 351.4, and 353.2. Examinations of sample preservation and storage stability were conducted. Substitution of mercuric sulfate with copper sulfate during block digestion resulted in higher blank levels and method detection limits. TP measurements using EPA Method 365.4 (autoanalyzer) were found to be accurate with a positive bias as determined using matrix spike experiments. Sample digestion by acidic persulfate oxidation or mercuric sulfate block digestion in conjunction with EPA Method 365.4 yielded low blank levels (averages of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively), precision of 2.1 and 2.4% relative standard deviations, respectively, and accuracy expressed as an average recovery (%R) of 117% for both. EPA Method 351.2 (autoanalyzer) was more precise than EPA Method 351.4 (ammonia probe). Accuracy (%R) for EPA Method 351.2 ranged from 81 to 95%, depending on the digestion technique applied, and was 55% when EPA Method 351.4 was utilized. Investigation of a method utilizing basic to acidic persulfate oxidation for the simultaneous determination of TN and TP using only two analytical techniques was found to be effective at concentrations above 1 mg/L in pulp mill effluents.

  18. Advanced oxidation treatment of pulp mill effluent for TOC and toxicity removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2008-05-01

    Pulp mill effluent was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of UV, UV/H2O2, TiO2-assisted photo-catalysis (UV/TiO2) and UV/H2O2/TiO2 in lab-scale reactors for total organic carbon (TOC) and toxicity removals. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC and toxicity removals were investigated. Almost every method resulted in some degree of TOC and toxicity removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the TiO2-assisted photo-catalysis (UV/TiO2) resulted in the highest TOC and toxicity removals under alkaline conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 79.6% TOC and 94% toxicity removals were obtained by the TiO2-assisted photo-catalysis (UV/TiO2) with a titanium dioxide concentration of 0.75gl(-1) at pH 11 within 60min.

  19. Identification of sublethal toxicants in a BC coastal pulp and paper mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhoff, C.V.; Pickard, J.; Kinnee, K. [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dwernychuk, W. [Hatfield Consultants Ltd., West Vancouver, BC (Canada); Birkholz, D. [EnviroTest Lab., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kilback, D. [Pacifica Papers, Powell River, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    BC Research Inc. conducted a toxicity identification evaluation to identify the different compounds comprised in the mill Outfall number 1 effluent. The Environmental Effects Monitoring program had determined that these compounds were responsible for sublethal effects to organisms. Echinoderm species like the sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus Eshscholtz, the purple sea urchin, Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson, and the marine algae, Champia parvula had suffered toxicity caused by the mill effluent. The last several Environmental Effects Monitoring testing periods had shown the sublethal toxicity of the Outfall number 1 effluent to echinoderms was very consistent. Based on the high cost and shipping associated with the Champia bioassays, toxicity tests conducted during the peak spawning season of the sea urchin and the non significant difference between the sensitivity of the sand dollar and the purple sea urchin, the purple sea urchin was selected to evaluate the toxicity of the manipulated samples for the tests. The tests conducted were: a baseline toxicity test performed immediately upon receipt of the effluent sample, the pH adjustment filtration test to determine if the toxic compound can be removed using filtration, the pH adjustment aeration test to determine if volatile compounds in the sample are toxic, the pH adjustment solid phase extraction test to determine the level of toxicity from organic compounds and metal chelates that can be removed by solid phase extraction. The results indicated that it seems high molecular weight molecules were responsible for the sublethal toxicity observed. Two different sources could be responsible: lignin derived macromolecules, and polymer compounds used as flocculants and sizing agents. Further testing of the pulp mill effluent to identify the source of the toxic high molecular weight compounds was recommended. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izharul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L. were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to 100% effluent concentration showed a reduction in root and shoot length and biomass by 65%, 67%, and 84%, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. A. cepa root tip cells exposed to effluent concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% v/v showed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI from 32 to 11% with respect to control root tip cells (69% indicating effluent induced cytotoxicity. Further, the effluent induced DNA damage as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal aberrations like stickiness, chromosome loss, anaphase bridge, c-mitosis, tripolar anaphase, vagrant chromosome, and telophase bridge and micronucleated and binucleated cell in A. cepa. Findings of the present study indicate that pulp and paper mill effluents may act as genotoxic and phytotoxic agents in plant model system.

  1. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced. The anaerobic...

  2. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes.

  3. Removal of nutrients and organic pollution load from pulp and paper mill effluent by microalgae in outdoor open pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M T; Sarat Chandra, T; Sarada, R; Chauhan, V S

    2016-08-01

    A mixed culture of microalgae, containing two Scenedesmus species, was analysed to determine its potential in coupling of pulp and paper mill effluent treatment and microalgal cultivation. Laboratory studies suggested that 60% concentration of wastewater was optimum for microalgal cultivation. A maximum of 82% and 75% removal of BOD and COD respectively was achieved with microalgal cultivation in outdoor open pond. By the end of the cultivation period, 65% removal of NO3-N and 71.29% removal of PO4-P was observed. The fatty acid composition of mixed microalgal culture cultivated with effluent showed the palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids. The results obtained suggest that pulp and paper mill effluent could be used effectively for cultivation of microalgae to minimise the freshwater and nutrient requirements.

  4. A field-based approach for assessing the impact of paper pulp mill effluent on the metbolite profile of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although evidence indicates that exposure to effluent from paper pulp mills (PME) can alter the body condition, secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive success of aquatic organisms, there is currently little understanding of the biochemical mechanisms for these effects...

  5. Microorganism Degradation Efficiency in BOD Analysis Formulating a Specific Microbial Consortium in a Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Ordaz-Díaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mills are a major source of pollution, generating huge amounts of intensely colored effluent that goes to the receiving end of a wastewater treatment plant. The biochemical oxygen demand test (BOD5 relies heavily on the microorganism metabolic capability added to the test as seeding material. The seeding material in the testing is obtained from sewage sampling or from commercial sources. Specific organic pollutants that are present in paper and pulp mill effluent can only be degraded by specific microbes; therefore, common sewage or synthetic seed may lead to erroneous BOD5 estimations. In this study, specific microbial species were selected to evaluate their degradation efficiency, both individually and in combination. The microorganisms selected in the formulated seed exhibit BOD5 in a reproducible and synergistic manner. The formulation of this specific microbial consortium can be used to develop bioremediation strategies.

  6. Catalytic wet oxidation of the pretreated synthetic pulp and paper mill effluent under moderate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) was investigated for the destruction of organic pollutants in the thermally pretreated effluent from a pulp and paper mill under moderate temperature and pressure conditions. The thermal pretreatment studies were conducted at atmospheric pressure and 368K using copper sulfate as a catalyst. The thermal pretreatment reduced COD by about 61%. The filtrate of the thermal pretreatment step was used at pH 8.0 for CWO at 383-443K temperature and a total pressure of 0.85MPa for 4h. Catalysts used for the reaction include copper sulfate, 5% CuO/95% activated carbon, 60% CuO/40% MnO(2), and 60% CuO/40% CeO(2). Maximum COD reduction was found to be 89% during CWO step using 5% CuO/95% activated carbon with a catalyst loading of 8gl(-1) at 443K and 0.85MPa total pressure. Overall COD reduction for the pretreatment and the CWO was found to be 96%. Besides this, 60% CuO/40% CeO(2) catalyst also exhibited the similar activity as that of obtained with 5% CuO/95% activated carbon catalyst at 423K temperature and 0.85MPa total pressure. The pH of the solution during the experimental runs decreases initially due to the formation of carboxylic acid and then increases due to the decomposition of acids.

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of pulp and paper mill effluent before and after bacterial degradation using Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Raj, Abhay; Lohani, Mohtashim; Satyanarayana, G N V

    2017-02-01

    A lignin peroxidases-producing Serratia liquefaciens was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper (P&P) mill effluent. The treatment led to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, lignin and phenolic content by 84%, 72%, 61% and 95%, respectively. The effluent detoxification was studied by genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity studies included measuring mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in root tip cells following treatment with 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) of effluent. The root tip cells grown in untreated effluent showed a significant decrease in MI from 69% (control) to 32%, 27%, 22% and 11% at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% effluent concentration, respectively. This indicated that the untreated effluent was highly cytotoxic in nature. Further, root tip cells, when treated with different concentrations of effluent showed various CA and NA including c-mitosis, stickiness, chromosome loss, chromosome break, anaphase bridge, multipolar anaphase, vagrant chromosomes, micronucleated and binucleated cells. The MI observed in root tip cells grown in bacterial treated effluents at similar concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100% v/v) showed an increase of 33%, 36%, 42% and 66%. CA showed a substantial decrease and in some instances, complete absence of CA was also observed. The findings suggest that S. liquefaciens culture could be a potential bacterial culture for bioremediation of P&P mill effluent, as it is effective in substantial lowering of pollutants load as well as reduces the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of effluent.

  8. Removal of the organic content from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by a treatment with silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Katia; Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Duarte, Armando C

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts a treatment strategy of a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent with Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju encapsulated on silica-alginate (biocomposite of silica-alginate-fungi, with the purpose of reducing its potential impact in the environment. Active (alive) or inactive (death by sterilization) Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju was encapsulated in alginate beads. Five beads containing active and inactive fungus were placed in a mold and filled with silica hydrogel (biocomposites). The biocomposites were added to batch reactors containing the bleached kraft pulp mill effluent. The treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active and inactive biocomposites was performed throughout 29 days at 28°C. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by measuring the removal of organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand and the relative absorbance ratio over time. Both fungi species showed potential for removal of organic compounds, colour and chemical oxygen demand. Maximum values of reduction in terms of colour (56%), chemical oxygen demand (65%) and organic compounds (72-79%) were attained after 29 days of treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active Rhizopus oryzae biocomposites. The immobilization of fungi, the need for low fungal biomass, and the possibility of reutlization of the biocomposites clearly demonstrate the industrial and environmental interest in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent treatment by silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.

  9. Bioremediation of Agro-Based Pulp Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Autochthonous Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale agro-based pulp and paper mills are characterized as highly polluting industries. These mills use Kraft pulping process for paper manufacturing due to which toxic lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Lack of infrastructure, technical manpower, and research and development facilities restricts these mills to recover these chemicals. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem, four bacteria were isolated from the premises of agro-based pulp and paper mill which were identified as species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pannonibacter, and Ochrobacterum. These bacteria were found capable of reducing COD up to 85%–86.5% in case of back water and 65-66% in case of back water : black liquor (60 : 40, respectively, after acclimatization under optimized conditions (pH 6.8, temperature 35°C, and shaking 200 rpm when the wastewater was supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus as trace elements.

  10. Influence of long term irrigation with pulp and paper mill effluent on the bacterial community structure and catabolic function in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu Mani; Kumari, Priyanka; Weber, Kela P; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Arora, Dilip Kumar; Kaushik, Rajeev

    2014-03-01

    Microbial communities play a vital role in maintaining soil health. A multiphasic approach to assess the effect of pulp and paper mill effluent on both the structure and function of microbial soil communities is taken. Bacterial communities from agricultural soils irrigated with pulp and paper mill effluent were compared to communities form soils irrigated with well water. Samples were taken from fields in the state of Uttarakhand, India, where pulp and paper mill effluent has been used for irrigation for over 25 years. Comparisons of bacterial community structure were conducted using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both isolates and clone libraries attained from the soil. Community-level physiological profiling was used to characterize the functional diversity and catabolic profile of the bacterial communities. The multiphasic approach using both physiological and molecular techniques proved to be a powerful tool in evaluating the soil bacterial community population and population differences therein. A significant and consistent difference in the population structure and function was found for the bacterial communities from soil irrigated with effluent in comparison to fields irrigated with well water. The diversity index parameters indicated that the microbial community in pulp and paper mill effluent irrigated fields were more diverse in both structure and function. This suggests that the pulp and paper mill effluent is not having a negative effect on the soil microbial community, but in fact may have a positive influence. In terms of soil health, this finding supports the continued use of pulp and paper mill effluent for irrigation. This is however only one aspect of soil health which was evaluated. Further studies on soil resistance and robustness could be undertaken to holistically evaluate soil health in this situation.

  11. A long-term, multitrophic level study to assess pulp and paper mill effluent effects on aquatic communities in four US receiving waters: characteristics of the study streams, sample sites, mills, and mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy J; Ragsdale, Renee L; Arthurs, William J; Ikoma, Joan; Borton, Dennis L; Cook, Diana L

    2009-04-01

    Watershed characteristics, study streams, sample sites, mills, and mill effluents are provided for 4 streams included in a long-term study to assess potential effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on US receiving waters. The study streams are Codorus Creek (Pennsylvania, USA), Leaf River (Mississippi, USA) and McKenzie and Willamette rivers (Oregon, USA) and were chosen to represent a blend of mill process types, effluent concentrations, and coldwater/warmwater stream systems. The described effluent quality, water quality, and habitat data sets encompass the initial 7 to 8 y of a study anticipated to continue >10 y and provide a backdrop to a series of articles describing periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish community properties in these same streams. The mean in-stream waste concentration (IWC) for these 4 effluent discharges was 32.4%, 2.0%, 0.5%, and 0.2% v/v for Codorus Creek and Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers, respectively, as compared with a median of 0.4% for US mills. Effluent quality measurements included Selenastrum capricornutum, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pimephales promelas chronic bioassays as sanctioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency for estimating effluent effects on receiving-water aquatic communities. Based on mean bioassay inhibition concentration for a 25% effect and on mean IWC, a margin of safety against adverse biological effects of 2, 25, 137, and 150 times was indicated for Codorus Creek and Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers, respectively. Habitat and water quality assessment was carried out over a gradient of sample sites above and below the effluent discharge to determine nonmill-related conditions that might interfere with interpretation of effluent effects. Noneffluent related localized differences in conditions for some parameters, including current velocity (McKenzie River), and surface incident photosynthetically active radiation (Codorus Creek and Willamette River) occurred at the sample stations immediately

  12. Post-treatment of anaerobic effluent by ozone and ozone/UV of a kraft cellulose pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, T R; Pires, E C

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents represent a challenge when treatment technologies are considered, not only to reduce organic matter, but also to reduce the toxicological effects. Although anaerobic treatment has shown promising results, as well as advantages when compared with an aerobic system, this process alone is not sufficient to reduce recalcitrant compounds. Thus, an advanced oxidation process was applied. This experiment was performed to determine the effect of ozone and ozone/UV treating a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor effluent from a kraft cellulose pulp mill for 306 days with an organic volumetric load of 2.33 kgCOD/m³/day. The removal of organic compounds was measured by the following parameters: adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX), total phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon and absorbance values in the UV-visible spectral region. Moreover, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity tests were conducted before and after treatment with ozone and ozone/UV. At an applied ozone dosage of 0.76 mgO₃/mgCOD and an applied UV dosage of 3.427 Wh/m(3), the organochlorine compounds measured as AOX reached removal efficiencies of 40%. Although the combination of ozone/UV showed better results in colour (79%) and total phenols (32%) compared with only ozone, the chronic toxicity and the genotoxicity that had already been removed in the anaerobic process were slightly increased.

  13. Expression profiling and gene ontology analysis in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, Shannon L.; Werner, Julieta; Ouellet, Jacob D.; Hill, Lauren G. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Ontario P7B 5E1, (Canada); Law, R. David, E-mail: dlaw@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Ontario P7B 5E1, (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Many studies link pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) exposure to adverse effects in fish populations present in the mill receiving environments. These impacts are often characteristic of endocrine disruption and may include impaired reproduction, development and survival. While these physiological endpoints are well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms causing them are not yet understood. To investigate changes in gene transcription induced by exposure to a PPME at several stages of treatment, male and female fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed for 6 days to 25% (v/v) secondary (biologically) treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% (v/v) combined mill outfall (CMO) from a mill producing both kraft pulp and newsprint. The gene expression changes in the livers of these fish were analyzed using a 22 K oligonucleotide microarray. Exposure to TK or CMO resulted in significant changes in the expression levels of 105 and 238 targets in male FHMs and 296 and 133 targets in females, respectively. Targets were then functionally analyzed using gene ontology tools to identify the biological processes in fish hepatocytes that were affected by exposure to PPME after its secondary treatment. Proteolysis was affected in female FHMs exposed to both TK and CMO. In male FHMs, no processes were affected by TK exposure, while sterol, isoprenoid, steroid and cholesterol biosynthesis and electron transport were up-regulated by CMO exposure. The results presented in this study indicate that short-term exposure to PPMEs affects the expression of reproduction-related genes in the livers of both male and female FHMs, and that secondary treatment of PPMEs may not neutralize all of their metabolic effects in fish. Gene ontology analysis of microarray data may enable identification of biological processes altered by toxicant exposure and thus provide an additional tool for monitoring the impact of PPMEs on fish populations.

  14. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Meng-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Chungshan North Road, 3rd Sec., Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Chern, Jia-Ming, E-mail: jmchern@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Chungshan North Road, 3rd Sec., Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Shih-Min [Bureau of Environmental Protection Tainan County, No. 78, Sec. 2, Changrong Rd., Sinying City, Tainan County 730, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng [CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc., Taiwan, No. 185, Sec. 2, Chinhai Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  15. Influence of crude oil and pulp and paper mill effluent on mixed infections of Trichodina cottidarium and T. saintjohnsi (Ciliophora) parasitizing Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus and M. scorpius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.A.; Barker, D.E.; Williams-Ryan, K.; Hooper, R.G. (Memorial Univ., St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Samples of longhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) were exposed to sediment contaminated with crude oil or pulp and paper mill effluent for periods up to 13 months in the laboratory. Other samples were collected at sites where crude oil or effluent from a pulp and paper mill are discharged. The intensity of gill infections of Trichodina spp. on exposed fish was significantly higher than on controls 5, 9, and 13 months after exposure. The intensity of the ciliates was also greater on sculpins collected near an oil-receiving terminal than on those sampled 5 km from the polluted site. Field collections of longhorn and shorthorn (Myoxocephalus scorpius) sculpins at and distant from a pulp and paper mill had high and low intensities of the ciliates, respectively. Similarly, the intensity of trichodinid ciliates was also significantly greater in longhorn sculpins exposed to effluent-contaminated sediment than in controls 5 months after exposure. The results suggest that the intensity of gill-inhibiting species such as trichodinids in susceptible fish hosts increases after chronic exposure to crude oil and to pulp and paper mill effluent, and the parasites may serve as indicators of pollution. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  17. Removal of Organic Pollutants and Decolorization of Bleaching Effluents from Pulp and Paper Mill by Adsorption using Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shaiful Sajab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bleaching effluents from pulp and paper mills using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fibers as an adsorbent was conducted to remove color and organic pollutants. Empty fruit bunch fibers were chemically modified with polyethylenimine to enhance the adsorption capacity toward anionic species in the effluents. Effluents from the primary clarifier and aerated treatment pond were treated, and the performance of the adsorbent was investigated in terms of decolorization, total organic carbon, and oxygen demand level. Increasing adsorbent dosage and lower pH resulted in greater adsorption performance. The highest decolorization and reduction of total organic carbon of the effluents were 95.0% and 58.2%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium can be achieved after 4 h of the adsorption process.

  18. Physiological Regulation of an Alkaline-Resistant Laccase Produced by Perenniporia tephropora and Efficiency in Biotreatment of Pulp Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerapatsakul, Churapa

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of alkaline-resistant laccase from Perenniporia tephropora KU-Alk4 was proved to be controlled by several factors. One important factor was the initial pH, which drove the fungus to produce different kinds of ligninolytic enzymes. P. tephropora KU-Alk4 could grow at pH 4.5, 7.0, and 8.0. The fungus produced laccase and MnP at pH 7.0, but only laccase at pH 8.0. The specific activity of laccase in the pH 8.0 culture was higher than that in the pH 7.0 culture. At pH 8.0, glucose was the best carbon source for laccase production but growth was better with lactose. Low concentrations of glucose at 0.1% to 1.0% enhanced laccase production, while concentrations over 1% gave contradictory results. Veratryl alcohol induced the production of laccase. A trace concentration of copper ions was required for laccase production. Biomass increased with an increasing rate of aeration of shaking flasks from 100 to 140 rpm; however, shaking at over 120 rpm decreased laccase quantity. Highest amount of laccase produced by KU-Alk4, 360 U/mL, was at pH 8.0 with 1% glucose and 0.2 mM copper sulfate, unshaken for the first 3 days, followed by addition of 0.85 mM veratryl alcohol and shaking at 120 rpm. The crude enzyme was significantly stable in alkaline pH 8.0~10.0 for 24 hr. After treating the pulp mill effluent with the KU-Alk4 system for 3 days, pH decreased from 9.6 to 6.8, with reduction of color and chemical oxygen demand at 83.2% and 81%, respectively. Laccase was detectable during the biotreatment process. PMID:28154483

  19. Subchronic metabolic effects and toxicity of a simulated pulp mill effluent on juvenile lake trout, Salmo trutta m. lacustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikari, A.; Linstroem-Seppae, P.Ku.; Kukkonen, J.

    1988-12-01

    Juvenile lake trout (Salmo trutta m. lacustris) were exposed for 7 weeks to 0.05X and 0.2X 96-hr LC50 concentrations of simulated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (KME - Sa + CP). A sulfate soap preparation, composed mainly of resin and fatty acids, with added chlorophenols (CP, tri-, tetra-, and penta-CP) was used as the toxicant mixture. Concentrations of free CP in plasma and free and conjugated CP in bile were proportional to their concentrations in the water. The greatest total gradient between bile and water CP was 5.2 X 10(4) for pentachlorophenol. The activity of a liver polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) system, assayed with three model substrates, increased 40 to 67% due to KME - Sa + CP. However, the increase was not directly dependent on the exposure concentration. In contrast to PSMO, activities of conjugating enzymes (p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyl and glutathione transferases) were decreased in the liver. Increased concentration of glutathione was noted in the liver and kidney. In addition, a small (9%) but significant decrease in blood hemoglobin concentration was observed at the higher exposure concentration. Although growth rate of lake trout was markedly decreased due to KME - Sa + CP, hydromineral balance and carbohydrate metabolism in fish were unaffected, indicating possible physiological compensation. On the other hand, lethality tests with lake trout preexposed to KME - Sa + CP at 0.2 X LC50 revealed decreased tolerance, whereas at the lower exposure concentration it was unchanged. We therefore conclude that various physiological adjustments in trout during subchronic exposures were not adaptive in terms of short-term tolerance.

  20. Pilot-scale comparison of thermophilic aerobic suspended carrier biofilm process and activated sludge process in pulp and paper mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvilampi, J E; Rintala, J A

    2004-01-01

    Thermophilic aerobic treatment of settled pulp and paper mill effluent was studied under mill premises with two comparative pilot processes; suspended carrier biofilm process (SCBP) and activated sludge process (ASP). Full-scale mesophilic activated sludge process was a reference treatment. During the runs (61 days) hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were kept 13+/-5 h and 16+/-6 h for SCBP and ASP, respectively. Corresponding volumetric loadings rates (VLR) were 2.7+/-0.9 and 2.2+/-1.0 kg CODfilt m(-3)d(-1). Temperatures varied between 46 to 60 degrees C in both processes. Mesophilic ASP was operated with HRT of 36 h, corresponding VLR of 0.7 kg CODfilt m(-3)d(-1). Both SCBP and ASP achieved CODfilt (GF/A filtered) removals up to 85%, while the mesophilic ASP removal was 89+/-2%. NTU values were markedly higher (100-300) in thermophilic effluents than in mesophilic effluent (30). Effluent turbidity was highly dependent on temperature; in batch experiment mesophilic effluent sample had NTU values of 30 and 60 at 35 degrees C and 55 degrees C, respectively. As a conclusion, both thermophilic treatments gave high CODfilt removals, which were close to mesophilic process removal and were achieved with less than half of HRT.

  1. Mutagenicity and organic halogen determination in body fluids and tissues of rats treated with drinking water and pulp mill bleachery effluent concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S.; Hongslo, J.K.; Kringstad, A.; Carlberg, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrates of either drinking water or chlorination stage pulp mill effluent were injected intraperitonally into rats. Urine, feces, liver, and adipose tissues were treated for mutagenic activity and analysed for organic halogen. For both sample types nearly all the organic halogen taken up, eighteen percent from the chlorination stage sample and four percent from the drinking water sample, was excreted via the urine during the first day. Weak mutagenic activity could only be found in the urine collected the first day from animals treated with the highest dose of drinking water. 31 references, 5 tables.

  2. Exposure to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent disrupts the pituitary-gonadal axis of white sucker at multiple sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Munkittrick, K.R.; McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Chang, J.P. (Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated reproductive problems in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKME) at Jackfish Bay on Lake Superior. These fish exhibit delayed sexual maturity, reduced gonadal size, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and circulating steroid levels depressed relative to those of reference populations. The present studies were designed to evaluate sites in the pituitary-gonadal axis of prespawning white sucker affected by BKME exposure. At the time of entry to the spawning stream, plasma levels of immunoreactive gonadotropin (GtH)-II (LH-type GtH) in male and female white sucker were 30- and 50-fold lower, respectively, than the levels in fish from a reference site. A single intraperitoneal injection of D-Arg6, Pro9N-Et sGnRH (sGnRH-A, 0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma GtH levels in male and female fish at both sites, although the magnitude of the response was greatly reduced in BKME-exposed fish. Fish at the BKME site did not ovulate in response to sGnRH-A, while 10 of 10 fish from the reference site ovulated within 6 hr. Plasma 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) levels were depressed in BKME-exposed fish and unlike fish at the reference site, failed to increase in response to sGnRH-A. Testosterone levels in both sexes and 11-ketostestosterone levels in males were elevated in fish from the reference site but were not further increased by GnRH treatment. In contrast, BKME-exposed fish exhibit a transitory increase in testosterone levels in response to the GnRH analog. In vitro incubations of ovarian follicles obtained from fish at the BKME site revealed depressed basal secretion of testosterone and 17,20 beta-P and reduced responsiveness to the GtH analog human chorionic gonadotropin and to forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase.

  3. Odours from pulp mill effluent treatment ponds: the origin of significant levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Susan B; Ridal, Jeff; Zaitlin, Beryl; Lo, Amy

    2003-06-01

    Pulp and paper mills are well known for their sharp, sulphurous stack emissions, but the secondary treatment units also can be significant contributors to local odour. This study investigated the source(s) of earthy/musty emissions from a mixed hardwood pulp mill in response to a high local odour. Samples from five sites in the mill over five months were analyzed for earthy/musty volatile organic compounds (VOCs), examined microscopically, and plated for bacteria and moulds. In all cases, activated sludge showed substantial geosmin levels and to a lesser extent 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) at 2000-9000 times their odour threshold concentrations (OTCs). These VOCs were lower or absent upstream and downstream, suggesting that they were produced within the bioreactor. Geosmin and MIB were highest in late summer and declined over winter, and correlated with different operating parameters. Geosmin was most closely coupled with temperature and MIB with nitrogen uptake. Cyanobacteria were present in all sludge samples, but actinomycetes were not found. Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal species isolated from the bioreactor and secondary outfall tested negative for geosmin or MIB. We conclude: (i) geosmin and MIB contribute significantly to airborne odours from this mill, but are diluted below OTC levels at the river; (ii) these VOCs are generated by biota in the activated sludge; and (iii) cyanobacteria are likely primary source(s). The growth of cyanobacteria in activated sludge represents a loss of energy to the heterotrophic population; thus earthy/musty odours may represent a diagnostic for less than optimal conditions.

  4. Evaluation of full strength paper mill effluent for electricity generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0615306y

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... 26 ± 2% when effluent of the same type was fed to MFCs operated in a ..... Aquatic toxicity from pulp and paper mill ... that potentially disrupt neuroendocrine control of fish reproduction. ... Effect of humic acids on electricity.

  5. Phytoremediation potential of a novel fern, Salvinia cucullata, Roxb. Ex Bory, to pulp and paper mill effluent: Physiological and anatomical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Mazumdar, Kisholay

    2016-11-01

    The study was conducted with an aim to remediate effluent from a pulp and paper mill, after treating it for 28 days with an aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata. The effluent had high BOD, COD, TS, TSS, TDS, P, hardness and chloride, and several heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn) above national limits. However, the plant survived a wide range of effluent concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, v/v), and flourished well, particularly at 25% (v/v), resisted membrane injury and generation of H2O2 and O2, showed better growth and induced all the major antioxidant enzymes. The plants also induced lipid peroxidation. Most of the elemental profiles were higher than the toxic levels stipulated for plants, indicating tolerance to metal. In fact, barring Fe, for Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mg and P, at all the effluent doses, and for Cd, Ni and Mn, up to 75% (v/v) effluent, greater concentrations were observed in leaf than in root. This plant was more suited for nutrient removal, as it effectively reduced BOD, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mg, P and increased dissolve oxygen. Further, pH, hardness, chloride, TS and Mn was reduced optimally by 25-50% (v/v) treatments. SEM revealed prominent structural damages from 50 to 100% treatments. Presence of Pb as well as Fe in the EDX peaks were observed in the cortex rather than in the root vascular zone. This plant could be suggested to be an effective phytoremediator of multi-contaminant effluent with maximum benefit at low doses (25-50%, v/v).

  6. A comparative study of biopolymers and alum in the separation and recovery of pulp fibres from paper mill effluent by flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sumona; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Pariatamby, Agamuthu; Ali Hashim, Mohd; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2014-09-01

    Recovery of cellulose fibres from paper mill effluent has been studied using common polysaccharides or biopolymers such as Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum as flocculent. Guar gum is commonly used in sizing paper and routinely used in paper making. The results have been compared with the performance of alum, which is a common coagulant and a key ingredient of the paper industry. Guar gum recovered about 3.86mg/L of fibre and was most effective among the biopolymers. Settling velocity distribution curves demonstrated that Guar gum was able to settle the fibres faster than the other biopolymers; however, alum displayed the highest particle removal rate than all the biopolymers at any of the settling velocities. Alum, Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum removed 97.46%, 94.68%, 92.39% and 92.46% turbidity of raw effluent at a settling velocity of 0.5cm/min, respectively. The conditions for obtaining the lowest sludge volume index such as pH, dose and mixing speed were optimised for guar gum which was the most effective among the biopolymers. Response surface methodology was used to design all experiments, and an optimum operational setting was proposed. The test results indicate similar performance of alum and Guar gum in terms of floc settling velocities and sludge volume index. Since Guar gum is a plant derived natural substance, it is environmentally benign and offers a green treatment option to the paper mills for pulp recycling.

  7. Isolation and characterization of resin acid degrading bacteria found in effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C A; Wyndham, R C

    1996-05-01

    Thirteen resin acid degrading bacteria enriched on abietic or dehydroabietic acids were isolated from waste water from the aerated stabilization basin of a bleached kraft pulp mill. Standard biochemical tests were used to characterize each isolate. Each isolate was tested for its ability to degrade six abietane- and pimarane-type resin acids. Resin acid concentrations were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and UV absorbance. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic characteristics identified two distinct clusters of degraders that differed in their ability to utilize carbohydrates as carbon sources. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis of representative isolates from each cluster identified A19-6a and D11-13 as Comamonas and Alcaligenes species, respectively. To determine genotypic relatedness, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences were used to amplify genomic DNA fragments from 10 isolates. These results supported the phenotypic analysis for all isolates tested except A19-5 and A19-6b. These two organisms were clustered closely together based on phenotype but had distinctly different banding patterns, suggesting that they are not related genotypically. All isolates degraded a subset of the six resin acid congeners. Isolates A19-3, A19-6a, A19-6b, and D11-37 were the most effective at degrading all six congeners.

  8. Research Progress of Pulp Mill Effluent Treatment with Ozonation and Catalytic Ozonation Technology%臭氧及催化臭氧氧化法处理制浆废水的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷利荣; 李友明

    2013-01-01

    Ozonation is an environmentally friendly technology for wastewater treatment.Catalytic ozonation technology,based on generation of hydroxyl radical (· OH) with high oxidizing power by synergistic effect of catalyst and ozone molecules,effectively enhances degradation efficiency of organic pollutants existed in wastewater and becomes one of the promising wastewater treatment technologies with practical application potential.In this paper,basic mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutant by ozonation and catalytic ozonation technology were described in detail,and factors which influence treatment efficiency of pulp mill effluent with ozoration were discussed.Moreover,the recent research progress of the pulping effluent treatment with ozonation and ozonation catalytic ozonation technology was reviewed.The existing problems and future development trends about ozonation of pulp mill effluent were presented.%介绍了臭氧及催化臭氧氧化技术降解去除废水中有机物的机理,分析了影响臭氧处理制浆废水效果的主要因素.综述了近年来臭氧及催化臭氧氧化技术处理制浆废水的研究进展;指出此领域尚存在的问题,并对未来的发展方向进行了展望.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of industrial pulp and paper mill effluent using synthesized magnetic Fe2O3-TiO2: Treatment efficiency and characterizations of reused photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramonian, Wennie; Wu, Ta Yeong; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2017-02-01

    In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis was used to treat pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME). Magnetically retrievable Fe2O3-TiO2 was fabricated by employing a solvent-free mechanochemical process under ambient conditions. Findings elucidated the successful incorporation of Fe2O3 into the TiO2 lattice. Fe2O3-TiO2 was found to be an irregular and slightly agglomerated surface morphology. In comparison to commercial P25, Fe2O3-TiO2 exhibited higher ferromagnetism and better catalyst properties with improvements in surface area (58.40 m(2)/g), pore volume (0.29 cm(3)/g), pore size (18.52 nm), and band gap (2.95 eV). Besides, reusability study revealed that Fe2O3-TiO2 was chemically stable and could be reused successively (five cycles) without significant changes in its photoactivity and intrinsic properties. Additionally, this study demonstrated the potential recovery of Fe2O3-TiO2 from an aqueous suspension by using an applied magnetic field or sedimentation. Interactive effects of photocatalytic conditions (initial effluent pH, Fe2O3-TiO2 dosage, and air flow-rate), reaction mechanism, and the presence of chemical oxidants (H2O2, BrO3(-), and HOCl) during the treatment process of PPME were also investigated. Under optimal conditions (initial effluent pH = 3.88, [Fe2O3-TiO2] = 1.3 g/L, and air flow-rate = 2.28 L/min), the treatment efficiency of Fe2O3-TiO2 was 98.5% higher than the P25. Based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, apparent rate constants of Fe2O3-TiO2 and P25 were 9.2 × 10(-3) and 2.7 × 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. The present study revealed not only the potential of using magnetic Fe2O3-TiO2 in PPME treatment but also demonstrated high reusability and easy separation of Fe2O3-TiO2 from the wastewater.

  10. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.

