WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulmonary health effects

  1. Pulmonary health effects of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Bailey, Kristina L

    2016-03-01

    Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer, and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease among workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations.

  2. Estimating the effect of lay knowledge and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients, on health-belief model in a high-risk pulmonary TB transmission population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Rizqy Amelia; Suhariadi, Fendy; Hendriani, Wiwin

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of lay knowledge of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients on a health-belief model (HBM) as well as to identify the social determinants that affect lay knowledge. Survey research design was conducted, where participants were required to fill in a questionnaire, which measured HBM and lay knowledge of pulmonary TB. Research participants were 500 residents of Semampir, Asemrowo, Bubutan, Pabean Cantian, and Simokerto districts, where the risk of pulmonary TB transmission is higher than other districts in Surabaya. Being a female, older in age, and having prior contact with pulmonary TB patients significantly increase the likelihood of having a higher level of lay knowledge. Lay knowledge is a substantial determinant to estimate belief in the effectiveness of health behavior and personal health threat. Prior contact with pulmonary TB patients is able to explain the belief in the effectiveness of a health behavior, yet fails to estimate participants' belief in the personal health threat. Health authorities should prioritize males and young people as their main target groups in a pulmonary TB awareness campaign. The campaign should be able to reconstruct people's misconception about pulmonary TB, thereby bringing around the health-risk perception so that it is not solely focused on improving lay knowledge.

  3. Gender differences in ozone-induced pulmonary and metabolic health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOT 2015 abstractGender differences in ozone-induced pulmonary and metabolic health effectsU.P. Kodavanti1, V.L. Bass2, M.C. Schladweiler1, C.J. Gordon3, K.A. Jarema3, P. Phillips3, A.D. Ledbetter1, D.B. Miller4, S. Snow5, J.E. Richards1. 1 EPHD, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle ...

  4. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasants RA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities

  5. Differential pulmonary and cardiac effects of pulmonary exposure to a panel of particulate matter-associated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenborn, J. Grace; Schladweiler, Mette J.; Richards, Judy H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological mechanisms underlying the association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased cardiovascular health effects are under investigation. Water-soluble metals reaching systemic circulation following pulmonary exposure are likely exerting a direct effect. However, it is unclear whether specific PM-associated metals may be driving this. We hypothesized that exposure to equimolar amounts of five individual PM-associated metals would cause differential pulmonary and cardiac effects. We exposed male WKY rats (14 weeks old) via a single intratracheal instillation (IT) to saline or 1 μmol/kg body weight of zinc, nickel, vanadium, copper, or iron in sulfate form. Responses were analyzed 4, 24, 48, or 96 h after exposure. Pulmonary effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, protein, albumin, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and n-acetyl glucosaminidase. Copper induced earlier pulmonary injury/inflammation, while zinc and nickel produced later effects. Vanadium or iron exposure induced minimal pulmonary injury/inflammation. Zinc, nickel, or copper increased serum cholesterol, red blood cells, and white blood cells at different time points. IT of nickel and copper increased expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in the lung. Zinc, nickel, vanadium, and iron increased hepatic MT-1 expression. No significant changes in zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) expression were noted in the lung or liver; however, zinc increased cardiac ZnT-1 at 24 h, indicating a possible zinc-specific cardiac effect. Nickel exposure induced an increase in cardiac ferritin 96 h after IT. This data set demonstrating metal-specific cardiotoxicity is important in linking metal-enriched anthropogenic PM sources with adverse health effects.

  6. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Postural drainage (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pulmonary Rehabilitation updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Postural drainage Related Health Topics Lung Diseases National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  7. A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a structured pulmonary rehabilitation education programme for improving the health status of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: The PRINCE Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichulain Martina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key strategy in improving care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the provision of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes have been successful in improving patients' sense of dyspnoea and Health Related Quality of Life. However, the effectiveness of structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programmes delivered at the level of the general practice on the health status of people with COPD remains uncertain and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of this. The PRINCE study will evaluate the effectiveness of a Structured Education Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme (SEPRP, delivered at the level of the general practice, on the health status of people with COPD. Methods/Design The PRINCE Trial is a two-armed, single blind cluster randomised trial conducted in the primary care setting in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the General Practice. Participants in the intervention arm will receive a SEPRP and those allocated to the control arm will receive usual care. Delivery of the SEPRP will be by a practice nurse and physiotherapist in the General Practice (GP site. The primary outcome measure of the study will be health status as measured by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ. Blinded outcome assessment will be undertaken at baseline and at twelve-fourteen weeks after completion of the programme. A comparison of outcomes between the intervention and control sites will be made to examine if differences exist and, if so, to what extent between control and experimental groups. Sample size calculations estimate that 32 practices with a minimum of 10 participants per practice are required, in total, to be randomised to control and intervention arms for power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05, to determine a clinically significant change of 0.5 units in the CRQ. A cost effectiveness analysis will also be

  8. A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a structured pulmonary rehabilitation education programme for improving the health status of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The PRINCE Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathy; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan; Cooney, Adeline; McCarthy, Bernard; Mee, Lorraine; Nichulain, Martina; Murphy, Andrew W; Newell, John; O' Shea, Eamon

    2011-01-18

    A key strategy in improving care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the provision of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes have been successful in improving patients' sense of dyspnoea and Health Related Quality of Life. However, the effectiveness of structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programmes delivered at the level of the general practice on the health status of people with COPD remains uncertain and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of this. The PRINCE study will evaluate the effectiveness of a Structured Education Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programme (SEPRP), delivered at the level of the general practice, on the health status of people with COPD. The PRINCE Trial is a two-armed, single blind cluster randomised trial conducted in the primary care setting in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the General Practice. Participants in the intervention arm will receive a SEPRP and those allocated to the control arm will receive usual care. Delivery of the SEPRP will be by a practice nurse and physiotherapist in the General Practice (GP) site. The primary outcome measure of the study will be health status as measured by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ). Blinded outcome assessment will be undertaken at baseline and at twelve-fourteen weeks after completion of the programme. A comparison of outcomes between the intervention and control sites will be made to examine if differences exist and, if so, to what extent between control and experimental groups. Sample size calculations estimate that 32 practices with a minimum of 10 participants per practice are required, in total, to be randomised to control and intervention arms for power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05, to determine a clinically significant change of 0.5 units in the CRQ. A cost effectiveness analysis will also be conducted. The results of this trial are directly

  9. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  11. Revised nonstochastic health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published a revision of the 1985 report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, NUREG/CR-4214, that included models for early occurring and continuing nonstochastic effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. This paper discusses specific models for lethality from early occurring and continuing effects. For brevity, hematopoietic-syndrome lethality is called hematopoietic death; pulmonary-syndrome lethality is called pulmonary death; and gastrointestinal syndrome lethality is called gastrointestinal death. Two-parameter Weibull risk functions are recommended for estimating the risk of hematopoietic, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal death. The risks are obtained indirectly by using hazard functions; as a result, this type of approach has been called hazard-function modeling and the models generated are called hazard-function models. In the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report, changes were made in the parameter values for a number of effects, and the models used to estimate hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths were substantially revised. Upper and lower estimates of model parameters are provided for all early health effects models. In this paper, we discuss the 1989 models for hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths, highlighting the differences between the 1989 and 1985 models. In addition, we give the reasons for which the 1985 models were modified

  12. [Effects of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on dyspnea, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life for patients with chronic lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kwan

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on dyspnea, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in inpatients with chronic lung disease. This quasi experimental study was designed with a nonequivalent control group pre-post test time series. Twenty three patients were assigned to the experimental group and nineteen to the control group. The inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program was composed of upper and lower extremity exercise, breathing retraining, inspiratory muscle training, education, relaxation and telephone contacts. This program consisted of 4 sessions with inpatients and 4 weeks at home after discharge. The control group was given a home based pulmonary rehabilitation program at the time of discharge. The outcomes were measured by the Borg score, 6MWD and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire(CRQ). There was a statistically significant difference in dyspnea between the experimental group and control group, but not among time sequence, or interaction between groups and time sequence. Also significant improvements in exercise capacity and health related quality of life were found only in the experimental group. An Inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program may be a useful intervention to reduce dyspnea, and increase exercise capacity and health related quality of life for chronic lung disease patients.

  13. Dental Health Behavior in the Prevention of Pulmonary TB at Health Centre in Several Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indirawati Tjahja Notohartojo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary TB is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. Dental health professionals such as dentists and dental nurses are in charge of health personnel to prevent, treat, cure, teeth the mouth, so as not to arise or aggravate toothache. In doing their job as dental health workers is expected to use gloves or masks, and always wash their hands to avoid the transmission of pulmonary TB disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted involving 78 dental health professionals in 50 primary health centers that were chosen in six districts in three provinces of Banten, South Kalimantan and Gorontalo. Data were obtained by interviews and processed using SPSSResults: More than 90% dental health workers in work wore masks gloves and washed their hands after work. There was a signifi cant relationship between exercise with dental health professionals with a p value of 0.007, which means a signifi cant. Conclusion: In performing their duties, dental health workers have already used personal protective equipment such asmasks, gloves, and washed their hands and did enough exercise. Recommendation: need to increase knowledge about pulmonary TB in dental health professionals.

  14. Effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on balance in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; O'Hoski, Sachi; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2010-09-01

    To describe within-subject effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on balance in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine whether any observed changes in balance were associated with change in exercise tolerance or health-related quality of life. Single-arm longitudinal study. Inpatient PR center. Subjects with COPD (N=29; mean +/- SD age, 69.8+/-10.3y; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 46.3%+/-22.3% predicted; 59% men [n=17]). A standardized 6-week multidisciplinary PR program (exercise training, breathing exercises, education, and psychologic support). Balance was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. Exercise tolerance was determined from the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and health-related quality of life from the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ). Subjects showed small improvements in BBS (2.8+/-2.8 points; P.05). There was a weak relationship between change in BBS and change in CRQ scores (r=.40; P=.045) and no relationship with change in 6MWT. PR contributed to minor improvements in balance and had no effect on balance confidence in subjects with COPD. Further work is warranted to determine the optimal intervention for improving balance in this population.

  15. Volatile organic compounds and pulmonary function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P; Kissling, Grace E; London, Stephanie J

    2006-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. We used data from 953 adult participants (20-59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of -153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI) , -297 to -8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and -346 mL/sec (95% CI, -667 to -24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health.

  16. Effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD with mild symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Mette; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Most guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) levels ≥2, but the effectiveness of PR in patients with less advanced disease is not well established. Our aim...... was to investigate the effects of PR in patients with COPD and mMRC ≤1. METHODS: The methodology was developed as a part of evidence-based guideline development and is in accordance with the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. We identified...... randomized controlled trials (RCTs) through a systematic, multidatabase literature search and selected RCTs comparing the effects of PR with usual care in patients with COPD and mMRC ≤1. Predefined critical outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQoL), adverse effects and mortality, while walking...

  17. An integrated programme after pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effect on emotional and functional dimensions of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullec, G; Ninot, G

    2010-02-01

    To assess whether a maintenance integrated health care programme is effective in improving functional and emotional dimensions of quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after a first pulmonary rehabilitation. Prospective controlled trial. Three rehabilitation centres and three patient self-help associations within a health care network in France. Forty patients with moderate to severe COPD. After a first four-week inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programme, patients took part in a maintenance integrated health care programme or usual care for 12 months. The primary outcomes were the change in functional and emotional dimensions of quality of life measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the brief World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (Brief-WHOQOL) and six specific questions using a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes were change in exercise tolerance measured by six-minute walking test and cycle exercise. At one year, the maintenance intervention (n = 11) produced improvements in functional and emotional dimensions scores of quality of life and exercise tolerance. Patients in the usual aftercare group (n = 16) exhibited maintenance of functional dimension scores of quality of life, but a clinically relevant decline in emotional scores of quality of life and in six-minute walking distance one year after the pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient self-help association seems to be an innovative and efficient organizational structure to support patients with COPD after pulmonary rehabilitation in real-life settings. A distinction between emotional and functional dimensions of quality of life may improve the design and evaluation of integrated health care programmes in patients with COPD.

  18. The effectiveness of a structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programme for improving the health status of people with moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care: the PRINCE cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy; Devane, Declan; Cooney, Adeline; McCarthy, Bernard; Mee, Lorraine; Newell, John; O'Shea, Eamon; Scarrott, Carl; Gillespie, Paddy; Kirwan, Collette; Murphy, Andrew W

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programme on the health status of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial. 32 general practices in the Republic of Ireland. 350 participants with a diagnosis of moderate or severe COPD. Experimental group received a structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programme, delivered by the practice nurse and physiotherapist. Control group received usual care. Health status as measured by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) at baseline and at 12-14 weeks postcompletion of the programme. Participants allocated to the intervention group had statistically significant higher mean change total CRQ scores (adjusted mean difference (MD) 1.11, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.87). However, the CI does not exclude a smaller difference than the one that was prespecified as clinically important. Participants allocated to the intervention group also had statistically significant higher mean CRQ Dyspnoea scores after intervention (adjusted MD 0.49, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.78) and CRQ Physical scores (adjusted MD 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.60). However, CIs for both the CRQ Dyspnoea and CRQ Physical subscales do not exclude smaller differences as prespecified as clinically important. No other statistically significant differences between groups were seen. A primary care based structured education pulmonary rehabilitation programme is feasible and may increase local accessibility to people with moderate and severe COPD. ISRCTN52403063.

  19. Pulmonary hypertension in end-stage pulmonary sarcoidosis: therapeutic effect of sildenafil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Burton, C.M.; Iversen, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the effect of sildenafil treatment in patients with recalcitrant pulmonary sarcoidosis. METHODS: This investigation was a single-center, retrospective study of all patients (n = 25...

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Leslie; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in much higher concentrations indoors, where people spend most of their time, than outdoors and may have adverse health effects. VOCs have been associated with respiratory symptoms, but few studies address objective respiratory end points such as pulmonary function. Blood levels of VOCs may be more indicative of personal exposures than are air concentrations; no studies have addressed their relationship with respiratory outcomes. Objective We examined whether concentrations of 11 VOCs that were commonly identified in blood from a sample of the U.S. population were associated with pulmonary function. Methods We used data from 953 adult participants (20–59 years of age) in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) who had VOC blood measures as well as pulmonary function measures. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 11 VOCs and measures of pulmonary function. Results After adjustment for smoking, only 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with reduced pulmonary function. Participants in the highest decile of 1,4-DCB concentration had decrements of −153 mL [95% confidence interval (CI), −297 to −8] in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and −346 mL/sec (95% CI, −667 to −24) in maximum mid-expiratory flow rate, compared with participants in the lowest decile. Conclusions Exposure to 1,4-DCB, a VOC related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs, at levels found in the U.S. general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. This common exposure may have long-term adverse effects on respiratory health. PMID:16882527

  1. Beneficial Effects of Renal Denervation on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyan, Zhao; Xuejun, Jiang; Yanhong, Tang; Zixuan, Dai; Xiaozhan, Wang; Xule, Wang; Zongwen, Guo; Wei, Hu; Shengbo, Yu; Congxin, Huang

    2015-07-01

    Activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into 3 groups. The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). Eight weeks after injection, neurohormone levels and pulmonary tissue morphology were measured. Levels of plasma angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were significantly increased after 8 weeks in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs and were higher in the lung tissues of these dogs than in those of the control and renal denervation dogs (mean [standard deviation] angiotensin II: 65 [9.8] vs 38 [6.7], 46 [8.1]; endothelin-1: 96 [10.3] vs 54 [6.2], 67 [9.4]; P < .01). Dehydromonocrotaline increased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (16 [3.4] mmHg vs 33 [7.3] mmHg; P < .01), and renal denervation prevented this increase. Pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation was higher in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs than in the control and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs. Renal denervation attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of renal denervation may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  3. Effects of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation with a metronome-guided walking pace in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-soon; Kim, Changhwan; Jin, Young-Soo; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Yang, Yun Jun; Park, Yong Bum

    2013-05-01

    Despite documented efficacy and recommendations, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been underutilized. Home-based PR was proposed as an alternative, but there were limited data. The adequate exercise intensity was also a crucial issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of home-based PR with a metronome-guided walking pace on functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD. The subjects participated in a 12-week home-based PR program. Exercise intensity was initially determined by cardiopulmonary exercise test, and was readjusted (the interval of metronome beeps was reset) according to submaximal endurance test. Six-minute walk test, pulmonary function test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were done before and after the 12-week program, and at 6 months after completion of rehabilitation. Thirty-three patients participated in the program. Six-minute walking distance was significantly increased (48.8 m; P = 0.017) and the SGRQ score was also improved (-15; P metronome-guided walking pace for COPD patients. This rehabilitation program may improve functional exercise capacity and HRQOL.

  4. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  5. Development of an enhanced health-economic model and cost-effectiveness analysis of tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat® fixed-dose combination for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selya-Hammer, C. (Carl); Gonzalez-Rojas Guix, N. (Nuria); M. Baldwin (Michael); Ternouth, A. (Andrew); M. Miravitlles; M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); Goosens, L.M.A. (Lucas M.A.); N. Büyükkaramikli (Nasuh); Acciai, V. (Valentina)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of the fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tiotropium + olodaterol Respimat® FDC with tiotropium alone for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Italian health care setting using a newly

  6. Efficacy of an mHealth intervention to stimulate physical activity in COPD patients after pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrink, Sigrid N W; Kort, Helianthe S M; Troosters, Thierry; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    2016-10-01

    Physical inactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with poor health status and increased disease burden. The present study aims to test the efficacy of a previously developed mobile (m)Health intervention to improve or maintain physical activity in patients with COPD after pulmonary rehabilitation.A randomised controlled trial was performed in 32 physiotherapy practices in the Netherlands. COPD patients were randomised into intervention or usual care groups. The intervention consisted of a smartphone application for the patients and a monitoring website for the physiotherapists. Measurements were performed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Physical activity, functional exercise capacity, lung function, health-related quality of life and body mass index were assessed.157 patients started the study and 121 completed it. There were no significant positive effects of the intervention on physical activity (at 0 months: intervention 5824±3418 steps per weekday, usual care 5717±2870 steps per weekday; at 12 months: intervention 4819±2526 steps per weekday, usual care 4950±2634 steps per weekday; p=0.811) or on the secondary end-points. There was a significant decrease over time in physical activity (pphysical activity in patients with COPD after a period of pulmonary rehabilitation. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  7. Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar PK

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, this cross sectional survey was undertaken to understand the role of fuel use on pulmonary function. Method This study was conducted in a village of western India involving 369 randomly selected adult subjects (165 male and 204 female. All the subjects were interviewed and were subjected to pulmonary function test. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare the levels of different pulmonary function test parameters in relation to different fuel use taking care of the role of possible confounding factors. Results This study showed that biomass fuel use (especially wood is an important factor for deterioration of pulmonary function (particularly in female. FEV1 (p 1 % (p 25–75 (p Conclusion This study concluded that traditional biomass fuels like wood have adverse effects on pulmonary function.

  8. Epidemiology and treatment effects in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S.M. Afonso (Ana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health epidemic, which has important consequences for patients and community, and still receives insufficient attention from the health care professionals and scientists. COPD is a leading cause of chronic morbidity (affects 210

  9. Pulmonary circulatory effects of norepinephrine in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneux, Pierre; Rakza, Thameur; Bouissou, Antoine; Krim, Gérard; Storme, Laurent

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the respiratory and the pulmonary circulatory effects of norepinephrine in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN)-induced cardiac dysfunction. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Newborn infants >35 weeks gestational age; 2) PPHN treated with inhaled nitric oxide; and 3) symptoms of circulatory failure despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Lung function and pulmonary hemodynamic variables assessed with Doppler echocardiography were recorded prospectively before and after starting norepinephrine. Eighteen newborns were included (gestational age: 37 +/- 3 weeks; birth weight: 2800 +/- 700 g). After starting norepinephrine, systemic pressure and left ventricular output increased respectively from 33 +/- 4 mm Hg to 49 +/- 4 mm Hg and from 172 +/- 79 mL/kg/min to 209+/-90 mL/kg/min (P ventilatory variables have not been changed, the post-ductal transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation increased from 89% +/- 1% to 95% +/- 4%, whereas the oxygen need decreased from 51% +/- 24% to 41% +/- 20% (P newborn infants with PPHN through a decrease in pulmonary/systemic artery pressure ratio and improved cardiac performance.

  10. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  11. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McCluskey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment.

  12. Pulmonary function and fuel use: a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Asim; Rao, N Mohan; Kulkarni, P K; Majumdar, P K; Saiyed, H N

    2005-10-31

    In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables) on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, this cross sectional survey was undertaken to understand the role of fuel use on pulmonary function. This study was conducted in a village of western India involving 369 randomly selected adult subjects (165 male and 204 female). All the subjects were interviewed and were subjected to pulmonary function test. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare the levels of different pulmonary function test parameters in relation to different fuel use taking care of the role of possible confounding factors. This study showed that biomass fuel use (especially wood) is an important factor for deterioration of pulmonary function (particularly in female). FEV1 (p Liquefied Petroleum Gas) use and only wood vs. only LPG use has showed that LPG is a safer fuel so far as deterioration of pulmonary function is concerned. This study observes some deterioration of pulmonary function in the male subjects also, who came from biomass fuel using families. This study concluded that traditional biomass fuels like wood have adverse effects on pulmonary function.

  13. Effectiveness of a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    week home-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP) improved the baseline measurements of lung function, exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients receiving out-patient treatment for PTB. Method: A single ...

  14. The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Donald R; Johnson, Jane C; Baer, Robert W; Snider, Eric J

    2009-10-08

    The use of manipulation has long been advocated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few randomized controlled clinical trials have measured the effect of manipulation on pulmonary function. In addition, the effects of individual manipulative techniques on the pulmonary system are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of four osteopathic techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with COPD relative to a minimal-touch control protocol. Persons with COPD aged 50 and over were recruited for the study. Subjects received five, single-technique treatment sessions: minimal-touch control, thoracic lymphatic pump (TLP) with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release. There was a 4-week washout period between sessions. Protocols were given in random order until all five techniques had been administered. Pulmonary function measures were obtained at baseline and 30-minutes posttreatment. For the actual pulmonary function measures and percent predicted values, Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test within-technique changes from baseline. For the percent change from baseline, Friedman tests were used to test for between-technique differences. Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in the study. All four tested osteopathic techniques were associated with adverse posttreatment changes in pulmonary function measures; however, different techniques changed different measures. TLP with activation increased posttreatment residual volume compared to baseline, while TLP without activation did not. Side effects were mild, mostly posttreatment chest wall soreness. Surprisingly, the majority of subjects believed they could breathe better after receiving osteopathic manipulation. In persons with COPD, TLP with activation, TLP without activation, rib raising, and myofascial release mildly worsened pulmonary function measures immediately posttreatment relative to

  15. Pulmonary function and health-related quality of life 1-year follow up after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Jonsson, Marcus; Emtner, Margareta

    2016-07-08

    Pulmonary function is severely reduced in the early period after cardiac surgery, and impairments have been described up to 4-6 months after surgery. Evaluation of pulmonary function in a longer perspective is lacking. In this prospective study pulmonary function and health-related quality of life were investigated 1 year after cardiac surgery. Pulmonary function measurements, health-related quality of life (SF-36), dyspnoea, subjective breathing and coughing ability and pain were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery in 150 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery or combined surgery. One year after surgery the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly decreased (by 4-5 %) compared to preoperative values (p < 0.05). Saturation of peripheral oxygen was unchanged 1 year postoperatively compared to baseline. A significantly improved health-related quality of life was found 1 year after surgery, with improvements in all eight aspects of SF-36 (p < 0.001). Sternotomy-related pain was low 1 year postoperatively at rest (median 0 [min-max; 0-7]), while taking a deep breath (0 [0-4]) and while coughing (0 [0-8]). A more pronounced decrease in pulmonary function was associated with dyspnoea limitations and impaired subjective breathing and coughing ability. One year after cardiac surgery static and dynamic lung function measurements were slightly decreased, while health-related quality of life was improved in comparison to preoperative values. Measured levels of pain were low and saturation of peripheral oxygen was same as preoperatively.

  16. Effects of anaesthesia techniques and drugs on pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Saraswat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary task of the lungs is to maintain oxygenation of the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide through the network of capillaries alongside alveoli. This is maintained by utilising ventilatory reserve capacity and by changes in lung mechanics. Induction of anaesthesia impairs pulmonary functions by the loss of consciousness, depression of reflexes, changes in rib cage and haemodynamics. All drugs used during anaesthesia, including inhalational agents, affect pulmonary functions directly by acting on respiratory system or indirectly through their actions on other systems. Volatile anaesthetic agents have more pronounced effects on pulmonary functions compared to intravenous induction agents, leading to hypercarbia and hypoxia. The posture of the patient also leads to major changes in pulmonary functions. Anticholinergics and neuromuscular blocking agents have little effect. Analgesics and sedatives in combination with volatile anaesthetics and induction agents may exacerbate their effects. Since multiple agents are used during anaesthesia, ultimate effect may be different from when used in isolation. Literature search was done using MeSH key words 'anesthesia', 'pulmonary function', 'respiratory system' and 'anesthesia drugs and lungs' in combination in PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar filtered by review and research articles sorted by relevance.

  17. Effects of a comprehensive self-management programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monninkhof, E.M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Herwaarden, C.L.A. van; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a comprehensive self-management intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), symptoms and walking distance in patients with stable moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was part of the overall COPD

  18. Relationship between sleep quality and mental health according to demographics of 850 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Alireza; Safa, Mitra; Ghassem Boroujerdi, Fatemeh; Hajizadeh, Farzaneh; Pashm Foroush, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to study sleep problems in hospitalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and assess the relationship of sleep quality with mental health and demographics of patients. Our study sample consisted of 850 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients hospitalized in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. Demographic data were collected and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and mental health questionnaires were filled out for patients. The results showed that 5.9 percent were suffering from severe sleep problems, while 4.7 percent had severe mental problems. A strong positive correlation was found between the total scores of mental health and sleep quality ( p mental health problems was higher in females compared to males. Mental health and sleep quality play important roles in quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  19. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance

  20. Treatment Effect of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Quantified by Automatic Comparative Imaging in Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiwei; Ota, Hideki; Staring, Marius; Stolk, Jan; Sugimura, Koichiro; Takase, Kei; Stoel, Berend C

    2018-05-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can have variable outcomes. To gain more insight into this variation, we designed a method for visualizing and quantifying changes in pulmonary perfusion by automatically comparing computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography before and after BPA treatment. We validated these quantifications of perfusion changes against hemodynamic changes measured with right-sided heart catheterization. We studied 14 consecutive CTEPH patients (12 women; age, 70.5 ± 24), who underwent CT pulmonary angiography and right-sided heart catheterization, before and after BPA. Posttreatment images were registered to pretreatment CT scans (using the Elastix toolbox) to obtain corresponding locations. Pulmonary vascular trees and their centerlines were detected using a graph cuts method and a distance transform method, respectively. Areas distal from vessels were defined as pulmonary parenchyma. Subsequently, the density changes within the vascular centerlines and parenchymal areas were calculated and corrected for inspiration level differences. For visualization, the densitometric changes were displayed in color-coded overlays. For quantification, the median and interquartile range of the density changes in the vascular and parenchymal areas (ΔVD and ΔPD) were calculated. The recorded changes in hemodynamic parameters, including changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (ΔsPAP, ΔdPAP, and ΔmPAP, respectively) and vascular resistance (ΔPVR), were used as reference assessments of the treatment effect. Spearman correlation coefficients were employed to investigate the correlations between changes in perfusion and hemodynamic changes. Comparative imaging maps showed distinct patterns in perfusion changes among patients. Within pulmonary vessels, the interquartile range of ΔVD correlated significantly with ΔsPAP (R = -0.58, P = 0.03),

  1. [The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on collagen accumulation in pulmonary arteries of rats with hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Wei; Du, Jie; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2013-03-01

    To observe the effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on pulmonary vascular collagen accumulation in hypoxia rats in order to study the effect of CGRP on hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and its possible mechanism. Rats were acclimated for 1 week, and then were randomly divided into three groups: normoxia group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia plus capsaicin group. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced by hypoxia in rats. Hypoxia plus capsaicin group, rats were given capsaicin (50 mg/(kg x d), s.c) 4 days before hypoxia to deplete endogenous CGRP. Hypoxia (3% O2) stimulated proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and proliferation was measured by BrdU marking. The expression levels of CGRP, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/ 2), collagen I and collagen III were detected by real-time PCR or Western blot. Right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rats induced by hypoxia were higher than those of normoxia rats. By HE and Masson staining, it was demonstrated that hypoxia also significantly induced hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries and increased level of collagen accumulation. Hypoxia dramatically decreased the CGRP level and increased the expression of p-ERK1/2, collagen I, collagen III in pulmonary arteries. All these effects of hypoxia were further aggravated by pre-treatment of rats with capsaicin. CGRP concentration-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced proliferation of PASMCs, markedly decreased the expression of p-ERK1/2, collagen I and collagen III. All these effects of CGRP were abolished in the presence of CGRP8-37. These results suggest that CGRP might inhibit hypoxia-induced PAH and pulmonary vascular remodeling, through inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and alleviating the collagen accumulation of pulmonary arteries.

  2. Effects of altitude and exercise on pulmonary capillary integrity: evidence for subclinical high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Marlowe W; Braun, Ruedi K; Yoneda, Ken Y; Walby, William F

    2006-03-01

    Strenuous exercise may be a significant contributing factor for development of high-altitude pulmonary edema, particularly at low or moderate altitudes. Thus we investigated the effects of heavy cycle ergometer exercise (90% maximal effort) under hypoxic conditions in which the combined effects of a marked increase in pulmonary blood flow and nonuniform hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction could add significantly to augment the mechanical stress on the pulmonary microcirculation. We postulated that intense exercise at altitude would result in an augmented permeability edema. We recruited eight endurance athletes and examined their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for red blood cells (RBCs), protein, inflammatory cells, and soluble mediators at 2 and 26 h after intense exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. After heavy exercise, under all conditions, the athletes developed a permeability edema with high BALF RBC and protein concentrations in the absence of inflammation. We found that exercise at altitude (3,810 m) caused significantly greater leakage of RBCs [9.2 (SD 3.1)x10(4) cells/ml] into the alveolar space than that seen with normoxic exercise [5.4 (SD 1.2)x10(4) cells/ml]. At altitude, the 26-h postexercise BALF revealed significantly higher RBC and protein concentrations, suggesting an ongoing capillary leak. Interestingly, the BALF profiles following exercise at altitude are similar to that of early high-altitude pulmonary edema. These findings suggest that pulmonary capillary disruption occurs with intense exercise in healthy humans and that hypoxia augments the mechanical stresses on the pulmonary microcirculation.

  3. Effectiveness of a respiratory rehabilitation programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunera-Pardell, María Jesús; Padín-López, Susana; Domenech-Del Rio, Adolfo; Godoy-Ramírez, Ana

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary respiratory rehabilitation (RR) programme in patients with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pre the RR programme, at the end of the programme and one year after the RR, measuring changes in ability to exercise (walking test), effort tolerance(forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) and health-related quality of life. Quasi-experimental single group design. We included patients diagnosed with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stages III and IV of the GOLD classification) who entered the rehabilitation programme for the years 2011 and 2012. Demographic data, questionnaires on general health-related quality of life (SF-36) and specific to respiratory patients (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire), FEV1% and exercise capacity test (running test 6minutes) were collected. Data were collected before the RR programme, at the end of the RR programme and a year after completing the program. No significant differences in FEV1% values were observed. Regarding exercise capacity, an increase in distance walked in the walking test was noted, which changed significantly after training, 377±59.7 to 415±79 m after one year (P<.01). A statistically significant improvement in mean scores of HRQoL was observed, except for the emotional role dimension of the SF-36 questionnaire. A pulmonary rehabilitation programme for 8 weeks improved the exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life of patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  5. Aggravating Impact of Nanoparticles on Immune-Mediated Pulmonary Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichiro Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the adverse health effects of nanoparticles have been proposed and are being clarified, their aggravating effects on pre-existing pathological conditions have not been fully investigated. In this review, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of both airborne and engineered nanoparticles as an exacerbating factor on hypersusceptible subjects, especially those with immune-mediated pulmonary inflammation, using our in vivo experimental model. First, we exhibit the effects of nanoparticles on pulmonary inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS as a disease model in innate immunity, and demonstrate that nanoparticles instilled through both an intratracheal tube and an inhalation system can exacerbate the lung inflammation. Second, we introduce the effects of nanoparticles on allergic pulmonary inflammation as a disease model in adaptive immunity, and show that repetitive pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles has aggravating effects on allergic inflammation, including adjuvant effects on Th2-milieu. Third, we show that very small nanoparticle exposure exacerbates emphysematous pulmonary inflammation, which is concomitant with enhanced lung expression of proinflammatory molecules (including those that are innate immunity related. Taken together, nanoparticle exposure may synergistically facilitate pathological pulmonary inflammation via both innate and adaptive immunological impairment.