    2011-01-01

    . The anaerobically treated effluent was then treated in a bioreactor in the presence of a fungal strain (Aspergillus fumigatus) or a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas ovalis). The results of this study indicated a reduction in colour (76% and 56%), lignin (78% and 68%), COD (85% and 78%) and AOX (70% and 82...

  11. The electro-oxidation of lignin in Sappi Saiccor dissolving pulp mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-28

    Oct 28, 2009 ... few electro-oxidation reactions have been carried out on the effluent of a pulp mill which uses the acid ... agent, high temperatures and pressures are necessary and the ... Early studies on graphite, copper, platinum and.

  12. Effects of pulp mill chlorate on Baltic Sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemarin, A; Lehtinen, K J; Notini, M; Mattson, J

    1994-01-01

    The long-term effects of pulp mill chlorate on different algal species of the Baltic Sea were studied in land-based model ecosystems simulating the littoral zone. Brown algae (Phaeophyta) exhibited an extraordinarily high sensitivity to chlorate and pulp mill effluents containing chlorate. All brown algal species ceased growth or showed major signs of toxicity at all concentrations tested, down to microgram per litre levels. EC50 levels for growth of Fucus vesiculosus were about 80-100 microg ClO3- litre(-1). Blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) were not deleteriously affected nor were green algae (Chlorophyta). The perennial and annual species of red algae (Rhodophyta) were also unaffected by the effluents. Diatoms did not show any sensitivity and phytoplankton (fresh- and brackish water) were particularly insensitive. A phanerogam, Zostera marina was also unaffected by the treatments.

  13. Wet Oxidation: A Promising Option for the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A.

    2012-05-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) is used to degrade persistent organic or inorganic impurities present in industrial wastewater. The process utilizes severe oxidation conditions (i.e., high temperature and pressures) to achieve the efficient degradation of pollutants. To obtain high degradation at lower operation conditions, catalytic WO process is being suggested. The wastewater generated from a pulp and paper mill contains several recalcitrant compounds like lignin, hemi-cellulose, phenols, sulfides etc. Therefore, pulp and paper mill effluent have low biodegradability and are not amenable for conventional biological process. With the implementation of stringent regulations, pulp and paper mill operators need a cleaner disposal route for the wastewater. In this mini-review, the results obtained from the recently published studies on WO treatment for pulp and paper mill effluent are compiled and presented. Finally, the recommendations for the future work are also given.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  15. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  16. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITO FISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT -CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fen...

  17. Treatment of pulping effluents by using alum and clay - Colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-07-03

    Jul 3, 2001 ... pulp-and-paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannins ... following sequence: Chlorination (C), Extraction with caustic soda ..... claimed that sludge cakes (fine coal) formed from higher mesh.

  18. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  19. Kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment using fixed bed anaerobic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damianovic, M. H. R. Z; Ruas, D.; Pires, E. C.; Foresti, E.

    2009-07-01

    The effluents of pulp mills contain a myriad of toxic compounds, biodegradable organic matter and sulfur compounds. to decrease the amount of fresh water required for pulp and paper production closed circuits are in use, however, higher concentrations of slat, as oxidized sulfur compounds, are encountered in the wastewaters. energy costs and new environmental concerns are motivating the use of anaerobic pretreatment as a way to decrease energy expenditure in the treatment plant together with lower sludge production. In anaerobic environment, the organic matter removal can follow methanogenic or sulfidogenic paths and with the latter simultaneous reduction of the oxidized sulfur compounds also occurs. (Author)

  20. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  1. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  2. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  3. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  4. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment.

  5. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma;

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  6. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  7. Metabolites of chlorinated syringaldehydes in fish bile as biomarkers of exposure to bleached eucalypt pulp effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, C M; Haritos, V S; Ahokas, J T; Holdway, D A

    1996-04-01

    Metabolites of chlorinated phenolic compounds in fish bile have been found to be sensitive biomarkers of bleached pulp mill effluent exposure. Chlorinated syringaldehydes are largely unstudied chlorophenolics found in bleached hardwood effluent. Sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis), Australian marine fish, were exposed to 100% chlorine dioxide-bleached eucalypt pulp effluent at concentrations of 0.5, 2, and 8% (v/v) for 4 days. Metabolites of 2-chlorosyringaldehyde (2-CSA), the predominant chlorophenolic in this effluent, were measured in the bile. The major metabolite was the conjugate of 2-chloro-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzylalcohol (2-CB-OH), the reduced product of 2-CSA. 2-CB-OH was found in all fish exposed to diluted effluent and was concentrated in the bile over 1000 times above 2-CSA levels in the effluent. A separate experiment examined the metabolic fate of 2,6-dichlorosyringaldehyde (2,6-DCSA), which is one of the major chlorophenolics in chlorine-bleached eucalypt pulp effluent. Sand flathead were exposed to 2,6-DCSA by intraperitoneal injection at 15 mg/kg or through the water to 0.5, 2, or 8 micrograms/liter for 4 days. Analysis of the bile revealed the major metabolite of 2,6-DCSA to be the conjugate of 2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylalcohol, which was found in all exposed fish and was concentrated in the bile over 20,000 times above 2,6-DCSA exposure levels. Results reveal that the analysis of metabolites of chlorinated syringaldehydes in fish bile can provide a biomarker of bleached hardwood effluent exposure that is sensitive to low levels of exposure, specific to certain bleaching sequences, and correlates well with exposure concentrations.

  8. Simulation and Optimization of a Generic Kraft Pulp Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona Vazquez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian pulp and paper industry is going through an economic crisis mainly due to a decrease of world demand and aggressive competition from emerging nations. In this context, the forest biorefinery which can be defined as the “full integration of the incoming biomass and other raw materials, including energy, for simultaneous production of fibres for paper products, chemicals and energy”, is one of the solutions for pulp and paper mills to diversify their core business and regain compet...

  9. Comparative embryotoxicity of pulp mill extracts in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), American flagfish (Jordanella floridae) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Beyger, Lindsay; Krause, Rachelle; Holdway, Douglas

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Chilean pulp mill effluent extracts (untreated, primary and secondary treated pulp mill effluents), along with steroid standards (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) and a wood extractive standard (beta-sitosterol) on developing post-fertilized fish embryos. Our study included a cold freshwater species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and two warm freshwater species American flagfish (Jordanella floridae) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryotoxicity results included delay in time to hatch and decreased hatchability but no significant egg and larvae mortality was observed in the pulp mill extract exposed embryos. By contrast, significant early hatching and increased hatchability were observed in beta-sitosterol exposed embryos, along with high mortality of testosterone exposed embryos across species. Teratogenic responses were observed in medaka embryos in all treatments. Abnormalities were detected starting at development stages 19-20 (2-4 somite stages) and included optical deformities (micro-opthalmia, 1 or 2 eyes) and lack of development of brains and hearts. Additionally, phenotypic sex identification of surviving offspring found female-biased sex-ratios in all treatments except testosterone across species. Overall, our study indicated that Chilean pulp and paper mill extractives caused embryotoxicity (post-fertilized embryos) across species and irrespective of the effluent treatment. The effects were mainly associated with delayed time to hatch, decreased hatchability, and species-specific teratogenesis.

  10. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  11. Detection of Chlorophenolic Compounds in Bleaching Effluents of Chemical Pulps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chhaya Sharma; S.Mohanty; S.Kumar; N.J.Rao; li qian

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory bleaching effluents from the chlorination and caustic extraction stages of mixed wood kraft pulp processing have been analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively for various chlorophenolics by using GC.A number of chlorinated derivaties of phenols,catechols,guaiacols and syringaldehydes have been detected and their concentrations are estimated.The results are compared with that of different agriculture residue / hardwood pulps,which were reported in literature.The concentrations of various compounds detected have also been compared with their reported 96LC50 values.

  12. bioelectricity production from cassava mill effluents using microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... cassava mill effluent using the MFC technology. Keywords: Bioelectricity ... acceptors for its unlimited availability and its high redox potential [18]. ..... compounds in cells including nucleic acid and other material susceptible to ...

  13. A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

    2001-03-06

    This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

  14. A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

    2001-03-06

    This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

  15. Photocatalytical polishing of paper-mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, A; Schroeder, H; Kotsaridou-Nagel, M; Geissen, S U; Vogelpohl, A

    2004-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a promising technology for purification of biological pretreated wastewater or destruction of non-biodegradable compounds. For this reason PCO has been investigated as a last step of purification of biologically pre-treated paper-mill effluents. The influence of the parameters pH, TiO2-modification, TiO2-concentration, catalyst re-use, concentration of substances to be oxidised (wastewater quality) has been determined. The TOC of the biologically pretreated wasterwater was up to 55 mg L(-1). This wastewater was treated with a previously presented aerated cascade photoreactor which was modified for batch experiments. A high specific oxidation rate of up to 0.76 g TOC m(-2) h(-1) as well as a complete TOC mineralization has been achieved after the optimisation of the process parameters. The complete destruction of recalcitrant compounds will offer the opportunity to reuse the wastewater in the production process. The increase of the BOD5/TOC ratio after a short irradiation period indicates the transformation of recalcitrant organic compounds to better biodegradable intermediates. The use of PCO as a pre-treatment step for the enhancement of the biodegradability of wastewater, containing recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds is an alternative to a long and energy-intensive total pollutant mineralization.

  16. Effects of Kraft Mill effluent on the sexuality of fishes: An environmental early warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.P.; Bortone, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrhenoid or masculinized female fish species of the live-bearing family, Poeciliidae, have been observed for over thirteen years in specific southern streams which receive waste effluents from pulping mills. The complex mixture of organic compounds in kraft mill effluent (KME) has inhibited specific identification of causal agent(s). However, microbially degraded phytosterols (e.g. sitosterol or stigmastanol) in experimental exposures induce the same intersexual states that characterize affected female poeciliids sampled from KME streams. KME-polluted streams often exhibit a drastic reduction of fish species diversity and degrees of physiological stress, all of which suggests reduced reproduction in surviving forms. A potential ontogenetic or developmental response is demonstrated in American eels captured in one of these streams as well. The authors examine available information, including laboratory and experimental field exposures, and suggest directions for additional research as well as the need for environmental concern.

  17. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  18. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory.

  19. Seasonal bacteriological analysis of Gola river water contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in Uttaranchal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Singh, Shail; Raj, Abhay

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal physico-chemical and microbial quality of Gola river water has been analyzed after confluence of pulp paper mill waste. The study revealed that it has enhanced 20-30 times pollution load of BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, sulphate, chloride, sodium, nitrate, potassium, lignin and phenol after mixing of pulp paper mill waste with river water in all season. Further, it induced the bacterial growth by increasing most probable number value of E. coli was 1.57 x 10(4), 1.6 x 10(4), 1.37 x 10(4) and SPC count was 1.68 x 10(4), 1.64 x 10(4), 1.67 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter respectively. While the most probable number value in river water before mixing of pulp paper mill waste was 1.4 x 10(2), 1.82 x 10(2), 1.5 x 10(2) and SPC count was 2.8 x 10(3), 2.89 x 10(3), 2.78 x 10(3)/100 ml during summer, monsoon and winter respectively. This indicated from 88-114 fold increase in most probable number value of E. coli and 56.55-60.0 times increase in SPC count of river water after mixing of effluent in summer, monsoon and winter. Moreover, the most probable number value in effluent itself before mixing was 3.4 x 10(2), 3.3 x 10(2), 2.8 x 10(2) and SPC count was 6 x 10(4), 6.5 x 10(4), 6 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that the seasonal variation also regulated the bacterial population dynamics as per the physico-chemical quality, in which E. coli was found highest at the rate of (5.9 x 10(4)), E. aerogenes (5.3 x 10(4)), P. aeruginosa (1.3 x 10(4)), S. aureus (3.2 x 10(3)), K. pneumoniae (2.6 x 10(4)), Enteritidis (1.1 x 10(4)) on monsoon season and V. cholerae (7.4 x 10(2)), V. vulnificus (9.2 x 10(2))/100 ml in river water when contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in monsoon season. Thus, the monsoon season showed presence of FC and TC indicated the thermo-tolerant and disease causing group of bacterial population in effluent and its sequence was observed as monsoon>summer>winter. This indicated the

  20. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  1. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  2. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  3. Degradation of EDTA and novel complexing agents in pulp and paper mill process and waste waters by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkanniemi, Kari; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Sillanpää, Mika

    2007-08-17

    Fenton's process was used in oxidative degradation of ethylediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and novel complexing agents, namely BCA5 and BCA6, in distilled water and spiked samples of integrated pulp and paper mill waste water and ECF-pulp bleaching effluent. In waste water, over 90% of EDTA was degraded within 3 min when temperature was 60 degrees C, pH 4, and molecular ratio of H2O2:Fe2+:EDTA was 70:2:1 (0.26 mM EDTA) or higher. In spiked ECF bleaching effluent up to 42% of EDTA was degraded in similar reaction conditions, still higher than published results indicate biological waste water treatment of pulp and paper mill waste water being capable of. In pH 3, EDTA proved readily degradable by Fenton's process in otherwise similar conditions. According to these results, Fenton's process could be used as a pre-treatment method for EDTA-containing bleaching effluents prior to the biological waste water treatment. In addition, BCA5 and BCA6 proved their superiority in terms of degradability also by Fenton's process in both pH 3 and 4.

  4. Chemical process simulation for minimizing energy consumption in pulp mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcelo; Oliveira, Katia Dionisio de; Costa, George Alberto Avelar [Department of Chemical Engineering/School of Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria Laura [Collaborator Researcher, Drying Center, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar) (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    Chemical process simulation has proven to be an effective tool for performing a systematic and global analysis of energy systems to identify routes for maximizing the process efficiency concerning to the heat recovery. This paper shows an application of computer simulations in a Brazilian pulp mill, using two strategies for minimizing the mill energy consumption. In the first one, the overall heat transfer coefficient has been predicted for each body of the multiple effect evaporators by using continuous on-line data from the industrial plant in the black liquor recover unit. By monitoring oscillations of this heat transfer coefficient, the suitable time for washing the evaporator heat transfer surfaces can be well determined, reducing the energy loss during black liquor evaporation. In the second strategy, the liquor combustion has been simulated as function of the black liquor solids concentration to analyze its effect on the recovery boiler efficiency improvement. (author)

  5. Using short-rotation hardwood plantations as “green” inventory for southeastern pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Gallagher; Robert Shaffer

    2003-01-01

    As a routine wood source for a pulp mill, recent past studies have shown that intensively-managed, short-rotation hardwood plantations are not cost effective. The objective of this study was to determine if these plantations may be cost effective as "green" inventory, replacing some portion of high cost remote woodyard inventory. Three southeastern pulp mills...

  6. High biodegradation levels of 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol by Bacillus sp. isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent Altos níveis de biodegradação do 4,5,6-tricloroguaiacol por Bacillus sp. isolado de efluente de indústria de polpa de celulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Tondo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available An aerobic Gram positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent. This microorganism, identified as Bacillus sp. and named IS13, was able to rapidly degrade the organic chlorinated compound 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol (4,5,6-TCG from a culture containing 50 mg/l, which corresponds to about 3x104 times the concentration found in the original effluent. The biodegradation of this compound, usually found in cellulose pulp mill effluents, was evaluated by spectrophotometry and gas chromatography analysis. During 4,5,6-TCG decreasing, the lack of by-products had shown by such analysis lead to verify the possibility of either adsorption or absorption of 4,5,6-TCG by the cells, instead of real biodegradation. There were no traces of 4,5,6-TCG after lysozyme and SDS cell disruption. Vigorous extraction was applied before spectrophotometry analysis and there was no release of residual 4,5,6-TCG. Plasmid isolation was attempted by using different protocols. The best results were reached by CTAB method, but no plasmid DNA was found in Bacillus sp. IS13. The results suggest that genes located at the bacterial chromosome might mediate the high decrease of 4,5,6-TCG. The importance of this work is that, in being a natural ocurring microorganism, Bacillus sp. IS13, can be used as inoculum in plant effluents to best organochlorinated compounds biodegradation.Isolou-se uma bactéria gram positiva, esporulada a partir de efluente de fábrica de polpa de celulose. Esse microrganismo, identificado como Bacillus sp. e nomeado IS13, foi capaz de degradar rapidamente o composto orgânico clorado 4,5,6-tricloroguaiacol (4,5,6-TCG presente em meio de cultura a uma concentração de 50mg/L. Essa concentração equivale a 3x104 vezes mais 4,5,6-TCG que a concentração encontrada no efluente original. A biodegradação desse composto foi analisada por espectrofotometria de varredura e cromatografia gasosa. A falta de sub-produtos de degrada

  7. Power generation and export: a new strategy for the survival of the Kamloops pulp mill

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Anthony John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy for survival of the Kamloops Cellulose Fibers softwood pulp mill. The mill currently competes exclusively in the North American softwood segment of the global kraft market, and is not generating returns sufficient to cover the cost of capital. The mill?s boilers need replacing or rebuilding in five years and the mill faces a more stringent environmental permit. Pressures on production costs make it increasingly difficult to continue operating profitably. By ...

  8. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  9. Study on preparation of water hyacinth-based activated carbon for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpoke, Anusorn

    2015-09-01

    Mulberry pulp and paper mills produce high chemical- and organic matter containing waste water in Thailand. Many of the mills are not equipped with wastewater treatment unit; their untreated effluent is directly discharged into recipient water resources. The effluent constituents are well recognized as acute and chronic pollutants that are hazardous to the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the utilization of an activated carbon from a low-cost material and to examine its adsorption performance using batch and fixed-bed adsorption. Water hyacinth was used as a raw material for activated carbon production via a chemical activation method. The results showed that water hyacinth-based activated carbon (WHAC) provided a high surface area of 912-1,066 m2g(-1) and exhibited micropore structure. Based on the Freundlich fit, the maximum adsorption capacity of COD and color was 4.52 mgg(-1) and 13.57 Pt-Cog(-1), respectively. The fixed bed adsorption provided maximum removal efficiency of 91.70 and 92.62% for COD and color, respectively. A continuous adsorption data agreed well with the Thomas kinetic model. In summary, water hyacinth can be used as a low-cost material for activated carbon production with high removal efficiency of COD and color for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

  10. Avaliação do emprego de microfiltração para remoção de fibras do efluente de branqueamento de polpa celulósica Evaluation of the use of microfiltration for removal of fiber from bleaching pulp mill effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de branqueamento é o estágio em que ocorre a maior perda de fibras durante a fabricação de polpa celulósica. Além de ser uma perda de produto, estas fibras aumentam a concentração de matéria orgânica do efluente dificultando seu tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego de microfiltração (MF na remoção de fibras de efluente de branqueamento alcalino de polpa celulósica. Foi empregada membrana de poli(éter imida com tamanho médio de poros de 0,5 µm e área de filtração de 0,05 m². O efeito das condições operacionais no fluxo permeado foi avaliado através do monitoramento do perfil de fluxo durante a operação em diferentes condições de velocidade de escoamento (Reynolds de 1.226, 1.653 e 2.043, pH da alimentação (7, 10 e 10,6, temperatura (28, 43 e 48°C e pressão de operação através da avaliação da pressão crítica. Os resultados mostraram que a MF é um processo eficiente para remoção de fibras, apresentado 99% eficiência de remoção de sólidos suspensos. O melhor desempenho da operação de MF foi obtido empregando pH 7, pressão de 1 bar e Re de 1.653. Os resultados mostram que a redução do fluxo se deve principalmente à formação de torta.The bleaching process is the stage where there is the greatest loss of fibers during the pulp production. Besides being a waste of product, these fibers increase the concentration of organic matter in the effluent and make the treatment of effluent more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of microfiltration (MF in the removal of fiber of effluent of alkaline bleaching pulp mill. The membrane employed was hollow fiber poly (ether imide, with average pore size of 0.5 µm and filtration area of 0.05 m². The effect of operating conditions on the permeate flux was evaluated by monitoring the flux profile during operation in different conditions of flow velocity (Reynolds 1,226, 1,653 and 2,043, pH of feeding (7, 10

  11. The fate of EDTA and DTPA in aquatic environments receiving waste water from two pulp and paper mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remberger, M.; Svenson, Anders

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate the fate of the complexing agents in receiving waters, two basic questions have been addressed: (i) are EDTA and DTPA found in the aquatic environment after discharge into receiving waters and (ii) are they photolytically converted. Two mills, one pulp mill localized at a fresh water lake and one pulp and paper mill at a brackish water were investigated, both mills using bleaching technologies with EDTA and DTPA as complexing agents. Samples were collected at the discharge point and along a gradient in the receiving waters at two occasions: summer at solstice and winter with low light intensity. Samples were taken from surface water, an intermediate depth, and bottom water. A new analytical method was applied, which made it possible to quantify the analytes at sub-{mu}g/l level. The complexing agents EDTA and DTPA and their primary degradation products were detected in the effluent and the receiving waters in the vicinity of the mills. DTPA and the degradation products could be detected a few kilometers from the effluent point while EDTA could be detected in more remote locations at fairly constant concentrations. The absorption of light in the sun spectrum in the water columns of the receiving waters was studied at different localities and during summer and winter conditions. The theoretical photochemical half-life of the ferric complex of EDTA in the surface layer of a central Swedish lake was confirmed. Analysis of EDTA in samples of receiving waters after photolytic treatment showed however, that a large portion of the complexing agent was unaffected by the treatment, indicating that most of the EDTA was complexed with other metals. EDTA in brackish water samples was unaffected by the photolytic treatment upon addition of excess ferric ions, except in winter close to the discharge point. The ease by which the ferric complexes are photochemically converted in ideal conditions seems to be hampered in receiving waters. 42 refs, 16 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

  13. Pulp-mill related polychlorinated organic compounds in Baltic Sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Per (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden)); Rappe, C.; Kjeller, L.O. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Kierkegaard, A. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research); Haakansson, L. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences); Jonsson, Bjoern (County Adm. Board, Umeaa (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Baltic basin were analyzed for PCDD/Fs, alkyl-CDFs, chloroguaiacols and EOCl. The EOCl distribution pattern in the Iggesund pulp-mill area shows high sediment concentrations close to the mill, and decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the mill. Two series of alkyl-CDFs have been identified. The PCDD/Fs in offshore surficial sediments from the Baltic proper show a typical incineration pattern, while sediments collected in the vicinity of the mill show enhanced levels of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD, 2,3,7,8- and 1,2,7,8-tetraCDF, and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD. These PCDD/F congeners are statistically correlated to di-, tri-, and tetrachloroguaiacols, alkyl-CDFs, EOCl, and to the distance from the pulp mill, indicating the same source and transportation regime. Principal component analysis of the data set supports this conclusion. The three 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-substituted PCDD/F congeners have formerly been found in high concentrations in sediments and crab hepatopancreas close to a pulp mill on the Swedish west coast. Our results from a pulp mill on the Swedish east coast support the conclusion that these congeners are typically associated with pulp bleaching. Deep layer sediments have significantly lower levels of PCDD/Fs. The isomer profiles are different in the surficial and the deep sediments, indicating a more natural preindustrial production of PCDD/Fs. (53 refs., 7 figs.).

  14. Silica removal from newsprint mill effluents with aluminum salts

    OpenAIRE

    Latour Romero, Isabel; Miranda Carreño, Rubén; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    The main obstacle for the implementation of reverse osmosis (RO) in a treatment chain to reuse the effluent of a newsprint mill as fresh water is the high silica content of the water, which produces severe scaling on the membrane, thus, limiting its recovery. Coagulation is one of the preferred methods to reduce silica concentration. Five aluminum based coagulants have been tested at five dosages (500-2500 ppm) and three pHs (8.3, 9.5 and 10.5). All products showed their best efficiency a...

  15. Ash from a pulp mill boiler--characterisation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana S M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Davim, Erika J R; Fernandes, M Helena V

    2010-07-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the ash resulting from a pulp mill boiler was performed in order to investigate the valorisation of this waste material through the production of added-value glassy materials. The ash had a particle size distribution in the range 0.06-53 microm, and a high amount of SiO(2) (approximately 82 wt%), which was present as quartz. To favour the vitrification of the ash and to obtain a melt with an adequate viscosity to cast into a mould, different amounts of Na(2)O were added to act as fluxing agent. A batch with 80 wt% waste load melted at 1350 degrees C resulting in a homogeneous transparent green-coloured glass with good workability. The characterisation of the produced glass by differential thermal analysis and dilatometry showed that this glass presents a stable thermal behaviour. Standard leaching tests revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leaching solution was lower than those allowed by the Normative. As a conclusion, by vitrification of batch compositions with adequate waste load and additive content it is possible to produce an ash-based glass that may be used in similar applications as a conventional silicate glass inclusively as a building ecomaterial.

  16. Corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    Present study relates to the corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304 L, 316 L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the corrosivity of effluents. The corrosivity of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl- content while the addition of SO4- tends to inhibit corrosion. Mill effluent was found to be more corrosive as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. Corrosion performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents.

  17. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills.

  18. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  19. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal I. Daoud; Md. Z. Alam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1) and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous f...

  20. The application of advanced oxidation technologies to the treatment of effluents from the pulp and paper industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Blanco, Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    The paper industry is adopting zero liquid effluent technologies to reduce freshwater use and meet environmental regulations, which implies closure of water circuits and the progressive accumulation of pollutants that must be removed before water reuse and final wastewater discharge. The traditional water treatment technologies that are used in paper mills (such as dissolved air flotation or biological treatment) are not able to remove recalcitrant contaminants. Therefore, advanced water treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are being included in industrial wastewater treatment chains aiming to either improve water biodegradability or its final quality. A comprehensive review of the current state of the art regarding the use of AOPs for the treatment of the organic load of effluents from the paper industry is herein addressed considering mature and emerging treatments for a sustainable water use in this sector. Wastewater composition, which is highly dependent on the raw materials being used in the mills, the selected AOP itself, and its combination with other technologies, will determine the viability of the treatment. In general, all AOPs have been reported to achieve good organic removal efficiencies (COD removal >40%, and about an extra 20% if AOPs are combined with biological stages). Particularly, ozonation has been the most extensively reported and successfully implemented AOP at an industrial scale for effluent treatment or reuse within pulp and paper mills, although Fenton processes (photo-Fenton particularly) have actually addressed better oxidative results (COD removal ≈ 65-75%) at a lab scale, but still need further development at a large scale.

  1. 76 FR 2145 - International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On... International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin, Virginia. The notice was published in the... freesheet paper and coated paperboard. On April 27, 2010, the Department issued an amended certification to...

  2. 75 FR 26794 - International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...] International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin..., 2009, applicable to workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin... workers are engaged in the production of uncoated freesheet paper and coated paperboard. The company...

  3. STUDY ON THE DECHLORINTION MECHANISMS DURING ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF PULP BLEACHERY EFFLUENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuancai Chen; Xiuqiong Guan; Huaiyu Zhan; Zhonghao Chen; Shiyu Fu

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment could effectively degrade organic chlorine. Reductive dechlorination mechanisms were confirmed through GC-MS analysis during anaerobic treatment of pulp bleachery effluents, the influence of sulfide biologically produced and pH on the dechlorination revealed that nucleophilic substitution and alkaline hydrolysis were also nonbiological mechanisms.

  4. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  5. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-12-31

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  6. Economic Evaluation on Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas Production Integrated in a Thermomechanical Pulp Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Wennan Zhang; Jie He; Per Engstrand; Olof Björkqvist

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biorefinery as a concept is applied to thermomechanical pulp (TMP)-based paper production to evaluate the possibility of co-production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), electricity and district heating in addition to mechanical pulp and paper. The combined heat and power plant (CHP) associated to TMP is replaced by a biomass-to-SNG (BtSNG) plant. Implementing BtSNG in a mechanical pulp production line might improve the profitability of a TMP mill and also help to commercialize th...

  7. The effects of nutrient limitation (nitrogen and phosphorus) on BOD removal from post-coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp and paper mill wastewater in a baffled aerated stabilisation basin-laboratory pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R; Van Leeuwen, J A; Everson, A; Nothrop, S C; Chow, C W K

    2011-01-01

    The use of coagulation and flocculation for tertiary treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent was investigated, where the evaluation was based on the removal of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and BOD from post-coagulated wastewater. The study was undertaken on laboratory scale aerobic stabilisation basins (ASB). Two post coagulated (alum) wastewaters were studied, where the BOD:N:P ratios were 100:1.3:0.06 and 100:1.3:0.3. These wastewaters were treated in two identical concurrent simulations (A & B). The influent ratio for 'A' was selected representing the composition of actual coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp effluent mixed with paper mill effluent. The input composition for 'B' represented a typical P concentration found in existing pulp and paper mill effluents. Unmodified sludge collected from a mill-pond was added at 4% v/v to each simulation replicating the treatment conditions at full-scale. Similar high percentage removals of BOD and COD occurred after 28 days (two HRTs) which were 94 and 67% respectively for 'A', and 98 and 70% respectively for 'B', where both remained at steady state during the third HRT. A statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the sample variance of the BOD and COD results.

  8. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  9. Removal of contaminants in a paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sivakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on removal of various parameters in paper mill effluent using a method called bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana.  The experimental investigations have been carried out using Azolla caroliniana for conducting the sorption study with various dilution ratios (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 and biomass (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g. The maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was obtained at the optimum dilution ratio of 6, pH of 8 and biomass of 800 g. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was 82.3 %, 88.6 % and 79.1 % respectively.  Also, the study focused on uptake of TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana through bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor. The results of bioaccumulation factor revealed that TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent were adsorbed by Azolla caroliniana.  The results of translocation factor revealed that the roots of Azolla caroliniana translocate the TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent to the shoots of Azolla caroliniana. From the results, this study concluded that bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana could be effectively used for removing TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent. This study also suggested that Azolla caroliniana may be used for removing various contaminants, not only from paper mill effluent, but also from any other industrial effluents.

  10. PERIPHYTON AND SEDIMENT BIOASSESSMENT AS INDICATORS OF THE EFFECT OF A COASTAL PULP MILL WASTEWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two year study was conducted near Port St. Joe, Florida, in a coastal transportation canal and bay receiving combined municipal and pulp mill wastewater. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of periphyton analysis techniques and sediment toxicity as ind...

  11. Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

  12. Hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Shimazaki, T. [Yokohama National Univ., Shigeharu TANISHO and Tsuruyo SHIMAZAKI, Yokohama (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    Hydrogen production by fermentation was examined by using palm oil mill effluent. Clostridium butyricum produced more than 2.2 NL of hydrogen from 1 L of raw POME at pH 5.0, and Enterobacter aerogenes produced ca. 1.9 NL at pH 6.0. While from the culture liquid added 1% of peptone on the raw POME, C. butyricum produced more than 3.3 NL and also E. aerogenes 3.4 NL at pH 6.0 and 5.0, respectively. In this manner, the addition of nitrogen source to the POME liquid exerted an influence on the volume of hydrogen production. Since Aspergillus niger has ability to produce cellulase, co-cultivation of C.butyricum with A. niger was tried to utilize celluloses in the POME. Against our expectations, however, the results were lower productivities than pure cultivation's. We analyzed the components of POME by liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis before and after cultivation. The main substrate for hydrogen production was found to be glycerol. (authors)

  13. Health effects of working in pulp and paper mills: malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, K; Persson, B; Wingren, G

    1996-02-01

    This paper reviews the available literature regarding the work environment in pulp and paper mills and the risk for malignant diseases. An increased risk for lung cancer among pulp and paper mill workers has been reported. Most studies are inconclusive with regard to considerations of etiologic agents. However, maintenance workers seem to be at an increased risk for lung cancer, as well as for malignant mesothelioma, indicating that this occupational group was (is) exposed to asbestos. Workers exposed to chlorine compounds also seem to run an increased risk for lung cancer. An increased risk for malignant lymphomas among pulp mill workers is a constant finding. The increased risk is observed both among sulfite and sulfate workers, indicating a common exposure. Such an exposure could be wood dust, terpenes, or preservatives present in the wood. An increased risk for leukemias has been found in many studies carried out on pulp and paper workers, but the studies do not permit any conclusions about etiologic factors. In some studies an increased risk for stomach cancer has been found. However, the socioeconomic status of the workers is strongly related to stomach cancer, and factors, such as dietary habits, have not been taken into account in any of the reviewed studies. Hence, no further conclusions can be drawn regarding etiologic agents.

  14. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  15. Economic Evaluation on Bio-Synthetic Natural Gas Production Integrated in a Thermomechanical Pulp Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennan Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biorefinery as a concept is applied to thermomechanical pulp (TMP-based paper production to evaluate the possibility of co-production of synthetic natural gas (SNG, electricity and district heating in addition to mechanical pulp and paper. The combined heat and power plant (CHP associated to TMP is replaced by a biomass-to-SNG (BtSNG plant. Implementing BtSNG in a mechanical pulp production line might improve the profitability of a TMP mill and also help to commercialize the BtSNG technology by taking into account of some key issues such as biomass availability, heat utilization, etc. A TMP + BtSNG mathematical model is developed with ASPEN Plus. The model prediction shows that the scale of the TMP + BtSNG mill and SNG price are two strong factors for the implementation of BtSNG in a TMP mill. A BtSNG plant associated to a TMP mill should be built at a scale above 100 MW of biomass thermal input. For the case of Swedish economic condition, commercialization of SNG production as a transport biofuel has not matured yet. Political instruments to support commercialization of transport biofuel are necessary.

  16. National design environment for pulp mills; Kansallinen paperitehtaan suunnitteluympaeristoe - PMST 03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaijaluoto, S. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The research to be done in the CACTUS research programme produces new process models and generates new knowledge about the influence of various contaminants on the runnability and the quality of paper. The generated information calls for an environment where it can be analysed and utilised. The goal of the project is to build a design environment for papermaking processes. The environment will be composed of a number of tools, all integrated together, that can be used in process design from preliminary concept screening through detailed simulation studies to the design and tuning of control systems. The design environment is based on the Balas and APMS simulation programmes developed at VTT. Balas is a general steady-state simulation package for chemical processes with emphasis on pulp and paper. Recent applications include the analysis of the influence of new drying techniques on the energy and water management of a paper mill and the evaluation of new paper machine and water treatment concepts. APMS (Advanced Pulp and Paper Mill Simulator) is a new flexible tool intended for fast modelling and efficient simulation of the dynamic performance the various unit processes in pulp and paper mill, or even of the whole integrated mill. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Ruessler, D.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Holm, S.E.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of efffluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17??-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  18. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... mills, contact Dr. Kelley Spence, Natural Resources Group, Sector Policies and Program Division, Office... pressure loss and scrubbing liquid supply pressure are required for any lime kiln or SDT using a wet... instead of opacity monitoring. The parameter monitors will measure the wet scrubber pressure drop...

  19. Pretreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Using Magnetic Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural organic polyelectrolyte of high molecular weight and charge density; obtained from deacetylation of chitin. This study explored the potential and effectiveness of applying chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles as a primary coagulant and flocculent, in comparison with chitosan for pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME. A series of batch coagulation processes with chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles and chitosan under different conditions, i.e. dosage and pH were conducted, in order to determine their optimum conditions. The performance was assessed in terms of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD reductions. Chitosan-magnetite particles showed better parameter reductions with much lower dosage consumption, compared to chitosan, even at the original pH of POME, i.e. 4.5. At pH 6, the optimum chitosan-magnetite dosage of 250 mg/L was able to reduce turbidity, TSS and COD levels by 98.8%, 97.6% and 62.5% respectively. At this pH, the coagulation of POME by chitosan-magnetite was brought by the combination of charge neutralization and polymer bridging mechanism. On the other hand, chitosan seems to require much higher dosage, i.e. 370 mg/L to achieve the best turbidity, TSS and COD reductions, which were 97.7%, 91.7% and 42.70%, respectively. The synergistic effect of cationic character of both the chitosan amino group and the magnetite ion in the pre-treatment process for POME brings about enhanced performance for effective agglomeration, adsorption and coagulation.

  20. Preliminary study on the potential of improving pulp quality and energy efficiency in a South African TMP mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available data indicated that the mill screens’ fractionation process has limited efficiency. A substantial amount of thick walled fibres was found in the mill’s accept pulps. Approximately 66% by mass of the mill’s accept pulps (from the 0.18 mm slotted screens...

  1. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  2. Effect of paper mill effluent on germination of green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and growth behaviour of it's seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Luna; Mohanty, B K

    2005-06-01

    Effect of paper mill effluents on Phaseolus aureus Roxb was studied. The effluent significantly inhibited germination of root and shoot length. The bio-chemical injury does not appear spontaneously but with the increase in effluent treatment there is reduction in observed biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, protein, amino acid, nuclic acids and carbohydrate) which are negatively correlated. The shoots of the seedlings were found to be resistant; whereas roots of the seedlings were susceptible to paper mill effluent treatment.

  3. Transformation and removal of wood extractives from pulp mill sludge using wet oxidation and thermal hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Robinson, Murray; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; Gapes, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    In order to remove wood extractive compounds from pulp mill sludge and thereby enhancing anaerobic digestibility, samples were subjected to either oxidative hydrothermal treatment (wet oxidation) or non-oxidative hydrothermal treatment (thermal hydrolysis). Treatments were carried out at 220 °C with initial pressure of 20 bar. More than 90% destruction of extractive compounds was observed after 20 min of wet oxidation. Wet oxidation eliminated 95.7% of phenolics, 98.6% fatty acids, 99.8% resin acids and 100% of phytosterols in 120 min. Acetic acid concentration increased by approximately 2 g/l after 120 min of wet oxidation. This has potential for rendering sludge more amenable to anaerobic digestion. In contrast thermal hydrolysis was found to be ineffective in degrading extractive compounds. Wet oxidation is considered to be an effective process for removal of recalcitrant and inhibitive compounds through hydrothermal pre-treatment of pulp mill sludge.

  4. Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Khodaparast, Zahra

    2015-04-01

    Economic benefits of the pulp and paper industry have led it to be one of the most important industrial sections in the world. Nevertheless, in recent years, pulp and paper mills are facing challenges with the energy efficiency mechanisms and management of the resulting pollutants, considering the environmental feedbacks and ongoing legal requirements. This study reviews and discusses the recent developments of affordable methods dealing with pulp and paper mill wastewaters. To this end, the current state of the various processes used for pulp and paper production from virgin or recovered fibers has been briefly reviewed. Also, the relevant contaminants have been investigated, considering the used raw materials and applied techniques as the subject for further discussion about the relevant suitable wastewater treatment methods. The results of the present study indicated that adopting the integrated methods, alongside a combination of biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion) and physicochemical (e.g., novel Fenton reactions) treatment methods, can be environmentally and economically preferable to minimize environmental contaminants and energy recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pentachlorophenol degradation by Pseudomonas stutzeri CL7 in the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh Kr.Karn; S.K.Chakrabarty; M.S.Reddy

    2010-01-01

    A pentachlorophenol (PCP) mineralizing bacterium was isolated from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri strain CL7.This isolate used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of degrading this compound as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation.P.stutzeri (CL7) was able to mineralize a high concentration of PCP (600 mg/L) than any previously reported Pseudomonad with PCP as sole carbon source.As the concentration of PCP increased from 50 to 600 mg/L,the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the PCP degradation was more than 90% in all studied concentrations.This isolate was able to remove 66.8% of PCP from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill when supplemented with 100 mg/L of PCP and grown for two weeks.This study showed that the removal efficiency of PCP by CL7 was found to be very effective and can be used in PCP remediation of pulp paper mill waste in the environment.

  6. Experimental studies on pulp and paper mill sludge ash behavior in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latva-Somppi, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology

    1998-11-01

    Ash formation during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of pulp and paper mill sludges has been experimentally studied on an industrial and bench scale. The methods included aerosol measurements, chemical and crystalline composition analyses, thermogravimetry and electron microscopy. Fly ash mass and number size distributions and elemental enrichment in submicron particles and bottom ash were measured. Fly ash, bottom ash and ash deposits were characterized and their formation mechanisms are discussed. During combustion the fine paper-making additives in sludge, clay minerals and calcite, sintered fanning porous agglomerates. The fly ash mass mean size was 7.5 - 15 lam and the supermicron particles included 93.6 - 97.3 % of the fly ash. Condensation of the volatilized inorganic species formed spherical submicron particles in the fly ash. Their mass concentration was almost negligible when co-firing paper mill sludges and wood. This suggests that the fraction of the volatilized inorganic species in the paper mill sludges was low. Results from pulp mill sludge and bark co-firing were different. A clear mass mode below 0.3 pm, presenting 2.2 - 5.0 weight-% of the fly ash was detected. The condensed species included K, Na, S and Cl. Their mass fraction was higher in the pulp mill sludge than in the paper mill sludge. Evidently this resulted in increased volatilization and formation of condensed particles. The following trace elements were enriched in the submicron ash during pulp mill sludge and wood co-firing: As, Cd, Rb and Pb. The main part of the volatile species was, however, captured in the bulk ash. Presumably, this was due to the high surface area concentration in the bulk ash. Sludge moisture was observed to reduce the inorganic species volatilization. Probably steam vaporization from the wet sludge through the burning layer decreased combustion temperatures on char surface and less char was produced. Hence, the volatilization of ash forming species was

  7. 漂白硫酸盐苇浆制浆废水的处理%Treatment of the Waste Water from a Mill Producing Bleached Kraft Reed Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马乐凡; 李晓林; 王跃泉

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory results of the treatment of pulping black liquor,washing and bleaching waste wate of a mill producing bleached kraft reed pulp were presented. Process and installation of reed BKP pulping waste water treatment were designed, operation parameters and running results of treatment stages were discussed. Black liquor after anaerobic treatment and acid precipitating of lignin could be mixed with washing and bleaching waste water based on the discharged ratio of the mill to discharge, the pollution load of the mixed effluent will meet the national regulation requirement after further treatment by active sludge.%讨论了漂白硫酸盐苇浆厂制浆黑液和中段废水的实验室处理结果。设计了芦苇BKP制浆废水的处理工艺流程和装置,并重点讨论了各处理段的运行参数和运行结果。BKP苇浆蒸煮黑液首先经厌氧和酸析木素处理,然后再与制浆中段水按工厂排放比例混合,混合废水经活性污泥法处理后,可达到国家标准排放。

  8. Using Py-GC/MS to detect and measure silicone defoamers in pulp fibres and mill deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available cause pitch deposition in pulp and paper making operations. Please cite this article in press as: B. Sithole, C. Watanabe, Using Py-GC/MS to detect and measure silicone defoamers in pulp fibres and mill deposits, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. (2012), http... cite this article in press as: B. Sithole, C. Watanabe, Using Py-GC/MS to detect and measure silicone defoamers in pulp fibres and mill deposits, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2012.08.013 ARTICLE IN PRESSG ModelJAAP 2804...

  9. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  10. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  11. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-06-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameters versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorization studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorization percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolic content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Vidal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i Chlorine Bleaching (CB processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii Total Chlorine Free (TCF processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was higher for TCF effluents (96-98% than for CB ones (82-93%. Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact implied a much higher residual COD for them (100-180 mg/L than for TCF effluents (10-30 mg/L. Furthermore, a refractory fraction of molecular weight higher than 43,000 Da was found in CB effluent, which implied the necessity of a further specific treatment. The toxicity was completely removed after the biological treatmentA biodegradabilidade aerobica das águas residuais provenientes de diferentes procesos de branqueos de pulpa kraft foi estudada. Os efluentes são gerados no branqueo com cloro ou parcialmente sustituido com dioxido de cloro (CB ou bem em processos livres do cloro (TCF. A biodegradabilidade, quantificada como DQO foi maior para as águas do processo CB. Tendo em conta o elevado conteúdo orgânico do efluente CB obteinse uma maior concentraç&ão do DQO final neste efluente comparado com o efluente TCF. Uma fracçao recalcitrante maior a 43,000 Da no effluente BC foi encontrada, isto significa um tratamento adicional específico para sua eliminaçã o. A toxicidade foi totalmente eliminada despois do tratamento aeração.

  13. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH4/gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH4/gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Gustavo, E-mail: gchiang@centromeri.cl [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA–Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Concepción, Concepcion (Chile); Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental (ECoA), IIMyC-CONICET-UNMdP, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Rivas, Meyling [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  15. Effect of a novel oil extraction method on avocado (Persea americana Mill) pulp microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M Alicia; Dorantes, A Lidia; Gallndez, M Juvencio; Cardenas, S Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) is an oil-rich fruit, the pulp containing up to 33% of the oil. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has nutritional properties similar to olive oil. However, there is no widespread commercial method for oil recovery from avocado pulp. The aim of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about the micro- and ultrastructure of avocado. It presents a micro- and ultrastructural study of avocado pulp before and after three different oil recovery methods, in order to relate the quality and yielding of the oil to the cellular changes in the pulp. This study was made using light, scanning electron, and electron transmission microscopy. The microwave-squeezing method yielded 67% of the oil, preserved the shape of the cell by causing only a slight modification, and gave the best quality oil. Hexane extraction yielded 59%, causing the idioblastic oil cells to become irregularly shaped and rough-surfaced. Acetone extraction yielded 12%, and deformed the cellular wall while the oil remained inside, giving a poor quality oil. On the basis of these results, the microwave-squeezing method is suggested as a new option for oil recovery from avocadopulp. This method could be adapted for industrial processing.

  16. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  17. Growth, induction, and substrate specificity of dehydroabietic acid-degrading bacteria isolated from a kraft mill effluent enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, P A; Martin, V; Saddler, J N

    1995-09-01

    We investigated resin acid degradation in five bacteria isolated from a bleach kraft mill effluent enrichment. All of the bacteria grew on dehydroabietic acid (DHA), a resin acid routinely detected in pulping effluents, or glycerol as the sole carbon source. None of the strains grew on acetate or methanol. Glycerol-grown, high-density, resting-cell suspensions were found to undergo a lag for 2 to 4 h before DHA degradation commenced, suggesting that this activity was inducible. This was further investigated by spiking similar cultures with tetracycline, a protein synthesis inhibitor, at various times during the DHA disappearance curve. Cultures to which the antibiotic was added prior to the lag did not degrade DHA. Those that were spiked with the antibiotic after the lag phase (4 h) degraded DHA at the same rate as did controls with no added tetracycline. Therefore, de novo protein synthesis was required for DHA biodegradation, confirming that this activity is inducible. The five strains were also evaluated for their ability to degrade other resin acids. All strains behaved in a similar fashion. Unchlorinated abietane-type resin acids (abietic acid, DHA, and 7-oxo-DHA) were completely degraded within 7 days, whereas pimarane resin acids (sandaracopimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and pimaric acid) were poorly degraded (25% or less). Chlorination of DHA affected biodegradation, with both 12,14-dichloro-DHA and 14-chloro-DHA showing resistance to degradation. However, 50 to 60% of the 12-chloro-DHA was consumed within the same period.

  18. Enhanced Biodegradability of Aerobic Sludge by Bioaugmentation for Pulping Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of bioaugmentation in enhancement of the biodegradation of pulping effluent, aerobic sludge was intensified with superior mixed flora. The differences between intensified aerobic activated sludge and original sludge were compared. The results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD of pulping effluent treated with the intensified sludge dropped to a much lower level compared with the original sludge, which indicated that the biodegradability of sludge was enhanced by bioaugmentation. The growth kinetics of the sludges were established. The growth rate Vmax of the intensified sludge was elevated from 7.8×10-3 to 7.1×10-3, while the saturation constant Ks decreased from 0.33 to 0.21 after bioaugmentation. In addition, the degradation kinetics showed that the equation coefficient of sludge increased from 4.6×10-3 to 6.4×10-3, confirming the intensification of biodegradation as a result of bioaugmentation.

  19. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand in pulping effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yuancai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2011-04-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in pulping effluent using chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry. Two calibration models were established by inducing UV-visible spectroscopy (model 1) and derivative spectroscopy (model 2), combined with the chemometrics software Smica-P. Correlation coefficients of the two models are 0.9954 (model 1) and 0.9963 (model 2) when COD of samples is in the range of 0 to 405 mg/L. Sensitivities of the two models are 0.0061 (model 1) and 0.0056 (model 2) and method detection limits are 2.02-2.45 mg/L (model 1) and 2.13-2.51 mg/L (model 2). Validation experiment showed that the average standard deviation of model 2 was 1.11 and that of model 1 was 1.54. Similarly, average relative error of model 2 (4.25%) was lower than model 1 (5.00%), which indicated that the predictability of model 2 was better than that of model 1. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method did not need chemical reagents and digestion which were required in the conventional methods, and the testing time of the new method was significantly shorter than the conventional ones. The proposed method can be used to measure COD in pulping effluent as an environmentally friendly approach with satisfactory results.

  20. Catalytic oxidation of pulping effluent by activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the non-catalytic and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) for the removal of persistent organic compounds from the pulping effluent. Two activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts (Cu/Ce/AC and Cu/Mn/AC) were used for CWO after characterization by the following techniques: temperature-programmed reduction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The oxidation reaction was performed in a batch high-pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7  L) at moderate oxidation conditions (temperature = 190°C and oxygen pressure = 0.9 MPa). With Cu/Ce/AC catalyst, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and lignin removals of 79%, 77% and 88% were achieved compared to only 50% removal during the non-catalytic process. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio (a measure for biodegradability) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.52 from an initial value of 0.16. The mass balance calculations for solid recovered after CWO reaction showed 8% and 10% deduction in catalyst mass primarily attributed to the loss of carbon and metal leaching. After the CWO process, carbon deposition was also observed on the recovered catalyst which was responsible for around 3-4% TOC reduction.

  1. Influence of pretreatment techniques on anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill sludge: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, C; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-09-01

    Pulp and paper industry is one of the most polluting, energy and water intensive industries in the world. Produced pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS) faces a major problem for handling and its management. An anaerobic digestion has become an alternative source. This review provides a detailed summary of anaerobic digestion of PPMS - An overview of the developments and improvement opportunities. This paper explores the different pretreatment methods to enhance biogas production from the PPMS. First, the paper gives an overview of PPMS production, and then it reviews PPMS as a substrate for anaerobic digestion with or without pretreatment. Finally, it discuss the optimal condition and concentration of organic and inorganic compounds required for the anaerobic metabolic activity. Future research should focus on the combination of different pretreatment technologies, relationship between sludge composition, reactor design and its operation, and microbial community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects Of Palm Oil Mill Effluents (Pome) On Soil Bacterial Flora And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Palm Oil Mill Effluents (Pome) On Soil Bacterial Flora And Enzyme Activities In ... Sandy loam soil in Egbema, Rivers State was impacted with POME at different levels and ... Light application caused significant increase in total heterotrophic, ... The most affected were the nitrifying bacteria followed by phosphate ...

  3. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  4. Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills: laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, R O; Aseltine, M S; Church, D C

    1981-12-01

    Single cell protein (SCP) derived from secondary clarifiers of pulp mills is a potential commercial protein supplement in many areas. Samples of SCP were collected from several pulp mills in the Pacific Northwest and evaluated by laboratory procedures. Six in vivo digestion trials were conducted to determine the relative nutritive value of SCP that was dewatered by centrifugation or by the addition of a polyacrylamide polymer before being put through a belt press and dried with a sonic dehydrator. Amino acid analyses showed that SCP was higher in methionine than was cottonseed meal (CSM) and had a similar level of lysine. True protein, based upon amino acids recovered in SCP samples, ranged from 51.6 to 65.9% of the crude protein (CP). Pepsin digestibility of the CP ranged from 16.2 to 36.8%. Pepsin digestibility increased by 6.3 to 11.3 percentage units when SCP were incubated in a buffered rumen fluid for 24 hours. Solubility of the nitrogenous components in 10% Burroughs' buffer solution ranged from 12.4 to 36.5%. The range in mineral composition was : P, .62 to 1.55%; Ca, .14 to .99%; K, .21 to 5.52%; Mg, .07 to .59%. The concentration of trace minerals and heavy metals varied considerably from sample to sample. Digestion trials were conducted with sheep to compare SCP with CSM; 20 to 50% of the total CP was provided by the SCP sources. The CP digestibilities of the centrifuged and the polymer-dewatered SCP were 70.5 to 70.8% and 66.3 to 69.9%, respectively, of that observed for CSM. In all digestion trials, sheep consumed the SCP diets readily, and no digestive disturbances were observed. On the basis of laboratory and in vivo results, pulp mill SCP has the potential to be a viable protein supplement for livestock.

  5. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  6. Pulp and paper mill of the future: A workshop. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sobczynski, S.F. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Industrial Technologies

    1993-10-01

    This workshop began with sessions to consider where the industry is likely to be, or ideally where it should be, say, by the year 2020. The next sessions considered the `drivers` that motivate the industry to change. These drivers could be motivations towards the vision developed earlier, or they may be forces that tend to prevent the vision of the future form being realized. The final sessions focused on what techniques are being (or should be) developed in four major process areas of a typical manufacturing plant, consistent with the previously identified vision of a future pulp or paper mill.

  7. Development and pilot testing of modular dynamic thermomechanical pulp mill model to develop energy reduction strategies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffin, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    With the development of on-line and real-time process simulations, one obtains the ability to predict and control the process; thus, the opportunity exists to improve energy efficiency, decrease materials wastes, and maintain product quality. Developing this capability was the objective of the this research program. A thermomechanical pulp mill was simulated using both a first principles model and a neural network. The models made use of actual process data and a model that calculated the mass and energy balance of the mill was successfully implemented and run at the mill on an hourly basis. The attempt to develop a model that accurately predicted the quality of the pulp was not successful. It was concluded that the key fro a successful implementation of a real-time control model, such as a neural net model, is availability of on-line sensors that sufficiently characterize the pulp.

  8. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  9. Occupational exposure to chemical and biological agents in the nonproduction departments of pulp, paper, and paper product mills: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Ahrens, W; Andersen, A; Boffetta, P; Fincham, S; Finkelstein, M; Henneberger, P; Kauppinen, T; Kogevinas, M; Korhonen, K; Liss, G; Liukkonnen, T; Osvoll, P; Savela, A; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I; Westberg, H; Widerkiewicz, K

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry, previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article describes 7293 measurements in nonproduction departments from 147 mills in 11 countries. The greatest variety of agents was measured in the maintenance, construction, and cleaning department, where high exposures to asbestos, chromium [VI] compounds, copper, mercury in urine, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, styrene, sulfur dioxide, trichloroethylene, and welding fumes were observed. Measurements in the storage, yard, loading, and shipping department indicated high exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, fungal spores, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and total dust. The steam and power generation department had high exposures to methyl mercaptan, silica, and total dust. Measurements in process and effluent water treatment, laboratory and research, engineering, and office, administration, and cafeteria areas had few elevated exposures. Throughout the nonproduction departments, measurements of pulp-production chemicals such as chlorine and sulfur compounds tended to be low, with many below detection limits. There were some problems with the available data; in particular, detection limits were often not specified, and the data tended to be clustered in such a way that sources of exposure variability could not be distinguished. Despite these problems, the data provide new insight into the exposures of nonproduction pulp and paper industry personnel.

  10. Calibration and validation of a modified ASM1 using long-term simulation of a full-scale pulp mill wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Jukka; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2010-04-14

    A mathematical model modified from the well established Activated Sludge Model no. 1 was used for modelling a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in a bleached kraft pulp mill. Effluents from the pulp and paper industry are typically nutrient deficient, which was considered in the model. The wastewater characterization and model calibration were based on respirometric batch experiments with sludge and wastewater sampled from the WWTP. The model performance was validated in a long-term simulation using routinely measured process data from the WWTP as the model inputs. The simulation results proved useful in evaluating nutrient dosage strategies at the WWTP and in troubleshooting poor treatment plant performance. However, in order to achieve a completely accurate description of nitrogen removal, more complex phenomena would have to be included in the model. Even though the simulated period was long compared to the brief measurement campaign used in the model calibration, the model was able to describe the treatment plant's behaviour. The calibrated model can be expected to stay valid for a long time, which allows the use of deterministic modelling in practical applications at pulp and paper WWTPs.

  11. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  12. Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Hussain, Irshad; Khalid, Zafar M

    2008-10-01

    Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological-coagulation-filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%) was also observed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process followed by coagulation and filtration. Untreated effluent was found to be toxic, whereas the treated effluents by either of the above two processes were found to be non-toxic when exposed to the fish for 72h. The resultant effluent from FBR-coagulation-sand filtration system meets National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks.

  13. Removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater through constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetland for the removal of AOX (adsorbable organic halides) and chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The dimensions of HSSF constructed wetland were 3.5 m in length, 1.5 m in width, and 0.28 m in depth, with surface area of 5.25 m2. The HSSF constructed wetland unit was planted with an ornamental plant species, Canna indica. Under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.9 days, the average AOX removal was 89.1%, and 67% to 100% removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater was achieved. The complete removal of 2,3-dichlorophenol, 3,4-dichlorophenol, 2,3,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 3,6-dichlorocatechol, and 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol was observed. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil. The evapotranspiration rate varied from 6.7 to 12.7 mm day(-1) during the experimental period. The mass balance of chlorophenolics was also studied in constructed wetland system.

  14. Green Technology for the Removal of Chloro-Organics from Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) for the removal of chloro-organic compounds from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The surface area of the HSSF-CW unit was 5.25 m² and was planted with Colocasia esculenta. The wastewater was characterized for different chloro-organic compounds, that is, adsorbable organic halides (AOX), chlorophenolics, and chlorinated resin and fatty acids (cRFAs). Under a hydraulic retention time of 5.9 days, the average AOX, chlorophenolics, and cRFA removal from wastewater was 87, 87, and 93%, respectively. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil material. The mass balance studies show that a significant fraction of chlorophenolics and cRFA was degraded in the constructed wetland system. Modeling studies were carried out to estimate the first-order area-based removal rate constants (k) for chemical oxygen demand removal. The HSSF-CW was found to be an effective treatment technology for the remediation of pulp and paper mill wastewater.

  15. Physico-chemical assessment of paper mill effluent and its heavy metal remediation using aquatic macrophytes--a case study at JK Paper mill, Rayagada, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swayamprabha; Mohanty, Monalisa; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar; Das, Ritarani; Sahoo, Santilata

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation aims to assess the phytoremediation potential of six aquatic macrophytes, viz. Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata, Jussiaea repens, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Trapa natans grown in paper mill effluent of JK Paper mill of Rayagada, Orissa, for remediation of heavy metals. The experiment was designed in pot culture experiments. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of paper mill effluent showed significant decrease in pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chlorine, sulphur, biological and chemical oxygen demand after growth of macrophytes for 20 days. Phytoremediation ability of these aquatic macrophytic species for copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) was indicated by assessing the decrease in the levels of heavy metals from effluent water. Maximum reduction (66.5 %) in Hg content of untreated paper mill effluent was observed using L. minor followed by T. natans (64.8 %). L. minor showed highest reduction (71.4 %) of Cu content from effluent water followed by E. crassipes (63.6 %). Phytoextraction potential of L. minor was remarkable for Hg and Cu, and bioaccumulation was evident from bioconcentration factor values, i.e. 0.59 and 0.70, respectively. The present phytoremediation approach was considered more effective than conventional chemical treatment method for removing toxic contaminants from paper mill effluent.

  16. Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén Kjell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants. Methods Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model. Conclusions This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.

  17. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  18. Tertiary treatment of pulp mill wastewater by solar photo-Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Marco S., E-mail: mlucas@utad.pt [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Peres, Jose A.; Amor, Carlos [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Prieto-Rodriguez, Lucia; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT), Carretera de Senes, Km 4, 04200, Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We firstly report a real pulp mill wastewater treatment by solar photo-Fenton in a CPC reactor. Fenton reagent experiments were tested firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solar photo-Fenton presents excellent ability to treat the pulp mill wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions were optimised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradability and toxicity tests (respirometry assays and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio) were performed during the wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A way to reduce the economic and environmental impact was evaluated. - Abstract: This work reports on pulp mill wastewater (PMW) tertiary treatment by Fenton (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and solar photo-Fenton (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) processes in a pilot plant based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). Solar photo-Fenton reaction is much more efficient than the respective dark reaction under identical experimental conditions. It leads to DOC mineralisation, COD and total polyphenols (TP) removal higher than 90%. The solar photo-Fenton experiment with 5 mg Fe L{sup -1} reaches 90% of DOC mineralisation with 31 kJ L{sup -1} of UV energy and 50 mM of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The initial non-biodegradability of PMW, as shown by respirometry assays and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio, can be changed after a solar photo-Fenton treatment. Experiments with 20 and 50 mg Fe L{sup -1} revealed that solar photo-Fenton can reach the same DOC degradation (90%), however, consuming less H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and time. Diluting the initial organic load to 50% also diminishes the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the necessary reaction time to achieve high DOC removals. Accordingly, solar photo-Fenton can be considered an alternative or complementary process to improve the performance of a biologic treatment and, subsequently, achieve legal limits on discharge into natural waters.

  19. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  20. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hadiyanto; Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur; Ganang Dwi Hartanto

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%). The objective of the ...

  1. Removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluent by aerobic biological treatment with steroidal metabolite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Soledad; Vergara, Juan P; Jarpa, Mayra; Hernandez, Victor; Becerra, Jose; Vidal, Gladys

    2016-10-14

    Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluents treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with steroidal metabolite detection. The MBBR was operated for 145 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 2 days. Stigmasterol and steroidal metabolites were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector during MBBR operation. The results show that the MBBR removed 87.4% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 61.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 24.5% of phenol and 31.5% of lignin, expressed in average values. The MBBR system successfully removed 100% of the stigmasterol contained in the influent (33 µg L(-1)) after 5 weeks of operation. In that case, the organic load rate was 0.343 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Furthermore, different steroidal compounds (e.g., testosterone propionate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-pregnan-12-one-20α-hydroxy, 5α-pregnane-3,11,20-trione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstane-11,17-dione were detected in the Kraft mill effluent as potential products of phytosterol biotransformation.

  2. Arsenic mass balance in a paper mill and impact of the arsenic release from the WWTP effluent on the Moselle River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, C; Pons, M-N; Bauda, P; Poirot, H; Potier, O

    2011-01-01

    Rivers used for drinking water production might be subject to anthropogenic pollution discharge upstream of the intake point. This problem was investigated in the case of the Moselle River, used for water production in Nancy (350,000 inhabitants) and which might be impacted by industrial activities 60 km upstream. The arsenic flux of a pulp and paper mill discharging in the Moselle River at this location has been more specifically investigated. The main sources of arsenic in that mill seemed to be the recovered papers and the gravel pit water used as feed water. The arsenic input related to wood and bark was limited. The main arsenic outputs from the plant were the paper produced on site and the deinking sludge. The arsenic concentration in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was not correlated to the one in the gravel pit water, but may depend on the operating conditions of the WWTP or the changes in processes of the mill. The impact of this anthropogenic source of arsenic on the Moselle River was slightly larger in summer, when the flowrate was lower. Globally the impact of the paper mill on the Moselle River water quality was limited in terms of arsenic.

  3. Factors affecting treatment of palm oil mill effluent using enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaphaso, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdered enzyme was produced by freeze-drying the enzyme solution extracted from 3 days culture of Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 on palm cake with the addition of 0.2% glucose and 2% urea. The product yield was 38% by weight. The half-life of the enzyme was 9 months keeping at 4ºC. The enzyme was tested with decanter effluent with different characteristics from two palm oil mills. The decanter effluent possessing high suspended solid (SS and low oil (9.5 g/l content was selected for studying the factors affecting the separation of SS and oil as bulking solid. Results indicated that the effluent must contain oil not less than 15 g/l so that the bulking solid would occur from the reaction of the enzyme (with xylanase activity of 200 U/ ml after incubation at 40ºC for 6 h. Minimum concentrations of the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 and commercial xylanase (Meicellase were 200 and 600 U/ml, respectively. The optimum pH was 4.5. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 for 3 h under the optimum conditions resulted in 78% separation of suspended solids with oil & grease removal of 95% and COD reduction of 35%.

  4. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  5. Process modeling and analysis of pulp mill-based integrated biorefinery with hemicellulose pre-extraction for ethanol production: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Ramaswamy, Shri; Al-Dajani, Waleed Wafa; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform to use more effectively an abundant, renewable bio-resource - wood. Modification of the modern day pulp mills into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) presents an excellent opportunity to produce, in addition to valuable cellulose fiber, co-products including fuel grade ethanol and additional energy, thus resulting in increased revenue streams and profitability and potentially lower the greenhouse gas emissions. A process model to simulate the integrate forest biorefinery manufacturing pulp and other co-products has been developed. This model has been used to compare three integrated biorefinery scenarios: the conventional Kraft pulping process, the pulp mill-based IFBR with hemicelluloses extraction prior to pulping for ethanol production, and the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber for ethanol production. Based on a fixed feedstock throughput of 2000 dry Mg wood/day, results show that the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber cellulose converted to ethanol can produce 0.038 MM m(3) (10.04 MM gal) ethanol per year at a minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) of $491/m(3) ($1.86/gal). The economic feasibility of IFBR can be further improved by using further improvements in the pre-extraction process, other biomass such as corn stover for producing ethanol, and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

  6. Risk analysis of pyrolyzed biochar made from paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge for bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    The risk analysis was performed to study the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in biochar obtained from pyrolysis of sludge of pulp and paper mill effluent treatment plant. The sludge was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (200-700°C) and the resultant biochar were analyzed for fractionation of heavy metals by sequential extraction procedure. It was observed that all the heavy metals get enriched in biochar matrix after pyrolysis, but the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of the heavy metals in biochar were significantly reduced as the mobile and bioavailable heavy metal fractions were transformed into the relatively stable fractions. Moreover, it was observed that the leaching potential of heavy metals decreased after pyrolysis and the best results were obtained for biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent as wastewater treatment and hydrogen production using electrode aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M Ansori; Yaakob, Z; Ali, Ehsan; Tasirin, S M; Abdullah, S R S

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluting wastewater generated from the palm oil milling process. Palm oil mill effluent was used as an electrolyte without any additive or pretreatment to perform electrocoagulation (EC) using electricity (direct current) ranging from 2 to 4 volts in the presence of aluminum electrodes with a reactor volume of 20 L. The production of hydrogen gas, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity as a result of electrocoagulation of POME were determined. The results show that EC can reduce the COD and turbidity of POME by 57 and 62%, respectively, in addition to the 42% hydrogen production. Hydrogen production was also helpful to remove the lighter suspended solids toward the surface. The production of Al(OH)XHO at the aluminum electrode (anode) was responsible for the flocculation-coagulation process of suspended solids followed by sedimentation under gravity. The production of hydrogen gas from POME during EC was also compared with hydrogen gas production by electrolysis of tap water at pH 4 and tap water without pH adjustment under the same conditions. The main advantage of this study is to produce hydrogen gas while treating POME with EC to reduce COD and turbidity effectively.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of pre-hydrolysate liquor (PHL) from a rayon grade pulp mill: pilot and full-scale experience with UASB reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Gangagni; Bapat, A N

    2006-12-01

    Pilot studies were carried out for the treatment of pre-hydrolysate liquor (PHL), a high strength effluent (COD: 70,000-80,000 mg/l) emanating from a rayon grade pulp mill using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). Substrate inhibition was avoided with optimum COD feed of around 25,000 mg/l. This was achieved by diluting the PHL with a low strength effluent stream known as alkali back wash (ABW) available in the plant and also by partially recycling the reactor liquid outlet. An optimum organic loading rate (OLR) of 10 could be achieved with a COD reduction of 70-75%, a BOD reduction of 85-90% and a methane yield of 0.31-0.33 m3/kg of COD reduced. The pilot scale studies also revealed that addition of milk of lime (MOL) was essential for neutralization and buffering and DAP and urea to supplement the nutrients in the PHL. Based on the pilot studies, a full-scale high rate biomethanation plant was designed and erected for treating the PHL, which after some modification showed similar performance for COD, BOD reduction and methane yield.

  9. A comparative study on the membrane based palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Chong, M F; Bhatia, S

    2009-11-15

    The discharge of palm oil mill effluent (POME) causes serious pollution problems and the membrane based POME treatment is suggested as a solution. Three different designs, namely Design A, B and C distinguished by their different types and orientations of membrane system are proposed. The results at optimum condition proved that the quality of the recovered water for all the designs met the effluent discharge standards imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE). The economic analysis at the optimum condition shows that the total treatment cost for Design A was the highest (RM 115.11/m(3)), followed by Design B (RM 23.64/m(3)) and Design C (RM 7.03/m(3)). In this study, the membrane system operated at high operating pressure with low membrane unit cost is preferable. Design C is chosen as the optimal design for the membrane based POME treatment system based on the lowest total treatment cost.

  10. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.

  11. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  12. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.

  13. Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Irvan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4, palm oil mill effluent (POME, anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG

  14. Characterization of kraft pulp mill particulate emissions—A summary of existing measurements and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John E.; Blosser, Russell O.