  6. Patient and health system delay among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Beira city, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifodine, Abuchahama; Gudo, Paula Samo; Sidat, Mohsin; Black, James

    2013-06-07

    TB control is based on the rapid identification of cases and their effective treatment. However, many studies have shown that there are important delays in diagnosis and treatment of patients with TB. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of and identify risk factors associated with patient delay and health system delay among newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB. A cross sectional study was carried out in Beira city, Mozambique between September 2009 and February 2010. Patients in the first month of treatment were consecutively selected to this study if they had a diagnosis of pulmonary TB, had no history of previous TB treatment, and were 18 years or older and provided informed consent. Data was obtained through a questionnaire administered to the patients and from patients' files. Among the 622 patients included in the study the median age was 32 years (interquartile range, 26-40) and 272 (43.7%) were females. The median total delay, patient delay and health system delay was 150 days (interquartile range, 91-240), 61 days (28-113) and 62 days (37-120), respectively. The contribution of patient delay and health system delay to total delay was similar. Farming, visiting first a traditional healer, low TB knowledge and coexistence of a chronic disease were associated with increased patient delay. More than two visits to a health facility, farming and coexistence of a chronic disease were associated with increased health system delay. This study revealed a long total delay with a similar contribution of patient delay and health system delay. To reduce the total delay in this setting we need a combination of interventions to encourage patients to seek appropriate health care earlier and to expedite TB diagnosis within the health care system.

  7. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation improves clinical features and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento ESP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eloisa Sanches Pereira do Nascimento,1 Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio,1 Fabiana Sobral Peixoto-Souza,1 Fernanda Dultra Dias,1 Evelim Leal Freitas Dantas Gomes,1 Flavia Regina Greiffo,2 Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira,2 Roberto Stirbulov,3 Rodolfo Paula Vieira,2 Dirceu Costa11Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation (LARESP, 2Laboratory of Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology (LABPEI, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Pneumology, Santa Casa University Hospital, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease characterized by chronic airflow limitation that leads beyond the pulmonary changes to important systemic effects. COPD is characterized by pulmonary and systemic inflammation. However, increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in plasma are found even when the disease is stable. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves physical exercise capacity and quality of life and decreases dyspnea. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR program improves exercise tolerance in COPD patients, as well as health-related quality of life and systemic inflammation. This prospective study was conducted at the Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil. After anamnesis, patients were subjected to evaluations of health-related quality of life and dyspnea, spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, upper limbs incremental test, incremental shuttle walk test, and blood test for quantification of systemic inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-8. At the end of the evaluations, patients received a booklet containing the physical exercises to be performed at home, three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Around 25 patients were enrolled, and 14 completed the pre- and post-HBPR ratings. There was a significant increase in the walked distance and the maximal

  8. Short- and long-term effects of diving on pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Tetzlaff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The diving environment provides a challenge to the lung, including exposure to high ambient pressure, altered gas characteristics and cardiovascular effects on the pulmonary circulation. Several factors associated with diving affect pulmonary function acutely and can potentially cause prolonged effects that may accumulate gradually with repeated diving exposure. Evidence from experimental deep dives and longitudinal studies suggests long-term adverse effects of diving on the lungs in commercial deep divers, such as the development of small airways disease and accelerated loss of lung function. In addition, there is an accumulating body of evidence that diving with self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba may not be associated with deleterious effects on pulmonary function. Although changes in pulmonary function after single scuba dives have been found to be associated with immersion, ambient cold temperatures and decompression stress, changes in lung function were small and suggest a low likelihood of clinical significance. Recent evidence points to no accelerated loss of lung function in military or recreational scuba divers over time. Thus, the impact of diving on pulmonary function largely depends on factors associated with the individual diving exposure. However, in susceptible subjects clinically relevant worsening of lung function may occur even after single shallow-water scuba dives.

  9. Ozone exposure and pulmonary effects in panel and human clinical studies: Considerations for design and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C

    2018-04-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone, a photochemical pollutant produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic precursors in the presence of sunlight. This paper focuses on epidemiological panel studies and human clinical studies of ozone exposure, and discusses issues specific to this pollutant that may influence study design and interpretation as well as other, broader considerations relevant to ozone-health research. The issues are discussed using examples drawn from the wider literature. The recent panel and clinical literature is also reviewed. Health outcomes considered include lung function, symptoms, and pulmonary inflammation. Issues discussed include adversity, reversibility, adaptation, variability in ozone exposure metric used and health outcomes evaluated, co-pollutants in panel studies, influence of temperature in panel studies, and multiple comparisons. Improvements in and standardization of panel study approaches are recommended to facilitate comparisons between studies as well as meta-analyses. Additional clinical studies at or near the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 70 ppb are recommended, as are clinical studies in sensitive subpopulations such as asthmatics. The pulmonary health impacts of ozone exposure have been well documented using both epidemiological and chamber study designs. However, there are a number of specific methodological and related issues that should be considered when interpreting the results of these studies and planning additional research, including the standardization of exposure and health metrics to facilitate comparisons among studies.

  10. Effects of irradiation on the pulmonary hemodynamics and the pulmonary vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Shinkichi; Okada, Shinichiroh

    1982-01-01

    In 4 sheeps, base lines of hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were observed for 2 hours, and then 1,000 rad of 60 Co was irradiated to the inferior lobes of the lung. Pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were continuously observed, and water and protein permeability of the irradiated pulmonary vessels was evaluated. In 4 control sheeps, no change in pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics was noted. In the irradiated group, there was no remarkable change in pulmonary hemodynamics for 6 to 8 hours after 60 Co irradiation. Pulmonary lymph flow began to increase 2 hours after irradiation to about 1.7 times the base line level after 4 hours. The increase in pulmonary lymph flow was accompanied by decrease in plasma protein concentration and increase in protein concentration of the lung lymph, resulting in an apparent increase in the ratio of lymph/plasma protein concentration. Water and protein leak from the pulmonary vessels increased. A photomicroscopic observation revealed dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in the lung interstice and a mild pulmonary interstitial edema. Vascular damage, especially due to increased water and protein permeability of the lung capillary vessels, occurred immediately after 60 Co irradiation. (Ueda, J.)

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using an Ontario Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, K; Blackhouse, G; McCurdy, BR; Bornstein, M; Campbell, K; Costa, V; Franek, J; Kaulback, K; Levin, L; Sehatzadeh, S; Sikich, N; Thabane, M; Goeree, R

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  12. Effects of biomass smoke on pulmonary functions: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcan, Baran; Akan, Selcuk; Ugurlu, Aylin Ozsancak; Handemir, Bahar Ozcelik; Ceyhan, Berrin Bagcı; Ozkaya, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Biomass smoke is the leading cause of COPD in developing countries such as Turkey. In rural areas of Turkey, females are more exposed to biomass smoke because of traditional lifestyles. The aim of this study was to determine the adverse effects of biomass smoke on pulmonary functions and define the relationship between duration in years and an index (cumulative exposure index) with altered pulmonary function test results. A total of 115 females who lived in the village of Kağizman (a borough of Kars located in the eastern part of Turkey) and were exposed to biomass smoke were included in the study. The control group was generated with 73 individuals living in the same area who were never exposed to biomass smoke. Twenty-seven (23.8%) females in the study group and four (5.5%) in the control group had small airway disease (P=0.038). Twenty-two (19.1%) females in the study group and ten (13.7%) in the control group had obstruction (P=0.223). Twenty (17.3%) females in the study group who were exposed to biomass smoke had restriction compared with ten (13%) in the control group (P=0.189). The duration needed for the existence of small airway disease was 16 years, for obstructive airway disease was 17 years, and for restrictive airway disease was 17 years. The intensity of biomass smoke was defined in terms of cumulative exposure index; it was calculated by multiplying hours per day, weeks per month, and total years of smoke exposure and dividing the result by three. Exposure to biomass smoke is a serious public health problem, especially in rural areas of developing countries, because of its negative effects on pulmonary functions. As the duration and the intensity of exposure increase, the probability of having altered pulmonary function test results is higher.

  13. ChronicOnline: Implementing a mHealth solution for monitoring and early alerting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsaki, Marina; Koutras, Christos; Koutras, George; Leymann, Frank; Steimle, Frank; Wagner, Sebastian; Wieland, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Lack of time or economic difficulties prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from communicating regularly with their physicians, thus inducing exacerbation of their chronic condition and possible hospitalization. Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online proposes a new, sustainable and innovative business model that provides at low cost and at significant savings to the national health system, a preventive health service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, by combining human medical expertise with state-of-the-art online service delivery based on cloud computing, service-oriented architecture, data analytics, and mobile applications. In this article, we implement the frontend applications of the Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online system and describe their functionality and the interfaces available to the users.

  14. Do health-status measures play a role in improving treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, T; Kocks, JWH

    During the past few decades, health status has become increasingly important in the clinical research of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The use of health-status questionnaires in routine practice can enhance understanding about the impact of the disease on the patient, improve

  15. Hyperthyroidism and pulmonary hypertension: an important association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosula, Sailaja; Radhi, Saba; Cevik, Cihan; Alalawi, Raed; Raj, Rishi; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disorder with multiple etiologies. The World Health Organization Group 5 (unclear multifactorial mechanisms) includes patients with thyroid disorders. The authors reviewed the literature on the association between hyperthyroidism and pulmonary hypertension and identified 20 publications reporting 164 patients with treatment outcomes. The systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressures in these patients ranged from 28 to 78 mm Hg. They were treated with antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine and surgery. The mean pretherapy PA systolic pressure was 39 mm Hg; the mean posttreatment pressure was 30 mm Hg. Pulmonary hypertension should be considered in hyperthyroid patients with dyspnea. All patients with pulmonary hypertension should be screened for hyperthyroidism, because the treatment of hyperthyroidism can reduce PA pressures, potentially avoid the side-effects and costs with current therapies for pulmonary hypertension and limit the consequences of untreated hyperthyroidism. However, the long-term outcome in these patients is uncertain, and this issue needs more study. Changes in the pulmonary circulation and molecular regulators of vascular remodeling likely explain this association.

  16. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  17. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  18. eHealth to stimulate physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, S.N.W.

    2016-01-01

    Persons with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced physical activity (PA) levels compared to healthy age-matched controls. Regular PA is associated with positive health outcomes. Inactivity leads to deconditioning, which leads to increased symptoms and a further reduction

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves only some domains of health-related quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chok Limsuwat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR has inconsistent effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with chronic lung diseases. We evaluated the effect of PR on HRQL outcomes using the 36-item short form of the medical outcomes (SF-36. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who completed PR in 2010, 2011, and first half of 2012. We collected information on demographics, symptoms, pulmonary function tests, 6-minute walk tests (6-MWT, and responses on the SF-36 survey, including the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS. Results: The study included 19 women and 22 men. The mean age was 69.8 ± 8.5 years. The diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 31, asthma (n = 3, interstitial lung disease (n = 5, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; n = 2. The mean forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1 was 1.16 ± 0.52 L (against 60.5 ± 15.9% of predicted value. There was a significant improvement in 6-MWT (P < 0.0001. The PCS improved post-PR from 33.8 to 34.5 (P = 0.02; the MCS did not change. Conclusion: These patients had low SF-36 scores compared to the general population; changes in scores after PR were low. These patients may need frequent HRQL assessment during rehabilitation, and PR programs should consider program modification in patients with small changes in mental health.

  20. Early pulmonary response is critical for extra-pulmonary carbon nanoparticle mediated effects: comparison of inhalation versus intra-arterial infusion exposures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Koustav; Ettehadieh, Dariusch; Upadhyay, Swapna; Takenaka, Shinji; Adler, Thure; Karg, Erwin; Krombach, Fritz; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Holger; Schmid, Otmar; Stoeger, Tobias

    2017-06-20

    The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM. Equivalent surface area CNP doses in the blood (30mm 2 per animal) were applied by IAI or inhalation (lung-deposited dose 10,000mm 2 ; accounting for 0.3% of lung-to-blood CNP translocation). Mice were analyzed for changes in hematology and molecular markers of endothelial/epithelial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, and coagulation in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs after CNP inhalation (4 h and 24 h) and CNP infusion (4 h). For methodological reasons, we used two different CNP types (spark-discharge and Printex90), with very similar physicochemical properties [≥98 and ≥95% elemental carbon; 10 and 14 nm primary particle diameter; and 800 and 300 m 2 /g specific surface area] for inhalation and IAI respectively. Mild pulmonary inflammatory responses and significant systemic effects were observed following 4 h and 24 h CNP inhalation. Increased retention of activated leukocytes, secondary thrombocytosis, and pro-inflammatory responses in secondary organs were detected following 4 h and 24 h of CNP inhalation only. Interestingly, among the investigated extra-pulmonary tissues (i.e. aorta, heart, and liver); aorta revealed as the most susceptible extra-pulmonary target following inhalation exposure. Bypassing the lungs by IAI however did not induce any extra-pulmonary effects at 4 h as compared to inhalation. Our findings indicate that extra-pulmonary effects due to CNP

  1. Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B.; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10 3 mm 2 . The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. -- Highlights: •Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than 100 children. •We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar deposited surface area. •Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric Oxide tests were performed. •Negative link was found between changes in pulmonary functions and individual doses. •A child's lifestyle appeared to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes. -- The respiratory health effects of daily airborne particle dose on children through personal monitoring

  2. Estimation of pulmonary water distribution and pulmonary congestion by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki; Inagaki, Yoshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the lung in normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure was performed in the supine position with deep inspiration to obtain pulmonary CT values and images. The mean CT value in normal subjects was higher in the posterior than anterior lung field, presumably because blood vessels were more dilated in the former than the latter due to the effects of gravity. The mean pulmonary CT value in patients with congestive heart failure was significantly increased possibly due to an increase in blood flow per unit lung volume arising from either pulmonary congestion or pulmonary interstitial and alveolar edema. The mean pulmonary CT value increased parallel to the severity of pulmonary congestion, interstitial or alveolar edema and was well correlated with the pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, indicating that such a correlation was a valuable tool in assessing therapeutic effects. The results of the present study indicatethat pulmonary CT is useful for the noninvasive estimation of intrapulmonary water content and its distribution, thereby providing an effective diagnostic clue to various conditions in congestive heart failure. (author)

  3. Acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function among students: a panel study in an isolated island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Yoshiko; Takagi, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Junko; Ito, Takeshi; Nakatsubo, Ryouhei; Horie, Yosuke; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Shima, Masayuki

    2017-04-04

    Many epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollutants have been carried out in regions with major sources such as factories and automobiles. However, the health effects of air pollutants in regions without major sources remain unclear. This study investigated the acute effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary function among healthy students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants. A panel study was conducted of 43 healthy subjects who attended a school in an isolated island in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We measured the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) every morning for about 1 month in May 2014. Ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM 10-2.5 ), black carbon (BC), ozone (O 3 ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were measured. The associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and pulmonary function were analyzed using mixed-effects models. A decrease in FEV 1 was significantly associated with BC concentrations (-27.28 mL [95%confidence interval (CI):-54.10,-0.46] for an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 0.23 μg/m 3 ). The decrease in PEF was significantly associated with indoor O 3 concentrations (-8.03 L/min [95% CI:-13.02,-3.03] for an IQR increase of 11 ppb). Among subjects with a history of allergy, an increase in PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with low FEV 1 . In subjects with a history of asthma, an inverse association between the indoor O 3 concentration and pulmonary function was observed. Our results demonstrate that increases in BC and O 3 concentrations have acute effects on the pulmonary function among students in an isolated island without major artificial sources of air pollutants.

  4. Efficacy of an mHealth intervention to stimulate physical activity in COPD patients after pulmonary rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, S.N.W.; Kort, H.S.M.; Troosters, T.; Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.-W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with poor health status and increased disease burden. The present study aims to test the efficacy of a previously developed mobile (m)Health intervention to improve or maintain physical activity in

  5. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary Effective Arterial Elastance as a Measure of Right Ventricular Afterload and Its Prognostic Value in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Shah, Sanjiv J; Borlaug, Barry A; Leary, Peter J; Patel, Harnish H; Miller, Wayne L; Kelemen, Benjamin W; Houston, Brian A; Kolb, Todd M; Damico, Rachel; Mathai, Stephen C; Kasper, Edward K; Hassoun, Paul M; Kass, David A; Tedford, Ryan J

    2018-04-01

    Patients with combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease have a worse prognosis compared with isolated postcapillary. However, it remains unclear whether increased mortality in combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension is simply a result of higher total right ventricular load. Pulmonary effective arterial elastance (Ea) is a measure of total right ventricular afterload, reflecting both resistive and pulsatile components. We aimed to test whether pulmonary Ea discriminates survivors from nonsurvivors in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease and if it does so better than other hemodynamic parameters associated with combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension. We combined 3 large heart failure patient cohorts (n=1036) from academic hospitals, including patients with pulmonary hypertension due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (n=232), reduced ejection fraction (n=335), and a mixed population (n=469). In unadjusted and 2 adjusted models, pulmonary Ea more robustly predicted mortality than pulmonary vascular resistance and the transpulmonary gradient. Along with pulmonary arterial compliance, pulmonary Ea remained predictive of survival in patients with normal pulmonary vascular resistance. The diastolic pulmonary gradient did not predict mortality. In addition, in a subset of patients with echocardiographic data, Ea and pulmonary arterial compliance were better discriminators of right ventricular dysfunction than the other parameters. Pulmonary Ea and pulmonary arterial compliance more consistently predicted mortality than pulmonary vascular resistance or transpulmonary gradient across a spectrum of left heart disease with pulmonary hypertension, including patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and pulmonary hypertension with a normal pulmonary vascular resistance. © 2018 American Heart Association

  7. Effect of prepro-calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing endothelial progenitor cells on pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Zixiong; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Lu, Jun

    2007-08-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent smooth muscle cell proliferation inhibitor and vasodilator. It is now believed that CGRP plays an important role in maintaining a low pulmonary vascular resistance. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of intravenously administered CGRP-expressing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on left-to-right shunt-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Endothelial progenitor cells were obtained from cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The genetic sequence for CGRP was subcloned into cultured EPCs by human expression plasmid. Pulmonary hypertension was established in immunodeficient rats with an abdominal aorta to inferior vena cava shunt operation. The transfected EPCs were injected through the left jugular vein at 10 weeks after the shunt operation. Mean pulmonary artery pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance were detected with right cardiac catheterization at 4 weeks. The distribution of EPCs in the lung tissue was examined with immunofluorescence technique. Histopathologic changes in the structure of the pulmonary arteries was observed with electron microscopy and subjected to computerized image analysis. The lungs of rats transplanted with CGRP-expressing EPCs demonstrated a decrease in both mean pulmonary artery pressure (17.64 +/- 0.79 versus 22.08 +/- 0.95 mm Hg; p = 0.018) and total pulmonary vascular resistance (1.26 +/- 0.07 versus 2.45 +/- 0.18 mm Hg x min/mL; p = 0.037) at 4 weeks. Immunofluorescence revealed that intravenously administered cells were incorporated into the pulmonary vasculature. Pulmonary vascular remodeling was remarkably attenuated with the administration of CGRP-expressing EPCs. The transplantation of CGRP-expressing EPCs may effectively attenuate established pulmonary hypertension and exert reversal effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our findings suggest that the therapy based on the combination of both CGRP transfection and EPCs may be a potentially useful

  8. Acrolein effects in pulmonary cells: relevance to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nadia; Volpi, Giorgia; Pastore, Fiorella; Facchinetti, Fabrizio

    2012-07-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and a respiratory irritant that is ubiquitously present in the environment but that can also be generated endogenously at sites of inflammation. Acrolein is abundant in tobacco smoke, which is the major environmental risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and elevated levels of acrolein are found in the lung fluids of COPD patients. Its high electrophilicity makes acrolein notorious for its facile reaction with biological nucleophiles, leading to the modification of proteins and DNA and depletion of antioxidant defenses. As a consequence, acrolein results in oxidative stress as well as altered intracellular signaling and gene transcription/translation. In pulmonary cells, acrolein, at subtoxic concentrations, can activate intracellular stress kinases, alter the production of inflammatory mediators and proteases, modify innate immune response, induce mucus hypersecretion, and damage airway epithelium. A better comprehension of the mechanisms underlying acrolein effects in the airways may suggest novel treatment strategies in COPD. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Pulmonary Impairment in Tuberculosis Survivors: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jae-Chol; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Park, In-Won

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function, but studies regarding long-term follow-up in patients with no sequelae on chest X-ray (CXR) have not been performed. We evaluated lung functional impairment and persistent respiratory symptoms in those with prior pulmonary TB and those with prior pulmonary TB with no residual sequelae on CXR, and determined risk factors for airflow obstruction. We used data from adults aged ≥ 40 years from the annual Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2012. P values for comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. In total of 14,967 adults, 822 subjects (5.5%) had diagnosed and treated pulmonary TB (mean 29.0 years ago). The FVC% (84.9 vs. 92.6), FEV1% (83.4 vs. 92.4), and FEV1/FVC% (73.4 vs. 77.9) were significantly decreased in subjects with prior pulmonary TB compared to those without (p pulmonary TB (296, 2.3%) had significantly lower FEV1% (90.9 vs. 93.4, p = 0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (76.6 vs. 78.4, p pulmonary TB as well as subjects with no sequalae on CXR were more likely to experience cough and physical activity limitations due to pulmonary symptoms than those without prior pulmonary TB (p pulmonary TB (OR, 2.314; 95% CI, 1.922-2.785), along with age, male, asthma, and smoking mount was risk factor for airflow obstruction. In subjects with prior pulmonary tuberculosis, inactive TB lesion on chest x-ray (OR, 2.300; 95% CI, 1.606-3.294) were risk factors of airflow obstruction. In addition to subjects with inactive TB lesion on CXR, subjects with no sequelae on CXR can show impaired pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Prior TB is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and that the risk is more important when they have inactive lesions on chest X-ray. Hence, the patients with treated TB should need to have regular follow-up of lung function and stop smoking for early detection and prevention of the chronic airway disease.

  10. Hemodynamic Effects of Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Venocapillary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moreira Bento

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemodynamic effects of noninvasive ventilation with positive pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension without left ventricular dysfunction are not clearly established. Objectives: Analyze the impact of increasing airway pressure with continuous positive airway pressure on hemodynamic parameters and, in particular, on cardiac output in patients with variable degrees of pulmonary hypertension. Methods: The study included 38 patients with pulmonary hypertension caused by mitral stenosis without left ventricular dysfunction or other significant valvulopathy. The hemodynamic state of these patients was analyzed in three conditions: baseline, after continuous positive pressure of 7 cmH2O and, finally, after pressure of 14 cmH2O. Results: The population was composed of predominantly young and female individuals with significant elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure (mean systolic pressure of 57 mmHg. Of all variables analyzed, only the right atrial pressure changed across the analyzed moments (from the baseline condition to the pressure of 14 cmH2O there was a change from 8 ± 4 mmHg to 11 ± 3 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.031. Even though there was no variation in mean cardiac output, increased values in pulmonary artery pressure were associated with increased cardiac output. There was no harmful effect or other clinical instability associated with use application of airway pressure. Conclusion: In patients with venocapillary pulmonary hypertension without left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac output response was directly associated with the degree of pulmonary hypertension. The application of noninvasive ventilation did not cause complications directly related to the ventilation systems.

  11. Water-pipe smoking effects on pulmonary permeability using technetium-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, A.; Durak, H.; Ucan, E.S.; Kaya, G.C.; Ceylan, E.; Kiter, G.

    2004-01-01

    Although extensive work has been done on cigarette smoking and its effects on pulmonary function, there are limited number of studies on water-pipe smoking. The effects of water-pipe smoking on health are not widely investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water-pipe smoking on pulmonary permeability. Technetium-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy was performed on 14 water-pipe smoker volunteers (all men, mean age 53.7±9.8) and 11 passive smoker volunteers (1 woman, 10 men, mean age 43.8±12). Clearance half-time (T 1/2) was calculated by placing a monoexponential fit on the time activity curves. Penetration index (PI) of the radioaerosol was also calculated. PI was 0.58±0.14 and 0.50±0.12 for water-pipe smokers (WPS) and passive smokers (PS) respectively. T 1/2 of peripheral lung was 57.3±12.7 and 64.6±13.2 min, central airways was 55.8±23.5 and 80.1±35.2 min for WPS and PS, respectively (p≤0.05). Forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC)% was 82.1±8.5 (%) and 87.7±6.5 (%) for WPS and PS, respectively (0.025< p≤0.05). We suggest that water-pipe smoking effects pulmonary epithelial permeability more than passive smoking. Increased central mucociliary clearance in water-pipe smoking may be due to preserved humidity of the airway tracts. (author)

  12. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  13. Pulmonary Edema: Classification, Mechanisms of Development, Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema remains a topical problem of modern reanimatology. In clinical practice, there is a need for continuous monitoring of the content of extravascular water in the lung and the pulmonary vascular permeability index for the timely detection and treatment of pulmonary edema. This literature review considers the minor mechanisms of pulmonary extravas-cular water exchange in health and in different types of pulmonary edema (acute lung injury, pneumonia, sepsis, postoperative period, burns, injuries etc., as well as the most accessible current (irradiation and dilution studies permitting an estimate of the level of pulmonary extravascular water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index in clinical practice. Key words: pulmonary edema, acute lung injury, pulmonary extravascular water, pulmonary vascular permeability index.

  14. Effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli; Jin Changqing; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of radioiodine therapy on pulmonary metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of pulmonary metastases were studied utilizing chest X-ray, pulmonary function test and 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance examination. Results: The data of pulmonary function test were of no difference between groups of various radiation doses cumulation (P > 0.05). The differences of vital capacity (VC), fast vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) were not remarkable between the two groups of male or female patients (P > 0.05), but the difference of maximal volume ventilation (MVV) was P 99 Tc m -DTPA aerosol clearance rates between various groups were of no difference (P > 0.05). Only for one female, 43 years old who had received an accumulative dose of 51.8 GBq radioiodine over an 8-yr period, her pulmonary function test showed evidence of restrictive lung disease, chest X-ray showed haziness and DTPA half-time clearance was 26.4 min, which is suggestive of interstitial fibrosis. Conclusion: The cumulative dose of radioiodine and gender of the patients had not statistically significant effects on the pulmonary function. Interstitial fibrosis must be carefully watched when the cumulative radioiodine dose is over 37 GBq

  15. Occupational health of miners at altitude: adverse health effects, toxic exposures, pre-placement screening, acclimatization, and worker surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2011-08-01

    Mining operations conducted at high altitudes provide health challenges for workers as well as for medical personnel. To review the literature regarding adverse health effects and toxic exposures that may be associated with mining operations conducted at altitude and to discuss pre-placement screening, acclimatization issues, and on-site surveillance strategies. We used the Ovid ( http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) search engine to conduct a MEDLINE search for "coal mining" or "mining" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude" and a second MEDLINE search for "occupational diseases" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude." The search identified 97 articles of which 76 were relevant. In addition, the references of these 76 articles were manually reviewed for relevant articles. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with increased sympathetic tone that may result in elevated blood pressure, particularly in workers with pre-existing hypertension. Workers with a history of coronary artery disease experience ischemia at lower work rates at high altitude, while those with a history of congestive heart failure have decreased exercise tolerance at high altitude as compared to healthy controls and are at higher risk of suffering an exacerbation of their heart failure. PULMONARY EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with various adverse pulmonary effects, including high-altitude pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, subacute mountain sickness, and chronic mountain sickness. Mining at altitude has been reported to accelerate silicosis and other pneumoconioses. Miners with pre-existing pneumoconioses may experience an exacerbation of their condition at altitude. Persons traveling to high altitude have a higher incidence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration while sleeping than do persons native to high altitude. Obesity increases the risk of pulmonary hypertension, acute mountain sickness, and sleep-disordered breathing. NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: The most common adverse neurological

  16. Pleiotropic effects of statins in distal human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrous Ghazwan S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical data suggest statins have transient but significant effects in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study we explored the molecular effects of statins on distal human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs and their relevance to proliferation and apoptosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods Primary distal human PASMCs from patients and controls were treated with lipophilic (simvastatin, atorvastatin, mevastatin and fluvastatin, lipophobic (pravastatin and nitric-oxide releasing statins and studied in terms of their DNA synthesis, proliferation, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endothelin-1 release. Results Treatment of human PASMCs with selected statins inhibited DNA synthesis, proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Statins differed in their effectiveness, the rank order of anti-mitogenic potency being simvastatin > atorvastatin > > pravastatin. Nevertheless, a novel nitric oxide-releasing derivative of pravastatin (NCX 6550 was effective. Lipophilic statins, such as simvastatin, also enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of iloprost and sildenafil, promoted apoptosis and inhibited the release of the mitogen and survival factor endothelin-1. These effects were reversed by mevalonate and the isoprenoid intermediate geranylgeranylpyrophosphate and were mimicked by inhibitors of the Rho and Rho-kinase. Conclusions Lipophilic statins exert direct effects on distal human PASMCs and are likely to involve inhibition of Rho GTPase signalling. These findings compliment some of the recently documented effects in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  17. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  18. Whether and under what conditions FDG-PET might be cost-effective in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules depicted on lung cancer screening in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Yoshito; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and under what conditions fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be cost-effective in evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules depicted on lung cancer screening in Japan. Three decision models for differentiating lung cancer from benign nodules were compared: CT alone, PET alone, and CT plus PET. The various paths of each strategy were dependent on variables determined from a review of the medical literature. Costs were based on Japanese health insurance. The prevalence of lung cancer among solitary pulmonary nodules detected on lung cancer screening was less than 10%. For this prevalence, the CT-plus-PET model was the cost-effective alternative to the CT-alone model (cost savings were 64,000 yen per patient) and provided greater accuracy (0.90 vs. 0.84). Both of these effects were the result of reducing the number of candidates who undergo unnecessary CT-guided or bronchofiberscopic biopsies or thoracotomy for a benign pulmonary nodule. The CT-plus-PET strategy is accurate and cost-effective for the characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules detected on lung cancer screening in Japan. (author)

  19. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  20. Effect of implanted radioactive 125I seeds on normal tissue structures of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and alveolus in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Liangchen; Han Zhenguo; Yang Bin; Heersitai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of implanted radioactive 125 I seeds on normal tissue structures of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and alveolus in dogs. Methods: Nine healthy male dogs weighing 17-21 kg were randomly divided into three groups: 30 d, 60 d experimental groups and control group. Radioactive 125 I seeds (3.7 x 10 7 Bg, 1.0 mCi) were implanted into the sides of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein respectively, the samples of bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein were taken 30 and 60 d after transplantation, HE staining was used to observe the pathologic changes of the tissues under light microscope. Results: The damages of normal bronchus, esophagus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and alveolus after radioactive 125 I seeds implantation in 30 d group were weaker than those in control group and 60 d group, there were no complications such as perforation, hemorrhage, necrosis, etc. Histopathological score indicated that the scores of bronchus, esophagus and alveolar in 30 d group and 60 d group were higher than those in control group (P 0.05); there was no significant difference in histopathological score of pulmonary vein among all groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The implanted radioactive 125 I seeds can damage all kinds of tissues at different degrees, but this kind of damage is reversible, the dog may repair the damage through its own repair ability, its clinical application is safe. (authors)

  1. Regulation of Pulmonary Vascular Tone in Health and Disease: Special emphasis on exercise and pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Houweling (Birgit)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHigh bloodpressure in the pulmonary circulation is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). In patients with PH, the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors is disturbed. PH is an important cause of death; it is characterized by elevated levels of pulmonary artery pressure

  2. A Multicity Analysis of the Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hospital Admissions in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Jingjie; Gou, Yannong; Sun, Xiubin; Li, Xiujun; Yuan, Zhongshang; Kong, Lizhi; Xue, Fuzhong

    2018-04-17

    Although there is growing evidence linking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospital admissions to the exposure to ambient air pollution, the effect can vary depending on the local geography, pollution type, and pollution level. The number of large-scale multicity studies remains limited in China. This study aims to assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO₂, NO₂) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions from 2015 to 2016, with a total of 216,159 records collected from 207 hospitals in 17 cities all over the Shandong province, east China. Generalized additive models and penalized splines were applied to study the data whilst controlling for confounding meteorological factors and long-term trends. The air pollution was analyzed with 0–6 day lag effects and the percentage change of hospital admissions was assessed for a 10-μg/m³ increase in the air pollution levels. We also examined the percentage changes for different age groups and gender, respectively. The results showed that air pollution was significantly associated with adverse health outcomes and stronger effects were observed for females. The air pollution health effects were also impacted by geographical factors such that the air pollution had weaker health effects in coastal cities.