    Particulate matter emission sources at a kraft pulp mill include kraft recovery furnaces, lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks and power boilers. Chemical and physical characteristics of these paniculate emissions are reviewed. Measurements of particle size distributions for these sources made with cascade impactors and microscopic counting techniques both before and after paniculate control devices such as multiple cyclones, wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitalors are discussed. In general, particles with equivalent diameters less than 3 jim comprise the bulk of the controlled paniculate emissions from all sources. Sodium sulfate is the dominant paniculate emission from kraft recovery furnaces, smelt dissolving tanks and lime kilns. Results from a field investigation of the relationship between human observations of near-stack plume opacity and measured in-stack paniculate concentrations and opacities are summarized. Trained cenified panels of observers were used in the investigation to estimate plume opacities from two kraft recovery furnaces, a combination wood/coal-fired boiler, and a combination wood/oil-fired boiler at four different pulp mill locations. Plume opacities were varied from near-zero to 45 % by adjustment of the paniculate control equipment operation. The effects of different background viewing conditions, observer positions, observer experience levels, and plume characteristics are enumerated. It is concluded that there can be substantial variations between measured in-stack opacities and human perceptions of near-stack plume opacities. The degree of agreement between the human judgements and measured in-stack opacities is significantly affected by the background viewing conditions. It is further shown that even with a panel of six or seven trained observers with similar visual acuity, there can be significant departures of individual opacity readings from the panel mean opacity. Although this investigation deals with questions of human

  15. Evaluation of Phytotoxicity for Compost from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Paper & Pulp Mill Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Gopinathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The compost obtained from composting organic fraction of Municipal solid waste, Paper & Pulp mill sludge and saw dust using different initial mix ratios (1:3, 1:6, 1:9 was used to evaluate phytotoxicity of green gram (Vigna radiata using a seed germination method. The tests were repeated for the compost obtained from organic fraction of MSW and saw dust without the addition of sludge. The control germination test was carried out using deionised water. The results showed that composting generally reduced the phytotoxicity of the mixtures. A germination index was the highest in the mix ratio of 1:9 in the compost obtained from the addition of paper & pulp mill sludge and a germination index was the highest in the mix ratio of 1:6 in the compost obtained without the addition of sludge. The germination percentage, germination index and vigour index values were relatively higher in the compost obtained with the addition of paper & pulp mill sludge. The vigour index was found to be maximal in the mix ratio of 1:3 from the compost obtained with the addition of sludge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.922

  16. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers.

  17. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  18. IGCC power plant integrated to a Finnish pulp and paper mill. IEA Bioenergy. Techno-economic analysis activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies; Salo, K.; Horvath, A. [Carbona Inc. (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    In Finland, the pulp and paper industry is the largest consumer of energy among the industries and its power demand will increase due to economical and strict environ- mental requirements. The ageing of oil and biomass boilers in Finland also represents a window of opportunity for the introduction of new environmentally sound technology with a high efficiency in power production, e.g., in biomass gasification. This site-specific study describes the technical and economic feasibility of a biomass gasification combined cycle producing heat and power for a typical Finnish pulp and paper mill. The mill produces SC (super calantered) paper 500 000 ADt/a. The paper mill employs sulphate pulp and GW (ground wood) pulp. The capacity of the pulp mill is 400 000 ADt/a (air dry ton/year) of which 120 000 ADt/a is used at the site. The heat demand of the integrate is covered by a recovery boiler and a bark boiler. A condensing steam turbine with two extractions generates electricity for the mill. The aim is to replace an old bark boiler by an IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) to enhance the economy and environmental performance of the power plant. The IGCC feasibility study is conducted for an pulp and paper integrate because of its suitable infrastructure for IGCC and a large amount of wood waste available at the site. For comparison, the feasibility of an IGCC integrated to a pulp mill is also assessed. The IGCC concept described is based on research and development work performed by Carbona, Inc., who acquired the rights for know-how of Enviropower, Inc. The operation and design of the IGCC concept is based on a 20 MWe gas turbine (MW151). The heat of gas turbine exhaust gas is utilised in a HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) of two pressure levels to generate steam for the pulp and paper mill and the steam turbine. The MCC power plant operates in condensing mode. The total investment cost of the IGCC plant is estimated at FIM 417 million (USD 83.4 million

  19. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  20. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  1. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2004-07-28

    Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented.

  2. Detoxification of a Lignocellulosic Waste from a Pulp Mill to Enhance Its Fermentation Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification is required for sugar bioconversion and hydrolyzate valorization within the biorefining concept for biofuel or bio-product production. In this work, the spent sulfite liquor, which is the main residue provided from a pulp mill, has been detoxified. Evaporation, overliming, ionic exchange resins, and adsorption with activated carbon or black carbon were considered to separate the sugars from the inhibitors in the lignocellulosic residue. Effectiveness in terms of total and individual inhibitor removals, sugar losses and sugar-to-inhibitor removal ratio was determined. The best results were found using the cation exchange Dowex 50WX2 resin in series with the anion exchange Amberlite IRA-96 resin, which resulted in sugar losses of 24.2% with inhibitor removal of 71.3% of lignosulfonates, 84.8% of phenolics, 82.2% acetic acid, and 100% of furfurals. Apart from exchange resins, the results of evaporation, overliming, adsorption with activated carbon and adsorption with black carbon led to total inhibitor removals of 8.6%, 44.9%, 33.6% and 47.6%, respectively. Finally, some fermentation scenarios were proposed in order to evaluate the most suitable technique or combination of techniques that should be implemented in every case.

  3. Tertiary treatment of pulp mill wastewater by solar photo-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A; Amor, Carlos; Prieto-Rodríguez, Lucía; Maldonado, Manuel I; Malato, Sixto

    2012-07-30

    This work reports on pulp mill wastewater (PMW) tertiary treatment by Fenton (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) and solar photo-Fenton (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV) processes in a pilot plant based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). Solar photo-Fenton reaction is much more efficient than the respective dark reaction under identical experimental conditions. It leads to DOC mineralisation, COD and total polyphenols (TP) removal higher than 90%. The solar photo-Fenton experiment with 5mg Fe L(-1) reaches 90% of DOC mineralisation with 31kJ L(-1) of UV energy and 50mM of H(2)O(2). The initial non-biodegradability of PMW, as shown by respirometry assays and BOD(5)/COD ratio, can be changed after a solar photo-Fenton treatment. Experiments with 20 and 50mg Fe L(-1) revealed that solar photo-Fenton can reach the same DOC degradation (90%), however, consuming less H(2)O(2) and time. Diluting the initial organic load to 50% also diminishes the dosage of H(2)O(2) and the necessary reaction time to achieve high DOC removals. Accordingly, solar photo-Fenton can be considered an alternative or complementary process to improve the performance of a biologic treatment and, subsequently, achieve legal limits on discharge into natural waters.

  4. Energy recovery from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge with supercritical water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linghong; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Champagne, Pascale

    2010-04-01

    Secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge (SPP) and sewage sludges (primary, secondary, and digested sewage sludges) were treated in supercritical water at temperatures ranging between 400 degrees Celsius and 550 degrees Celsius over 20-120 min for energy recovery. Low temperature and short reaction time favored the formation of heavy oil (HO) products, which were mainly composed of a variety of phenol and phenolic compounds, as well as some nitrogen-containing compounds, long-chain alkenes and alcohols, etc., with high gross calorific values (>36 MJ/kg). By contrast, the formation of synthetic gases, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and other light hydrocarbons, were not significantly affected by reaction time but greatly enhanced with increasing temperature. The highest gas yield was obtained at 550 degrees Celsius, where 37.7 wt.% of the SPP (on dry basis) was converted into gases, with hydrogen yields as high as 14.5 mol H(2)/kg SPP (on a dry basis). In comparison to sewage sludges, SPP exhibited a greater capability for the production of HO and gases owing to its higher contents of volatiles and alkali metals, indicating a prospective utilization potential for SPP as a source of bio-energy.

  5. Phototreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME over Cu/TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoong Ng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work reported on the use of different formulations of Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts for the UV-irradiation of palm oil mills effluent (POME. Different copper loadings, viz. 2 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt% and 25 wt% were doped onto titania. XRD pattern confirmed the presence of anatase TiO2 as primary phase due to mild calcination temperature (573 K. Photo-decomposition of POME over 20 wt% Cu/TiO2 exhibited the highest conversion (27.0% attributed to its large pore diameter (20.0 nm. In addition, optimum loading was 0.83 g/l. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 5th January 2014; Revised: 8th April 2014; Accepted: 8th April 2014[How to Cite: Hoong, N.K., Deraman, M.R., Ang, C.H., Chong, S.K., Kong, Z.Y., Khan, M.R., Cheng, C.K., (2014. Phototreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME over Cu/TiO2 Photocatalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 121-127. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6011.121-127][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6011.121-127

  6. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  7. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal I. Daoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1 and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME and co-substrate (wheat flour concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

  8. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  9. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using coconut shell – based activated carbon: Adsorption equilibrium and isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman Sherlynna Parveen Deshon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current ponding system applied for palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment often struggle to comply with the POME discharge limit, thus it has become a major environmental concern. Batch adsorption study was conducted for reducing the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Color of pre-treated POME using coconut shell-based activated carbon (CS-AC. The CS-AC showed BET surface area of 744.118 m2/g, with pore volume of 04359cm3/g. The adsorption uptake was studied at various contact time and POME initial concentration. The CS-AC exhibited good ability with average percentage removal of 70% for COD, TSS and Color. The adsorption uptake increased over time and attained equilibrium in 30 hours. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. Based on the coefficient regression and sum of squared errors, the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption of COD satisfactorily, while best described the TSS and Color adsorption; giving the highest adsorption capacity of 10.215 mg/g, 1.435 mg/g, and 63.291 PtCo/g respectively. The CS-AC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for treating POME and was able to comply with the Environmental Quality Act (EQA discharge limit. The outcome of treated effluent using CS-AC was shown to be cleaner than the industrial biologically treated effluent, achieved within shorter treatment time.

  10. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  11. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  12. The Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) as Aquatic Macrophage Treatment System (AMATS) in Phytoremediation for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chukwunonso Ossai; Fauziah S. H.; Ghufran Redzwan

    2014-01-01

    The need for edible oil has increased resulting with a consequent boost in palm oil production. As a result, production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is one of the by-products of the milling process has also increased. In Malaysia, palm oil industry is identified as one of the agricultural industries that generate the highest pollution load into the rivers throughout the country. Some palm oil mills store POME in ponds or lagoons in the hope of treating and detoxifying it. Often ti...

  13. Removal of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by bacterial isolates from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Santosh Kr; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-09-01

    2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) mineralizing bacteria were isolated from the secondary sludge of pulp and paper industry. These isolates used 2,4,5-TCP as a source of carbon and energy and were capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichimetric release of chloride and biomass formation. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these bacteria were identified as Kocuria sp. (CL2), Bacillus pumillus (CL5), Pseudomonas stutzeri (CL7). HPLC analysis revealed that these isolates were able to degrade 2,4,5-TCP at higher concentrations (600 mg/l or 3.0 mM). A consortia of these isolates completely removed 2,4,5-TCP from the sludge obtained from pulp and paper mill within 2 weeks when supplemented at a rate of 100 mg l(-1) . Bacterial consortium also significantly reduced absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) by 61% and 63%, respectively from the sludge. These isolates have high potential to remove 2,4,5-TCP and may be used for remediation of pulp paper mill waste containing 2,4,5-TCP.

  14. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

  15. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME...

  16. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  17. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John E

    2007-08-01

    Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations.

  18. Olive Mill Effluent Spreading Effects on Water Retention of Tunisian Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SAHRAOUI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill effluents (OME are characterized by their nutrients content and their adhesive and hydrophobic properties. An experiment was carried out at an olive growing area in Tunisia, “Sidi Bou Ali”, to identify the impact of spreading over OME on physical soil characteristics. Three treatments were in situ monitored, namely T0 (Control, T1 (25 m3/ha and T2 (50 m3/ha, over a period of 4 months. Measurements were conducted monthly corresponding respectively to D1, D2, D3 and D4. Water retention curves were established by a physical capillary model in porous medium. Results showed that the two applied OME doses induced a decrease in water retention, especially for potential matrixes above pF 2 corresponding to the water available range. No significant differences were found between the treated soil plots T1 and T2.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.27

  19. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  20. Evaluation of Lipid Content in Microalgae Biomass Using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyab, Hesam; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Khademi, Tayebeh; Kumar, Ashok; Rezania, Shahabaldin

    2017-08-01

    The scope of this study is to assess the main component of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to be used as organic carbon for microalgae. The applicable parameters such as optical density, chlorophyll content, mixed liquor suspended solid, mixed liquor volatile suspended solid, cell dry weight (CDW), carbon:total nitrogen ratio and growth rate were also investigated in this study. The characteristics and morphological features of the isolates showed similarity with Chlorella. Chlorella pyrenoidosa ( CP) was found to be a dominant species in POME and Chlorella vulgaris ( CV) could grow well in POME. Furthermore, the optimal lipid production was obtained at the ratio 95:05 CDW with highest lipid production by CP compared to CV. At day 20, CDW for CV species was obtained at 193 mg/L and with lipid content at 56 mg/L. Finally, the concentration ratio at 50:50 showed a higher absorbance of chlorophyll a for both strains.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  2. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Through Combined Process Adsorption and Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in palm oil production also leads to an Increase in the production of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Nowadays, POME was treated using an open lagoon but this method is ineffectiveness in complying with the standards for water disposal. Therefore, efficient and cohesive treatment system is highly desired to ensure the final discharge of the treated water meets the effluent discharge standards. Initially, the POME was treated through adsorption, followed by UF membranes roomates were intended to reduce COD, TSS and turbidity up to 88%, 99%, and 98%, while the final treatment of RO membranes can reduce BOD, COD and color up to 92%, 98% and 99%. To determine the optimum condition of the RO membrane, response surface methodology (RSM was used. The results showed there was correlation between all key variables. POME concentration, trans-membrane pressure, pH and time would give significant effects in reducing the parameters in POME treatment with the optimum condition of 15.77% for POME concentration, 3.73 for pH, 0.5 bar trans-membrane pressure and 5 hours for filtration time. To predict COD removal, the results were analyzed by applying the artificial neural network (ANN to derive a mathematical model.

  3. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  4. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yejian; YAN Li; QIAO Xiangli; CHI Lina; NIU Xiangjun; MEI Zhijian; ZHANG Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.

  5. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  6. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.

  7. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  8. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  9. Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, Nuri; Keskin, Tugba; Yuruyen, Aysegul [Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey (CW) and laying hen litter (LHL) in order to enhance the methane production of OME was investigated. For this purpose, biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was carried out for both raw OME alone and OME mixed with varying amount of other substrates such as LHL and CW in the serum bottles, respectively. Corresponding methane production values for various mixtures of the organic residue streams used in this study were determined. It was demonstrated that co-digestion of OME with LHL significantly enhanced the biodegradability of OME which was too low if it was digested alone. Over 90% increase in biogas production was obtained when digesting OME with LHL. The biogas production increased only 22%, when CW was used for the same purpose. It was demonstrated that the biodegradability of OME could be significantly enhanced by co-digestion and thereby integrated management of OME using anaerobic degradation could be proposed as an economically viable and ecologically acceptable solution for the safe disposal of OME. (author)

  10. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  11. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  12. Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelqvist, Alina; Granström, Karin

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing worldwide demand for biogas. Anaerobic co-digestion involves the treatment of different substrates with the aim of improving the production of biogas and the stability of the process. This study evaluates how methane production is affected by the co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge and assesses whether methane production is affected by factors other than nutrient deficiency, low buffering capacity, inadequate dilution, and an insufficient activity and amount of microorganism culture. Anaerobic digestion was performed in batch reactors under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. The season of grass silage and manure collection proved to be an important factor affecting methane production. Spring grass silage produced a maximum of 250 mL/VSadded and spring manure 150 mL/VSadded, whereas autumn grass silage produced at most 140 ml/VSadded and autumn manure 45 mL/VSadded. The pulp mill sludge used is comprised of both primary and secondary sludge and produced at most 50 mL/VSadded regardless of season; this substrate benefitted most from co-digestion.

  13. Comment on 'evaluation of dechlorination mechanisms during anaerobic fermentation of blached kraft mill effluent by W.J. Parker, E.R. Hall and G.J. Farquhar'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    Comment on "Evaluation of dechlorination mechanisms during anaerobic fermentation of bleached kraft mill effluent", is put forth. The data reproduced in Table 1 does not seem to be authentic as the method of preprationo of the chlorinated organic...

  14. Catalytic hydrothermal treatment of pulping effluent using a mixture of Cu and Mn metals supported on activated carbon as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the performance of activated carbon-supported copper and manganese base catalyst for catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of pulping effluent. CWO reaction was performed in a high pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7 l) at temperatures ranging from 120 to 190 °C and oxygen partial pressures of 0.5 to 0.9 MPa with the catalyst concentration of 3 g/l for 3 h duration. With Cu/Mn/AC catalyst at 190 °C temperature and 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressures, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), lignin, and color removals of 73, 71, 86, and 85 %, respectively, were achieved compared to only 52, 51, 53, and 54 % removals during the non-catalytic process. Biodegradability (in terms of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.38 from an initial value of 0.16 after the catalytic reaction. The adsorbed carbonaceous fraction on the used catalyst was also determined which contributed meager TOC reduction of 3-4 %. The leaching test showed dissolution of the metals (i.e., Cu and Mn) from the catalysts in the wastewater during CWO reaction at 190 °C temperature and 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressures. In the future, the investigations should focus on the catalyst reusability.

  15. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  16. Fungal treatment of hemp-based pulp and paper mill wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... Acid-line and alkali-line composite effluent was also ... Despite its low lignin content, hemp bast fiber is ... binding components are separated from the fibers by ... Total organic carbon (TOC) content of the effluents was deter-.

  17. Patterns of macroinvertebrate assemblages in a long-term watershed-scale study to address the effects of pulp and paper mill discharges in four US receiving streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Camille A; Minshall, G Wayne; Ragsdale, Renee L; Hall, Timothy J

    2009-04-01

    Changes in macroinvertebrate communities exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) have been seen in mesocosm and short-term field studies. However, long-term patterns of macroinvertebrates in PPME receiving streams have not been examined. We conducted a study of 4 PPME receiving streams (Codorus Creek, PA; the Leaf River, MS; and the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, OR) over 9 y to assess temporal patterns in macroinvertebrate community structure and metrics related to PPME discharge. Study streams represented different ecoregions, warm-/cold-water systems, gradients of PPME concentration (mill process types. Bray-Curtis similarity and nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed significant community differences across sites in Codorus Creek, but differences were related to stream temperature patterns and not PPME. In the other study streams, seasonal community differences across years were greater than differences across sites. General linear models were used to examine spatial and temporal variation in macroinvertebrate metric response (% dominant taxa, density, richness, Hilsenhoff Biotic Index [HBI], Simpson's Index, and ash-free dry mass). Mean HBI scores indicated that the macroinvertebrate community reflected fair to very good water quality conditions, with water quality typically classified as "good" at most sites. Significant site differences in macroinvertebrate metric response were uncommon in the Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers but were seen in all metrics in Codorus Creek, where metric response was spatially variable. In the McKenzie River, there was an increase in mean HBI scores at sites downstream of the mill relative to 1 of the 2 upstream sites. However, significant differences were seen only between 1 upstream and downstream site, and HBI scores at all downstream sites consistently reflected "good" water quality. Significant annual differences in metric response were typical in all rivers. Water quality (pH, conductivity, total nitrogen

  18. Effects of farmhouse hotel and paper mill effluents on bacterial community structures in sediment and surface water of Nanxi River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2014-11-01

    The pyrosequencing technique was used to evaluate bacterial community structures in sediment and surface water samples taken from Nanxi River receiving effluents from a paper mill and a farmhouse hotel, respectively. For each sample, 4,610 effective bacterial sequences were selected and used to do the analysis of diversity and abundance, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in the sediment sample without effluent input was higher than the other samples, and the surface water sample with addition of effluent from the paper mill contained the least richness. Effluents from both the paper mill and farmhouse hotel have a potential to reduce the bacterial diversity and abundance in the sediment and surface water, especially it is more significant in the sediment. The effect of the paper mill effluent on the sediment and surface water bacterial communities was more serious than that of the farmhouse hotel effluent. Characterization of microbial community structures in the sediment and surface water from two tributaries of the downstream river indicated that various effluents from the paper mill and farmhouse hotel have the similar potential to decrease the natural variability in riverine microbial ecosystems.

  19. Using Py-GC/MS to fingerprint additives associated with paper mill effluent toxicity episodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available solid at the bottom. 0.23 Main sewer, colourless effluent with few suspended solids. 0.33 Primary clarifier inlet, brown effluent with some solids at the bottom. 9.8 Primary clarifier outfall #2, brown effluent with some solids at the bottom. 20....6 Influent feed corn line, brown effluent with some solids at the bottom. 9.4 Equalisation basin, brown effluent with some solids at the bottom. 14.2 Contact chamber, brown effluent with some sludge at the bottom. 69.7 Aeration outfall, colourless effluent...

  20. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  1. Phytoremediation of palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Rezania, Shahabaldin

    2017-05-04

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to solve the problems because of their reliable, robust, and salient characteristics in capturing the nonlinear relationships between variables in complex systems. In this study, ANN was applied for modeling of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and biodegradable organic matter (BOD) removal from palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by vetiver system. The independent variable, including POMSE concentration, vetiver slips density, and removal time, has been considered as input parameters to optimize the network, while the removal percentage of COD and BOD were selected as output. To determine the number of hidden layer nodes, the root mean squared error of testing set was minimized, and the topologies of the algorithms were compared by coefficient of determination and absolute average deviation. The comparison indicated that the quick propagation (QP) algorithm had minimum root mean squared error and absolute average deviation, and maximum coefficient of determination. The importance values of the variables was included vetiver slips density with 42.41%, time with 29.8%, and the POMSE concentration with 27.79%, which showed none of them, is negligible. Results show that the ANN has great potential ability in prediction of COD and BOD removal from POMSE with residual standard error (RSE) of less than 0.45%.

  2. Performance comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic reactors for treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo-Young; Son, Sung-Min; Pyon, Jun-Hyeon; Park, Joo-Yang

    2014-08-01

    The anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions without long-time POME storage in order to compare the performance of each condition in the field of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The anaerobic treatment system was composed of anaerobic hybrid reactor and anaerobic baffled filter. Raw POME was pretreated by screw decanter to reduce suspended solids and residual oil. The total COD removal rate of 90-95% was achieved in both conditions at the OLR of 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d. The COD removal in thermophilic conditions was slightly better, however the biogas production was much higher than that in the mesophilic one at high OLR. The organic contents in pretreated POME were highly biodegradable in mesophilic under the lower OLRs. The biogas production was 13.5-20.0l/d at the 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d OLR, and the average content of carbon dioxide was 5-35% in both conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy O. Iwuagwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME is high strength wastewater derived from processing of palm fruit. It is generated in large quantities in all oil palm producing nations where it is a strong pollutant amenable to microbial degradation being rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. Valorization and treatment of POME with seven yeast isolates was studied under scalable conditions by using POME to produce value-added yeast biomass. POME was used as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and the fermentation was carried out at 150 rpm, 28 ± 2°C using an inoculum size of 1 mL of 106 cells. Yeasts were isolated from POME, dump site, and palm wine. The POME had chemical oxygen demand (COD 114.8 gL−1, total solid 76 gL−1, total suspended solid (TSS 44 gL−1 and total lipid 35.80 gL−1. Raw POME supported accumulation of 4.42 gL−1 dry yeast with amino acid content comparable or superior to the FAO/WHO standard for feed use SCP. Peak COD reduction (83% was achieved with highest biomass accumulation in 96 h using Saccharomyces sp L31. POME can be used as carbon source with little or no supplementation to achieve waste-to-value by producing feed grade yeast with reduction in pollution potential.

  4. Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Ahmad

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

  5. Characterization of Oily and Non-Oily Natural Sediments in Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Alrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the many vegetable oils widely consumed around the world. The production of palm oil requires voluminous amount of water with the concurrent generation of large amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is a mixture of water, oil, and natural sediments (solid particles and fibres.There is a dearth of information on the physical properties of these POME sediments. This study intends to distinguish the physical properties of oily and non-oily POME sediments which include sediment size, particle size distribution (PSD, sediment shape, sediment surface morphology, and sediment density. These characterizations are important for future researches because these properties have significant effects on the settling process that occurs either under natural gravity or by coagulations. It was found that the oily and non-oily POME sediments have different sizes with nonspherical irregular shapes, and because of that, the aspect ratio (AR and circularity shape factors were adopted to describe the shapes of these sediments. The results also indicate that the density of oily POME sediment decreases as the sediment size increases.

  6. Removal of phenol by activated carbons prepared from palm oil mill effluent sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A. MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2006-01-01

    The study was attempted to produce activated carbons from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced was evaluated in aqueous solution of phenol. Two types of activation were followed, namely,thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃, and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment). A control (raw POME sludge) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced. The results indicated that the activation temperature of 800℃showed maximum absorption capacity by the activated carbon (POME 800) in aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon of POME 800. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption of phenol onto the activated carbon POME 800 was studied in terms of pseudo- first and second order kinetics to predict the rate constant and equilibrium capacity with the effect of initial phenol concentrations. The rate of adsorption was found to be better correlation for the pseudo-second order kinetics compared to the first order kinetics.

  7. Performance Evaluation on Otto Engine Generator Using Gasoline and Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Husaini, T.; Sitio, A.; Sitorus, TB

    2017-06-01

    Biogas is a flammable gas produced from the fermentation of organic materials by anaerobic bacteria originating from household waste manure and organic waste including palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is mainly discharged from the sterilization unit of palm oil processing into crude palm oil. This study utilized biogas produced from liquid waste palm oil for use as fuel in the Otto engine generator 4 - stroke, type STARKE GFH1900LX with a peak power of 1.3 kW, 1.0 kW average power, bore 55 mm, stroke 40 mm, Vd 95 × 10-6 m3, Vc 10 × 10-6 m3, compression ratio of 10.5 : 1, and the number of cylinders = 1. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of Otto engine generator fueled with biogas that generated from POME, then comparing its performance fueled by gasoline. The performance included power, torque, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and the air-fuel ratio. Experiment was conducted by using a variation of the lamp load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W. The results revealed that the use of biogas as fuel decreased in power, torque, brake thermal efficiency, and air fuel ratio (AFR), while there is an increasing of value specific fuel consumption (SFC).

  8. Optimization and performance evaluation for nutrient removal from palm oil mill effluent wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raheek I.; Wong, Z. H.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater was produced in huge amounts in Malaysia, and if it discharged into the environment, it causes a serious problem regarding its high content of nutrients. This study was devoted to POME wastewater treatment with microalgae. The main objective was to find the optimum conditions (retention time, and pH) in the microalgae treatment of POME wastewater considering retention time as a most important parameter in algae treatment, since after the optimum conditions there is a diverse effect of time and pH and so, the process becomes costly. According to our knowledge, there is no existing study optimized the retention time and pH with % removal of nutrients (ammonia nitrogen NH3-N, and orthophosphorous PO43-) for microalgae treatment of POME wastewater. In order to achieve with optimization, a central composite rotatable design with a second order polynomial model was used, regression coefficients and goodness of fit results in removal percentages of nutrients (NH3-N, and PO43-) were estimated.WinQSB technique was used to optimize the surface response objective functionfor the developed model. Also experiments were done to validate the model results.The optimum conditions were found to be 18 day retention time for ammonia nitrogen, and pH of 9.22, while for orthophosphorous, 15 days were indicated as the optimum retention time with a pH value of 9.2.

  9. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  10. Unexpected promotion of PCDD/F formation by enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching in non-wood pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liping; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Liu, Wenbin; Huang, Linyan; Guo, Li

    2017-02-01

    Enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching is widely considered as promising replacements for conventional Cl2 bleaching in wood pulp and paper mills. However, the effects of using enzyme-aided bleaching on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the non-wood pulp and paper mills are unclear. A field study was performed to investigate PCDD/F formation when enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching was used to replace conventional Cl2 bleaching in non-wood pulp and paper mills. Unexpectedly, the PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQs) in solid samples were higher when using enzyme-aided bleaching (0.49-5.4 pg TEQ/g) than that using conventional Cl2 bleaching (0.15-2.44 pg TEQ/g). Large amounts of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were formed during the enzyme-aided bleaching process. This could have been because enzyme strongly promoted the release of organic molecules bound to lignin and thus accelerated the formation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin through organic molecular precursors. Although enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching was previously considered to be efficient for reducing PCDD/F releases and to be the best available technologies and best environmental practices for wood pulp and paper mills, the results obtained in this study suggested the necessity and urgency to evaluate the suitability of enzyme-aided Cl2 bleaching for non-wood pulp and paper mills that intensively practiced in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    higher volume of water could not affect the growth rate of phytoplankton. It is more important .... density at the start and the end of the growth period, and t is the time .... pulp mill effluents on estuarine phytoplankton ... Havunders. Serie Plankton.

  12. Evaluation of a biofilter deliberately inoculated with bacteria capable of removing specific kraft pulp mill air emission components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.N.; Dombroski, E.C. [Microbiology Research and Development, Vegreville (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A biofilter inoculated with Thiobacillus thiooxidans was used to treat Kraft pulp mill green liquor clarifier emissions, which typically contain hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulphide. Results from lab-scale and demonstration-scale trials indicate that biofilters inoculated with bacteria capable of oxidizing reduced sulphur compounds have been extremely successful in removing relatively high concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Less successful results were observed with respect to the oxidation of DMS, possibly due to this compound having a relatively low solubility in water. Preliminary results from the demonstration-scale biofilter indicate that H{sub 2}S, DMS and other compounds are removed from green liquor emissions. The variable results are primarily due to erratic temperature fluctuations and the presence of alkaline substances in the gas stream.

  13. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  14. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  15. Evolution of Lignocellulosic Macrocomponents in the Wastewater Streams of a Sulfite Pulp Mill: A Preliminary Biorefining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of lignin, five- and six-carbon sugars, and other decomposition products derived from hemicelluloses and cellulose was monitored in a sulfite pulp mill. The wastewater streams were characterized and the mass balances throughout digestion and total chlorine free bleaching stages were determined. Summative analysis in conjunction with pulp parameters highlights some process guidelines and valorization alternatives towards the transformation of the traditional factory into a lignocellulosic biorefinery. The results showed a good separation of cellulose (99.64% during wood digestion, with 87.23% of hemicellulose and 98.47% lignin dissolved into the waste streams. The following steps should be carried out to increase the sugar content into the waste streams: (i optimization of the digestion conditions increasing hemicellulose depolymerization; (ii improvement of the ozonation and peroxide bleaching stages, avoiding deconstruction of the cellulose chains but maintaining impurity removal; (iii fractionation of the waste water streams, separating sugars from the rest of toxic inhibitors for 2nd generation biofuel production. A total of 0.173 L of second-generation ethanol can be obtained in the spent liquor per gram of dry wood. The proposed methodology can be usefully incorporated into other related industrial sectors.

  16. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of primary sludge from pulp and paper mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cátia Vanessa Teixeira; Rocha, Jorge Manuel Dos Santos; de Menezes, Fabrícia Farias; Carvalho, Maria da Graça Videira Sousa

    2016-09-26

    Primary sludge from a Portuguese pulp and paper mill, containing 60% of carbohydrates, and unbleached pulp (as reference material), with 93% of carbohydrates, were used to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). SSF was performed in batch or fed-batch conditions without the need of a pretreatment. Cellic(®) CTec2 was the cellulolytic enzymatic complex used and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or ATCC 26602 strain) or the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 1426 were employed. Primary sludge was successfully converted to ethanol and the best results in SSF efficiency were obtained with S. cerevisiae. An ethanol concentration of 22.7 g L(-1) was produced using a content of 50 g L(-1) of carbohydrates from primary sludge, in batch conditions, with a global conversion yield of 81% and a production rate of 0.94 g L(-1) h(-1). Fed-batch operation enabled higher solids content (total carbohydrate concentration of 200 g L(-1), equivalent to a consistency of 33%) and a reduction of three-quarters of cellulolytic enzyme load, leading to an ethanol concentration of 40.7 g L(-1), although with lower yield and productivity. Xylitol with a concentration up to 7 g L(-1) was also identified as by-product in the primary sludge bioconversion process.

  17. Polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill. Polifenoloxidase e peroxidase na polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Salvat Vanini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulps, from the Northwest area of Paraná-Brazil, in order to compare the varieties on their enzymatic activity for both, minimum and industrial processing. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from avocado pulp of Choquete, Fortuna and Quintal varieties, in green and ripe maturation stage. Thermal treatment was applied with temperatures 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80 °C. The enzymatic activities were determined by using spectrophotometer. A decline of polyphenoloxidase activity was observed in all of the varieties when both, temperature and time increased. Total inactivation of enzymes was not observed in the largest temperature. Fortuna and Choquete variety showed the lowest polyphenoloxidase activity in the ripe stage. Soluble peroxidase showed activity in the green stage, whereas, ionically bound peroxidase activity increased with the change from green to ripe maturation stage in Choquete variety.O objetivo foi avaliar a atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase (PPO e da peroxidase (POD em polpas de abacates, da região Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, visando comparar as variedades e suas atividades enzimáticas para processamento mínimo ou industrial. Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados da polpa de abacate das variedades Choquete, Fortuna e Quintal no estágio de maturação verde e maduro. Foi aplicado tratamento térmico com temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80 °C. As atividades enzimáticas foram determinadas por espectrofotometria. Observou-se declínio da atividade da PPO, à medida que aumentava a temperatura e o tempo em todas as variedades. Não foi observada inativação total das enzimas na maior temperatura. As variedades Fortuna e Choquete apresentaram menor atividade da PPO no estágio maduro. A POD solúvel apresentou menor atividade no estágio verde, e, atividade da POD ionicamente ligada aumentou com a mudan

  18. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  19. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  20. A field experimental study of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM) extracted from spent-liquor of straw pulping paper mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-jie; LI Jing; LU Xiao-zhen; JIN Yong-can

    2005-01-01

    A new technique was introduced for sand stabilization and re-vegetation by use of lignin sand stabilizing material( LSSM). LSSM is a reconstructed organic compound with lignin as the most dominant component from the extracts of black-liquor issued by straw pulp paper mills. Unlike the polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, the new material is plant-friendly and can be used with virescence actions simultaneously. The field experimental study was conducted since 2001 in China' s Northwest Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and has been proved that LSSM is effective in stabilizing the fugitive dunes, making the arenaceous plants survive and the bare dune vegetative. The advisable solution concentration is 2% and the optimal field spraying quantity is 2.5 L/m2. The soil nutrients of the stabilized and greened dune, such as organic matter, available phosphorous and total nitrogen are all increased compared with the control treatment, which is certainly helpful to the growth of arenaceous plants. The technique is worthwhile to be popularized because it is provided not only a new method for desertification control but also an outlet for cleaning contaminants issued from the straw paper mills.