  3. Thermodilution versus inert gas rebreathing for estimation of effective pulmonary blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Clemensen, P; Andersen, P K

    2000-01-01

    To compare measurements of the effective pulmonary blood flow (Qep, i.e., nonshunted fraction of cardiac output, Qt) by the inert gas rebreathing (RB) method and the thermodilution (TD) technique in critically ill patients.......To compare measurements of the effective pulmonary blood flow (Qep, i.e., nonshunted fraction of cardiac output, Qt) by the inert gas rebreathing (RB) method and the thermodilution (TD) technique in critically ill patients....

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease heterogeneity: challenges for health risk assessment, stratification and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Josep; Vargas, Claudia; Cano, Isaac; Selivanov, Vitaly; Barreiro, Esther; Maier, Dieter; Falciani, Francesco; Wagner, Peter; Cascante, Marta; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Kalko, Susana; De Mas, Igor; Tegnér, Jesper; Escarrabill, Joan; Agustí, Alvar; Gomez-Cabrero, David

    2014-11-28

    Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and disease progression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lead to consequences for patient health risk assessment, stratification and management. Implicit with the classical "spill over" hypothesis is that COPD heterogeneity is driven by the pulmonary events of the disease. Alternatively, we hypothesized that COPD heterogeneities result from the interplay of mechanisms governing three conceptually different phenomena: 1) pulmonary disease, 2) systemic effects of COPD and 3) co-morbidity clustering, each of them with their own dynamics. To explore the potential of a systems analysis of COPD heterogeneity focused on skeletal muscle dysfunction and on co-morbidity clustering aiming at generating predictive modeling with impact on patient management. To this end, strategies combining deterministic modeling and network medicine analyses of the Biobridge dataset were used to investigate the mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction. An independent data driven analysis of co-morbidity clustering examining associated genes and pathways was performed using a large dataset (ICD9-CM data from Medicare, 13 million people). Finally, a targeted network analysis using the outcomes of the two approaches (skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering) explored shared pathways between these phenomena. (1) Evidence of abnormal regulation of skeletal muscle bioenergetics and skeletal muscle remodeling showing a significant association with nitroso-redox disequilibrium was observed in COPD; (2) COPD patients presented higher risk for co-morbidity clustering than non-COPD patients increasing with ageing; and, (3) the on-going targeted network analyses suggests shared pathways between skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering. The results indicate the high potential of a systems approach to address COPD heterogeneity. Significant knowledge gaps were identified that are relevant to shape strategies aiming at

  5. Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar PK; Kulkarni PK; Mohan Rao N; Saha Asim; Saiyed HN

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables) on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, this cross sectional survey was undertaken to understand the role of fuel use on pulmonary function. Method This study was conducted in a village of western I...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these health problems has idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Other respiratory diseases, some of which are less serious, can cause similar signs and symptoms. In people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , scarring of the lungs increases over time until the lungs can no longer ...

  7. Systemic, pulmonary and renal haemodynamic and renal morphologic effects of intravenously infused iodixanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnegaardh, O.; Hietala, S.O.; Holtz, E.; Nycomed A/S, Oslo

    1990-01-01

    The systemic, pulmonary and renal haemodynamic effects following an intravenous infusion (1 ml/s, 4 ml/kg) of a non-ionic isoosmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) were investigated in 8 pigs. Histopathologic changes occurring after infusion of iodixanol were studied by repeated renal biopsies. Iodixanol caused a significant increase of cardiac output, mean right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure and mean arterial pressure. There was a decrease of the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances. Most renal biopsies showed no pathologic findings after infusion of iodixanol but in 3 specimens proteinaceous content was observed 15 min after infusion. (orig.)

  8. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. 99m Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O 2 uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency

  9. Effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Claire E; Counter, Melanie J; Thomas, Gareth A; Harrison, Nicholas K; Hope-Gill, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cough affects more than 70 percent of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and causes significant morbidity. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of some cases of chronic cough; and also has a postulated role in the aetiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A high prevalence of acid; and more recently non-acid, reflux has been observed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis cohorts. Therefore, gastroesophageal reflux may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Eighteen subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis underwent 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after the careful exclusion of causes of chronic cough other than gastroesophageal reflux. All 18 were then treated with high dose acid suppression therapies. Fourteen subjects underwent repeat 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after eight weeks. Total reflux and acid reflux frequencies were within the normal range in the majority of this cohort. The frequencies of non-acid and proximal reflux events were above the normal range. Following high dose acid suppression therapy there was a significant decrease in the number of acid reflux events (p = 0.02), but an increase in the number of non-acid reflux events (p = 0.01). There was no change in cough frequency (p = 0.70). This study confirms that non-acid reflux is prevalent; and that proximal oesophageal reflux occurs in the majority, of subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. It is the first study to investigate the effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. The observation that cough frequency does not improve despite verifiable reductions in oesophageal acid exposure challenges the role of acid reflux in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis associated cough. The finding that non-acid reflux is increased following the use of acid suppression therapies cautions against the widespread use

  10. Reversal of reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by main pulmonary arterial distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratsch, C E; Grover, R F; Rose, C E; Reeves, J T; Walby, W F; Laks, M M

    1985-04-01

    Distension of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) induces pulmonary hypertension, most probably by neurogenic reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction, although constriction of the pulmonary vessels has not actually been demonstrated. In previous studies in dogs with increased pulmonary vascular resistance produced by airway hypoxia, exogenous arachidonic acid has led to the production of pulmonary vasodilator prostaglandins. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the effect of arachidonic acid in seven intact anesthetized dogs after pulmonary vascular resistance was increased by MPA distention. After steady-state pulmonary hypertension was established, arachidonic acid (1.0 mg/min) was infused into the right ventricle for 16 min; 15-20 min later a 16-mg bolus of arachidonic acid was injected. MPA distension was maintained throughout the study. Although the infusion of arachidonic acid significantly lowered the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance induced by MPA distension, the pulmonary vascular resistance returned to control levels only after the bolus injection of arachidonic acid. Notably, the bolus injection caused a biphasic response which first increased the pulmonary vascular resistance transiently before lowering it to control levels. In dogs with resting levels of pulmonary vascular resistance, administration of arachidonic acid in the same manner did not alter the pulmonary vascular resistance. It is concluded that MPA distension does indeed cause reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be reversed by vasodilator metabolites of arachidonic acid. Even though this reflex may help maintain high pulmonary vascular resistance in the fetus, its function in the adult is obscure.

  11. Self-management programmes for people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for a reconceptualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Helga

    2013-03-01

    To synthesise findings from previously published studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Self-management is a widely valued concept to address contemporary issues of chronic health problems. Yet, findings of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are indecisive. Literature review of (1) previously published systematic reviews and (2) an integrative literature review. Synthesis of findings from previously published systematic reviews (n = 4) of the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an integrated review that was performed on papers published between January 2007-June 2012 (n = 9). Findings demonstrate that there are few studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes on people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease despite more than a decade of research activities. Outcomes of the studies reveal some increase in health-related quality of life and reduction in use of healthcare resources. The methodological approaches vary, and the sample size is primarily small. Families are not acknowledged. Features of patient-centredness exist in self-management programmes, particularly in the more recent articles. The effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains indecisive. A reconceptualisation of self-management programmes is called for with attention to a family-centred, holistic and relational care focusing on living with and minimising the handicapping consequences of the health problems in their entirety. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The effects of balneotherapy on disease activity, functional status, pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Koray; Tok, Fatih; Peker, Fatma; Safaz, Ismail; Taskaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgul, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of balneotherapy on disease activity, functional status, metrology index, pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study included 28 patients (27 male and 1 female) diagnosed with AS according to modified New York criteria. The patients were treated with balneotherapy for 3 weeks (30 min/day, 5 days/week). The patients were evaluated using the global index, Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), disease functional index (BASFI), metrology index (BASMI), chest expansion measures, pulmonary function testing, and the medical outcomes study-short form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) (measure of quality of life) before balneotherapy and 1 month after treatment. Post balneotherapy BASDAI and global index decreased, BASMI parameters improved, chest expansion increased, and some SF-36 parameters improved; however, none of these changes were statistically significant (P > 0.05), except for the decrease in BASMI total score (P balneotherapy 6 patients had restrictive pulmonary disorder, according to pulmonary function test results. Pulmonary function test results in 3 (50%) patients were normalized following balneotherapy; however, as for the other index, balneotherapy did not significantly affect pulmonary function test results. The AS patients' symptoms, clinical findings, pulmonary function test results, and quality of life showed a trend to improve following balneotherapy, although without reaching significant differences. Comprehensive randomized controlled spa intervention studies with longer follow-up periods may be helpful in further delineating the therapeutic efficacy of balneotherapy in AS patients.

  13. Perceptions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their physiotherapists regarding the use of an eHealth intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, S.N.W.; Huisman, C.; Kort, H.S.M.; Troosters, T.; Lammers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: If eHealth interventions are not used (properly), their potential benefits cannot be fulfilled. User perceptions of eHealth are an important determinant of its successful implementation. This study examined how patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their

  14. A predictive model of the effects of depression, anxiety, stress, 6-minute-walk distance, and social support on health-related quality of life in an adult pulmonary hypertension population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartavoulle, Todd Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-limiting chronic disease that presents as an elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. The uncertainty of the disease has a profound effect on relationships, cognitive ability, spirituality, emotions, and exercise ability and can negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purposes of this cross-sectional, predictive, correlational study were (a) to identify relationships among the psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress), physiological factor (6-Minute Walk Test), situational factor (social support), and HRQOL and (b) to test a structural equation model in which depression, anxiety, stress, social support, and 6-minute walk distance predict HRQOL in adults with PH. A convenience sample of 166 adults between the ages of 21 and 80 years were recruited from the Pulmonary Hypertension Association's 10th International Pulmonary Hypertension Conference and Scientific Sessions in Orlando, Florida, and a PH clinic in southeast Louisiana. Each subject completed 2 questionnaires: the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Dartmouth Cooperative Functional Assessment Charts. The findings indicated a relationship between depression, stress, anxiety, 6-Minute Walk Test, social support, and HRQOL. The data collected from the adult PH population fit the proposed predictive model for adults with PH HRQOL. However, the researcher was unable to determine the best predictor of HRQOL in adults with PH. The findings indicate depression, anxiety, stress, 6-minute walk distance, and social support play important roles in HRQOL among patients with PH. Advanced practice nursing strategies to increase HRQOL include counseling, psychiatric referrals, psychotherapy, guided imagery, leading support groups, and low-grade resistance training.

  15. Effect of tele health care on exacerbations and hospital admissions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas; Green, Allan; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tele monitoring (TM) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has gained much interest, but studies have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TM with the option of video consultations on exacerbations and hospital...... not reduce hospital admissions for exacerbated COPD, but TM may be an alternative to visits at respiratory outpatient clinics. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal role of TM in the management of severe COPD....

  16. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, DD; Wu, L; Anderson, JA; Anthonisen, NR; Buist, AS; Burge, PS; Calverley, PM; Connett, JE; Lindmark, B; Pauwels, RA; Postma, DS; Soriano, JB; Szafranski, W; Vestbo, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies suggest that inhaled corticosteroids reduce exacerbations and improve health status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their effect on mortality is unknown. Methods: A pooled analysis, based on intention to treat, of individual patient data from

  17. Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Health of Military Personnel Before Southwest Asia Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skabelund, Andrew J; Rawlins, Frederic A; McCann, Edward T; Lospinoso, Joshua A; Burroughs, Lorraine; Gallup, Roger A; Morris, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Significant concern exists regarding the respiratory health of military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia, given their exposures to numerous environmental hazards. Although the deployed military force is generally assumed to be fit, the pre-deployment respiratory health of these individuals is largely unknown. Soldiers deploying to Southwest Asia were recruited from the pre-deployment processing center at Fort Hood, Texas. Participants completed a general and respiratory health questionnaire and performed baseline spirometry. One thousand six hundred ninety-three pre-deployment evaluations were completed. The average age of the participants was 32.2 y, and 83.1% were male. More than one third of surveyed solders had a smoking history, 73% were overweight or obese, and 6.2% reported a history of asthma. Abnormal spirometry was found in 22.3% of participants. Soldiers with abnormal spirometry reported more asthma (10.1% vs 5.1%, P military personnel that delineates factors potentially associated with the development of pulmonary symptoms and/or disease. This study suggests that deploying soldiers are older, heavier, frequently smoke, and may have undiagnosed pre-deployment lung disease. Abnormal spirometry is common but may not represent underlying disease. Self-reported asthma, wheezing, and slower 2-mile run times were predictive of abnormal spirometry. Pre-deployment evaluation of military personnel identified numerous soldiers with active pulmonary symptoms and abnormal spirometry. When combined with questions regarding asthma history, wheezing and exercise intolerance, spirometry may identify individuals at risk for deployment-related respiratory complaints. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Health Coaching and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Rehospitalization. A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto; Vickers, Kristin; Novotny, Paul J; Tucker, Sharon; Hoult, Johanna; Neuenfeldt, Pamela; Connett, John; Lorig, Kate; McEvoy, Charlene

    2016-09-15

    Hospital readmission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has attracted attention owing to the burden to patients and the health care system. There is a knowledge gap on approaches to reducing COPD readmissions. To determine the effect of comprehensive health coaching on the rate of COPD readmissions. A total of 215 patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation were randomized at hospital discharge to receive either (1) motivational interviewing-based health coaching plus a written action plan for exacerbations (the use of antibiotics and oral steroids) and brief exercise advice or (2) usual care. We evaluated the rate of COPD-related hospitalizations during 1 year of follow-up. The absolute risk reductions of COPD-related rehospitalization in the health coaching group were 7.5% (P = 0.01), 11.0% (P = 0.02), 11.6% (P = 0.03), 11.4% (P = 0.05), and 5.4% (P = 0.24) at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively, compared with the control group. The odds ratios for COPD hospitalization in the intervention arm compared with the control arm were 0.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.77) at 1 month postdischarge, 0.37 (95% CI, 0.15-0.91) at 3 months postdischarge, 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20-0.94) at 6 months postdischarge, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.30-1.20) at 1 year postdischarge. The missing value rate for the primary outcome was 0.4% (one patient). Disease-specific quality of life improved significantly in the health coaching group compared with the control group at 6 and 12 months, based on the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire emotional score (emotion and mastery domains) and physical score (dyspnea and fatigue domains) (P coaching may represent a feasible and possibly effective intervention designed to reduce COPD readmissions. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01058486).

  19. Group 5 Pulmonary Hypertension: The Orphan's Orphan Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Sara; Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disorder with multiple etiologies; the World Health Organization classification system divides pulmonary hypertension patients into 5 groups based on the underlying cause and mechanism. Group 5 pulmonary hypertension is a heterogeneous group of diseases that encompasses pulmonary hypertension secondary to multifactorial mechanisms. For many of the diseases, the true incidence, etiology, and treatment remain uncertain. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of many of the group 5 pulmonary hypertension disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction on Quality of Life (SF-36) and Spirometry Parameters, in Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefnasab, Zahra; Ghanei, Mostafa; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Alipour, Ahmad; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Salehi, Maryam

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has positive effect on physical and psychological dimensions of chronic illnesses. In this study for the first time we examine the effect of this new technique on quality of life and pulmonary function in chemically pulmonary injured veterans who have chronic pulmonary problem, psychological problems and low quality of life. Forty male pulmonary injured veterans were randomly replaced in two groups with 20 participants (MBSR and control Wait List (WL)). Then MBSR group received 8-weekly sessions intervention. We evaluate quality of life (used SF-36 questionnaire) and Spirometry parameters two times; before and after intervention in two group. We used "mixed factorial analyses of variance" test for analyzing data in each dependent variables. Then if we have significant interactional effect, we used -paired- sample t-test" for comparing before and after intervention data of each group, and "Independent-Sample t-test" for comparing after intervention data of two groups. The MBSR compare to WL group improved SF-36 total score, (F (1, 38) =12.09, P=0.001), "Role limitations due to physical problems"(F(1,38)= 6.92, P=0.01), "Role limitations due to emotional problems"(F(1,38)= 7.75, P=0.008), "Social functioning"(F(1,38)= 9.89, P=0.003), "Mental health"(F(1,38)= 15.93, P=0), "Vitality"(F(1,38)= 40.03, P≤0.001), and "Pain"(F(1,38)= 27.60, P≤0.001). MBSR had no significant effect on "FEV1" (F (1, 38) = 0.03, P=0.85),"FVC" (F (1, 38) = 0.16, P=0.69) and "FEV1/FVC" (F (1, 38) = 2.21, P=0.14). MBSR can improve individual's quality of life but not lung function in chemically pulmonary injured veterans.

  1. The effect of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in COPD patients in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Rusch, Ea; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for Chronic Conditions project (SIKS) implemented rehabilitation programmes for people with four chronic conditions in the local area within the Municipality of Copenhagen. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ...... of Copenhagen with an assessment of the effect of a real-life intervention. It shows that the pulmonary rehabilitation programme introduced had the anticipated effects on health-care utilisation. The study also suggests that the methods used for evaluation were appropriate....... of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients as a subgroup of SIKS. METHODS: For the analyses, data from Danish National Registers' were obtained. The following outcomes were analysed: (i) COPD hospital admissions, (ii) COPD bed days, (iii) COPD outpatient...... rehabilitation and were matched with the intervention group according to propensity score calculated on the basis of patient socio-demographic characteristics and health-care utilisation pattern in 2 years prior to the rehabilitation programme. The effect was assessed by applying the principle of difference...

  2. Health Status Measurement Instruments in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lacasse

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.

  3. Capturing structured, pulmonary disease-specific data elements in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronkiewicz, Cynthia; Diamond, Edward J; French, Kim D; Christodouleas, John; Gabriel, Peter E

    2015-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have the potential to improve health-care quality by allowing providers to make better decisions at the point of care based on electronically aggregated data and by facilitating clinical research. These goals are easier to achieve when key, disease-specific clinical information is documented as structured data elements (SDEs) that computers can understand and process, rather than as free-text/natural-language narrative. This article reviews the benefits of capturing disease-specific SDEs. It highlights several design and implementation considerations, including the impact on efficiency and expressivity of clinical documentation and the importance of adhering to data standards when available. Pulmonary disease-specific examples of collection instruments are provided from two commonly used commercial EHRs. Future developments that can leverage SDEs to improve clinical quality and research are discussed.

  4. Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagioti M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panagioti,1 Charlotte Scott,1 Amy Blakemore,1,2 Peter A Coventry31National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, 2Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 3National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in

  5. The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation program on quality of life of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mirbagher-Ajorpaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and its well-known complications; different studies indicate the success of rehabilitation techniques to improve quality of life for those patients. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation techniques on quality of life in patients with COPD.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in the selected teaching hospitals in Isfahan on 80 elderly patients with COPD with moderate intensity during their 85-86 years. The patients divided randomly into two groups (40 patients in case group and 40 patients in control group. The disease severity was evaluated based on spirometry results. Data were collected by using quality of life questionnaire (SF-12. First, the quality of life of patients in both groups was evaluated by SF-12 and then the 20 minutes pulmonary rehabilitation programs in the case group were performed every morning and evening for two months. At the end of two months, the qualities of life in both groups were measured again. The results were analyzed using SPSS-10 software. Results: The results showed that there is a significant direct relationship between some demographic characteristics and their quality of life score (p=0.03. Pulmonary rehabilitation program enhanced the quality of life in those patients (p=0.01. Conclusion: Regarding these findings, it should be consider that demographic characteristics of patients and their rehabilitation programs should be included the pulmonary rehabilitation program to improve quality of life

  6. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    (11±7%) above the total lung capacity. All cardiac chambers decreased in volume and despite a heart rate increase of 24±29 bpm (39±50%), pulmonary blood flow decreased by 2783±1820mL (43±20%). The pulmonary transit time remained unchanged at 7.5±2.2s and pulmonary blood volume decreased by 354±176m...

  7. Consultations of health service providers amongst patients of pulmonary tuberculosis from an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta S. Pardeshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To describe the number, types and reasons of consultations amongst patients of pulmonary tuberculosis from an urban area. Settings and Design Cross sectional study was conducted amongst new patients of pulmonary tuberculosis initiated on DOTS at District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC, Yavatmal from January to June 2006. Material and Methods: The data regarding consultations were collected along a time line. The reasons for consultations were studied by in-depth interviews. Statistical analysis: Logistic regression analysis and transcripts of interviews. Results and Conclusions A total of 55 patients were studied in whom median duration between first consultation to treatment initiation was 15 days. A majority of cases (87.27% had first consulted a private practitioner. A total of 32 patients reported more than two consultations and 19 had consulted more than two private health service providers. Amongst the movements between consultations, a majority were from private to government. Only four patients had come to DTC without any prior consultation. Many patients came to government health service provider on their own when the symptomatic treatment prescribed by the private practitioners did not relieve their symptoms.

  8. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  9. Chronic use of PAH-specific therapy in World Health Organization Group III Pulmonary Hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Duval, Sue; Markowitz, Jeremy; Pritzker, Marc; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD-PH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD-PH) (World Health Organization [WHO] Group III PH) increases medical costs and reduces survival. Despite limited data, many clinicians are using pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-specific therapy to treat WHO Group III PH patients. To further investigate the utility of PAH-specific therapy in WHO Group III PH, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant studies from January 2000 through May 2016 were identified in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE electronic databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Change in six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was estimated using random effects meta-analysis techniques. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in COPD-PH (128 placebo or standard treatment and 129 PAH-medication treated patients), two RCTs in ILD-PH (23 placebo and 46 treated patients), and four single-arm clinical trials (50 patients) in ILD-PH were identified. Treatment in both COPD-PH and ILD-PH did not worsen hypoxemia. Symptomatic burden was not consistently reduced but there were trends for reduced pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance with PAH-specific therapy. As compared to placebo, 6MWD was not significantly improved with PAH-specific therapy in the five COPD-PH RCTs (42.7 m; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.0 - 86.3). In the four single-arm studies in ILD-PH patients, there was a significant improvement in 6MWD after PAH-specific treatment (46.2 m; 95% CI, 27.9-64.4), but in the two ILD-PH RCTs there was not an improvement (21.6 m; 95% CI, -17.8 - 61.0) in exercise capacity when compared to placebo. Due to the small numbers of patients evaluated and inconsistent beneficial effects, the utility of PAH-specific therapy in WHO Group III PH remains unproven. A future clinical trial that is appropriately powered is needed to definitively determine the efficacy of this widely implemented treatment

  10. Effects of Different Reconstruction Parameters on CT Volumetric Measurement 
of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong YANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that volumetric measurements could detect subtle changes in small pulmonary nodules in serial CT scans, and thus may play an important role in the follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and in differentiating malignant nodules from benign nodules. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of different reconstruction parameters on the volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules in chest CT scans. Methods Thirty subjects who underwent chest CT scan because of indeterminate pulmonary nodules in General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from December 2009 to August 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 52 pulmonary nodules were included, and all CT data were reconstructed using three reconstruction algorithms and three slice thicknesses. The volumetric measurements of the nodules were performed using the advanced lung analysis (ALA software. The effects of the reconstruction algorithms, slice thicknesses, and nodule diameters on the volumetric measurements were assessed using the multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures, the correlation analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. Results The reconstruction algorithms (F=13.6, P<0.001 and slice thicknesses (F=4.4, P=0.02 had significant effects on the measured volume of pulmonary nodules. In addition, the coefficients of variation of nine measurements were inversely related with nodule diameter (r=-0.814, P<0.001. The volume measured at the 2.5 mm slice thickness had poor agreement with the volumes measured at 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm, respectively. Moreover, the best agreement was achieved between the slice thicknesses of 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm using the bone algorithm. Conclusion Reconstruction algorithms and slice thicknesses have significant impacts on the volumetric measurements of lung nodules, especially for the small nodules. Therefore, the reconstruction setting in serial CT scans should be consistent in the follow

  11. Acute pulmonary and innate immunity health effects in mice inhaling cookstove emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Burning of solid-fuels in rudimentary stoves generates harmful emissions that contribute to poor indoor air quality and have detrimental impacts on human health. Acute health effects include respiratory and eye irritation, cough, acute lower respiratory infection and ...

  12. The acute pulmonary and thrombotic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemmar A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Suhail Al-Salam,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,2 Badreldin H Ali3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs, used as a diesel fuel catalyst, can be emitted into the ambient air, resulting in exposure to humans by inhalation. Recent studies have reported the development of lung toxicity after pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs. However, little is known about the possible thrombotic effects of these NPs. The present study investigated the acute (24 hours effect of intratracheal (IT instillation of either CeO2 NPs (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg or saline (control on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and thrombosis in mice. CeO2 NPs induced a significant increase of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid with an elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant catalase. Lung sections of mice exposed to CeO2 NPs showed a dose-dependent infiltration of inflammatory cells consisting of macrophages and neutrophils. Similarly, the plasma levels of C-reactive protein and TNFα were significantly increased, whereas the activities of catalase and total antioxidant were significantly decreased. Interestingly, CeO2 NPs significantly and dose dependently induced a shortening of the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly elevated by CeO2 NPs. The direct addition of CeO2 NPs (1, 5, or 25 µg/mL to mouse whole blood, collected from the inferior vena cava, in vitro neither caused significant platelet aggregation nor affected prothrombin time or partial

  13. Effect of carbon dioxide inhalation on pulmonary hypertension induced by increased blood flow and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chuang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence from the experimental and clinical setting that therapeutic hypercapnia from intentionally inspired carbon dioxide (CO2 or lower tidal volume might be a beneficial adjunct to the strategies of mechanical ventilation in critical illness. Although previous reports indicate that CO2 exerts a beneficial effect in the lungs, the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia under various conditions remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the pulmonary vascular response to CO2 under the different conditions of pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow and secondary to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Isolated rat lung (n = 32 was used to study (1 the vasoactive action of 5% CO2 in either N2 (hypoxic-hypercapnia or air (normoxic-hypercapnia at different pulmonary arterial pressure levels induced by graded speed of perfusion flow and (2 the role of nitric oxide (NO in mediating the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that inhaled CO2 reversed pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia but not by flow alteration. Endogenous NO attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but does not augment the CO2-induced vasodilatation. Acute change in blood flow does not alter the endogenous NO production.

  14. [The effects of air pollution and climate change on pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, G

    2008-04-01

    From as early as 1930 there has been evidence for effects on health of air pollution. Ozone, particulates and nitrogen dioxide are the most important pollutants today. The acute increase in air pollution leads to a significant raise in morbidity and mortality. Hospital admissions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma are more frequent during these periods. Chronic exposure to pollution causes bronchitis, accelerated decline of lung function and impaired maturing of the lungs. Ozone and a residence in proximity to major roads seem to play a role in the development of asthma. A further important environmental factor is climate change, which has an impact on air pollution but also on distribution and quality of aero-allergens and the dissemination and transmission of respiratory pathogens.

  15. Pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health: predictors of treatment noncompliance in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, Simone Teresinha Aloise; Moreira, José da Silva; Tietbohel, Carlos Nunes

    2011-01-01

    To determine the predictors of noncompliance with the pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health, in previously treatment-naïve patients with active tuberculosis treated in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. This was a case-control study involving six referral primary health care clinics for tuberculosis in Porto Alegre. We reviewed the medical charts of all previously treatment-naïve patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were noncompliant with the treatment between 2004 and 2006. Those were paired with other patients having similar characteristics and having been cured. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 2,098 patients included, 218 (10.4%) became noncompliant with the treatment. In the multivariate analysis, the factors most strongly associated with treatment noncompliance were being an alcoholic (with or without concomitant use of illicit drugs), being HIV-infected, not residing with family members, and having a low level of education. In the univariate analysis, treatment noncompliance was also significantly associated with being younger and with being non-White. Gender was not significantly associated with treatment noncompliance; nor was the occurrence of adverse effects of the drugs included in the regimen. In the population studied, being an alcoholic, being HIV-infected, and not residing with family members were the major predictors of noncompliance with treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis among previously treatment-naïve patients.

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solitary pulmonary nodules: accuracy and cost-effectiveness of sodium iodide FDG-PET using Australian data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, C.J.; Miles, K.A.; Griffiths, M.R.; Wong, D.; Pitman, A.G.; Hicks, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study uses Australian data to confirm the accuracy of dedicated sodium iodide (NaI) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in evaluating indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and to determine the conditions under which PET could play a cost-effective role in this evaluation. Ninety-two patients from two Australian hospitals in different states underwent FDG-PET for evaluation of an SPN. Observed values for prior probability of malignancy and diagnostic accuracy of PET were applied to previously published decision tree models using published Australian health care costs. The accuracy of FDG-PET was 93% with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 95%. The prior probability of malignancy (0.54), PET sensitivity and PET specificity indicated cost savings per patient of up to EUR 455 (A$ 774) based on a PET cost of EUR 706 (A$ 1,200). PET would remain cost-effective for levels of prior probability up to 0.8-0.9 and a PET cost of EUR 736-1,161 (A$ 1,252-A$ 1,974). It is concluded that NaI PET is accurate, cost saving and cost-effective for the characterisation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules in Australia. Comparison with previous reports from the United States confirms that FDG-PET can remain cost-effective despite population differences in medical costs, disease prevalence and PET diagnostic performance. (orig.)

  18. Studying the Effects of Fasting during Ramadan on Pulmonary Functioning Test and Asthma Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan Adeli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studies have shown that fasting can have an impact on the course and severity of chronic diseases. There are a few studies on the association of fasting and asthma. Therefore, this study has been conducted with the purpose of examining the effects of fasting on asthma severity and pulmonary functioning tests. Methods: 30 patients with asthma who attended a pulmonology clinic in Qom were enrolled in this study. The severity of patients’ asthma has been studied by questionnaire and spirometry of pulmonary functioning in the month of Shaban, Ramadan and Shawwal. The results of Asthma Control Questionnaire and the pulmonary functioning tests in three months have been compared. Results: The average age of patients was 43.42 years and 43.3% of patients were males. The Average score for asthma severity questionnaire in three months were 20.4, 21 and 20.17 respectively. Statistically, there haven’t been any significant differences between the results of pulmonary functioning test and asthma severity before Ramadan (Shaban, during Ramadan and after that (Shawwal. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that fasting in patients with asthma has no effect on pulmonary function and asthma severity.

  19. Pulmonary Complications Resulting from Genetic Cardiovascular Disease in Two Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been considered a risk factor for exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms of variation in susceptibility. Pulmonary complications and altered iron homeost...