  1. 造纸制浆废液无害化改性及其在油田中的应用%HARMLESS MODIFICATION OF PAPER- MAKING PULP EFFLUENT AND APPLICATION IN OILFIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 辛寅昌

    2011-01-01

    In the acidic condition, lignin can be separated out from paper - making pulp effluent, but because of the existence of the amount of salt, the surface tension is high so that separation of lignin is very difficult even in this condition. In the acidic condition, the surface tension of Paper - making pulp effluent drops to below 35 mN ? M-1 by surfactant of salt - tolerant DM - 5522. Under the action of demulsifier of salt - tolerant ROD-1609, lignin conglomerates and flocculates. By centrifugation, lignin with high purity can be got and desalination rate reaches up to 98% , while the inorganic salt solution can be recycled by paper mill, it doesn't bring secondary pollution to the environment. Lignin purified is synthesized into Sulphonated lignin, Iron chromium lignosulphonate salt ( FCLS ) and sulfited lignin sulfomethylated phenolaldehyde resin ( SLSP) through the sulphonated reaction, complexation reaction and copolymerisation in the condition of salt free. Experimental results indicate that the performance of these lignin's modified products is superior to other industrial lignin products in oilfield drilling and exploration. It reaches the purpose of the harmless modification of paper - making pulp effluent and has great economic benefits and environmental benefits.%用耐盐活性剂DM - 5522和耐盐破乳剂ROD - 1609分离提纯造纸制浆废液中的木质素,并在无盐条件下通过磺化,络合,共聚等反应合成磺化木质素,铁铬木质素磺酸盐(FCLS),磺化木质素磺甲基化酚醛树脂共聚物(SLSP).实验表明,利用该方法处理造纸制浆废液,分离出的无机盐不仅可以回收使用,而且木质素改性产品在油田钻井和开采方面的应用性能优于其他木质素工业品,达到了造纸制浆废液无害化改性利用的目的,具有极大的经济效益和环境效益.

  2. Efficacy of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus abundans for Nutrient Removal in Rice Mill Effluent (Paddy Soaked Water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinandan, S; Bhattacharya, Ribhu; Shanthakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are product of sustainable development owing to its ability to treat variety of wastewater effluents and thus produced biomass can serve as value added product for various commercial applications. This paper deals with the cultivation of microalgae species namely Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus abundans in rice mill effluent (i.e., paddy soaked water) for nutrient removal. In order to investigate the nutrient removal capability, microalgae are subjected to cultivation in both raw and autoclaved samples. The maximum phosphate removal by Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in raw sample was 98.3% and 97.6%, respectively, whereas, the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen by Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in raw sample was 92% and 90.3%, respectively. The growth (measured in terms of chlorophyll content) of Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in raw sample was 3.88 mg/l and 5.55 mg/l, respectively. The results indicate the suitability of microalgae cultivation in rice mill effluent treatment for nutrient removal.

  3. MILL DEMONSTRATION OF TMP PRODUCTION FROM FOREST THINNINGS: PULP QUALITY, REFINING ENERGY, AND HANDSHEET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Holton Quinn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U.S. National Forests is a potentially important contributor to sustainable forest health. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP. Both whole-log chips (primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs and sawmill “residue” chips from a HewsawTM system (Mäntyharju, Finland were evaluated. The residue chips produced in this study were substituted for a TMP mill’s standard residue chips up to about 50%. The whole-log chips were substituted for the mill’s whole-log chips up to about 30%. The results show that substitution of chips produced from forest thinnings reduced refining energy in all trials. Pulp quality was maintained throughout all trials.

  4. Project Independence: Construction of an Integrated Biorefinery for Production of Renewable Biofuels at an Existing Pulp and Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Project Independence proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Wisconsin Rapids, isconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage Wisconsin System Incorporated’s Wisconsin Rapids Mill, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy for Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with biomass being harvested, sized, conditioned and fed into a ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) steam reformer where it is converted to high quality synthetic gas (syngas). The syngas is then cleaned, compressed, scrubbed, polished and fed into the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic reactors where the gas is converted into two, sulfur-free, clean crude products which will be marketed as revenue generating streams. Additionally, the Fischer-Tropsch products could be upgraded for use in automotive, aviation and chemical industries as valuable products, if desired. As the Project Independence project set out to prove forest products could be used to commercially produce biofuels, they planned to address and mitigate issues as they arose. In the early days of the Project Independence project, the plant was sized to process 500 dry tons of biomass per day but would

  5. A review and investigation of the effect of nanophotocatalytic ozonation process for phenolic compound removal from real effluent of pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hamed; Afsharnia, Mojtaba; Alipour, Vali; Khosravi, Rasoul; Sharafi, Kiomars; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale. Then, the combined and separate effects of zinc oxide dosage (ZnO), ozone flow rate (O3), and pH under ultra violet radiation for 30 min were evaluated. The concentration of phenolic compounds and the produced ozone gas flow rate were measured by a spectrophotometry and iodometric method, respectively. The results showed that the phenolic removal rate increased at acidic PHs compared with alkaline PHs; it was also decreased with the increase in ZnO dosages. Furthermore, the highest phenolic compound's removal rate was 99% at the optimal condition (pH 5, ZnO dosage of 0.1 g L(-1) at the 30 min with UV-C illumination of 125 W). Finally, Daphnia toxicity test showed that treated effluent was safe and met the standards to the extent that it can be discharged into the receiving waters. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  6. Edible oil mill effluent; a low-cost source for economizing biodiesel production: Electrospun nanofibrous coalescing filtration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad A. Shirazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security. However, finding new raw sources for biodiesel production is still challenging. The oil which comes from wastewater effluent generated in edible oil mills (EOM can be considered a low-cost, widely available, emerging and interesting source for biodiesel production. This study tries to improve the coalescing filtration by using electrospun nanofibrous filters for oil recovery from the EOM effluent. In order to improve the separation efficiency of the filters, thermal treatments (90oC to 150oC were used. Results indicate that oil recovery using coalescing filtration is a promising method for providing a new source for making biodiesel production more economical.

  7. An Innovative Device to Convert Olive Mill Wastewater into a Suitable Effluent for Feeding Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Carlozzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A device (prototype with a working volume of 200 L was used to deplete olive mill wastewater (OMW of polyphenols. The OMW transformed into feedstock by means of the device was then used for feeding a lab-scale photobioreactor, just for testing the production of bioH2. The main novelty of this prototype consists in the combination of several adsorbent matrices and the exploitation of their synergic action. In this investigation, three matrices have been used: active carbon, Azolla and zeolite. The device was operated at an olive oil company located in the heart of the Chianti zone (Province of Florence, Italy. The efficiency of polyphenol removal obtained using the device was ≥96%. The multi-matrix effluent (MMeff generated was then used to obtain three different culture broths containing 25%, 50% and 100% of MMeff, respectively. The diluted (with water culture broths were suitable for hydrogen generation, with the highest hydrogen production rate (12.7 mL H2/Lculture/h being obtained using 50% MMeff. The hydrogen yields were: 334 mL H2/L of MMeff, when feeding the photofermenter with pure effluent (100%; 1308 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the half-diluted effluent (50%, v/v; and 432 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the highest-diluted effluent (25%, v/v.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  9. Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Tomiuchi, Y.; Harahap, U.; Daimon, H.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research is to maintain short retention time and high degradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by applying recycle sludge. Fresh POME from Rambutan Mill without further treatment was used as feed. Two lab-scale digesters supported from Metawater Co. Ltd. have been applied to treat POME at thermophilic (55°C) condition. Both digesters were operated under intermittent operation mode. Experiments were performed in two methods: with and without recycle sludge. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of both methods was maintained at 6 days, while sludge retention time (SRT) was maintained at various days. The result showed that by extending SRT in return sludge process where 25% of digested slurry recycled to the digester, improvement of volatile solid (VS) decomposition was obtained around 84% at HRT of 6 days and SRT of 21 days. Then, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency could be reached until 85% by using recycle sludge.

  10. 造纸厂DCS系统的网络安全分析%Security Analysis of DCS Network in Pulp & Paper Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海君; 刘玉娟; 崔健

    2012-01-01

    The threat of network in mill automation system is becoming more and more seriously,so more and more investments are spent to support network security system improvement. This paper analysed the characteristics of DCS network in pulp & paper mills,the related solutions for network security improvement were suggested.%针对造纸厂典型集散控制系统(DCS)网络的特点,从提高网络安全性的角度提出应对方案.

  11. Soil remediation of degraded coastal saline wetlands by irrigation with paper mill effluent and plowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Meng-jing; LIU Zhi-mei; LU Zhao-hua

    2012-01-01

    Combined with anti-waterlogging ditches,irrigation with treated paper mill effluent (TPME) and plowing were applied in this study to investigate the effects of remediation of degraded coastal saline-alkaline wetlands.Three treatments were employed,viz.,control (CK),irrigated with 10 cm depth of TPME (I),and plowing to 20 cm deep before irrigating 10 cm depth of TPME (IP).Results show that both I-treatment and IP-treatment could improve soil structure by decreasing bulk density by 5% and 8%.Irrigation with TPME containing low salinity stimulated salts leaching instead of accumulating.With anti-waterlogging ditches,salts were drained out of soil.Irrigation with 10 cm depth of TPME lowered total soluble salts in soil and sodium adsorption ration by 33% and 8%,respectively,but there was no significant difference compared with CK,indicating that this irrigation rate was not heavy enough to remarkably reduce soil salinity and sodicity.Thus,irrigation rate should be enhanced in order to reach better effects of desalinization and desodication.Irrigation with TPME significantly increased soil organic matter,alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus due to the abundant organic matmr in TPME.Plowing increased soil air circulation,so as to enhance mineralization of organic matter and lead to the loss of organic matter; however,plowing significantly improved soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus.Improvements of physicochemical properties in I-treatment and IP-treatment both boosted soil microbial population and activity.Microbial biomass carbon increased significantly by 327% (I-treatment) and 451% (IP-treatment),while soil respiration increased significantly by 316% (I-treatment) and 386% (IP-treatment).Urease and dehydrogenase activities in both I-treatment and IP-treatment were significantly higher than that in CK.Phosphatase in IP-treatment was significantly higher than that in CK.Compared to I-treatment,IP-treatment improved

  12. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular

  13. BIOCONVERSION OF KNOT REJECTS FROM A SULPHITE PULP MILL TO ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Knot rejects obtained from pulp screening after sulphite pulping are difficult to dewater, which makes landfilling expensive and burning inefficient. The rejects were found to contain up to 50% cellulose, which is very susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis to glucose. Knot rejects were hydrolyzed at 20% consistency in a laboratory peg mixer with cellulase enzyme. The thick slurry was liquefied within the first hour of mixing and resulted in a glucose concentration of over 100 g/L after 24 hours of reaction. This solution was fermented by yeast to give an ethanol concentration of over 5%. The laboratory results were confirmed at pilot scale with a mortar mixer (high consistency or stirred tank reactor (medium consistency at the 400 L and 6000 L scales, respectively. It was found that washing the knots with ammonia resulted in increased glucose conversion. Enzyme costs could be lowered by separating the enzyme from the hydrolyzed sugars by membrane ultrafiltration and recycling the enzyme to the subsequent batch of substrate. The combination of high-consistency hydrolysis and enzyme recycling minimizes capital investment, energy requirements, and enzyme costs, which are significant factors in the overall economic viability of cellulose conversion to ethanol.

  14. Evaluation of ion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic matter from biologically treated paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassandeh, Mojgan; Antony, Alice; Le-Clech, Pierre; Richardson, Desmond; Leslie, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken

  15. Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor -A New Perspective In Pulp And Paper Waste Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vaidhegi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent have certain drawbacks. In this work, experiments were conducted to treat the pulp and paper mill effluent using moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR.The wastewater generated by these industries contains high COD, BOD, colour, organic substances and toxic chemicals. This study was carried out on laboratory scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor with proflex type biocarriers, where the biofilm grows on small, free floating plastic elements with a large surface area and a density slightly less than 1.0 g/cm3 . The reactor was operated continuously at 50% percentages filling of biocarriers. During the filling percentage, the removal efficiencies of COD & BOD were monitored at the time period of 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h. The result showed that the maximum COD and BOD removal of 87% were achieved for the 50 percent filling of biocarriers at the HRT of 8 h. From the experimental results, the moving bed biofilm reactor could be used as an ideal and efficient option for the organic and inorganic removal from the wastewater of pulp and paper industry

  16. Utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost for Improvement of Acid Mineral Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermadani Ermadani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluent from a palm oil mill contains organic matters and nutrients. It can result in water pollution when it is discharged into river without treatment. One way to manage this effluent is through composting that has potential to allow the recycling of effluent nutrients in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner so that it can be used as organic fertilizer. This study wasintended to evaluate the benefit of effluent compost application to improve soil chemical properties and soybean yield. Effluent wascomposted with chicken manure and lime for eight weeks. A pot experiment of which each pot was filled with 10 kg of soil (Ultisolwas conducted in a screen house from April to November 2012 at the Experimental Farm, University of Jambi, Muaro JambiResidency. The treatments were without compost (adding 0,25 g Urea, 0,75 g SP-36 and 0,50 g KCl and compost application with amounts of 12,5 ml, 25 ml, 37,5 ml, 50 ml, 62,5 ml, and 75 ml. The indicator plant was soybean. The treatments were arranged in acompletely randomized design and replicated four times. Results of study showed a significant improvement of soil chemicalproperties with compost application in which application of 75 ml compost resulted in the highest increase of pH, organic C, cationexchange capacity, total N, available P, exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg. Furthermore, the dry weight of shoot, pod number and dryweight of seed increased significantly with compost application. The highest dry weight of seed was 28 g (equivalent to 2, 82 t ha-1obtained by compost application of 75 ml (equivalent to 15 t ha -1.

  17. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, R., E-mail: sridhar36k@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Sivakumar, V., E-mail: drvsivakumar@yahoo.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Prince Immanuel, V., E-mail: princeimmanuel79@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode 638057, TN (India); Prakash Maran, J., E-mail: prakashmaran@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India)

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m{sup 3}. The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  18. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  19. Building a comprehensive mill-level database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS model of the U.S. pulp and paper sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Modak

    Full Text Available Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari S. Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

  1. Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.; Verma, P.; Shouche, Y.S.; Naik, C.G.

    in their chemical characteristics and pH (Hai et al. 2007). Therefore, no single organism can detoxify and decolorize them. Efficiency of marine-derived fungi in treatments of such effluents has largely remained unexplored. Marine-derived fungi grow and produce...-yield and two basidiomycetes with relatively high titer of laccase were used for bioremediation. Efficiency of the whole cultures (in situ) in removal of color and toxicity, reduction in COD and total phenolics from these two effluents was studied...

  2. Biological degradation of EDTA in pulping effluents at higher pH - a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, M.; Remberger, M.; Allard, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The biological degradation of EDTA at different pH, sludge load and sludge age has been investigated in laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that relatively fast degradation of EDTA in the form found in this waste water (from production of TMP) took place at least at pH around 8.5 with moderate COD load and high sludge age. In continuous reactors the degradation of EDTA in a pulp and paper waste water was 2-3 mg EDTA/g SS*day at both pH 7 and 8,5, and at sludge ages from 5 to 21 days. The degradation was dependent on sludge load, and no degradation was seen above 1 g COD/g SS*day. In kinetic experiments with half strength waste water the same degradation rate (1,5-2 mg EDTA/g SS*day) was found at pH 7 and at pH 8,5 with sludge of low age (9 and 5 days SRT). Much faster degradation was found at pH 8,5 with sludge of high age (21 days in the continuous experiment). The mean degradation rate was over 10 mg EDTA/g SS*day from 20 to 5 mg EDTA/l. v{sub max} was determined to be 35 mg EDTA/g SS*day and K{sub M} to 31 mg EDTA/l. COD removal was at least as good at pH 8,5 as at pH 7. Sludge properties were best at pH 8,5 and long sludge retention time (giving low sludge load). Both sludge volume index and residual suspended solids after sedimentation were lower than under normal conditions at pH 7. The direct cost for caustic lime would be about 15 SEK per ton of TMP, with a water like the one investigated here. This can vary a lot depending on starting pH and buffering capacity. Costs for addition of nitrogen source could probably be omitted, but this is normally not more than 1-2 SEK per ton of TMP. The extra need for oxygen in the treatment would not be more than some percent, but may be important if oxygen is limited. A substantial extra cost would be if the aeration volume has to be increased. According to the best results from the kinetic study, this would not be needed in an extended aeration activated plant with 2 days HRT and sludge concentrations of 2

  3. The progress in green development made by a benchmarking pulp and paper mill in China%我国现代浆纸标杆企业的绿色发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣; 张辉

    2016-01-01

    在简要介绍绿色发展内涵和我国造纸工业基本状况基础上,重点以具有国内一流、国际先进工艺和装备技术水平的某浆纸企业(简称“浆纸标杆企业”)为对象,从主要产品的生产规模和生产技术出发,围绕用水量、废水废固物的特征与处理技术及其排放量、能源品种与消耗量及其回收利用等方面讨论其绿色发展进展;其次,结合国家及地方对环境保护的未来要求以及行业绿色发展战略,分析了现代浆纸标杆企业进一步提升绿色发展水平面临的困难与存在的问题,以及绿色发展的展望。对展示国内浆纸标杆企业绿色发展水平和引领我国造纸工业未来绿色发展有现实意义。%Firstly, the definition of the green development and the status of China paper industry were brielfy introduced. Then, taking an example of a pulp and paper company in China with the domestic first-class and international advanced process and equipment level, which is called as benchmarking pulp and paper mill(BPPM), focused was on discussing the progress in green development made by the BPPM from some aspects, including the scale and technology of the main production, the water consumption, the characteristics and treatment technology and effluents of waste water and waste solid, kinds of energy and consumption, saving and reuse, and so on. Furthermore, the dififculties and problems faced by the BPPM in order to further improve the green development were analyzed and the future green development goals were put forward according to the future demand of environmental protection from the country as well as the local government and the green development strategy from China paper industry. What were referred in the paper not only present the green development level of the domestic benchmarking pulp and paper mill, but also lead to the future green development of China paper industry.

  4. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  5. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  6. The economy of chip, tree section and short wood methods in the procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Regional forest management plans for Finland`s private, non-industrial forestry indicate that first thinnings account for 13 % of the felling potential in these forests. The majority of first thinnings focus on pine-dominated stands. First-thinnings wood represents 29 % of the allowable cut consisting of pine pulpwood. However, small-diameter pine has not enjoyed great demand as raw material by the chemical pulp industry due to the high associated production costs and due to its inferior fibre properties when compared to large-sized softwood logs. Consequently, research and development work has been focused on the procurement, handling and usage of small-diameter wood, and especially of first-thinning pine. Both defibration and use as fuel are options when considering how to exploit small-diameter softwood raw material. Integrated procurement of industrial wood and wood fuel have improved the profitability of wood from thinnings in pulp manufacture and in energy generation at the mill. These methods would appear to be economic in regard to both the wood procurement of the pulp mills even at the present prices paid for alternative fuels. Advances in combustion technology and increased generation of electric power improve the competitiveness of methods based on the harvesting tree sections in comparison with the shortwood system yielding delimbed roundwood. The adoption of longer timber lorry-trailer combination as recognised by EU directives will have the effect of reducing the transportation costs for non-delimbed and partially delimbed wood. (orig.)

  7. Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Naik, Chandrakant Govind

    2010-04-01

    Textile dye effluents pose environmental hazards because of color and toxicity. Bioremediation of these has been widely attempted. However, their widely differing characteristics and high salt contents have required application of different microorganisms and high dilutions. We report here decolorization and detoxification of two raw textile effluents, with extreme variations in their pH and dye composition, used at 20-90% concentrations by each of the four marine-derived fungi. Textile effluent A (TEA) contained an azo dye and had a pH of 8.9 and textile effluent B (TEB) with a pH of 2.5 contained a mixture of eight reactive dyes. The fungi isolated from mangroves and identified by 18S and ITS sequencing corresponded to two ascomycetes and two basidiomycetes. Each of these fungi decolorized TEA by 30-60% and TEB by 33-80% used at 20-90% concentrations and salinity of 15 ppt within 6 days. This was accompanied by two to threefold reduction in toxicity as measured by LC(50) values against Artemia larvae and 70-80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total phenolics. Mass spectrometric scan of effluents after fungal treatment revealed degradation of most of the components. The ascomycetes appeared to remove color primarily by adsorption, whereas laccase played a major role in decolorization by basidiomycetes. A process consisting of a combination of sorption by fungal biomass of an ascomycete and biodegradation by laccase from a basidiomycete was used in two separate steps or simultaneously for bioremediation of these two effluents.

  8. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges.

  9. Preliminary Study on Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Sand Filtration-DBD Plasma System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadi Hazmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the palm oil industry, open ponding, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration are generally applied as conventional treatments of palm oil mill effluent (POME. In this study, a sand filtration-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD system was investigated as an alternative process for treating POME. This system can reduce land usage, processing time and costs compared to conventional systems. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, and oil-grease in relation to the applied voltage were studied. Furthermore, the pH and temperature profiles were investigated. The obtained results indicate that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and oil-grease increased with an increase of the applied voltage. The electrical energy consumption needed is about 10.56 kWh/L of POME.

  10. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1979-06-14

    The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

  11. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1979-06-14

    The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

  12. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria. Accepted 14 ... This was done by culturing soil samples from an effluent dumpsite ... or no treatment and is usually discharged into the ... its denitrification products can have on the environment. .... methods in the study of ecology.

  14. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

  15. Reuse of olive mill effluents from two-phase extraction process by integrated advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Hodaifa, G; Victor-Ortega, M D; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2013-12-15

    In this work, complete reclamation of the olive mill effluents coming from a two-phase olive oil extraction process (OME-2) was studied on a pilot scale. The developed depuration procedure integrates an advanced oxidation process based on Fenton's reagent (secondary treatment) coupled with a final reverse osmosis (RO) stage (purification step). The former aims for the removal of the major concentration of refractory organic pollutants present in OME-2, whereas the latter provides efficient purification of the high salinity. Complete physicochemical composition of OME-2 after the secondary treatment was examined, including the particle size distribution, organic matter gradation and bacterial growth, in order to assess the selection of the membrane and its fouling propensity. Hydrodynamics and selectivity of the membrane were accurately modelized. Upon optimization of the hydrodynamic conditions, the RO membrane showed stable performance and fouling problems were satisfactorily overcome. Steady-state permeate flux equal to 21.1 L h(-1)m(-2) and rejection values up to 99.1% and 98.1% of the organic pollutants and electroconductivity were respectively attained. This ensured parametric values below standard limits for reuse of the regenerated effluent, e.g. in the olives washing machines, offering the possibility of closing the loop and thus rending the production process environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  17. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05 in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  18. The assessment of human exposure to radionuclides from a uranium mill tailings release and mine dewatering effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenber, A J; Kreiss, K; Douglas, R L; Buhl, T E; Millard, J

    1984-07-01

    This study provides an assessment of human exposure to radiation from a river system contaminated by radionuclides of the 238U decay series released through a dam break at a uranium mill tailings pond and by the continuous discharge of dewatering effluent from 2 uranium mines. The in vivo analyses of radionuclides in 6 Navajo Indians who lived near the river indicate no detectable elevations above background concentrations. Dose estimates for inhalation of suspended river sediment indicate a maximum annual 50-yr dose commitment of 204 mrem to the endosteum. Estimates of doses (50-yr dose commitments) from the ingestion of livestock range between 1 mrem (to liver) and 79 mrem (to bone) suggest that the major contribution to human exposure is from mine dewatering effluent that has been continuously released into the river system for many years. Although the estimated exposures do not exceed existing state or federal regulations, their magnitude justifies further measurement of radionuclides in animals and in the natural environment and the consideration of strategies to reduce radiation exposure to humans and animals.

  19. Biological treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a Lab-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi Jing; Chong, Mei Fong; Law, Chung Lim

    2010-08-01

    The production of highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has resulted in serious environmental hazards. While anaerobic digestion is widely accepted as an effective method for the treatment of POME, anaerobic treatment of POME alone has difficulty meeting discharge limits due to the high organic strength of POME. Hence, subsequent post-treatment following aerobic treatment is vital to meet the discharge limits. The objective of the present study is to investigate the aerobic treatment of anaerobically digested POME by using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal as well as Sludge Volume Index (SVI). The operating pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found to be 8.25-9.14 and 1.5-6.4 mg/L, respectively, throughout the experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that MLVSS, OLR and sludge loading rate (SLR) play a significant role in the organic removal efficiency of SBR systems and therefore, further investigation on these parameters was conducted to attain optimum SBR performance. Maximum COD (95-96%), BOD (97-98%) and TSS (98-99%) removal efficiencies were achieved at optimum OLR, SLR and MLVSS concentration ranges of 1.8-4.2 kg COD/m(3)day, 2.5-4.6 kg TSS/m(3)day and 22,000-25,000 mg/L, respectively. The effluent quality remained stable and complied with the discharge limit. At the same time, the sludge showed good settling properties with average SVI of 65. It is envisaged that the SBR process could complement the anaerobic treatment to produce final treated effluent which meets the discharge limit.

  20. BIO-CONVENTIONAL BLEACHING OF KRAFT-AQ PULP OF A. CADAMBA BY CRUDE XYLANASES FROM COPRINELLUS DISSEMINATUS MLK-03 AND EFFECT OF RESIDUAL ENZYME ON EFFLUENT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Lal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new thermo-alkali-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus decreased kappa number by 34.38% and improved brightness and viscosity by 1.6 and 6.47% respectively after XE1-stage during prebleaching of Anthocephalus cadamba kraft-AQ pulp. At 2.4% chlorine demand, crude xylanase in a XECEHH (X= enzymatic prebleaching stage, E= extraction stage, C= chlorination stage, H= hypochlorite stage bleaching sequence improved pulp brightness, tensile index, burst index, and double fold numbers by 3.66%, 4.78%, 6.38%, and 11.11%, respectively with a reduction in viscosity (10.59% and tear index (10.77% compared to the control. Combined bleach effluent of the XECEHH sequence mitigated adsorable organic halides (AOX by 21% and increased chemical oxygen demand (COD, bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD, and colour by 67.18%, 84.78%, and 97.53%, respectively, compared to the control. Residual enzymes that entered during enzymatic prebleaching stage decreased AOX, COD, BOD, and colour of combined effluent of the XECEHH bleaching sequence progressively and on 6th day, and these were reduced by 23.78%, 0.04%, 15.00%, and 0.61%, respectively, compared to the control.

  1. Exposure to paper mill effluent at a site in North Central Florida elicits molecular-level changes in gene expression indicative of progesterone and androgen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeier, Erica K; Jayasinghe, B Sumith; Pine, William E; Wilkinson, Krystan A; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors.

  2. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  3. A pilot constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Sustainable water pollution control calls for effective enforcement of regulations and adoption of cleaner production technology as well as effective end-of-pipe treatment of effluents. The final effluent quality of many municipalities and industries in Kenya seldom comply with government-prescribed effluent discharge guidelines. There is, therefore, a need for a sustainable technology that can reliably achieve acceptable effluent quality for discharge into the environment at minim...

  4. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

  5. 絮凝法深度处理造纸废水%A Study on Advanced Treatment of Paper Mill Effluent by Different Flocculants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚尉; 涂强; 孙墨杰

    2012-01-01

    The new type waste water treatment agent Fe2+ complexes was used to pretreat the effluent water in secondary clarification pond, and then the water was flocculated by polyacrylamide (PAM), Al2(SO4)3 and PAC respectively. By detecting the CODc, and colority, it was found that the PAC can reach the best effect, and the optimal condition of the wastewater treatment are as follows: pH at about 6 - 7,200 mg·L-1 of PAC and sedimentation time 3 h. At these conditions, the ultimate CODCr was 85mg·L-1, colority was 30 times, which can meet the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Pulp and Paper Industry (GB 3544- 2008). The PAC is of high efficiency, low cost, and friendly environmental, it will be widely used in advanced treatment of paper mill wastewater.%采用新型废水处理剂Fe2+配合物,预处理二沉池出水,然后分别用聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)、Al2(SO4)3、聚合氯化铝(PAC)三种絮凝剂进行絮凝处理。通过检测废水的COD和色度等指标,结果发现聚合氯化铝效果最佳。确定最优条件为:废水pH值6~7,聚合氯化铝的投放量为200mg·L-1,沉降时间3h。最终出水COD可降至85mg·L-1,色度为32倍。达到了《制浆造纸工业水污染物排放标准》(GB3544—2008)的排放要求。聚合氯化铝用于造纸废水深度处理效率高、成本低、绿色环保,具有很好的应用前景。

  6. Changes in the nature of dissolved organics during pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment: a multivariate statistical study combining data from three analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Emma L; Smernik, Ronald J; van Leeuwen, John; Greenwood, Paul; Macdonald, Lynne M

    2014-03-01

    The paper-making process can produce large amounts of wastewater (WW) with high particulate and dissolved organic loads. Generally, in developed countries, stringent international regulations for environmental protection require pulp and paper mill WW to be treated to reduce the organic load prior to discharge into the receiving environment. This can be achieved by primary and secondary treatments involving both chemical and biological processes. These processes result in complex changes in the nature of the organic material, as some components are mineralised and others are transformed. In this study, changes in the nature of organics through different stages of secondary treatment of pulp and paper mill WW were followed using three advanced characterisation techniques: solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Each technique provided a different perspective on the changes that occurred. To compare the different chemical perspectives in terms of the degree of similarity/difference between samples, we employed non-metric multidimensional scaling. Results indicate that NMR and HPSEC provided strongly correlated perspectives, with 86 % of the discrimination between the organic samples common to both techniques. Conversely, py-GCMS was found to provide a unique, and thus complementary, perspective.

  7. On-line determination of anions in pulp mills by capillary electrophoresis (CE); Tehdasoloissa tapahtuva anionien kapillaarielektroforeettinen on-line maeaeritys ja sen hyoedyntaeminen prosessivalvonnassa - MPKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkonen, R.; Holmberg, M.; Vainikka, V. [Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up a process control system for on-line measurement of certain anions. Typical anions which forms precipitates in pulp and paper mills are oxalate, carbonate and sulphate. Thus it is important to develop a continuous process analyzing system to control concentration levels of this anions. For the preliminary tests of continuous determinations of chloride and sulphate anions in tap water a simple on-line system was build in KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute) and connected to a capillary electroforesis apparatus. In the preliminary tests a chromate buffer (ph = 7.6) was used. Separation of chloride and sulphate was excellent but the stability of buffer was not good enough and it was usable only for few hours. After experimental studies VTT developed a stable capillary electrophoresis method based on mixed amine buffer and this was selected for an on-line method for determination of anions in process waters of the pulp and paper industry. In the preliminary on-line test (r = 20) repeatabilities of migration times of sulphate and chloride with the chromate buffer were < 5 % (RSD) and peak heights < 15 % (RSD). With the mixed amine buffer repeatabilities were better. The preliminary tests showed that it is possible to connect a capillary electrophoresis system to on-line measurements. For the moment no commercial on-line CE apparatus is available. (orig.)

  8. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Johnson, Anbu Clemensis, E-mail: acj265@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Bachmann, Robert T. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 1988 Vendor City, 7800 Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka (Malaysia); Williams, Ceri J. [Yorkshire-Forward, Victoria House, Victoria Place, LS11 5AE Leeds (United Kingdom); Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L{sub biogas}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio; Johnson, Anbu Clemensis; Bachmann, Robert T; Williams, Ceri J; Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G J

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 degrees C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20L fixed-bed reactor at 37 degrees C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L(biogas)L(reactor)(-1)day(-1), respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  10. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: Treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chokri Belaid; Moncef Khadraoui; Salma Mseddi; Monem Kallel; Boubaker Elleuch; Jean Francois Fauvarque

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts:(1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes.This investigation deals with these two aspects,an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under pla ttmized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination.The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution.Indeed,87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation.Moreover,55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced.On the other hand,UV-Visible spectrophotometry,Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry,cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW.It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Gaignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW.Among the monitoring analytical tools applied,cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR are among the techniques that are introduced for the first time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance.

  11. Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Yahya, Adibah; Adnan, Robiah; Abdul Majid, Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2013-05-01

    The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes.

  12. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  13. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p Soil organic carbon content gave significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity (r = 0.450, 0.461, 0.574 and 0.591 at p soil microbial density demonstrates a marked decrease in total culturable numbers of the different microbial groups of the polluted soil samples. Soil contamination decreased catalase, urease and dehydrogenase activities. The findings revealed that soil enzymes can be used as indices of soil contamination and bio-indicator of soil quality.

  14. Production of biomethane from palm oil mill effluent (POME) with fed batch system in beam-shaped digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznury, Martha; Amin, Jaksen M.; Hasan, Abu; Himmatuliza, Astinesia

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the biggest liquid waste which is produced from palm oil production. POME are containing organic matter, high levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 28000 mg/L and 48000 mg/L. To reduce the levels of pollution caused by POME, is necessary to do stages of processing using a biological process that involves aerobic and anaerobic bacteria so that it can be utilized as a new product that has economic value, one is biogas. The processing into biogas in anaerobic performed by fed batch system. In the ratio between POME and activated microorganismes are 70:30%. The process of anaerobic fermentation in fed batch is done by time variation of the addition of the substrate. The mixture of POME and activated microorganismes were fermented for a month and then after one month substrates were added gradually as much as 1 liter into the digester with a variety of additional time are 1, 2, and 5 days. The interval of addition of the substrate give effect to the pH and the quantity of biogas produced. The highest increasing of the quantity of biomethane was 25.14 mol% at the time the addition of substrate every fifth day.

  15. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of palm oil mill effluent in UV/ZnO system based on response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Hoong; Cheng, Yoke Wang; Khan, Maksudur R; Cheng, Chin Kui

    2016-12-15

    This paper reports on the optimization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) degradation in a UV-activated-ZnO system based on central composite design (CCD) in response surface methodology (RSM). Three potential factors, viz. O2 flowrate (A), ZnO loading (B) and initial concentration of POME (C) were evaluated for the significance analysis using a 2(3) full factorial design before the optimization process. It is found that all the three main factors were significant, with contributions of 58.27% (A), 15.96% (B) and 13.85% (C), respectively, to the POME degradation. In addition, the interactions between the factors AB, AC and BC also have contributed 4.02%, 3.12% and 1.01% to the POME degradation. Subsequently, all the three factors were subjected to statistical central composite design (CCD) analysis. Quadratic models were developed and rigorously checked. A 3D-response surface was subsequently generated. Two successive validation experiments were carried out and the degradation achieved were 55.25 and 55.33%, contrasted with 52.45% for predicted degradation value.