  20. Melatonin Decreases Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Oxygen Sensitivity in Pulmonary Hypertensive Newborn Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R. Astorga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress during gestation lead to pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PHN, a condition characterized by abnormal pulmonary arterial reactivity and remodeling. Melatonin has strong antioxidant properties and improves pulmonary vascular function. Here, we aimed to study the effects of melatonin on the function and structure of pulmonary arteries from PHN lambs.Methods: Twelve lambs (Ovis aries gestated and born at highlands (3,600 m were instrumented with systemic and pulmonary catheters. Six of them were assigned to the control group (CN, oral vehicle and 6 were treated with melatonin (MN, 1 mg.kg−1.d−1 during 10 days. At the end of treatment, we performed a graded oxygenation protocol to assess cardiopulmonary responses to inspired oxygen variations. Further, we obtained lung and pulmonary trunk samples for histology, molecular biology, and immunohistochemistry determinations.Results: Melatonin reduced the in vivo pulmonary pressor response to oxygenation changes. In addition, melatonin decreased cellular density of the media and diminished the proliferation marker KI67 in resistance vessels and pulmonary trunk (p < 0.05. This was associated with a decreased in the remodeling markers α-actin (CN 1.28 ± 0.18 vs. MN 0.77 ± 0.04, p < 0.05 and smoothelin-B (CN 2.13 ± 0.31 vs. MN 0.88 ± 0.27, p < 0.05. Further, melatonin increased vascular density by 134% and vascular luminal surface by 173% (p < 0.05. Finally, melatonin decreased nitrotyrosine, an oxidative stress marker, in small pulmonary vessels (CN 5.12 ± 0.84 vs. MN 1.14 ± 0.34, p < 0.05.Conclusion: Postnatal administration of melatonin blunts the cardiopulmonary response to hypoxia, reduces the pathological vascular remodeling, and increases angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertensive neonatal lambs.These effects improve the pulmonary vascular structure and function in the neonatal period under chronic hypoxia.

  1. Melatonin Decreases Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Oxygen Sensitivity in Pulmonary Hypertensive Newborn Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Cristian R.; González-Candia, Alejandro; Candia, Alejandro A.; Figueroa, Esteban G.; Cañas, Daniel; Ebensperger, Germán; Reyes, Roberto V.; Llanos, Aníbal J.; Herrera, Emilio A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress during gestation lead to pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PHN), a condition characterized by abnormal pulmonary arterial reactivity and remodeling. Melatonin has strong antioxidant properties and improves pulmonary vascular function. Here, we aimed to study the effects of melatonin on the function and structure of pulmonary arteries from PHN lambs. Methods: Twelve lambs (Ovis aries) gestated and born at highlands (3,600 m) were instrumented with systemic and pulmonary catheters. Six of them were assigned to the control group (CN, oral vehicle) and 6 were treated with melatonin (MN, 1 mg.kg−1.d−1) during 10 days. At the end of treatment, we performed a graded oxygenation protocol to assess cardiopulmonary responses to inspired oxygen variations. Further, we obtained lung and pulmonary trunk samples for histology, molecular biology, and immunohistochemistry determinations. Results: Melatonin reduced the in vivo pulmonary pressor response to oxygenation changes. In addition, melatonin decreased cellular density of the media and diminished the proliferation marker KI67 in resistance vessels and pulmonary trunk (p < 0.05). This was associated with a decreased in the remodeling markers α-actin (CN 1.28 ± 0.18 vs. MN 0.77 ± 0.04, p < 0.05) and smoothelin-B (CN 2.13 ± 0.31 vs. MN 0.88 ± 0.27, p < 0.05). Further, melatonin increased vascular density by 134% and vascular luminal surface by 173% (p < 0.05). Finally, melatonin decreased nitrotyrosine, an oxidative stress marker, in small pulmonary vessels (CN 5.12 ± 0.84 vs. MN 1.14 ± 0.34, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Postnatal administration of melatonin blunts the cardiopulmonary response to hypoxia, reduces the pathological vascular remodeling, and increases angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertensive neonatal lambs.These effects improve the pulmonary vascular structure and function in the neonatal period under chronic hypoxia. PMID:29559926

  2. The effect of altering pulmonary blood flow on pulmonary gas exchange in the turtle Trachemys (Pseudemys) scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, S R; Wang, T; Hicks, J W

    1996-10-01

    In resting reptiles, the PO2 of pulmonary venous return (PLAO2; left atrial blood) may be 20 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.1333 kPa) lower than the PO2 of gas in the lung. This level of PO2 is considerably higher than that observed in resting mammals and birds and results from ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) heterogeneity, pulmonary diffusion limitation and intrapulmonary shunting. However, the relative contribution of each of these factors is unknown. Many reptiles, particularly chelonians, exhibit an intermittent ventilation pattern where pulmonary blood flow (QL) increases during the ventilatory periods and, therefore, we hypothesized that V/Q matching would improve with increasing QL. We applied the multiple inert gas elimination technique in anaesthetized turtles at 22 degrees C. Turtles were continuously ventilated at a rate of 140 ml kg-1 min-1, equivalent to the rate of ventilation within a ventilatory period. Trace amounts of six inert gases were infused through the jugular vein. Blood samples from the pulmonary artery and the left atrium and mixed expired gases were collected for analysis. QL was reduced by a factor of six (low flow) using a vascular occluder placed around the common pulmonary artery or increased by a factor of two (high flow) through bolus injection of adrenaline. V/Q heterogeneity was significantly reduced with increasing pulmonary blood flow (P means +/- S.E.M.) and PLAO2 increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 88 +/- 17 mmHg (low flow) to 120 +/- 14 mmHg (high flow). There was evidence of pulmonary diffusion limitation under all conditions, which was unchanged with increasing blood flow. These findings suggest that increased pulmonary blood flow during a ventilatory period results in both temporal and spatial matching of ventilation and perfusion, without altering pulmonary diffusion limitation.

  3. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Sundskard, Martin M; Jonassen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 90...... perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass appears to improve postoperative oxygenation in patients with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution does not seem to improve postoperative oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER...

  4. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diel Roland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI in health care workers (HCW in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST. Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT. Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%. The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7, working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4 and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9 when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.

  5. Predictors of intensive care unit admission and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke: investigating the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Belma Doğan; Tunç, Abdulkadir; Aras, Yeşim Güzey; Gündoğdu, Aslı Aksoy; Güngen, Adil Can; Bal, Serdar

    2017-07-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality among stroke patients and the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on stroke patients. This prospective study enrolled 181 acute ischemic stroke patients aged between 40 and 90 years. Demographical characteristics, laboratory tests, diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) time, nutritional status, vascular risk factors, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and modified Rankin scale (MRS) scores were recorded for all patients. One-hundred patients participated in the pulmonary rehabilitation program, 81 of whom served as a control group. Statistically, one- and three-month mortality was associated with NIHSS and MRS scores at admission and three months (pstroke patients. We believe that a pulmonary rehabilitation program, in addition to general stroke rehabilitation programs, can play a critical role in improving survival and functional outcomes. NCT03195907 . Trial registration date: 21.06.2017 'Retrospectively registered'.

  6. Effects of gender and age on development of concurrent extrapulmonary tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Lai, Chung-Chih; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of adult-onset tuberculosis (TB) result from reactivation of a pre-existing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually invades the respiratory tract and most patients develop intrapulmonary TB; however, some patients develop concurrent pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The purpose of the present study was to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with an increased risk of concurrent extra-pulmonary diseases in patients with pulmonary TB. We compared patients who had isolated pulmonary TB with patients who had concurrent pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. We initially analyzed one-million randomly selected subjects from the population-based Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Based on analysis of 5414 pulmonary TB patients in this database, women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (OR: 1.30, p = 0.013). A separate analysis of the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital database, which relied on sputum culture-proven pulmonary TB, indicated that women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (OR: 1.62, p = 0.039). There was no significant gender difference in extra-pulmonary TB for patients younger than 45 years in either database. However, for patients 45 years and older, women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (insurance database: 9.0% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.016, OR: 1.36; hospital database: 27.3% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.008, OR = 1.98). Our results indicate that among patients who have pulmonary TB, older females have an increased risk for concurrent extra-pulmonary TB.

  7. Differences in the effects of Asian dust on pulmonary function between adult patients with asthma and those with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kato, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian dust (AD) exposure exacerbates pulmonary dysfunction in patients with asthma. Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), characterized by coexisting symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is considered a separate disease entity. Previously, we investigated the effects of AD on pulmonary function in adult patients with asthma. Here, we present the findings of our further research on the differences in the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function between patients with asthma alone and those with ACOS. Methods Between March and May 2012, we conducted a panel study wherein we monitored daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) values in 231 adult patients with asthma. These patients were divided into 190 patients with asthma alone and 41 patients with ACOS in this study. Daily AD particle levels were measured using light detection and ranging systems. Two heavy AD days (April 23 and 24) were determined according to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF and AD exposure. Results Increments in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km−1) led to PEF changes of −0.50 L/min (95% confidence interval, −0.98 to −0.02) in patients with asthma alone and −0.11 L/min (−0.11 to 0.85) in patients with ACOS. The PEF changes after exposure to heavy AD were −2.21 L/min (−4.28 to −0.15) in patients with asthma alone and −2.76 L/min (−6.86 to 1.35) in patients with ACOS. In patients with asthma alone, the highest decrease in PEF values was observed on the heavy AD day, with a subsequent gradual increase over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function differ between patients with asthma alone and ACOS, with the former exhibiting a greater likelihood of decreased pulmonary function after AD exposure. PMID:26869784

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves substantial health-care service and social benefit costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study compared health carerelated costs and the use of social benefits and transfer payments in participants with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and related the costs to the severity of the COPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Spirometry data from...... a cohort study performed in Denmark during 2004-2006 were linked with national register data that identified the costs of social benefits and health-care services. The cohort comprised 546 participants with COPD (forced expiratory volume in the first sec. (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio ....7 following bronchodilator administration] and 3,995 without COPD (in addition, 9,435 invited participants were non-responders and 331 were excluded). The costs were adjusted for gender, age, co-morbidity and educational level. RESULTS: Health care-related costs were 4,779 (2,404- 7,154) Danish kroner (DKK...

  9. Effect of anxiety and depression on pulmonary function as well as airway inflammation and remodeling in patients with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of anxiety and depression on pulmonary function as well as airway inflammation and remodeling in patients with bronchial asthma.Methods: A total of 118 adult patients with bronchial asthma who were treated in our hospital between September 2015 and January 2017 were divided into pure depression group (n=30), pure anxiety group (n=47), depression + anxiety group (n=19) and mental health group (n=22) according to the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) score. The differences in the levels of pulmonary function parameters as well as the contents of serum inflammatory factors and airway remodeling indexes were compared among the four groups. Results: FEV1, PEF and FVC levels as well as serum TIMP-1 contents of pure depression group, pure anxiety group and depression + anxiety group were lower than those of mental health group while serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-33, VEGF, OPN, TGF-β1 and MMP-9 contents were higher than those of mental health group, and FEV1, PEF and FVC levels as well as serum TIMP-1 content of depression + anxiety group were lower than those of pure depression group and pure anxiety group while serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-33, VEGF, OPN, TGF-β1 and MMP-9 contents were higher than those of pure depression group and pure anxiety group. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression can aggravate the pulmonary function injury, increase airway inflammation and promote airway remodeling process in patients with bronchial asthma.

  10. [Clinical effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in treatment of neonatal severe meconium aspiration syndrome complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Lin, Xin-Zhu; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-11-01

    To study the clinical effect and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of neonatal severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) complicated by neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH). A total of 48 children with severe MAS complicated by NPH were enrolled, and a retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical effects of HFOV+PS (trial group, 25 children) and HFOV alone (control group, 23 children). The blood gas parameters, oxygenation index (OI), PaO 2 /FiO 2 (P/F) value, duration of pulmonary hemorrhage, ventilation time, length of hospital stay, incidence of complications, and outcome were compared between the two groups. At 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after treatment, the trial group had significantly better PaO 2 , OI, and P/F value than the control group (Phemorrhage (P0.05). HFOV combined with PS can better improve oxygenation function and shorten the duration of NPH and ventilation time. Meanwhile, it does not increase the incidence of adverse events. Therefore, it is a safe and effective therapy.

  11. Source-specific pollution exposure and associations with pulmonary response in the Atlanta Commuters Exposure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jenna R; Ladva, Chandresh N; Russell, Armistead G; Golan, Rachel; Peng, Xing; Shi, Guoliang; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U; Waller, Lance A; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2018-01-03

    Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants are frequently higher within commuting vehicles than in ambient air. Pollutants found within vehicles may include those generated by tailpipe exhaust, brake wear, and road dust sources, as well as pollutants from in-cabin sources. Source-specific pollution, compared to total pollution, may represent regulation targets that can better protect human health. We estimated source-specific pollution exposures and corresponding pulmonary response in a panel study of commuters. We used constrained positive matrix factorization to estimate source-specific pollution factors and, subsequently, mixed effects models to estimate associations between source-specific pollution and pulmonary response. We identified four pollution factors that we named: crustal, primary tailpipe traffic, non-tailpipe traffic, and secondary. Among asthmatic subjects (N = 48), interquartile range increases in crustal and secondary pollution were associated with changes in lung function of -1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.45, -0.22) and -2.19% (95% CI: -3.46, -0.92) relative to baseline, respectively. Among non-asthmatic subjects (N = 51), non-tailpipe pollution was associated with pulmonary response only at 2.5 h post-commute. We found no significant associations between pulmonary response and primary tailpipe pollution. Health effects associated with traffic-related pollution may vary by source, and therefore some traffic pollution sources may require targeted interventions to protect health.

  12. Importance of polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Ahmed, R.; Adhami, S.U.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan ranks eighth on the list of 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries in the world according to the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Control 2009. Including other reasons the main cause is improper and late diagnosis of the disease. PCR may play an important role to control the disease with its rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis. But in Pakistan due to lake of knowledge about this latest technique we are not using this technique appropriately. Clinicians still trust on conventional methods of TB diagnosis, which are time consuming or insensitive. The present study was arranged to highlight the importance of PCR in TB diagnosis in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary cases and its comparison with conventional methods. Methods: Samples obtained from 290 patients of suspected TB (pulmonary or extra-pulmonary) were subjected to ZN smear examination, LJ medium culture and PCR test by amplifying 541 bp fragment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genome. The present prospective study is performed at Shalamar Hospital Lahore from November 2008 to November 2010. Results: A distinctly difference was observed in the test results done by PCR and other conventional techniques in pulmonary or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis samples (p<0.001). The sensitivity of different tests was 68.62% for PCR, 26.90% for LJ medium culture, and 14.14% for ZN smear examination (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between different tests as for as specificity was concerned. PCR test sensitivity in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples was 78.34 and 61.76% respectively, being significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared with sensitivity of other tests. The mean detection time for M. tuberculosis was 25 days by LJ medium culture and less than 1 day by smear examination and PCR test. Conclusion: PCR test is more sensitive than ZN smear examination and LJ medium culture for the diagnosis of TB in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples

  13. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema in Scleroderma-Related Lung Disease Has a Major Confounding Effect on Lung Physiology and Screening for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, K M; Margaritopoulos, G A; Goh, N S; Karagiannis, K; Desai, S R; Nicholson, A G; Siafakas, N M; Coghlan, J G; Denton, C P; Hansell, D M; Wells, A U

    2016-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and the effect of CPFE on the pulmonary function tests used to evaluate the severity of SSc-related ILD and the likelihood of pulmonary hypertension (PH). High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans were obtained in 333 patients with SSc-related ILD and were evaluated for the presence of emphysema and the extent of ILD. The effects of emphysema on the associations between pulmonary function variables and the extent of SSc-related ILD as visualized on HRCT and echocardiographic evidence of PH were quantified. Emphysema was present in 41 (12.3%) of the 333 patients with SSc-related ILD, in 26 (19.7%) of 132 smokers, and in 15 (7.5%) of 201 lifelong nonsmokers. When the extent of fibrosis was taken into account, emphysema was associated with significant additional differences from the expected values for diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) (average reduction of 24.1%; P emphysema had a greater effect than echocardiographically determined PH on the FVC/DLco ratio, regardless of whether it was analyzed as a continuous variable or using a threshold value of 1.6 or 2.0. Among patients with SSc-related ILD, emphysema is sporadically present in nonsmokers and is associated with a low pack-year history in smokers. The confounding effect of CPFE on measures of gas exchange has major implications for the construction of screening algorithms for PH in patients with SSc-related ILD. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Serum PARC/CCL-18 concentrations and health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Don D; Miller, Bruce E; Duvoix, Annelyse; Man, S F Paul; Zhang, Xuekui; Silverman, Edwin K; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas A; Wise, Robert A; Tashkin, Donald; Celli, Bartolome R; Edwards, Lisa D; Locantore, Nicholas; Macnee, William; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Lomas, David A

    2011-05-01

    There are no accepted blood-based biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC/CCL-18) is a lung-predominant inflammatory protein that is found in serum. To determine whether PARC/CCL-18 levels are elevated and modifiable in COPD and to determine their relationship to clinical end points of hospitalization and mortality. PARC/CCL-18 was measured in serum samples from individuals who participated in the ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) and LHS (Lung Health Study) studies and a prednisolone intervention study. Serum PARC/CCL-18 levels were higher in subjects with COPD than in smokers or lifetime nonsmokers without COPD (105 vs. 81 vs. 80 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001). Elevated PARC/CCL-18 levels were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular hospitalization or mortality in the LHS cohort and with total mortality in the ECLIPSE cohort. Serum PARC/CCL-18 levels are elevated in COPD and track clinical outcomes. PARC/CCL-18, a lung-predominant chemokine, could be a useful blood biomarker in COPD.