  17. Effect of Agitation on Acidogenesis Stage of Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) into Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Irvan; Adipasah, H.; Taslim; Turmuzi, M.

    2017-03-01

    The acidogenesis stage in two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was studied in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). This research investigated the effect of agitation rate on the growth of microorganisms, the degradation of organic substances, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT 6.7, 5.0, and 4.0 days in a 2 L CSTR with agitation rate 50 rpm, pH 6.0 ± 0.2, at room temperature. Next, effect of agitation on the process was determined by varying agitation rate at 25, 50, 100, and 200 rpm. Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce VFA. The highest growth of microorganisms was achieved at HRT 4.0 day with microorganism concentration was 20.62 mg VSS/L and COD reduction was 15.7%. The highest production of total VFA achieved was 5,766.61 mg/L mg/L at agitation rate 200 rpm, with concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were 1,889.23; 1,161.43; and 2,725.95 mg/L, respectively. While degradation VS and COD were 16.61 and 38.79%.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Cow Bone Powder for the Adsorption of Cadmium from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulRahman, A.; Latiff, A. A. A.; Daud, Z.; Ridzuan, M. B.; D, N. F. M.; Jagaba, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been conducted on the removal of heavy metals from palm oil mill effluent. In this study, cow bones were developed as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium II from POME. A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the prepared activated cow bone powder for the sorption of cadmium II from raw POME. The experiment was carried out under fixed conditions using 100mg/L raw POME combined with different adsorbent dosage of CBP of 184.471 Ra(nm) surface roughness. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the hydrophobic CBP of average contact angle 890 was determined from the relationship between the initial and equilibrium liquid phase concentrations of POME. The optimum adsorption of cadmium II on CBP was at 10g adsorbent dosage for sample 1 and 2 at 97.8% and 96.93% respectively. The least uptake was at 30g adsorbent weight for both samples at average of 95.1% for both samples. The effective removal of cadmium ion showed that CBP has a great potential for the treatment of heavy metal in POME.

  19. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution.

  20. A holistic approach to managing palm oil mill effluent (POME): biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2009-01-01

    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products.

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...... and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.......8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co...

  2. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2015-02-01

    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp.

  3. The effect of the natural bentonite to reduce COD in palm oil mill effluent by using a hybrid adsorption-flotation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Ratni; Sari, Ratna; Syafruddin

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent is waste produced from palm oil processing activities. This waste are comingfrom condensate water, process water and hydrocyclone water. The high levels of contaminants in the palm oil mill effluent causes the waste becomes inappropriate to be discharged to water body before processing, one of the most major contaminants in wastewater is fats, oils and COD.This study investigated the effectiveness of chemically activated bentonite that serves as an alternative to reduce the COD in adsorption and floatation based palm oil effluent waste processing. Natural bentonite was activated by using nitrit acid and benzene. In the existing adsorption material to improve COD reduction capability whereas the flotation method was used to further remove residual effluent which is still remain after the adsorption process. An adsorption columns which operated in batch was used in the present study. By varying the circulation time and adsorbent treatment (activated and non-activated), it was shown that percentage of COD reduction reached 75% at the circulation time of 180 minutes for non activated adsorbent. On the other hand the percentof COD reduction in adsorption and flotation process using activated bentonite reached as high as 88% and 93% at the circulation time of 180 minutes.

  4. A pilot constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Sustainable water pollution control calls for effective enforcement of regulations and adoption of cleaner production technology as well as effective end-of-pipe treatment of effluents. The final effluent quality of many municipalities and industries in Kenya seldom comply with

  5. A pilot constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Sustainable water pollution control calls for effective enforcement of regulations and adoption of cleaner production technology as well as effective end-of-pipe treatment of effluents. The final effluent quality of many municipalities and industries in Kenya seldom comply with governmen

  6. Sludge from paper mill effluent treatment as raw material to produce carbon adsorbents: An alternative waste management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Ferreira, Catarina I A; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia

    2017-03-01

    Pulp and paper industry produces massive amounts of sludge from wastewater treatment, which constitute an enormous environmental challenge. A possible management option is the conversion of sludge into carbon-based adsorbents to be applied in water remediation. For such utilization it is important to investigate if sludge is a consistent raw material originating reproducible final materials (either over time or from different manufacturing processes), which is the main goal of this work. For that purpose, different primary (PS) and biological sludge (BS) batches from two factories with different operation modes were sampled and subjected to pyrolysis (P materials) and to pyrolysis followed by acid washing (PW materials). All the materials were characterized by proximate analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and N2 adsorption isotherms (specific surface area (SBET)and porosity determination). Sludge from the two factories proved to have distinct physicochemical properties, mainly in what concerns IC. After pyrolysis, the washing step was essential to reduce IC and to considerably increase SBET, yet with high impact in the final production yield. Among the materials here produced, PW materials from PS were those having the highest SBET values (387-488 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, it was found that precursors from different factories might originate final materials with distinct characteristics, being essential to take into account this source of variability when considering paper mill sludge as a raw material. Nevertheless, for PS, low variability was found between batches, which points out to the reliability of such residues to be used as precursors of carbon adsorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnasamy, Senthil; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Hunt, Ryan W; Das, K C

    2010-05-01

    Industrial and municipal wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. Dalton - the Carpet Capital of the World generates 100-115 million L of wastewater d(-1). A study was conducted using a wastewater containing 85-90% carpet industry effluents with 10-15% municipal sewage, to evaluate the feasibility of algal biomass and biodiesel production. Native algal strains were isolated from carpet wastewater. Preliminary growth studies indicated both fresh water and marine algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of 15 native algal isolates showed >96% nutrient removal in treated wastewater. Biomass production potential and lipid content of this consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were approximately 9.2-17.8 tons ha(-1) year(-1) and 6.82%, respectively. About 63.9% of algal oil obtained from the consortium could be converted into biodiesel. However further studies on anaerobic digestion and thermochemical liquefaction are required to make this consortium approach economically viable for producing algae biofuels.

  8. Preliminary study on the potential of improving pulp quality and energy efficiency in a South African TMP mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the current mill refining practices, the mill is introducing too much refining energy into the fibre. The lower levels of freeness for the accept samples (18 vs. 90 CSF ml required) and the higher amounts of fines confirms this (Table 1& Fig 4...

  9. Application of bacteria involved in the biological sulfur cycle for paper mill effluent purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Albert J H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M; Sorokin, Dimitri Y; Muyzer, Gerard; Dijkman, Henk; Van Zessen, Erik; Luimes, Peter; Buisman, Cees J N

    2009-02-01

    In anaerobic wastewater treatment, the occurrence of biological sulfate reduction results in the formation of unwanted hydrogen sulfide, which is odorous, corrosive and toxic. In this paper, the role and application of bacteria in anaerobic and aerobic sulfur transformations are described and exemplified for the treatment of a paper mill wastewater. The sulfate containing wastewater first passes an anaerobic UASB reactor for bulk COD removal which is accompanied by the formation of biogas and hydrogen sulfide. In an aeration pond, the residual CODorganic and the formed dissolved hydrogen sulfide are removed. The biogas, consisting of CH4 (80-90 vol.%), CO2 (10-20 vol.%) and H2S (0.8-1.2 vol.%), is desulfurised prior to its combustion in a power generator thereby using a new biological process for H2S removal. This process will be described in more detail in this paper. Biomass from the anaerobic bioreactor has a compact granular structure and contains a diverse microbial community. Therefore, other anaerobic bioreactors throughout the world are inoculated with biomass from this UASB reactor. The sludge was also successfully used in investigation on sulfate reduction with carbon monoxide as the electron donor and the conversion of methanethiol. This shows the biotechnological potential of this complex reactor biomass.

  10. Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yejian; YAN Li; CHI Lina; LONG Xiuhua; MEI Zhijian; ZHANG Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill ettluent (POME).The reactor had been operated continuously at 35℃ for 514 d,with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD/(m3·d).The results showed that the EGSB reactor had good performance in terms of COD removal on the one hand,high COD removal of 91% Was obtained at two days’ of hydraulic retention time (HRT),and the highest OLR of 17.5 kg COD/(m3·d).On the other hand,only 46% COD in raw POME Was transformed into biogas in which the methane content was about 70% (v/v).A 30-d intermittent experiment indicated that the maximum transformation potential of organic matter in raw POME into methane Was 56%.Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed in the later operation stage,and this Was settled by supplementing trace metal elements.On the whole,the system exhibited good stability in terms of acidity and alkalinity.Finally, the operational problems inherent in the laboratory scale experiment and the corresponding countermeasures were also discussed.

  11. Toxicity evaluation in a paper recycling mill effluent by coupling bioindicator of aging with the toxicity identification evaluation method in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyi; SHEN Lulu; YU Hongxia; WANG Dayong

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) can be used to determine the specific toxicant(s) in industrial effluents. In the current study,the authors have attempted to combine the advantages of the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, with the virtues of the TIE technique, to evaluate and identify the toxicity on aging from a paper recycling mill effluent. The results indicate that only the toxicities from mixed cellulose (MC) filtration and EDTA treatment are similar to the baseline aging toxicity, suggesting that the suspect toxicants inducing aging toxicity may largely be the heavy metal substances in this industrial effluent. Examination of the accumulation of intestinal autofluorescence in adult animals further confirms that the short lifespans are actually due to accelerated aging. In addition,exposure to fractions of EDTA manipulations cannot result in severe defects of reproduction and locomotion behaviors in C. elegans.Moreover, high levels of Ca, Al, and Fe in the effluent may account for the severe toxicity on aging of exposed nematodes, by TIE assay. The study here provides a new method for evaluating environmental risk and identifying toxicant(s) from the industrial effluent using C. elegans.

  12. Evaluating impacts of pulp and paper mill process changes on bioactive contaminant loading to St. Louis Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a convergence point for human waste streams, wastewater treatment plants are recognized as point sources through which contaminants originating from domestic, industrial, and commercial activities enter surface waters. Effluent from the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District ...

  13. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates copolymers produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammed Gumel

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C(8:0 to oleic acid (C(18:1 were used as sole carbon and energy source. Molecular weight of the polymer was found to be ranging from 55.7 to 77.7 kDa. Depending on the type of fatty acid used, the (1H NMR and GCMSMS analyses of the chiral polymer showed a composition of even and odd carbon atom chain with monomer length of C4 to C14 with C8 and C10 as the principal monomers. No unsaturated monomer was detected. Thermo-chemical analyses showed the accumulated PHA to be semi-crystalline polymer with good thermal stability, having a thermal degradation temperature (T(d of 264.6 to 318.8 (± 0.2 (oC, melting temperature (T(m of 43. (± 0.2 (oC, glass transition temperature (T(g of -1.0 (± 0.2 (oC and apparent melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔH(f of 100.9 (± 0.1 J g(-1.

  14. Towards sustainable membrane filtration of palm oil mill effluent: analysis of fouling phenomena from a hybrid PAC-UF process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade

    2016-10-01

    Sustainability of a membrane process depends on many factors of which fouling mitigation is the most central. Because membrane fouling phenomenon is very complex, extent of fouling potential of a feedwater with respect to a membrane has to be identified right from the design stage. This will acquaint engineers with the proper fouling mitigation measures during operation. This study presents a preliminary fouling data from the ultrafiltration of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) after an upstream adsorption process. The flux decline is studied in a typical constant-pressure experiments with a cross-flow ultrafiltration of biotreated POME through Sartocon® polyethersulfone membranes (MWCOs 1, 5 and 10 kDa) at applied pressures of 40, 80 and 120 kPa. Results are examined, within the frame of the common blocking mechanisms and it was found that the blocking index η decreased from 2 to 0. Pore blocking phenomenon was successively observed from complete blocking (η = 2) down to cake filtration (η = 0), and the early blockage of the pores and a formation of a cake resulted in a limiting cake height. Thus, cake filtration could be best used to explain the fouling mechanisms of biotreated POME on the ultrafiltration membranes based on the R 2 values at all applied pressures. This demonstrates that the fouling was as a result of gradual reversible cake deposition which could easily be removed by less onerous cleaning methods. In addition, it could be concluded that the upstream adsorption reduced the particulate deposition on the membrane surface.

  15. Effect of temperature on methanogenesis stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Irvan, Mahdalena; Taslim; Turmuzi, M.

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature on methanogenesis stage of conversion of palm oil mill effluent into biogas. Methanogenesis is the second stage of methanogenic anaerobic digestion. Improved performance of the methanogenesis process was determined by measuring the growth of microorganisms, degradation of organic materials, biogas production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT 100, 40, 6, and 4.0 days in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with mixing rate 100 rpm, pH 6.7-7.5 at room temperature. Next, effect of temperature on the process was determined by varying temperature at mesophilic range (30-42°C) and thermophilic range (43-55°C). Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce biogas. Degradation of organic content i.e. VS decomposition and COD removal increased with the increasing of temperature. At mesophilic range, VS decomposition and COD removal were 51.56 ± 8.30 and 79.82 ± 6.03, respectively. Meanwhile at thermopilic range, VS decomposition and COD removal were 67.44 ± 3.59 and 79.16 ± 1.75, respectively. Biogas production and its methane content also increased with the increasing of temperature, but CO2 content also increased. Biogas production at mesophilic range was 31.77 ± 3.46 L/kg-ΔVS and methane content was 75 . Meanwhile, biogas production at thermopilic range was 37.03 ± 5.16 L/kg-ΔVS and methane content was 62.25 ± 5.50 .

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHANE-FREE, CONTINUOUS BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM FROM PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME IN CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIATUL FADZILLAH MANSOR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the start-up experiment for producing biological hydrogen in 2 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR from palm oil mill effluent (POME by the use of mixed culture sludge under non-sterile conditions. Besides using different source of starter culture, the effects of acid treated culture and various operating temperature from 35 °C to 55 °C were studied against the evolved gas in terms of volumetric H2 production rate (VHPR and soluble metabolite products (SMPs. The formation of methane was closely observed throughout the run. Within the studied temperature, VHPR was found as low as 0.71 L/L.d and ethanol was the main by-products (70-80% of total soluble metabolites. Attempts were made to produce biohydrogen without methane formation at higher thermophilic temperature (45-55 °C than the previous range. The average of 1.7 L H2 of 2 L working volume per day was produced at 55 oC with VHPR of 1.16 L/L.d. The results of soluble metabolites also are in agreement with the volatile fatty acids (VFAs which is higher than ethanol. Higher VFAs of 2269 mg/L was obtained with acetic acid being the main by-product. At this time methanogen has been deactivated and no methane was produced. From this study, it can be concluded that thermophilic environment may offer a better option in a way to eliminate methane from the biogas and at the same time improving hydrogen production rate as well.

  17. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent by thermophilic fermentative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Palm Oil Product and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93110 (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-Kaare [Department of Biology and Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    The optimum values of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions (60 C) were investigated in order to achieve the maximum process stability. Microbial community structure dynamics in the ASBR was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) aiming at improved insight into the hydrogen fermentation microorganisms. The optimum values of 2-d HRT with an OLR of 60 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1} gave a maximum hydrogen yield of 0.27 l H{sub 2} g COD{sup -1} with a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 9.1 l H{sub 2} l{sup -1} d{sup -1} (16.9 mmol l{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The hydrogen content, total carbohydrate consumption, COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal and suspended solids removal were 55 {+-} 3.5%, 92 {+-} 3%, 57 {+-} 2.5% and 78 {+-} 2%, respectively. Acetic acid and butyric acid were the major soluble end-products. The microbial community structure was strongly dependent on the HRT and OLR. DGGE profiling illustrated that Thermoanaerobacterium spp., such as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum and Thermoanaerobacterium bryantii, were dominant and probably played an important role in hydrogen production under the optimum conditions. The shift in the microbial community from a dominance of T. thermosaccharolyticum to a community where also Caloramator proteoclasticus constituted a major component occurred at suboptimal HRT (1 d) and OLR (80 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1}) conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen production performance was closely correlated with the bacterial community structure. This is the first report of a successful ASBR operation achieving a high hydrogen production rate from real wastewater (POME). (author)

  18. Fish population modeling approaches for assessing direct effects and recovery following mitigation of a pulp mill effluent in Jackfish Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an approach to link chemically-induced alterations in molecular and biochemical endpoints to adverse outcomes in whole organisms and populations. A predictive population model was developed to translate changes in fecundity measures of white sucker (Catostomus commers...

  19. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) co...

  20. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  1. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate.

  2. Patterns of fish community structure in a long-term watershed-scale study to address the aquatic ecosystem effects of pulp and paper mill discharges in four US receiving streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Camille A; Ragsdale, Renee L; Hall, Timothy J

    2009-04-01

    Physiological changes have been seen in individual fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME), but it is unclear whether community-level changes are seen in fish in PPME receiving waters. We conducted a study of 4 PPME receiving streams (Codorus Creek, PA, USA), the Leaf River (Forrest and Perry Counties, MS, USA), and the McKenzie and Willamette rivers (Lane County, OR, USA) over 9 y to assess temporal patterns in the type and relative abundance of fish species and measures of community structure and function related to PPME discharge. We used boat and backpack electrofishing to sample large- and small-bodied fish from the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, boat electrofishing to sample large-bodied fish from the Leaf River, and backpack electrofishing to sample the entire fish community from Codorus Creek. Study streams represented different ecoregions, warm- and coldwater systems, gradients of PPME concentration (mill process types. Bray-Curtis similarity and nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed high variation in fish communities across sites, seasons, and years. Significant site differences in fish communities were seen in most streams and community types, but distinct separation of sites was seen only in Codorus Creek and unrelated to PPME discharge. No seasonal differences were seen in fish community structure in any stream, with only weak annual patterns in large-bodied fish in the Leaf River and small-bodied fish in the McKenzie River. General linear models were used to examine spatial and temporal variation in fish metric response (abundance, species richness, Simpson's diversity, % dominant species, standing crop, % DELT, % intolerant, % omnivore, % piscivore). Significant site differences in metric response were largely limited to Codorus Creek and unrelated to PPME. Significant reductions of % dominant taxa of small-bodied fish and % large-bodied piscivores were also observed downstream of the PPME discharge on the McKenzie River relative to

  3. 40 CFR 430.93 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.93 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  4. Pemanfaatan Biogas (Gas Methan) Dari Hasil Pengolahan Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome) Secara Anaerobic Sebagai Bahan Bakar Unit Oil Refinery Dan Pencegah Pencemaran Lingkungan Di Pt.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara

    OpenAIRE

    sitorus, Syaiful bahri

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil production in Indonesia continues to increase, thereby increasing the amount of waste therefore to decimate environmental pollution load in the waste in the processing of palm oil in the palm oil mills in PT.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara has made Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by using Anaerobic technology to produce biogas which can be utilized as fuel for burning palm oil mills in the refinery unit Multimas 200 palm oil mills, once the reduced pollutant load will be processed b...

  5. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

    2011-01-01

    Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

  6. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; Ghobad Bagheri; Mostafa Khaleghi; Mazlan Abdul Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4) has...

  7. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; Ghobad Bagheri; Mostafa Khaleghi; Mazlan Abdul Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4) has...

  8. Evaluating impacts of pulp and paper mill process changes on bioactive contaminant loading to the St. Louis River, Duluth, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past in vivo and in vitro studies have found estrogenic and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated bioactivities associated with final treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharging to the St. Louis River Area of Concern near Duluth, MN, USA. A long-stand...

  9. Assembly, start and operation of an activated sludge reactor for the industrial effluents treatment: physico chemical and biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Assalin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although of the immense available bibliography regarding the activated sludge process, little it is found in relation to the basic procedure to be adopted to implant, to activate and to monitor a reactor of activated sludge in laboratory scales. This article describes the assembly, departure and operation of an activated sludge system, operating in continuous process, at a laboratory scale, to study effluents treatments, using as example, Kraft E1 pulp mill effluent. Factors as biodegradability of the effluent to be treated, stationary state of the reactor, conventional operation parameters as physical chemistry and biological parameters are presented.

  10. Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; Martins, Joaniel Munhoz; Ferracin, Luiz Carlos; da Cunha, Carlos Jorge

    2007-08-17

    Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

  11. 焚烧法处理制浆厂固体废弃物%Cineration is a Good Treatment for the Solid Waste of the Pulp Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 韩颖; 刘秉钺

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the boiler burning solid waste in pulp mill and the flow of waste and ash, air and flue gas, water and steam in the boiler were introduced in detail. In addition, the energy balance of the solid waste boiler was calculated. The result showed that the thermal efficiency of the boiler reaches to 67.17% and return time of investment is only in 55 days. At the same time, the economic and social benefits of the boiler were analyzed.%介绍了制浆厂用于焚烧固体废弃物的锅炉结构,以及锅炉工作时废弃物、灰渣、空气、烟气、水、饱和蒸汽等物质的流程.对固体废弃物锅炉的能量进行了衡算,锅炉的热效率可达到67.17%.同时阐述了锅炉焚烧固体废弃物的经济效益和社会效益.

  12. Chemically coupled microwave and ultrasonic pre-hydrolysis of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge: effect on sludge solubilisation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Lo, Shang-Lien; Rajpal, Ankur

    2014-05-01

    The effects of alkali-enhanced microwave (MW; 50-175 °C) and ultrasonic (US) (0.75 W/mL, 15-60 min) pretreatments, on solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion efficiency of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge, were investigated. Improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilisation were limited to 33 and 39 % in MW pretreatment only (175 °C). It reached 78 and 66 % in combined MW-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 175 °C), respectively. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand and VSS solubilisation were 58 and 37 % in US pretreatment alone (60 min) and it improved by 66 and 49 % after US-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 60 min), respectively. The biogas yield for US 60 min-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was significantly improved by 47 and 20 % over the control and US 60 reactors, respectively. The biogas generation for MW (150 °C)-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was only 6.3 % higher than control; however, it was 8.3 % lower than the MW (150 °C) reactor, which was due to the inhibition of anaerobic activity under harsh thermal-alkali treatment condition.

  13. Evaluation of the Fermentation Potential of Pulp Mill Residue to Produce D(-)-Lactic Acid by Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation Using Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Anelize; Ramirez, Ninoska Isabel Bojorge; Pereira, Nei

    2016-12-01

    Lactic acid is widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, besides it is the building block to produce polylactic acid, which is a sustainable alternative biopolymer to synthetic plastic due to its biodegradability. Aiming at producing an optically pure isomer, the present work evaluated the potential of pulp mill residue as feedstock to produce D(-)-lactic acid by a strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens using separate hydrolysis and fermentation process. Enzymatic hydrolysis, optimized through response surface methodology for 1 g:4 mL solid/liquid ratio and 24.8 FPU/gcellulose enzyme loading, resulted in 140 g L(-1) total reducing sugar and 110 g L(-1) glucose after 48 h, leading to 61 % of efficiency. In instrumented bioreactor, 57 g L(-1) of D(-)-lactic acid was achieved in 20 h of fermentation, while only 0.5 g L(-1) of L(+)-lactic acid was generated. Furthermore, product yield of 0.97 g/g and volumetric productivity of 2.8 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained.

  14. Application of ultrafiltration in the pulp and paper industry: metals removal and whitewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C R; Silva, C M; Milanez, A F

    2007-01-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, the water use minimization is a constant target. One way to reduce water use is to recycle the effluent in a closed-cycle concept. In paper mills, the main source of liquid effluent is the so-called whitewater, which is the excess water, originated from pulp stock dewatering and other fibre contaminated water. This research studied the reuse of paper mill whitewater after membrane ultrafiltration (UF) in the paper machine and in the pulp bleach plant of an integrated mill. Contaminant removal and flux behaviour of the UF system were evaluated. The treatment by ultrafiltration was technically feasible and the treated whitewater had good potential to be reused in some processes in the paper machine. The reuse of ultrafiltered whitewater in the bleaching plant was not recommended because of the high level of soluble calcium present in this stream. Therefore, a combined treatment of the whitewater using the principle of precipitation and ultrafiltration was proposed showing good results and enabling the use of the treated whitewater in the bleach plant.

  15. 40 CFR 430.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.102 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 430.104 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.104 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  17. Calculation of the release of total organic matter and total mineral using the hydrodynamic equations applied to palm oil mill effluent treatment by cascaded anaerobic ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes to remove organic matter from palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been used widely in Malaysia. Still the amounts of total organic and total mineral released from POME that may cause degradation of the receiving environment need to be verified. This paper proposes the use of the hydrodynamic equations to estimate performance of the cascaded anaerobic ponds (CAP) and to calculate amounts of total organic matter and total mineral released from POME. The CAP efficiencies to remove biochemical oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total solids and volatile solids (VS) as high as 94.5, 93.6, 96.3 and 98.2 %, respectively, are estimated. The amounts of total organic matter and total mineral as high as 538 kg VS/day and 895 kg FS/day, respectively, released from POME to the receiving water are calculated. The implication of the proposed hydrodynamic equations contributes to more versatile environmental assessment techniques, sometimes replacing laboratory analysis.

  18. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using palm oil mill effluent (POME): a low-cost and eco-friendly viable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Pei Pei; Ng, Shi Han; Huang, Yan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2012-06-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) from gold precursor using palm oil mill effluent (POME) without adding external surfactant, capping agent or template. The biosynthesized AuNps were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the image analysis performed on a representative TEM micrograph by counting 258 particles, the obtained AuNps are predominantly spherical with an average size of 18.75 ± 5.96 nm. In addition, some triangular and hexagonal nanoparticles were also observed. The influence of various reaction parameters such as reaction pH, concentration of gold precursor and interaction time to the morphology and size of biosynthesized AuNps was investigated. This study shows the feasibility of using agro waste material for the biosynthesis of AuNps which is potentially more scalable and economic due to its lower cost.

  19. A novel application of red mud-iron on granulation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that used red mud-iron (RM-Fe) for methane production for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) was determined. POME was used as the substrate carbon source. The biogas production rate was 1.7 l biogas/h with a methane yield of 0.78 l CH4/g CODremoved and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85% at POME concentration of 30 g COD/l at HRT 16 h. The reactor R2 showed average methane content of biogas and COD reduction of 78% and 85% at 400 mg/l RM-Fe. Significant increase in the granule diameter (up to 2900 μm) in R2 was compared to control R1 (up to 86 μm) at end of the experiment.

  20. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs).

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Sulfonated Carbon-Based Catalysts Derived From Rubber Tree Leaves and Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Sinin, E.; Hiew, S. F.; Kong, A. M. T.; Lahin, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts derived from rubber tree leaves, and pulp and paper mill waste were synthesized and characterized. Three types of catalyst synthesized were sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL), pyrolysed sludge char (P-SC) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC). Sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC) were prepared through pyrolysis followed by functionalization via sulfonation process whereas, P- SC was only pyrolyzed without sulfonation. The characterization results indicated sulfonic acids, hydroxyl, and carboxyl moieties were detected in S-RTL and S-SC, but no sulfonic acid was detected in P-SC. Total acidity test showed S-RTL had the highest value followed by S-SC and P-SC. The thermal stability of S-RTL and S-SC were up to 230oC as the loss was associated with the decomposition of sulfonic acid group, whereas, P-SC showed higher stability than the S-RTL and S-SC. Morphology analysis showed that S-RTL consisted of an amorphous carbon structure, and a crystalline structure for P-SC and S-SC. Furthermore, traces of metal components were also detected on all of the catalysts. The catalyst catalytic activity was tested through esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The results showed that the reaction using S-RTL catalyst produced the highest conversion (99.9%) followed by P-SC (88.4%) and lastly S-SC (82.7%). The synthesized catalysts showed high potential to be used in biodiesel production.

  2. Feasibility of using olive mill effluent (OME) as a wetting agent during the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmis, Erbil; Azbar, Nuri; Yildiz, Hasan; Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw substrate containing tap water and olive mill effluent (OME) mixture containing varying volume of OME was studied in order to investigate the feasibility of using OME as an alternative wetting agent and OME's impact on some fundamental food quality characteristics of mushrooms. Time period for mycelial colonization, primordium initiation and first harvest were comparatively evaluated with the control group. It was shown that the use of OME and tap water mixture consisting of OME up to 25% volumetrically was possible for the purpose of commercial mushroom production. Experimental results obtained from substrate containing 25% OME mixture showed no statistically significant difference compared to control group. The negative effects of increasing volume of OME in the mixture were also indicated by bioefficiency, which was found to be 13.8% for substrates wetted with 100% OME, whereas bioefficiency was 53.6% for control group. Increasing volume of OME in the mixture resulted in deformation of fruit body shape, whereas no significant difference in food quality was observed due to the higher amount of OME. This work suggested that the use of OME up to 25% as moisturizer could be considered, especially for the locations having significant number of olive mills and mushroom producers, both as an environmentally friendly solution for the safe and ecological disposal of OME and a practical way for recovering OME's economic value thereby.

  3. Changes in the n-alkane composition of avocado pulp oil ( Persea americana, Mill. during fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-alkane composition of Avocado pulp oil (cv. Hass was investigated during fruit ripening. Three samples of fruit were harvested on March 3, 2003, March 18, 2003 and April 2, 2003. Glass gravity column chromatography was employed to separate n-alkanes from other minor components contained in the unsaponifiable fraction. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the eluate. Fourteen compounds were detected ranging from n -C21 to n -C34; mainly n -C24, followed by n -C25 and then by n -C23. Quantities of n -C21, n -C22, n -C23, n -C27 and n -C28 progressively increased during ripening, whereas n -C24, n -C25, n -C26, n -C29, n -C30 and n -C34 decreased from the first harvest date to the third harvest date. While odd-numbered carbon n-alkanes increased (52.38 %, 52.85 % and 53.06 % for the three samples respectively, even-numbered carbon n-alkanes decreased as the fruit ripened (47.62 %, 47.15 % and 46.94 %. The total n-alkane content decreased during ripening, from 25.20 mg/Kg (first harvest date to 16.77 mg/Kg (third harvest date. In order to minimize.Se ha analizado la composición en hidrocarburos lineales saturados del aceite de la pulpa de aguacate (variedad Hass. Tres muestras fueron recolectadas: el 3 de marzo 2003, el 18 de marzo 2003 y el 2 de abril 2003. La separación de los hidrocarburos lineales saturados se realizó mediante fraccionamiento del insaponificable por cromatografía gravimétrica de adsorción en columna y la determinación de los mismos hidrocarburos por cromatografía gaseosa. 14 compuestos fueron detectados del n- C21 al n- C34. El n- C24 fue el mayoritario, seguido del n- C25 y el n- C23. El porcentaje de n- C21, n- C22, n- C23, n- C27 y n- C28, aumentó durante la maduración, mientras que el porcentaje de n- C24, n- C25, n- C26, n- C29, n- C30 y C34 disminuyó desde el 3 de marzo 2003 hasta el 2 de abril 2003. Los hidrocarburos lineales saturados con número impar de átomos de carbono aumentaron (52.38 %, 52

  4. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata

    1991-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  5. 《制浆造纸工业水污染物排放标准》的特点及企业应对策略%The Feature of《Discharge Regulation of Water Pollutants of Pulp and Paper Industry》and Implementation Strategy of the Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔维川; 洪建国

    2011-01-01

    The feature of ( GB3544-2008) was discussed in this paper, and it was compared with the American and European regulations. The mills' corresponding measures in process and equipment of effluent treatment are suggested when the new regulation comes into force and the advanced treatment methods of pulp and paper waste water were summarized and their economic impacts were compared.%介绍了我国制浆造纸工业技术水平及污染治理现状.分析了制浆造纸工业水污染物排放新标准(GB3544—2008)的特点,并与原有旧标准和欧美等国相关标准进行了比较.提出了制浆造纸企业在新标准实施后,在废水处理工艺和设备上应当采取的应对措施,总结了制浆造纸废水深度处理的常见方法,对新标准下废水处理的经济效益进行了分析.

  6. Improving Measures of Concentrated Black Liquor Storage Tank Circulation System in a Bamboo Pulp Mill%竹浆浓黑液贮槽循环系统的优化改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨笃明; 邓天文

    2011-01-01

    介绍大型竹浆厂浓黑液贮槽循环系统的原始设计概况及投用后存在的问题,提出优化改进的措施并予以实施,在实际生产运行过程取得良好效果.%The original design and the existing problems in operation of the concentrated black liquor storage tank circulation system in a large scale bamboo pulp mill were introduced, the improving measures were put forward and implemented, good result was achieved in practice.

  7. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 430.54 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ammonium-based sulfite pulp segment with respect to each fiber line that uses exclusively TCF bleaching... effluent limitations apply to dischargers in the specialty grade pulp segment with respect to each fiber...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade...

  9. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of agitation on methanogenesis stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang; Irvan, Zahara, Intan; Taslim, Turmuzi, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    This study is an assessment of the effect of agitation on biogas production on methanogenesis stage. Methanogenesis is the second stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil effluent (POME) into biogas. The purpose of this study is to get the effect of agitation on growth of microorganisms, degradation of organic substances, and biogas production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT at 100, 40, 6, and 4 days in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with agitation rate 100 rpm, pH 6.7-7.5, at room temperature. Next, effect of agitation on the process was determined by varying agitation rate at 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm. The substrate used was the effluent of the acidogenesis stage that fed to the CSTR four times a day. Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce biogas. Production and composition of biogas were also determined by measuring the volume of biogas and content of H2S and CO2. The result showed that the pH and alkalinity it was still within the range of methanogenesis process. The growth of microorganisms were increased with the increasing of agitation rate. However, the best degradation of organic substances, biogas production, and biogas composition were achieved at 100 rpm. The VS decomposition, COD removal, biogas production, CO2 content, and CH4 content at 100 rpm were 67.44 ± 3.59%, 81.00%, 58.87 ± 6.27 L/kg-ΔVS, 23.36%, and 76.64%, respectively.

  11. Metal biosorption in lignocellulosic biofuel biorefinery effluent: an initial step towards sustainability of water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Amanda J; Taylor, Sean C; Addison, Sarah L; Slade, Alison H; Glover, Chris N

    2012-09-01

    Biosorption of metals by microorganisms is a promising technology to remove accumulated non-process elements in highly recycled biorefinery process water. Removal of these elements would enable greater water reuse and reduce the environmental impact of effluent discharge. A model lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery wastewater was created based on pulp mill effluent. This generated a wastewater with an environmentally realistic high loading of dissolved natural organic matter (900 mg/l), a potentially important factor influencing metal biosorption. Analysis of feedstock and pulp mill effluent indicated that Mn and Zn are likely to be problematic in highly recycled lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery process water. Therefore, the growth of several bacteria and fungi from existing collections, and some isolated from pulp mill effluent were tested in the model wastewater spiked with Mn and Zn (0.2 mM). Wastewater isolates grew the best in the wastewater. Metal uptake varied by species and was much greater for Zn than Mn. A bacterium, Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens Y88(T), removed the most metal per unit biomass, 35 and 17 mg Mn/g. No other organism tested decreased the Mn concentration. A yeast, Candida tropicalis, produced the most biomass and removed the most total metal (38 % of Zn), while uptake per unit biomass was 24 mg Zn/g. These results indicate that microorganisms can remove significant amounts of metals in wastewater with high concentrations of dissolved natural organic matter. Metal sorption by autochthonous microorganisms in an anaerobic bioreactor may be able to extend water reuse and therefore lower the water consumption of future biorefineries.

  12. Adsorption of colour, TSS and COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME using acid-washed coconut shell activated carbon: Kinetic and mechanism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Yong Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of palm oil mill effluent (POME without proper treatment before being discharged into natural water sources has become undesirable because of high concentration of suspended solid (SS, oil and grease (O&G, chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD. This study investigated the feasibility of removing colour, total suspended solid (TSS and COD using acid-washed coconut shell based activated carbon (CSAC through the evaluation of the adsorption uptake as well as the adsorption kinetics and mechanism. The percentage removal of colour, TSS and COD from POME onto CSAC were 61%, 39%, 66%, respectively achieved within 48 hours of contact time. The kinetic models studied were pseudo-first-order (PFO, pseudo-second-order (PSO, and Elovich models. The intra-particle diffusion (IPD model was studied to interpret the adsorption diffusion mechanism. The adsorption of colour, TSS and COD onto CSAC were best interpreted by the PSO model, and well fitted by the Elovich model. The IPD and Boyd plots indicated that IPD and film diffusion controlled the adsorption of colour, TSS and COD onto the CSAC.

  13. Oil palm by product as an alternative feedstuff in Central Kalimantan: 1. The effect of feeding palm oil mill effluent on broiler’s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent, a by product of crude palm oil processing, is found in an exessive amount in Central Kalimantan. It is estimated that 400 ton of this material is produced per day by crude palm oil (CPO factory in this region. This material contains 12.63-17.41% crude protein, 9.98-25.79% crude fiber, 7.12-15.15% crude fat and 3217-3454 kcal/kg (gross energy. An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens of Hubbard strain in Kapuas District. The objectives of the experiment was to study the performance of broilers fed solid in the diet. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design. The treatments were levels of solid in the diet, i.e., 0.0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5%. Four hundred broilers were devided into 4 treatment groups with 5 replications, consisted of 20 chickens in each replicate. The results of this experiment showed that diet containing 0.0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5% of solid respectively produced final live weight of broilers 2508, 2229 and 1880 g respectively, whereas control (0.0% of solid was 2712 g. Feed conversion of the treatments were 2.39, 2.76, 3.24 respectively and without solid as control was 2.36. It is concluded that diet containing as much as 12.5% of solid can be used in broiler ration.

  14. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4 has been utilized as a fuel in a lab-scale furnace. A computational approach by standard k-ε combustion and turbulence model is applied. Hydrogen is added to the biogas components and the impacts of hydrogen enrichment on the temperature distribution, flame stability, and pollutant formation are studied. The results confirm that adding hydrogen to the POME biogas content could improve low calorific value (LCV of biogas and increases the stability of the POME biogas flame. Indeed, the biogas flame length rises and distribution of the temperature within the chamber is uniform when hydrogen is added to the POME biogas composition. Compared to the pure biogas combustion, thermal NOx formation increases in hydrogen-enriched POME biogas combustion due to the enhancement of the furnace temperature.

  15. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Md Zahangir; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Md Noor; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%.

  16. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-14

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  17. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankari, R.; Kumaran, P.; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Halim Shamsuddin, Abd

    2013-06-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  18. Photodegradation of Polyphenols and Aromatic Amines in Olive Mill Effluents with Ni Doped C/TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Teresa Sponza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nickel coated carbon based titanium dioxide [C/TiO2/Ni] nanocomposites were used for photodegradation of polyphenols and total aromatic amines (TAAs metabolites from olive mill wastewaters (OMW at different operational conditions such as different mass ratios of C, TiO2, and Ni (1%/2%/5%; 5%/1%/2%; and 2%/5%/1%, being at increasing photodegradation times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 120, and 180 min, photocatalyst concentrations (100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L−1, pH values (3.5, 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0 and temperatures (15°C, 25°C, 50°C, and 80°C, and being under 300 W ultraviolet (UV and 30 W sunlight irradiation. Under the optimized conditions, at pH=7.0, at 500 mg L−1 C/TiO2/Ni nanocomposite, under 300 W UV light, after 60 min, at 25°C, the maximum CODdissolved, total phenol, and TAAs removals were 99%, 90%, and 96%, respectively. Photodegradation removals in the OMW under sunlight and being lower than those under UV light.

  19. Optimization and Technical/Economical Evaluation of Biogas Production from Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Optimering och teknisk/ekonomisk utvaerdering av biogasproduktion fraan bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu-Bin Truong; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2010-04-15

    The biogas potentials from biosludges from six different pulp- and paper mills have been evaluated. It ranged from 100 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS (volatile solids) for all six mills where five of them gave results between 150 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS. Long-term semi-continuous trials with biosludges from two of the mills showed stable biogas production throughout the testing period. Pretreatments with enzymes and ultrasound were tested but showed no significant effect on the methane potential. The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a small plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), producing 305 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 30 MSEK and for a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, producing 871 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK (1 USD approx 7 SEK)

  20. Modeling BOD and COD removal from Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent in floating wetland by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Sairi, Nor Asrina

    2016-10-01

    While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process. A three factor central composite design (CCD) was used to predict the experimental variables (POMSE concentration, Vetiver plant density and time). An extraordinary decrease in organic matter as measured by BOD and COD (96% and 94% respectively) was recorded during the experimental duration of 4 weeks using a density of 30 Vetiver plants. The best and lowest final BOD of 2 mg/L was obtained when using 15 Vetiver plants after 13 days for low concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 50 mg/L). The next best result of BOD at 32 mg/L was obtained when using 30 Vetiver plants after 24 days for medium concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 175 mg/L). These results confirmed the validity of the model, and the experimental value was determined to be quite close to the predicted value, implying that the empirical model derived from RSM experimental design can be used to adequately describe the relationship between the independent variables and response. The study showed that the Vetiver system is an effective method of treating POMSE.

  1. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent with lampung natural zeolite as microbe immobilization medium and digested cow manure as starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Cahyono, Rochim Bakti; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is well-known as the world's biggest palm oil producer with 32.5 million tons of annual production. Palm oil processing contributes to 60% wastewater, leading to environmental problem caused by excessive production of wastewater. This wastewater, i.e. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), has high organic content (40,000-60,000 mg COD/L) which is potential for biogas production. However, its low pH value and long chain fatty acid content likely inhibit the anaerobic digestion. Porous media might reduce the inhibitory effect during POME digestion since the media act as both immobilization media for bacteria and as inhibitor adsorbent. Excessive amount of porous media might interfere with the nutrient consumption by microbes. There will be an optimum amount of porous media added, which depends on the wastewater characteristics. This research studied Lampung natural zeolite as immobilization media in digesting POME. The batch experiment was conducted for 40 days with different amount of natural zeolite, i.e. 0; 45; 100; and 200 g/g COD. Digested cow manure was used as the starter inoculum, considering the abundance of anaerobic bacteria therein. Zeolite addition was proven to accelerate COD reduction and stabilized the volatile fatty acid as the intermediate product of anaerobic digestion. The addition of natural zeolite up to 45 g/g COD is considered enough to increase the COD removal (85.695 %), maintain the methane content up to 50%, and enhance the bacteria activity. However, larger amount of natural zeolite lowered the methane production and COD reduction, which indicated nutrient adsorption on to the media and hence caused decreasing nutrient access by the microbes.

  3. The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1. Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1 and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

  4. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Habeeb, AB. Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Zulkifli Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME. This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB. Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28±2°C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37±1°C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  5. Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

  6. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in batch reactor with digested biodiesel waste as starter and natural zeolite for microbial immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Paulina Adina Hari; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the wastewater discharged from sludge separation, sterilization, and clarification process of palm oil industries. Each ton of palm oil produces about half ton of high organic load wastewater. Up to now, POME treatment is done in lagoon, leaving major problems in land requirement and greenhouse gasses release. The increasing of palm oil production provokes the urgency of appropriate technology application in treating POME to prevent the greenhouse gasses emission while exploit POME as renewable energy source. The purposes of this study were firstly to test the effectiveness of using the digested biodiesel waste as the inoculum and secondly to evaluate the effectiveness of natural zeolite addition in minimizing the inhibitory effect in digesting POME. It was expected that the oil-degrading bacteria in the inoculum would shorten the adaptation period in digesting POME. Furthermore, the consortium formation of anaerobic bacteria accelerated by natural zeolite powder addition would increase the microbial resistance to the inhibitors contained in the POME. The batch digesters, containing 0 (control); 17; 38; and 63 g natural zeolite/g sCOD substrate were observed for 43 days. The result showed that zeolite addition did not give significant effect on sCOD reduction (97.3-98.6% of initial sCOD). Moreover, addition of immobilization media up to 17 g natural zeolite/g stimulated the acidification and biogas production up to 10% higher than control. The purity of methane produced with various amount of immobilization media did not differ for each variation, i.e. 50-54% v/v methane. The increasing amount of natural zeolite up to 63 g/g sCOD did not significantly enhance biogas product rate nor methane content.

  7. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of a kraft pulp mill from the incineration in the recovery boiler of biological sludge; Effekter av PFG vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i ett massabruks sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler of a Swedish Kraft pulp mill, StoraEnso Pulp AB Skutskaers Bruk, which has practiced incineration of sludge in the recovery boiler during the last two years. The following aspects of the technique were investigated: Experience from operation of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler; The content of Non-Process Elements (NPE) in process flows and evaluate the risks of incrustations in the system; The build-up of NPE in the chemicals recovery system and the estimated increase in make-up lime demand; and Technical risks for mills with different process equipment. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium, copper, and nitrogen. The operational experience from the system for hydrolysis of the biological sludge and evaporation/incineration in the recovery boiler is excellent. The handling of the sludge takes place in a closed system that demands little supervision and maintenance. Overall, the mill has not seen any negative effects that can be explained by increased intake of NPEs to the chemical recovery system. Aluminium can lead to troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminium-silicates on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. An effective elimination of aluminium by the green liquor dreg is obtained with the double salt hydrotalcite if the quotient Mg/Al is kept higher than 4-5 in the black liquor. The need for make-up lime has increased due to the build-up of phosphorus in the lime. Depending on the level of make-up lime the need will increase 2-5 kg/ t{sub 90} at a price of 2-5 kr/t{sub 90}. If a higher level of phosphorus is accepted instead of increasing lime make-up the running costs will be somewhat higher, 0,5-1 kr/t{sub 90} due to increased ballast. NO{sub x} in the flue gases from the recovery boiler has not increased since the

  8. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with ...

  9. Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, V; Rai, J P N

    2003-02-01

    The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from wastewater for their metabolic use. Slurry of the two plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that produced by the plants grown in deionized water; the effect being more marked with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% pulp and paper mill effluent. Biogas production from channel grass was relatively greater and quicker (maximum in 6-9 days) than that from water hyacinth (in 9-12 days). Such variation in biogas production by the two macrophytes has been correlated with the changes in C, N and C/N ratio of their slurry brought by phytoremediation.

  10. Soil Quality after Six Years of Paper Mill Industrial Wastewater Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Carreiro Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of wastewater to irrigate soils may be an attractive option for paper mills, especially when the effluents can also provide nutrients to plants. Since there could be negative environmental effects, such activity must be preceded by a thorough evaluation of the consequences. The changes in soil quality of a Neossolo Flúvico Distrófico (Typic Udifluvent were evaluated over a period of six years of irrigation with treated effluent from a wood pulp company. Although effluent application for six years did not affect soil resistance to penetration and soil hydraulic conductivity, it promoted a decrease in the mean size of aggregates and an increase in clay dispersion. Effluent application increased soil pH but did not change exchangeable Ca and Mg contents and organic carbon. After a full rotation of eucalyptus cultivation common in Brazil (six years, no negative effects in tree growth were found due to effluent irrigation. However, effluent addition caused higher values of Na adsorption ratio and intermediate electrical conductivity in the soil, which indicates a possible negative effect on soil quality if the application continues over a longer period. Therefore, a monitoring program should be carried out during subsequent crop rotations, and alternatives must be studied to obtain better effluent quality, such as adding Ca and Mg to the wastewater and using gypsum in the soil.

  11. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  12. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  13. Development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction procedure with GC-FID for analysis of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Phoopraintra, Pattamaporn; Wilairat, Prapin; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Chantiwas, Rattikan

    2017-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric and valeric acids, play an important role in methanogenesis activity for biogas production processes. Thus, simple and rapid procedures for monitoring the levels of short-chain fatty acids are requisite for sustaining biogas production. This work presents the development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction (SI-LME) procedure with GC-FID analysis for determination of short-chain fatty acids. GC-FID was employed for detection of the short-chain fatty acids. Calibration curves were linear with good coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.999), using methacrylic acid as the internal standard. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.03-0.19mM. The SI-LME procedure employed tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) as the extracting solvent. Various SI-LME conditions were investigated and optimized to obtain the highest recovery of extraction. With these optimized conditions, an extraction recovery of the five key short-chain fatty acids of 67-90% was obtained, with less than 2% RSD (n=3). The final SI-LME procedure employed two fluidic zones of TBME with a single aqueous fluidic zone of sample sandwiched between the TBME zones, with 5 cycles of flow reversal at a flow rate of 5µL/s for the extraction process. Intra- and inter-day precision values were 0.5-4.0% RSD and 3.3-4.8% RSD, respectively. Accuracy based on percentage of sample recovery were in the range of 69-96, 102-107, and 82-101% (n=4) for acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluents used in biogas production in a factory performing palm oil extraction process. The SI-LME method provides improved extraction performance with high precision, and is both simple and rapid with its economical extraction technique. The SI-LME procedure with GC-FID has strong potential for use as a quality control process for monitoring

  14. Application of Biochemical Markers for Population Level Assessment of a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need in ecological risk assessment is an approach that can be used to link chemically-induced alterations in molecular and biochemical endpoints to adverse outcomes in whole organisms and populations. A predictive population model was developed to translate changes in fecundit...

  15. Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouveng, H.O.

    1967-01-01

    Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

  16. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents.

  17. 用浸没式平板膜生物反应器处理草浆中段废水%Treatment of Washing/Bleaching Effluent from Straw Pulping Line by Using Immersed Flat Membrane Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安龙; 陈月; 赵小玲; 闫东峰

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of washing and bleaching wastewater of the wheat straw pulping line by using an immersed flat membrane bioreactor prepared in lab was studied. The experimental results showed that the CODCr, color, and SS removal efficiencies reach 90. 0%, 92.3% and 96.0% respectively. The effluent quality can meet the "the paper industry water pollution discharge standard" (GB3544-2008) requirements. The membrane pollution can be reduced by optimizing the operation parameters.%用自制浸没式平板膜生物反应器(MBR)对麦草浆中段废水进行处理,CODCr、色度和SS的去除率分别为90.0%、92.3%和96.0%,出水达到制浆造纸工业水污染物排放标准(GB3544-2008)的排放要求.处理过程中通过优化运行参数有效减缓了膜污染的发生.

  18. Growth and antioxidant response of Brassica rapa var. rapa L. (turnip) irrigated with different compositions of paper and board mill (PBM) effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Saeed, Zohaib; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Akhtar, Naeem; Majeed, Abdul

    2013-05-01

    Current study presents the effect of irrigation with different compositions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) of PBM effluent on growth and antioxidant potential of Brassica rapa var. rapa L. plants. Seeds were exposed to different PBM effluent compositions, which resulted in significant decrease in their germination potential with elevated delay index. Significant changes in growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves and leaf area) were recorded for turnip plants at regular intervals (25, 50 and 75 d) as function of PBM effluent proportion. Response of biochemical and antioxidant constituents in different parts of turnip, against stress induced by PBM effluent, was assessed by estimating the contents of chlorophyll (a+b), carotenoids, protein, phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring DPPH radical scavenging potential. The results of this study suggest that the impact of PBM effluent irrigation is dependent on concentration of effluent in irrigation mixture and is very clear on plant growth and antioxidant attributes. Maximum benefits were secured at 40% PBM effluent to irrigate turnip plants till maturity while higher concentrations were found useful for shorter period (25-50 d).

  19. Purification and recycling of the waste water of a paper mill using mechanical pulp; Mekaanista massaa kaeyttaevaen paperitehtaan jaeteveden puhdistus ja uudelleenkaeyttoe - EKY 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattelemaeki, R. [Enso Oyj, Imatra (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the project was to study which levels of organic and inorganic substances could be obtained by treatment of waste waters of mechanical pulper and paper machine biologically and after that with solid matter removal. Another target was also to test the utilisation of the purified water in pulp and paper manufacture, and to study the properties of purified water. The three months test runs with PK 4 and TMP plant clarified waters were carried out using a pilot-scale plant, which also consisted of two serial aerobic bioreactors and a parallel anaerobic line as a reference. The solid matter was removed by chemical flocculation, flotation and sand filtration. The purification efficiencies of both waters were similar both in aerobic and anaerobic lines. The reduction of soluble COD in biological stage was about 75 % and that of the whole line about 85 %. The solid matter reduction was 60-70 %. Solid fines, including bacteria, could not be removed sufficiently from the water by flotation and sand filtration so the water cannot be recommended to be used to replace fresh water. Circulating water sheets were produced, and pulp washing tests, retention tests and microbiological tests were carried out in order to estimate the recyclability of the water. Minor lowering of whiteness of the sheets were observed when a part of the fresh water was replaced with recycled water. Microscopic analysis shoved that after the sand filter there were a lot of free bacteria in the water. Further research will be concentrated to recycling of purified water, e.g. To research on how the colour of the water effects on the quality of the product. (orig.)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE AGRO BASED INDIAN PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Panwar; N.Endlay; S.Mishra; R.M.Mathur; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Indian Pulp & Paper Industry is more than a century old industry . The first paper mill was established in the year 1832 and today the number has grown to more than 400 in the organised sector which are located through out the country . In addition there are another 500 pulp & paper mills in the unorganized sector. The Indian pulp & paper industry can be categorised into large, medium and small depending on the scale of operation as indicated in Table -I Most of the large mills established initially were based on woody raw materials.

  1. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  2. Evaluation of Co-Digestion of Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Utvaerdering av samroetningspotential foer bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Andreas; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2011-02-15

    The biogas potentials from 2 biosludges from the pulp- and paper industry and 10 possible co-digestion substrates have been evaluated. 6 combinations, each including two co-digestion substrates and one biosludge, were evaluated in lab scale biogas reactors. Stable biogas processes were obtained with all combinations and the rawgas potential was higher in the co-digestion processes then for the biosludges alone (0.31- 0.43 compared to 0.21- 0.22 NL/g VS) The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), co-digested with evaporation condensate (3 m3/d) and fibre sludge (3 ton/d) and thereby producing 850 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 43 MSEK excluding ground works. For a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, co-digested with food waste (8 ton/d) and cereal residues (12 ton/d) and producing 2 500 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr, the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK excluding ground works

  3. Bleaching of olive mill wastewater by clay in the presence of hydrogen peroxide; Decoloration d'effluents liquides des huileries d'olives par des sols argileux en presence du peroxyde d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oukili, O.; Chaouch, M.; Rafiq, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement, Fes (Morocco); Hadji, M. [Laboratoire de Controle des Eaux, R.A.D.E.E.F., Fes (Morocco); Hamdi, M. [INSAT, Lab. de Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Fes (Morocco); Benlemlih, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Fes (Morocco)

    2001-04-01

    Treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with clayey soils in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) allows the elimination of phenolic compounds responsible for the black-brownish color of this industrial effluent. The aim of this research was to define optimal physicochemical parameters for the bleaching of OMW with clay in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Two clayey soil powders were tested (A and B) and the results obtained indicate that high bleaching could be reached after 24 hours exposure of OMW to 7 % (W/V) clay material A in the presence of 0.5 % (V/V) hydrogen peroxide. Under these conditions, the bleaching led to about 87 % decrease of polyphenols (PF) and a 66 % decrease of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The structure of clay and its concentration in iron salts have an effective adsorbent and catalytic effect on the removal of the majority of polyphenols. (authors)

  4. Flow dynamics of pulp fiber suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Carla; Garcia, Fernando; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasteiro, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The transport between different equipment and unit operations plays an important role in pulp and paper mills because fiber suspensions differ from all other solid-liquid systems, due to the complex interactions between the different pulp and paper components. Poor understanding of the suspensions’ flow dynamics means the industrial equipment design is usually conservative and frequently oversized, thus contributing to excessive energy consumption in the plants. Our study aim was ...

  5. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  6. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1984-05-01

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables.

  7. A NEW PULP YIELD PREDICTION METHOD APPLIED TO KRAFT,KRAFT-AQ,POLYSULFIDE AND PSAQ PULPING OF ROCK MAPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriaan van Heiningen; Yang Gao; Mehmet Sefik Tunc

    2004-01-01

    Pulp yield has a major impact on the competitiveness of a mill. In order to optimize pulp yield, for example by changing operating conditions, a mill must be able to monitor the yield accurately. In our previous work,a new method was presented for prediction of pulp yield. The method is based on a fundamental relationship derived from the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis, peeling and stopping reactions of cellulose and the cellulose mass balance during pulping. In this paper the application of the pulp yield prediction equation for pulping of Rock Maple is investigated. The effect of different operating conditions, such as H-factor, temperature, alkali charge, sulfidity, and the presence of anthraquinone and polysulfide are described.

  8. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  9. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  10. Environmental risk assessment of heavy metal extractability in a biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant of a pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöykiö, R; Nurmesniemi, H; Keiski, R L

    2007-05-01

    A five-stage sequential extraction procedure was used to fractionate heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, As, V and Ba) in a biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland, into the following fractions: (1) water-soluble fraction, (2) exchangeable fraction, (3) easily reduced fraction, (4) oxidizable fraction, and (5) residual fraction. The biosludge investigated in this study is a combination of sludge from the primary and secondary clarifiers at the biological wastewater treatment plant. Extraction stages (2)-(4) follow the protocol proposed by the Measurements and Testing Program (formerly BCR Programme) of the European Commission, which is based on acetic acid extraction (stage 2), hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction (stage 3), and hydrogen peroxide digestion following the ammonium acetate extraction (stage 4). The residual fraction (stage 5) was based on digestion of the residue from stage 4 in a mixture of HF + HNO3 + HCl. Although metals were extractable in all fractions, the highest concentrations of most of the metals occurred in the residual fraction. From the environmental point of view, it was notable that the total heavy metal concentrations in the biosludge did not exceed the maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for sewage sludge used in agriculture, set on the basis of environmental protection of soil by European Union Directive 86/278/EEC, and by the Finnish legislation. The Ca (98.6 g kg(-1); dry weight) and Mg (2.2 g kg(-1); dry weight) concentrations in the biosludge were 62 and 11 times higher than the typical values of 1.6 and of 0.2 g kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively, in arable land in Central Finland. The biosludge had a slightly alkaline pH ( approximately 8.30), a high loss-on-ignition value ( approximately 78%) and a liming effect of 10.3% expressed as Ca equivalents (dry weight). This indicates its potential as a soil conditioner and

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE AGRO BASED INDIAN PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Panwar; N.Endlay; S.Mishra; R.M.Mathur; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    The Indian Pulp & Paper Industry is more than a century old industry . The first paper mill was established in the year 1832 and today the number has grown to more than 400 in the organised sector which are located through out the country. In addition there are another 500 pulp & paper mills in the unorganized sector. The Indian pulp & paper industry can be categorised into large, medium and small depending on the scale of operation as indicated in Table -I.

  12. The energy saving potential of a new mechanical pulping process; Puristushieronnan mahdollisuudet mekaanisen massanvalmistuksen energiakulutuksen pienentaemisessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietarila, V. (UPM-Kymmene OYj, Lappeenranta (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The target of this project is to develop a new mechanical pulping process to produce papermaking pulp from chips. Energy consumption of this process should be remarkably lower than in mill processes today. In earlier small scale studies it has been pointed out that it could be possible to produce acceptable pulp in a process that differs from todayAEs pulp production methods. Anyhow extensive research efforts are required to test and develop this new process. (orig.)

  13. Hemicellulases in the bleaching of chemical pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurnäkki, A; Tenkanen, M; Buchert, J; Viikari, L

    1997-01-01

    Hemicellulase-aided bleaching is the first full-scale biotechnical application in the pulp and paper industry which truly exploits the unique specificity and safety of biocatalysts. Hemicellulases are used to modify the structure of xylan and glucomannan in pulp fibers in order to enhance the chemical delignification. This technology can be combined with various types of kraft pulping processes and bleaching sequences. The aims of the enzymatic treatment depend on the actual mill conditions, and may be related to environmental demands, reduction of chemical costs, or maintenance or even improvement of product quality. The technology is applied on the mill scale in several countries. This review describes the principles of the enzyme-aided bleaching, the composition of the fiber substrates, the basic enzymology involved, and the present knowledge of the mechanisms of the action of enzymes, as well as the practical results and advantages obtained on the laboratory and industrial scale.

  14. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

  15. Role of H2O2 in the fluctuating patterns of COD (chemical oxygen demand) during the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using pilot scale triple frequency ultrasound cavitation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Sivakumar; Abidin, Norhaida binti Zainal; Parthasarathy, Shridharan; Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ng, Ern Huay; Tiong, Timm Joyce; Gomes, Rachel L; Ali, Asgar

    2014-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME.

  16. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  17. Phyto-extraction of heavy metals and biochemical changes with Brassica nigra L. grown in rayon grade paper mill effluent irrigated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uday Veer; Abhishek, Amar; Bhaskar, Monika; Tandan, Neeraj; Ansari, Nasreen Ghazi; Singh, Netra Pal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, distribution of metal accumulation and their biological changes of Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) grown in soil irrigated with different concentration of rayon grade paper effluent (RGPE, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, v/v) were studied. A pronounced effect was recorded at 50% (v/v) RGPE on germination of seeds, amylase activity and other growth parameters in Indian mustard plants. An increase in the chlorophyll and protein contents was also recorded at 75%). A significant increase lipid peroxidation was recorded, which was evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in shoot, leaves and seeds in tested plant at all the concentrations of RGPE. This Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) are well adapted for tolerance of significant amount of heavy metals due to increased level of antioxidants (cysteine and ascorbic acid) in root shoot and leaves of treated plants at all concentration of RGPE. Moreover, it is also important that RGPE should be treated to bring down the metal concentration well within the prescribed limit prior to use in agricultural soil for ferti-irrigation.

  18. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  19. Identification and analysis of energy saving projects in a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, E. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large amounts of energy in the form of heat and electricity. Energy efficiency has become a priority to keep Canada's primary industry competitive. This paper presented the results of a project in which the energy efficiency of a Quebec kraft pulp mill was improved in order to reduce steam consumption. The Pinch Analysis was used to identify potential sources for energy recovery. Unrecovered heat in bleaching and evaporator effluents along with boiler flue gases can serve as alternative heat sources in heat transfers. Predicting heating and cooling demands using Pinch rules becomes increasingly complicated as more streams are involved. Heat cannot be transferred across the pinch point. In addition, no cold utility should be used above the pinch point and no hot utility should be used below the pinch point. Violating these rules results in an increase in both heating and cooling requirements. This paper addressed pinch rule violations with reference to pulp machines and hotwell tank and deaerators. The economic evaluation of the energy savings was determined by considering investment costs versus energy saved. CADSIM Plus was used to simulate the heat exchanger that was developed with Aspen HX-Net software. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  20. 40 CFR 430.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...). (b) For secondary fiber non-deink facilities where paperboard from wastepaper is produced,...

  1. 40 CFR 430.24 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade... (b) of this section— (1) The following effluent limitations apply with respect to each fiber line... to each fiber line that uses exclusively TCF bleaching processes, as disclosed by the discharger...

  2. METODE EKSTRAKSI PELARUT BERBANTUAN ULTRASONIK UNTUK RECOVERY MINYAK DARI LIMBAH CAIR PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT Application of Ultrasound-assisted Solvent Extraction for Recovery of Oil from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, application of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POMEwas studied. Extraction conditions such as volume ratio of POME to solvent, extraction time and type of solvent were investigated. Extraction was carried out at room temperature with total volume (POME and solvent of 300 ml. The experimental results showed that ultrasound-assisted extraction provided higher yield than without ultrasound using mechanical stirring. The highest oil yield of 0.265 % obtained at ultrasound-assisted extraction condition of volume ratio of POME to solvent 5:1, extraction time of 60 minutes using n-hexane as solvent. The highest oil yield and carotene concentration were obtained by n-hexane. Meanwhile, there was no significant differenece of carotene concentration obtained from ultrasound-assisted and without ultrasound-assisted extraction. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik untuk recovery minyak dari limbahcair pabrik kelapa sawit. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada temperatur kamar dengan menggunakan volum total campuran (limbah dan pelarut sebanyak 300 ml. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut (1:1; 2:1; 4:1; dan 5:1, waktu ekstraksi (30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit, dan jenis pelarut (n-heksan dan petroleum eter. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik menghasilkan rendemen minyak yang lebih besar dibandingkan ekstraksi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik dengan menggunakan pengadukan mekanik. Rendemen minyak tertinggi sebesar 0,265 % diperoleh pada proses ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik dengan rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut 5:1, waktu ekstraksi 90 menit dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Rendemen minyak dan konsentrasi karoten yang lebih tinggi diperoleh pada ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik dan tanpa bantuan ultrasonik memberikan perbedaan

  3. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  4. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  5. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  6. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  7. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bofeng Mao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can have significant impact on pulp strength properties. We have studied cooking homogeneity of two kraft digesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is a one-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phase continuous digester (digester B). They are located in the same mill and use the same softwood chip quality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steaming and cooking facilities and conditions, significant differences in pulp strength properties, reject contents and kappa variations have been found between the pulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has a modem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and air removal, whereas digester B has poor chip pre-steaming conditions. Our strength delivery studies show that although the two digesters produce pulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, the pulp produced in digester A has about 20% higher strength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lower reject content and lower kappa variations based on FTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulp produced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that more homogeneous cooking, i.e., lower lignin/kappa variation in the fibers, leads to improved pulp strength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming is important/essential for achieving homogeneous cooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improving chip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to be carried out.

  8. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  9. Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent Emprego de Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 e Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 para remoção da cor do efluente da indústria papeleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour.Bacillus pumilus e Paenibacillus sp. foram aplicados separadamente no efluente da indústria papeleira a pH 7,0, 9,0 e 11,0, para verificação da remoção da cor e da DQO. As remoções da cor real e DQO após 48h a pH 9,0 foram, respectivamente, de 41,87% e 22,08% após o tratamento com B. pumilus e 42,30% e 22,89% após tratamento com Paenibacillus sp. As massas molares dos compostos presentes no efluente não tratado e tratado foram determinadas por cromatografia de permeação em gel. O emprego dos microrganismos reduziu os compostos responsáveis pela cor do efluente da indústria papeleira.

  10. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  11. Energy conservation in the pulp and paper industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Almost 40 specific research and development ideas were formulated by the 67 participants at this workshop. Projects were assessed with the following criteria in mind: potential energy savings, cost, risk, Federal role, time frame, and priority. Data are tabulated on the projects followed by six topics discussed by panel members: waste and recycling, energy management in the mill, papermaking, pulping and bleaching, power generation in the mill, and coating and conversion. Three summary speeches are included. (MCW)

  12. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  13. Morphological and mechanical effects of extended beating on EFB pulp web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukeri, Mohd Ridzuan Hafiz Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    The pulp extracted from the alkaline peroxide pulping (APP) of EFB was beaten from 500 revolutions to 10000 revolutions using PFI mill to investigate the morphological changes undergone by the pulp and the resultant effect on paper sheet properties. As a result of beating, pulp elements were observed as intensely fibrillated, reducing the amounts of fibre bundles and thus, reducing interruption in the inter-fiber bonding. To a defined extent, beating was also seen as unwinding the structure of vessel element to a single strand of loose spiral body. These fibrillated vessel elements of APP pulp from EFB, plus the fines element germinating from further segmentation of the vessels, were the factors contributing to the overall strength improvement of the produced EFB pulp network. The applied increment in beating revolution had apparently widened the known broad spectrum quality of APP pulp from EFB. This demonstrates EFB potential for application in specialty paper production.

  14. CLEAVAGE OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP FIBRES BY HCL AND CELLULASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ander

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pulp fibre testing procedure called the HCl method was used to compare different spruce and pine fibres and mixtures of these fibres to calculate number of fibre cleavages in dislocations and other weak points. This method was compared with treatment of softwood kraft pulp fibres using different cellulase mixtures. The HCl method can distinguish between mill- and laboratory-made softwood kraft pulp fibres from the same wood batch. The sugar release is characterized by xylose and other hemicellulose sugars and little glucose. This is in contrast to cellulases, which despite strong fibre cleavage, did not distinguish between mill- and laboratory-made pulp fibres and released large amounts of glucose from the fibres. Hemicellulose degradation by HCl and deep penetration of the acid into the primary and secondary fibre cell walls at 80°C seems to be of major importance for the differentiation between mill and laboratory pulp fibres. Cellulases, in contrast, act mostly on the fibre surfaces, and deep penetration only takes place in amorphous regions of dislocations.

  15. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from...... were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen...

  16. REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Rawshan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2009-01-01

    Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. ...

  17. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sati

  18. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis

  19. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  20. The economy of chip, whole-tree and short-wood methods in the pulpwood and fuelwood procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Branch-mass models, applicable for different kinds of technical/economical inspections of timber procurement, based on large data collections of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, were developed in the project. These models are based on the assumption that the branch-mass distribution inside the top-end of different tree-species resembles each-other. The production costs of pulp produced from first-thinning pine were lowest when the minimum diameter of the pulpwood varied between 6 - 9 cm, then the relative costs varied between 101 - 99. The production costs consisted of timber procurement costs, variable industrial timber processing and pulping costs, and secondary product reimbursements. In addition to the calculational inspections, the effects of the dimensions of pulpwood and the harvesting technology on profitability of harvesting of first thinning pine, on debarking, on the chip-size distribution and on fiber properties, were studied in the research. The profitability of harvesting is increased by about 10 % when the minimum diameter is decreased from 7 cm to 5 cm. This requires, however, that the size of the minimum-stem is not decreased

  1. Pulping Effluent Treatment with Ozone Catalyzed by Activated Carbon and Alumina Loaded or Unloaded with Titanium Dioxide%活性炭、氧化铝及其负载二氧化钛催化臭氧处理制浆废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷利荣; 李友明; 马黎明

    2012-01-01

    为提高臭氧处理制浆废水的效果,分别以活性炭(AC)、氧化铝(Al2O3)和溶胶-凝胶法制备的TiO2/AC、TiO2/Al2O3为催化剂催化臭氧处理制浆废水,采用扫描电镜和X-射线衍射仪对催化剂进行表征.结果表明:AC、A Al2O3 、TiO2/AC和TiO2/Al2O3均具有催化性能,可有效提高臭氧对制浆废水化学需氧量(CODcr)和色度的去除效果.动力学分析表明,AC、TiO2/AC、Al2O3和TiO2/Al2O3催化臭氧处理制浆废水的过程中,CODcr降解的反应符合表现二级动力学方程,负载的TiO2提高了反应的动力学速率常数.气相色谱-质谱联用分析表明,臭氧及催化臭氧处理能有效降解去除漂白废水中的烷基苯类、酯类和氯代烃类等有毒有机污染物.%In order to improve the treatment efficiency of pulping effluent with ozone, activated carbon (AC ) , alumina and their compounds TiO2/AC and TiO2/Al2O3 prepared via the sol-gel method were respectively used as catalysts to enhance the treatment, and the catalysts were characterized by means of SEM and XRD. The results indicate that the four kinds of catalysts all possess catalytic ability and effectively improve the removals of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and chroma of the effluent. Kinetics analysis shows that, with the catalysis of the four kinds of catalysts, the CODCr degradation process follows the apparent second-order kinetic equation; and that the TiO2 loaded on AC or A12O3 helps to improve the reaction rate constant. Moreover, GC-MS results indicate that both the ozonation and the catalytic ozonation are effective in degrading the toxic organic compounds in the effluent such as alkyl benzenes, esters and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  2. PULPING PROPERTIES OF KRAFT PULP OF NIGERIAN-GROWN KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Oluwafemi Oluwadare

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was centered on finding a locally sourced alternative to imported long-fibre pulp for Nigerian pulp and paper mills. Fibre characteristics, chemical composition, and paper properties of pulp handsheets at different levels of kappa number and freeness in the range of 10 oSR and 62 oSR were evaluated using air-dried bast fibre obtained from decorticated kenaf plants grown in southern guinea savanna near Jebba, Nigeria. Kenaf bast fibre compared well with softwood, with an average fibre length of 2.90 mm, a flexibility ratio of 57%, and a Runkel ratio of 0.76. Ash, lignin, and pentosan contents were 0.6%, 12.5%, and 10.6%, respectively, while the cellulose content was 55.5%. Under alkali charge of 15.0 and, sulphidity of 17.5 with constant temperature, cooking time, and liquor-to-fibre ratio of 4.5:1, the screen yield was between 48.8 to 52.8 % with kappa number 12.04 to 20.5. Unbleached pulpsheets at kappa number between 15 and18.5 and pulp freeness 55 oSR and bleached pulp freeness between 148 and 336 mLs had better quality paper in terms of overall pulpsheet strength properties.

  3. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Chen; Abbott, Paul V

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse o...

  4. Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

  5. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Optimization and selection of coagulating agents in the advanced treatment of washing & bleaching effluent from dissolving pulp process%溶解木浆中段废水深度处理中混凝剂的选择及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红梅; 毛长凤; 赵克侠

    2013-01-01

      溶解木浆中段废水先经模拟好氧生化系统处理后,采用混凝法进行深度处理试验。结果表明:硫酸铝适用于溶解木浆废水深度治理,并在废水处理效果及处理成本方面优于聚合氯化铝、聚合硫酸铁、氯化铁等无机絮凝剂。硫酸铝投加后pH值在6~7范围内,搭配阴离子PAM去除浊度的效果更明显。生化模拟试验出水作为混凝原水,先经预酸化再好氧生化水质的混凝处理效果优于好氧生化的水质:处理后出水COD<100mg/L,色度<50倍;单耗处理成本更低,处理成本降低0.264~0.44元。%The washing&bleaching effluent of dissolving pulp was first treated with simulated aerobic biochemical process, advanced treatment was done by coagulation process. The results show that aluminum sulfate is suitable for dissolving pulp wastewater advanced treatment, with which the treating effect and the treating cost are better than that of polymeric aluminum chloride, poly ferric sulfate, ferric chloride and other inorganic flocculants. When aluminum sulfate is added with the combination of anionic PAM, pH range of 6~7, turbidity removal effect is more obvious. The waste water treated first by pre-acidification and aerobic biochemical process has a better treating effect in coagulation than the waste water treated only by aerobic biochemical process, reaching COD less than 100mg/L, chroma less than 50 times, with the treatment cost reduced by 0.264~0.44 yuan/t.

  8. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 430.124 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.124 Effluent limitations... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Non-continuous dischargers shall not be... limitations. Concentration limitations are only applicable to non-continuous dischargers. Permittees not...

  10. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average... Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Non-continuous...

  11. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  12. Further Promote the Development of pulping Industry%积极发展制浆工业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨懋暹

    2001-01-01

    本文主要论述了以下几个方面:(1)积极有效地建立速生丰产林;(2)企业规模要跟上时代的步伐;(3)支持超大型浆厂的技术进步;(4)开发了与环境保护协调发展的漂白技术;(5)大型浆厂的风险分析;(6)浆厂投产初期的风险分析。%This paper deals with the following aspects: (1)Building fastgrowing forest base effectively, (2)Pulp mill scale should keep pace with international trend, (3)The technical support for the giant pulp mill, (4)The environmentally friendly bleaching technology, (5) Risk analysis of large scale pulp mill, (6) Risk analysis in the early stage of production

  13. Energy cost reduction in the pulp and paper industry - an energy benchmarking perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, D.W.; Towers, M.T.; Browne, T.C. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    With the increasing cost of energy and the rising concerns over the environment, interest in energy saving methods is growing in the industry sector. In the pulp and paper sector, energy represents a significant part of costs and the aims of this paper are first, to demonstrate that there is a potential for energy use reduction in the pulp and paper industry and secondly, to show how it can be achieved. Benchmarking studies have been carried out for both the kraft market pulp and newsprint sectors; in both cases the energy consumption of existing Canadian mills was compared to that of a modern mill using the best current technologies. Results showed that in both sectors, the application of best practices could result in significant savings. This study demonstrated that the application of current technologies in existing mills would yield significant energy use reductions.

  14. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  15. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NAOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Li; Yongjun Deng; Ping Li; Guigan Fang; Shuchai Liu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination,alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulp from Gaoyou Papermill.Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps were improved.

  16. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  17. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  18. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  19. St. Regis Paper Mill: Architectural and Environmental Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    also be used to whiten the fibers. Caustic soda along with chlorine is used to wash the pulp of impurities and also con- tributes to bleaching...133 Power Plant ...center), hydraulic power plant (lower left), paper mill (lower right), and new boiler bldg (right center) 77 70 Exterior of northeast elevation

  20. The Application of Fly Ash to Remove Volatile Phenol in Wastewater of Bamboo Pulp and Paper Mill%粉煤灰去除竹浆造纸废水中挥发酚的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维; 田庆华; 王恒; 杨斌中; 徐鹏

    2012-01-01

    实验采用污冷凝水和部分中段废水组成的碱性造纸废水直接作为水膜除尘系统的冲灰水,利用锅炉烟气中的粉煤灰对污冷凝水进行预处理,同时又利用废水的碱度对锅炉烟气进行脱硫处理.结果表明,废水pH值由9.8下降至8.6,CODcr去除率达75.8%,SS去除率达27.9%,挥发酚去除率达到76.5%,预处理后的废水进入生化处理系统进一步处理.锅炉的烟尘去除率达到95%以上,SO2去除率达到80%以上,均能达到GB13271-2001二类Ⅱ时段规定的排放限值.吸附了挥发酚的粉煤灰用于焙烧制砖,挥发酚在高温下转化为二氧化碳和水,避免了二次污染.%The primary goal of the study is to remove the volatile phenol which is the key precursor of aromatic halides,and reduce the productions of POPs and AOX in pulp and paper production by using bamboo as fiber raw material. The alkaline papermaking wastewater was directly used as ash-washing water in a water film scrubber. The composition of alkaline papermaking wastewater was polluted-condensate water and concentrated washing and bleaching water. The polluted-condensate water was pretreated by using fly ash of boiler flue gas,and the alkaline water was used as desulfurization at the same time. It achieved the purpose of wastewater treatment by using waste and reduced treatment cost. The results showed that,pH of wastewater decreased from an average of 9.8 to 8.6,CODCr removal rate of 75.8% ,SS removal rate of 27. 9% ,volatile phenol removal rate of 76. 5%. Volatile phenols in wastewater discharge could meet the standard A of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard" (GB-8978-1996) when the pretreated waste water was further treated by the biological treatment system. Boiler fly ash removal rate of 95% ,SO2 removal rate of 80% ,which reached (GB13271-2001) Type II slot II emission limits. The fly ash adsorbed volatile phenol was used for bricks making,volatile phenol turned into carbon dioxide and

  1. Energy conservation in pulp and paper industry: some thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadawarte, N.S.; Prasad, A.K.; Khanolkar, V.D.; Shenoy, S.C.

    1980-03-15

    The pulp and paper industry is highly energy intensive. In view of the spiralling fuel prices and rising power costs, there is an urgent need to conserve energy through better management of various operations in the industry, from the optimal utilization of the forest residues to the shipment of the final product. The total energy concept, e.g., energy generation, distribution and utilization in Indian paper industry is discussed. The need for an energy audit is emphasized and the formats of energy reporting forms are included. Short and long term measures to be enforced to achieve energy savings in the pulp and paper mills are outlined. Some important energy conservation approaches are also discussed. Factors affecting energy efficiency in a pulp and paper mill are reviewed. Some areas where sustained R and D efforts should be focused to make the paper industry nearly self-sufficient in energy generation and utilization are also given. It is essential to have a National Energy Policy clearly defining achievable targets of energy conservation for industry. The Indian paper industry could advantageously form its own committee to review the operation of the various mills in the country and come out with concrete solutions for higher energy efficiency and more effective conservation of energy.

  2. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIAL R.A.; CHAUDHARY M.F.; ABBAS S.T.; LATIF M.I.; KHAN A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  3. 亚太森博之低碳"纸"路%Low-carbon Footprint Development Path of APRIL SSYMB Pulp and Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克顺; 张守国; 江健儿

    2011-01-01

    Since its founding, APRIL (Asia Pacific Resources International Limited ) has followed an integrated "forestry,pulp and paper"development strategy by plantation for carbon sequestration and rotating harvesting for pulp and paper production. The total investment in SSMYB Phase 1 and Phase 2 for environmental protection was 3.63 billion RMB,the highest among all Chinese pulp mills.Based on national authority's assessment,SSYMB's effluent pollutants are less than the limit set up by the European,American and Japanese standards,among the most advanced levels of cleaner production in the world.Employing the world's most advanced technologies in energy-saving,water conservation and waste treatments,SSYMB reaches water reuse rate of 90%,alkali recovery rate of 99.3%,black liquor recovery rate of 100% and energy self-sufficient rate of above 90%.%亚太资源集团秉持育林固碳、轮伐造纸的"林、浆、纸一体化"发展战略,跨国育林,国内"纸"用.公司一期、二期工程环保投资36.3亿元,创国内单个浆纸厂之最.据国家权威部门测评,公司排放指标均优于欧美、日本行业标准,达到清洁生产的国际先进水平.采用了世界最先进的节能、节水、"三废"处理新技术,水循环利用率达90%,碱回收率99.3%,黑液回收率100%,能源自给率90%以上.

  4. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  5. Efficiency of ball milled South African bentonite clay for remediation of acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using vibratory ball milled South African bentonite clay for neutralization and attenuation of inorganic contaminants from acidic and metalliferous mine effluents has been evaluated. Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD...

  6. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  8. Integration of pulp and paper technology with bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard B; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou Min

    2013-01-28

    Despite decades of work and billions of dollars of investments in laboratory and pilot plant projects, commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is only now beginning to emerge. Because of: (1)high technical risk coupled with; (2) high capital investment cost relative to ethanol product value, investors have not been able to justify moving forward with large scale projects on woody biomass. Both issues have been addressed by targeting pulp and paper industry processes for application in bioethanol production, in Greenfield, Repurpose and Co-Location scenarios. Processes commercially proven in hundreds of mills for many decades have been tailored to the recalcitrance of the biomass available. Economically feasible cellulosic bioethanol can be produced in Greenfield application with hardwoods, but not softwoods, using kraft mill equipment. Both types of wood species can profitably produce ethanol when kraft mill or newsprint assets are Repurposed to a biorefinery. A third situation which can generate high financial returns is where excess kraft pulp is available at a mill which has no excess drying capacity. Each scenario is supported by laboratory simulation, engineering and financial analysis. While pretreatment is critical to providing access of the biomass to enzymes, capital investment per unit of ethanol produced can be attractive, even if ethanol yield is modest. Three guiding principles result in attractive economics: (1) re-use existing assets to the maximum extent; (2) keep the process as simple as possible; (3) match the recalcitrance of the biomass with the severity of the pretreatment.

  9. Combined HPLC analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Zomers, F.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    During organosolv pulping of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L) with a mixture of ethanol/water, delignification is catalyzed by released acetic acid and formic acid in the effluent. The major sources of acetic acid are the acetyl groups, as determined by means of the acetyl balance, whereas formic acid

  10. Occurrence of Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio-oxidans in effluent, basin of reject and boot-rejections of uranium extraction mine: mill industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil; Ocorrencia de Thiobacillus ferrooxidans e Thiobacillus thiooxidans em efluentes, bacia de rejeito e bota-foras de mina de extracao de uranio - complexo minero-industrial de Pocos de Caldas, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Helena de Azevedo [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio; Garcia Junior, Oswaldo [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica

    2000-07-01

    The sulfated minerals present in mining areas may cause serious environmental problems, because of the chemolithotrophic bacteria action of the gender Thiobacillus, mainly the T. ferroxidans and T. thio-oxidans. These microorganisms are able to oxidize mineral sulfates, elementary sulfur and the ferrous ion (T. ferroxidans), being capable of mobilizing radionuclides as the uranium for the environment. In this context, this study had the aim of investigating the occurrence and the fluctuations in the T. ferroxidans and T. thio-oxidans populations, in mine, effluent, tailing dam and waste rock of the Mine and Mill Industrial Complex of Pocos de Caldas-MG (ICPC). The relative seasonal behavior of some variables, when evaluated simultaneously indicated that the high values of oxidation-reduction potential, the low values of pH, the detection of the largest percentages of incidence and highest values of T. ferroxidans and T. thio-oxidans counting, observed in the sites 075, BIA, CM, BF4, BF8 and BE, indicated that these are the principal places of mine acid drainage occurrence and bio-leaching bacteria action in the ICPC and be considered critical sites, faced to a possible decommission measure. (author)

  11. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  12. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  13. Combination of enzymatic, mechanical and ultrasonic treatments for improvement of the properties of secondary pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the property recovery capability of handsheets formed from secondary fibers by combining different techniques. To attain that, pulps derived from post-consumer cardboard scrap were subjected to various refining intensities respectively in a PFI mill (0, 400, 800 and 1200revolutions and ultrasound (0, 10, 20 and 30minutes, followed by enzymatic treatments with enzymes Cellulase, Hemicellulase, Mixture 1 and Mixture 2 (both mixtures composed of cellulase and hemicellulase. The papermaking potential of the pulps was evaluated by means of physical and mechanical tests on the resulting paper after the relevant treatments. It was found that both the combination of PFI mill refining with enzymatic treatments and the combination of ultrasound with enzymatic treatments were effective in improving paper properties. It was also found that interfiber bonding properties such as tensile index and ring crush strength had greater increases, in relation to the initial pulp, in pulps derived from the combined PFI mill refining with enzymatic treatments. As for intrinsic fiber strength properties, such as tear resistance, had greater increases in pulps derived from the combined ultrasound with enzymatic treatments.

  14. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    High-quality waters are steadily retreating worldwide. Discharge of industrial effluent in the environment again declines soil/water quality to a great extent. On the other hand, effluent reuse in agriculture could be a means to conserve natural resources by providing assured water supply for growing crops. But industrial effluents are highly variable in nature, containing a variety of substances, and all are not favorable for farming. Appraisal and developing modes of effluent reuse is therefore a prerequisite to enable its proper use in agriculture. Effluents of various industries were assessed and approaches for their use in farming were developed for a particular region in this study. As per availability of effluents, the same could be implemented in other water-scarce areas. Effluents of 20 different industrial units were characterized by 24 attributes. Comparing these with corresponding irrigation water quality standards, the probability of their reuse was interpreted in the first approach. On the basis of relevant properties of major soil types dominated in a particular region, the soil-based usability of effluent was worked out in the second approach. By emphasizing the limitation of groundwater development where it went beyond 50% exploitation level, the land form and major soil type were then identified by applying a soil-based effluent reuse approach; the area-specific suitability of its use was perceived in the third approach. On the basis of irrigation water quality standards, the irrigation potentials of paper mill, fermentation (breweries and distilleries), and sugar factory effluents were recognized. In a soil-based approach, the compatibility of effluent with soil type was marked with A (preferred) and B (moderately preferred) classes and, compiling their recurring presence, the unanimous preference for paper mill effluent followed by rubber goods manufacturing industries/marine shrimp processing units, fermentation, and sugar mills was noted

  15. Co-operative Education in the Pulp and Paper Sector in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine; Dolbec, Andre

    2003-01-01

    A cooperative education program involved student practica in Quebec pulp and paper mills. Using the concept of community of practice and a typology of work experience, data from 175 students indicated that schools and workplaces placed traditional roles regarding theory and practice. Organizational cultures remained separate and opportunities for…

  16. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  17. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options ar

  18. 40 CFR 440.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open... pollutants discharged from mills that use the froth-flotation process alone, or in conjunction with other...

  19. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  20. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current

  1. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction through black liquor gasification and energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, J.M.; Gustavsson, L. [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    We examine consequences of new energy technologies in the pulp and paper industry with respect to net CO{sub 2} emissions and oil use. The entire production chain from the extraction of primary resources is included in the analysis. Stand-alone production of electricity and transportation fuel from biomass is included to balance the systems compared, so that they produce the same CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reductions. The technologies considered are black liquor gasification (BLG) with electricity and motor fuels production in chemical pulp mills and increased energy efficiency in thermomechanical pulp mills. The technologies are evaluated with respect to net CO{sub 2} emission, oil use, primary energy use, biomass use and monetary cost. We find that BLG in chemical pulp mills is favourable compared to stand-alone production of fuels and electricity from biomass. It is more efficient to implement BLG with motor fuels production and stand-alone electricity production from biomass, than to implement BLG with electricity production and stand-alone production of motor fuels. Increased energy efficiency in refining of thermomechanical pulp gives CO{sub 2} savings more efficiently than stand-alone production of electricity from biomass. Sensitivity analysis indicates that our conclusions are robust with respect to energy and biomass prices and the choice of coal or natural gas for marginal electricity. Newsprint from thermomechanical pulp would require slightly less biomass and have lower costs than paper from chemical pulp, per metric ton (t) product, when the systems are also required to render the same oil use and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. Substituting mineral fillers for 25% of the chemical pulp changes the balance in favour of the chemical pulp paper. At an oil price of 40 US$/barrel, all studied pulp and paper mill technology improvements give unchanged or reduced monetary costs also when oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions are not balanced with stand

  2. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-01-01

    Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

  3. Pulp response to Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R C; Pountney, S K

    1987-09-01

    The maxillary molar pulps of germ-free rats were mechanically exposed, and suspensions of a strain of freshly grown Streptococcus mutans were applied to the pulp wounds. The pulps were left open to the oral environment, and the animals were maintained in the isolator until they were killed in groups after 2, 7, and 28 days. After 2 days there was little evidence of any pulp response. In the 7-day group early pulp necrosis was present. No evidence of inflammatory infiltration was detected in either the 2- or 7-day animals. After 28 days there was extensive pulp necrosis in many specimens. Dentine bridges were present in fewer than one fourth of the teeth.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... set, in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (ii) Sprockets and chains, gears, and... prevent material from falling on workers. (4) Conveyors. Conveyors and conveyor drive belts and pulleys... conveyor drive belts and pulleys shall be fully enclosed, or if open and within 7 feet of the floor, shall...

  5. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NaOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaixiaLi; YongjunDeng; PingLi; GuiganFang; ShuchaiLiu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination, alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulpfrom Gaoyou Papermill. Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps wereimproved.

  6. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BofengMao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can havesignificant impact on pulp strength properties. Wehave studied cooking homogeneity of two kraftdigesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is aone-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phasecontinuous digester (digester B). They are located inthe same mill and use the same softwood chipquality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steamingand cooking facilities and conditions, significantdifferences in pulp strength properties, reject contentsand kappa variations have been found between thepulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has amodem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and airremoval, whereas digester B has poor chippre-steaming conditions. Our strength deliverystudies show that although the two digesters producepulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, thepulp produced in digester A has about 20% higherstrength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lowerreject content and lower kappa variations based onFTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulpproduced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that morehomogeneous cooking,variation in the fibers,i.e., lower lignin/kappa leads to improved pulpstrength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming isimportant/essential for achieving homogeneouscooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improvingchip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to becarded out.

  7. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  8. On the application of grits to thermomechanical pulp refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somboon, P.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a mechanical pulping process capable of producing good-quality pulp, while consuming less electrical energy. The study focused on applying of grits to TMP refining to enhance the breaking of the fiber cell wall promoting faster development of pulp fibers to the desired quality for papermaking. The study comprises tests at laboratory scale and development of an application for industrial, including trials at pilot scale A preliminary trial with the grit application in TMP refining was conducted at laboratory scale. The results showed that the grits should be introduced between the first and second stages in TMP refining. The grit treatment on the TMP fibers caused disruption of the wall structure, opening of the outer layers and peeling-off of the cell wall. The efficient disruption with minimal shortening and weakening of fibers was found to be operated at a low-intensity and high-frequency of treatment. According to an experiment with first-stage TMP pulp, the disrupted pulp developed faster during subsequent refining, while the energy consumption was reduced by up to 30% without a significant loss of pulp quality. With the aim of developing an industrial application, the refiner segments were modified by applying grits on the refiner segment surfaces. The grits were made from self-fluxing tungsten-carbide powder and a Ni-base alloy powder, which were laser-clad onto the surface of breaker bars, the inner part of a segment. Trials with grit segments were carried out on a pilot refiner. The grit segments were applied in first-stage TMP refining, followed by treatment with base segments operated under normal mill conditions. The grit segments were found to have no negative effects on the refining system. A refiner equipped with grit segments, operated at a speed of 2400 rpm, produced pulp with a higher level of disruption of fiber cell walls than a refiner equipped with the reference segments. According to the results, the

  9. ALKALINE PULP OF CORN STALKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum

    2004-01-01

    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  10. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  11. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  12. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Liu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization has been examined in this study. Because of the fiber morphology: slender in shape, fiber size distribution characterization is a very difficult task. Traditional technique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuring the weight fractions. The particle fractions obtained may or may not reflect the desired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique through optical measurement of fiber length is limited by its inability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail to generate identical results, either one was accepted to be of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwood kraft, and their mixture samples have been measured for their fiber length distributions using an optical fiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained from FQA are extensively studied to investigate more reliable way of representing the fiber length data and thus examining the viable route for measuring the fiber size distributions. It has been found that the fiber length averaged length 11 is a viable indicator of the average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fraction and/or distribution can be represented by the fiber "length" fractions.

  13. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShijieLiu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization hasbeen examined in this study. Because of the fibermorphology: slender in shape, fiber size distributioncharacterization is a very difficult task. Traditionaltechnique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuringthe weight fractions. Themay or may not reflect theparticle fractions obtaineddesired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique throughoptical measurement of fiber length is limited by itsinability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail togenerate identical results, either one was accepted tobe of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwoodkraft, and their mixture samples have been measuredfor their fiber length distributions using an opticalfiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained fromFQA are extensively studied to investigate morereliable way of representing the fiber length data andthus examining the viable route for measuring thefiber size distributions. It has been found that thefiber length averaged length 1~ is a viable indicator ofthe average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fractionand/or distribution can be represented by the fiber"length" fractions.

  14. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  15. Improvement of the controllability of mechanical pulping processes by applying advanced control systems and pulp quality meters. Hierteen ja hiokkeen valmistuksen hallinnan parantaminen kehittyneen automaatiojaerjestelmaen ja massan laatumittareiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietinen, P. (Yhtyneet Paperitehtaat Oy, Kajaani (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the controllability of the groundwood grinders and thermomechanical refiners in Kajaani paper mill by applying modern control and measuring techniques. The aim was to minimize the quality fluctuation in the mechanical pulp lines and to improve the energy efficiency of the mechanical pulping processes. A new control system was introduced in our stone groundwood mill (SGW). By means of this new advanced stone groundwood control and information system the controllability of the grinders improved markedly, and because of that the pulp strength properties improved by over 5 % and the quality variations decreased by 40 %. The energy consumption of the grinders increased by about 5 %, which was caused by the choice of a control strategy. The controllability of the pressurised groundwood grinders (PGW) was poor. After the grinders being repaired, the pulp strength properties improved by about 10 %. The control solutions developed for SGW plant were modified to meet the PGW requirements. An on-line freeness tester, is going to be used to measure the pit pulp quality. The results will be utilized when the old process computer is renewed. The most suitable on-line pulp quality analyzers for our thermomechanical plant were found by testing various equipment. Through minimizing the quality fluctuation of the mechanical pulp it is possible to save about 30-35 GWh (4 %) of energy in Kajaani annually. In addition it is possible to save another 2 - 4 % energy in TMP-refiners by a suitable control strategy without affecting the pulp quality. But energy savings bigger than that can only be reached by deteriorating the pulp quality.

  16. Development of a nanofiltration process for flotation treated paper mill waste water; Nanosuodatusprosessin kehittaeminen flotaatiokaesitellylle paperitehtaan jaetevedelle - EKT 08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenttaeri, M.; Nuortila-Jokinen, J.; Nystroem, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Nanofiltration was studied as a purification method of paper mill effluents so that the permeates could be used as press section shower water. The quality of ultrafiltered water was not assessed to be sufficiently high for that purpose. The low flux of nanofiltration membranes has restricted their use in the pulp and paper industry. This study showed that the performance of nanofiltration membranes can be improved by controlling the filtration conditions, like pH, flow velocity and pressure. It was demonstrated that a critical flux exists also for nanofiltration membranes. By adjusting the permeate flux below this critical value fouling should be low. The experiments with a spiral wound element showed its sensitivity to plugging by fibers and also the unsuitability of cartridge filters as safety filters for it. Better pretreatment methods are needed. A multilayer filter seemed to decrease the fouling of the nanofiltration element somewhat. However, a simple and cleanable pretreatment method still needs to be developed. Fouling experiments with model components pointed out the importance of pH and cross-flow velocity in minimizing fouling. (orig.) 8 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  17. Effects of orthodontic forces on pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches on pulp tissue changes caused by orthodontic forces have been performed, among others are: pulp angiogenesis, pulp tissue respiration rate, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities; micro vascular response inside the pulp and the effect of dental movement i.e. extrusion, intrusion, and torque. The result is still controversial, as some researchers claim that orthodontic force has a negative effect, others deny by saying there is no such effect on pulp tissue.

  18. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  19. Paper mill wastewater detoxification by solar photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, C.; Funken, K.H.; Oliveira, L. de; Tzschirner, M. [German Aerospace Center, Inst. of Technical Thermodynamics - Solar Research, Cologne (Germany); Machado, A.E.H. [Lab. de Fotoquimica - Inst. de Quimica, Univ. Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the WATER project the German Aerospace Center, DLR, and the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, UFU, analyse the possibilities of treating paper mill effluents by solar photocatalysis for the paper mill of the Brazilian paper producer Votorantim Celulose e Papel, VCP, at Luiz Antonio, SP, Brazil. The degradation of the bio-polymer lignin is a vast problem in paper production. The tests have shown that treatment by the photocatalyst TiO{sub 2} and solar radiation is an ecological future oriented approach to solve this problem. The treatment of lignin containing process water by solar photocatalysis was optimised and the economics for solar treatment plants of different sizes was estimated to check the possibilities for implementing the technology in industrial processes. (orig.)

  20. Process development for cigarette butts recycling into cellulose pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Heni Teixeira, Maria Betânia; Duarte, Marco Antônio B; Raposo Garcez, Loureine; Camargo Rubim, Joel; Hofmann Gatti, Thérèse; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2017-02-01

    Cigarette butts, which are usually thrown on the ground or into ordinary bins, have been recognized as toxic residues since may contain cigarette contaminants and chemicals produced during combustion. Therefore, contaminants in cigarette butts can be leached by rain into surface water and thereby contaminate the environment. In Brazil, according to the National Policy on Solid Waste, all residues must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. Although cigarette butts are not mentioned in the law, due to their characteristics, they may be classified as hazardous waste. At the University of Brasilia, a cellulose pulp production process from cigarette butts has been developed employing alkaline pulping. This process is presented as an alternative to environmentally friendly final disposal of this residue. During the process, a dark liquor is generated, which was found to contain lignin, carbonyls, metals, nicotine and specific tobacco nitrosamines. The dark liquor was treated by acidification to promote lignin precipitation, coagulation with chitosan and Al2(SO4)3 to remove metals and organic compounds and ozonized to oxidize resistant chemicals. The dark liquor presented a high chemical oxygen demand (COD; 29,986mg/L), which was partially removed by precipitation (20%), chitosan coagulation (66%) and ozonation (45.8%). As the remaining COD was still high, we proposed reusing the clarified effluent in alkaline pulping, which seemed to be the easiest and most efficient procedure with the lowest cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  2. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  3. The potential for generating a surplus of biomass fuel in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, U.

    2001-06-01

    The conditions under which the pulp and paper industry is working are changing. New technology and new environmental objectives lead to changes: system closure (less water is used); processes are introduced and modified; new, more energy efficient processes are applied. Many of these changes affect the energy system in a mill and can also result in new potential for energy savings. Here a method is described and applied to six modern and/or future green field kraft market pulp model mills. The basic configuration for these model mills is designed according to best available technology today and consists of commercially available equipment in conventionally designed mills. These basic configurations are process integrated using Pinch Technology to ensure that the model mills are as energy efficient as possible with existing processes. Then by allowing process and system modifications, the model mills are made even more energy efficient. From the process integration study streams that could produce usable excess heat below the Pinch temperature are identified. In a pulp mill, necessary cooling is performed while producing warm and hot water. In modern mills there is usually a surplus of warm and hot water. It is herein presented that by designing the secondary heat system differently such that only necessary warm and hot water is produced, excess heat at a higher temperature than traditionally can be made available. The excess heat made available can be used for several applications; in this work it is used for evaporation. In order to use the excess heat for evaporation the evaporation plant has to be designed non-conventionally, with more than one level where heat is supplied, and a lower temperature in the surface condenser than what is typically used. A reasonable level of the extra investment cost for the novel system compared to the reference system is then calculated and a payback period is estimated. This payback period varies between approximately 3.5 and 6

  4. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  6. Potential of thermo and alkali stable xylanases from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluguri, Baby Rani; Thulluri, Chiranjeevi; Cherupally, Madhu; Nidadavolu, Nagaraju; Achuthananda, Das; Mangamuri, Lakshmi Narasu; Addepally, Uma

    2012-08-01

    Thermo- and alkali-stable xylanases produced from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) on low-cost carbon source like rice straw were evaluated for their potential application in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp. Enzyme treatment at retention time of 240 min with 20 IU/gm of dried pulp resulted in ~85.2 % of reduction in kappa number. When compared to control, 110.8, 93, and 72.2 % of enhancement in brightness (percent International Organization of Standardization), whiteness, and fluorescence, respectively, were observed for enzyme-treated pulp. Spectroscopic analysis showed significant release of chromophoric compounds from enzyme-treated pulp. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope studies of unbleached and enzyme bleached pulp revealed the effectiveness of enzymatic treatment. The enzyme-treated pulp subjected to later stages of chemical bleaching resulted in 16 % decrease in chlorine consumption along with considerable reduction in chemical oxygen demand percentage (14.5 %) level of effluent. Various pulp properties like fiber length, fiber width, burst strength, burst index, tear strength, tear index, tensile strength, and breaking length were also significantly improved after enzyme treatment when compared to control.

  7. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  8. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  9. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahey, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The textbook is designed for students of water resources technology and as a guide for water quality engineers and those concerned with industrial effluents. The authors come from water authorities, industry and the academic world. Among the subjects considered are microbes and effluent treatments; legal aspects of pollution; analytical techniques; bio-oxidation; physical treatment; biological and ecological aspects of waste treatment; biological treatment of coke-oven liquors; water tracing.

  11. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  12. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  13. Pulping of the giant leucaena wood. I. Pulping by the kraft process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, K.; Ogino, T.; Takano, I.; Shimada, K.; Nishida, A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooking of Leucaena latisiliqua with kraft liquor (30% sulfidity as Na/sub 2/O) at 160 degrees gave 59.1% pulp with Kappa number 59.0 and Hunter brightness 19.9. The strength properties of pulp were comparable to those of beech pulp. It was confirmed that the extractives remaining in the bleached pulp adversely affect the color reversion.

  14. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  15. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  16. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of hot acid hydrolysis and hot chlorine dioxide stage on bleaching effluent biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C M; Colodette, J L; Delantonio, N R N; Mounteer, A H; Silva, C M

    2007-01-01

    The hot acid hydrolysis followed by chlorine dioxide (A/D*) and hot chlorine dioxide (D*) technologies have proven very useful for bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Although the characteristics and biodegradability of effluents from conventional chlorine dioxide bleaching are well known, such information is not yet available for effluents derived from hot acid hydrolysis and hot chorine dioxide bleaching. This study discusses the characteristics and biodegradability of such effluents. Combined whole effluents from the complete sequences DEpD, D*EpD, A/D*EpD and ADEpD, and from the pre-bleaching sequences DEp, D*Ep, A/D*Ep and ADEp were characterized by quantifying their colour, AOX and organic load (BOD, COD, TOC). These effluents were also evaluated for their treatability by simulation of an activated sludge system. It was concluded that treatment in the laboratory sequencing batch reactor was efficient for removal of COD, BOD and TOC of all effluents. However, colour increased after biological treatment, with the greatest increase found for the effluent produced using the AD technology. Biological treatment was less efficient at removing AOX of effluents from the sequences with D*, A/D* and AD as the first stages, when compared to the reference D stage; there was evidence of the lower treatability of these organochlorine compounds from these sequences.

  18. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the