  15. Serum PARC/CCL-18 Concentrations and Health Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Don D.; Miller, Bruce E.; Duvoix, Annelyse; Man, S. F. Paul; Zhang, Xuekui; Silverman, Edwin K.; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas A.; Wise, Robert A.; Tashkin, Donald; Celli, Bartolome R.; Edwards, Lisa D.; Locantore, Nicholas; MacNee, William; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Lomas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: There are no accepted blood-based biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC/CCL-18) is a lung-predominant inflammatory protein that is found in serum. Objectives: To determine whether PARC/CCL-18 levels are elevated and modifiable in COPD and to determine their relationship to clinical end points of hospitalization and mortality. Methods: PARC/CCL-18 was measured in serum samples from individuals who participated in the ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) and LHS (Lung Health Study) studies and a prednisolone intervention study. Measurements and Main Results: Serum PARC/CCL-18 levels were higher in subjects with COPD than in smokers or lifetime nonsmokers without COPD (105 vs. 81 vs. 80 ng/ml, respectively; P LHS cohort and with total mortality in the ECLIPSE cohort. Conclusions: Serum PARC/CCL-18 levels are elevated in COPD and track clinical outcomes. PARC/CCL-18, a lung-predominant chemokine, could be a useful blood biomarker in COPD. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00292552). PMID:21216880

  16. Physical activity, health status and risk of hospitalization in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto P; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Farrell, Max H; Kaplan, Robert; Ries, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Sciurba, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and 70% of the cost of COPD is due to hospitalizations. Self-reported daily physical activity and health status have been reported as predictors of a hospitalization in COPD but are not routinely assessed. We tested the hypothesis that self-reported daily physical activity and health status assessed by a simple question were predictors of a hospitalization in a well-characterized cohort of patients with severe emphysema. Investigators gathered daily physical activity and health status data assessed by a simple question in 597 patients with severe emphysema and tested the association of those patient-reported outcomes to the occurrence of a hospitalization in the following year. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of hospitalization during the first 12 months after randomization. The two variables tested in the hypothesis were significant predictors of a hospitalization after adjusting for all univariable significant predictors: >2 h of physical activity per week had a protective effect [odds ratio (OR) 0.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.41-0.88] and self-reported health status as fair or poor had a deleterious effect (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.10-2.23). In addition, two other variables became significant in the multivariate model: total lung capacity (every 10% increase) had a protective effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.99) and self-reported anxiety had a deleterious effect (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.13-2.70). Self-reported daily physical activity and health status are independently associated with COPD hospitalizations. Our findings, assessed by simple questions, suggest the value of patient-reported outcomes in developing risk assessment tools that are easy to use.

  17. Effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Rosenman, Kenneth D; Reilly, Mary Jo; Rice, Carol H

    2002-08-01

    To assess the effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function. Epidemiologic evaluation based on employee interview, plant walk-through, and information abstracted from company medical records, employment records, and industrial hygiene measurements. Drawn from 1,072 current and former hourly wage workers employed before January 1, 1986. Thirty-six individuals with radiographic evidence of parenchymal changes consistent with asbestosis or silicosis were excluded. In addition, eight individuals whose race was listed as other than white or black were excluded. Analysis of spirometry data (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) only using the test results that met American Thoracic Society criteria for reproducibility and acceptability shows decreasing percent-predicted FVC and FEV1 and decreasing FEV1/FVC in relationship to increasing silica exposure among smokers. Logistic regression analyses of abnormal FVC and abnormal FEV1 values (where abnormal is defined as OSHA)-allowable level of 0.1 mg/m3. Longitudinal analyses of FVC and FEV1 measurements show a 1.6 mL/yr and 1.1 mL/yr, respectively, decline per milligram/cubic meter mean silica exposure (p = 0.011 and p = 0.001, respectively). All analyses were adjusted for weight, height, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and other silica exposures. Systematic problems leading to measurement error were possible, but would have been nondifferential in effect and not related to silica measurements. There is a consistent association between increased pulmonary function abnormalities and estimated measures of cumulative silica exposure within the current allowable OSHA regulatory level. Despite concerns about the quality control of the pulmonary function measurements use in these analyses, our results support the need to lower allowable air levels of silica and increase efforts to encourage cessation of cigarette smoking among silica-exposed workers.

  18. Process of pulmonary rehabilitation and program organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F M; Augustin, I M L

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are highly directed to return patients suffering from chronic lung diseases to a state of self-help. These programs are largely organized as temporary interventions in a highly fragmented delivery care system for patients with chronic respiratory conditions. In an optimal health care organizational structure, pulmonary rehabilitation needs to be considered as an essential part of an individualized, integrated care process, organized from the vantage point of the patient and the patients'health continuum. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs need to become organized as patient-centered care, respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs and values. Partnering and communication skills are considered as drivers for successful rehabilitation. Assessment is considered as the cornerstone to evaluate the individual needs and problems in order to develop an individualized intervention. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs need to move away from a supply-driven functional organizational structure towards integrated structures, including the full range of medical expertise, technical skills and specialized facilities needed to compete on added value in the management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  19. The health care burden of high grade chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea: analysis of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available JinHee Kim,1 Chin Kook Rhee,2 Kwang Ha Yoo,3 Young Sam Kim,4 Sei Won Lee,5 Yong Bum Park,6 Jin Hwa Lee,7 YeonMok Oh,5 Sang Do Lee,5 Yuri Kim,8 KyungJoo Kim,8 HyoungKyu Yoon9 1Office of Health Service Research, National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 6Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea; 7Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea; 8Department of Clinical Research Support, National Strategic Coordinating Center for Clinical Research, Seoul, Korea; 9Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Background: Patients with high grade chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD account for much of the COPD-related mortality and incur excessive financial burdens and medical care utilization. We aimed to determine the characteristics and medical care use of such patients using nationwide data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in 2009. Materials and methods: Patients with COPD were identified by searching with the International Classification of Diseases–10th Revision for those using medication. Patients with high grade COPD were selected based on their patterns of tertiary institute visits and medication use. Results: The numbers of patients with high grade COPD increased rapidly

  20. Ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects are diminished in adrenalectomized rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is an excel file pertaining to the study that examined ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects in rats that underwent SHAM surgery (control),...

  1. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  2. Prolonged Hypocalcemic Effect by Pulmonary Delivery of Calcitonin Loaded Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether Maleic Acid Bioadhesive Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Varshosaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to design a pulmonary controlled release system of salmon calcitonin (sCT. Therefore, poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid [P(MVEMA] nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The stability of sCT in the optimized nanoparticles was studied by electrophoretic gel method. Plasma calcium levels until 48 h were determined in rats as pulmonary-free sCT solution or nanoparticles (25 μg·kg−1, iv solution of sCT (5 μg·kg−1, and pulmonary blank nanoparticles. The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. The duration of hypocalcemic effect of pulmonary sCT nanoparticles was 24 h, while it was just 1 h for the iv solution. There was not any significant difference between normalized blood calcium levels reduction in pulmonary drug solution and iv injection. Pharmacological activity of nanoparticles after pulmonary delivery was 65% of the iv route. Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly.

  3. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19?21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal volunta...

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from unjustified nihilism to evidence-based optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Bartolome R

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with a nihilistic attitude. On the basis of current evidence, this nihilistic attitude is totally unjustified. The disease must be viewed through the lens of a new paradigm: one that accepts COPD as not only a pulmonary disease but also as one with important measurable systemic consequences. COPD is not only preventable but also treatable. Smoking cessation, oxygen for hypoxemic patients, lung reduction surgery for selected patients with emphysema, and noninvasive ventilation during severe exacerbations have all been shown to impact on mortality. In addition, pulmonary rehabilitation, pharmacologic therapy, and lung transplantation improve patient-centered outcomes such as health-related quality of life, dyspnea, exercise capacity, and even exacerbations and hospitalizations. Caregivers should familiarize themselves with the multiple complementary forms of treatment and individualize therapy to the particular situation of each patient. The future for patients with this disease is bright as its pathogenesis and clinical and phenotypic manifestations are unraveled. The advent of newer and more effective therapies will lead to a decline in the contribution of this disease to poor world health.

  5. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Erlend; Berre, Anne Marie; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2014-09-28

    Right ventricular dysfunction in COPD is common, even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on right ventricular (RV) function, as well as pulmonary blood vessel remodeling in a mouse model of COPD. 42 female A/JOlaHsd mice were randomized to exposure to either cigarette smoke or air for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks. Mice from both groups were further randomized to sedentariness or HIIT for 4 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and muscularization of pulmonary vessel walls by immunohistochemistry. Smoke exposure induced RV systolic dysfunction demonstrated by reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. HIIT in smoke-exposed mice reversed RV dysfunction. There were no significant effects on the left ventricle of neither smoke exposure nor HIIT. Muscularization of the pulmonary vessels was reduced after exercise intervention, but no significant effects on muscularization were observed from smoke exposure. RV function was reduced in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. No Increase in pulmonary vessel muscularization was observed in these mice, implying that other mechanisms caused the RV dysfunction. HIIT attenuated the RV dysfunction in the smoke exposed mice. Reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels due to HIIT suggests that exercise training not only affects the heart muscle, but also has important effects on the pulmonary vasculature.

  6. Cytogenetic effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary alveolar macrophages of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchideh, K.; Chen, B.T.; Mauderly, J.L.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study was part of a larger investigation of the health effects resulting from different methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke. Cytogenetic effects of cigarette smoke on rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were evaluated. Fischer 344/N, male rats (4/group) were randomly assigned to 5 different exposure groups: (1) nose-only sham-exposed control, (2) whole-body sham-exposed control, (3) nose-only intermittent, (4) nose-only continuous, and (5) whole-body continuous. Sham controls were exposed to clean air. PAMs were obtained by lung lavage and chromosomal damage was measured. Multiple comparison demonstrated no significant differences between smoke-exposed groups and their respective sham-exposed controls, between the sham-exposed groups, or among the three smoke exposed groups. Highly significant smoke-induced differences in both structural and numerical aberrations were observed when data for the respective control groups and exposed groups were pooled and compared. Results from this study demonstrate the clastogenicity of cigarette smoke on rat PAM. (author)

  7. An epidemiological study of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.

  8. Digital angiography in pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, L.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary digital subtraction angiography was diagnostic in 98.3% of patients with possible acute pulmonary embolism. The procedure was well tolerated even in severely ill patients. A large image intensifier made simultaneous imaging of both lungs possible reducing the number of contrast injections necessary. Small volumes of low iso-osmolar concentration of modern contrast media were used. There was no need for catherization of the pulmonary artery. Theoretical considerations and our limited experience indicate that this will reduce the number of complications compared with conventional pulmonary angiography. The procedure is rapidly performed and the diagnostic accuracy high. This makes digital subtraction angiography cost effective. Digital pulmonary angiography can be recommended as the primary diagnostic method in most patients with possible pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  9. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  10. Pulmonary hypertension associated with thalassemia syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraidenburg, Dustin R.; Machado, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hemolytic anemia has increasingly been identified as an important risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension. Within the thalassemia syndromes, there are multiple mechanisms, both distinct and overlapping, by which pulmonary hypertension develops and that differ among β-thalassemia major or intermedia patients. Pulmonary hypertension in β-thalassemia major correlates with the severity of hemolysis, yet in patients whose disease is well treated with chronic transfusion therapy, the development of pulmonary hypertension can be related to cardiac dysfunction and the subsequent toxic effects of iron overload rather than hemolysis. β-thalassemia intermedia, on the other hand, has a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension owing to the low level of hemolysis that exists over years without the requirement for frequent transfusions, while splenectomy is shown to play an important role in both types. Standard therapies such as chronic transfusion have been shown to mitigate pulmonary hypertension, and appropriate chelation therapy can avoid the toxic effects of iron overload, yet is not indicated in many patients. Limited evidence exists for the use of pulmonary vasodilators or other therapies, such as l-carnitine, to treat pulmonary hypertension associated with thalassemia. Here we review the most recent findings regarding the pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in thalassemia syndromes. PMID:27008311

  11. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  12. The clinical value of pulmonary perfusion imaging complicated with pulmonary embolism in children of nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jun; Chen Ning; Miao Weibing; Peng Jiequan; Jiang Zhihong; Wu Jing

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the clinical features of complicated with pulmonary embolism nephrotic syndrome in children. 99m Tc-MAA pulmonary perfusion imaging was performed on 30 nephrotic syndrome in children with elevated plasma D-dimer. Results shown that 14 of 30 patients were found to have pulmonary embolism (46.7%). Pulmonary perfusion imaging showed an involvement of 1 pulmonary segment in 3 cases, 2 segments in 2 cases and over 3 segments in other 9 cases. Among them, there were 7 segments involved in one case. After two weeks of heparin anti-coagulative therapy, most cases showed a recovery. The result of this study suggested that pulmonary embolism is a common complication of nephrotic syndrome. Pulmonary perfusion imaging is simple, effective and accurate method for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and it also can help to assess the value of clinical therapy

  13. Proteome analysis of Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jie Young; Lim, Hee Soon; Kim, Hyung Doo; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Son, Hyeog Jin Son; Yun, Yeon Sook

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is perhaps the most universal late effect of organ damage after both chemical insult and irradiation in the treatment of lung cancer. The use chemotherapy and radiation therapy, alone or combined, can be associated with clinically significant pulmonary toxicity, which leads to pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. It is also reported that about 100,000 people in the United States are suffered from pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, pulmonary fibrosis will be more focused by medicinal researchers. Because current therapies, aimed at inhibiting pulmonary inflammation that often precedes fibrosis, are effective only in a minority of suffered patients, novel therapeutic methods are highly needed. Some researchers have used bleomycininduced pulmonary fibrosis as a basis for looking at the molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, and total gene expression was monitored using genomics method. However, radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis has not been fully focused and investigated. Here, we have analyzed changes in gene expression in response to γ- irradiation by using proteomic analysis

  14. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Fetal Pulmonary Circulation: An Experimental Study in Fetal Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dyuti; Aubry, Estelle; Ouk, Thavarak; Houeijeh, Ali; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Besson, Rémi; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2017-07-16

    Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n -3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA). Pulmonary arterial pressure and LPA flow were measured while infusing EPA or DHA for 120 min to the fetus, to compute pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The dose effects of EPA or DHA were studied in vascular rings pre-constricted with serotonin. Rings treated with EPA were separated into three groups: E+ (intact endothelium), E- (endothelium stripped) and LNA E+ (pretreatment of E+ rings with l-nitro-arginine). Results: EPA, but not DHA, induced a significant and prolonged 25% drop in PVR ( n = 8, p DHA resulted in only a mild relaxation at the highest concentration of DHA (300 µM) compared to E+. Conclusions: EPA induces a sustained pulmonary vasodilatation in fetal lambs. This effect is endothelium- and dose-dependent and involves nitric oxide (NO) production. We speculate that EPA supplementation may improve pulmonary circulation in clinical conditions with PPHN.

  15. [Analysis of the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea depending on the period of flowering of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V M; Belyaeva, S N; Govorun, M I; Pirogova, M E

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pollen of Mediterranean Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) on the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SHRT) of the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology at the southern coast of the Crimea (SCC). This article presents the results of the analysis of the data on 122 patients presenting with broncho-pulmonary pathology who received SHRT under the conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Fifty one (41.8%) of these patients suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 71 (58.2%) ones had bronchial asthma. The whole group was comprised of 44 men (36.1%) and 78 women (63.9%). The average (median) age of the patients was 55.8 years. All the participants of the study underwent the comprehensive examination including the general medical and physical examination, complete blood count, the study of sputum cytology and immunological properties of blood including the standard characteristics, IgE and lysozyme levels), evaluation of the respiratory and locomotor (physical) functions with the use of the 6-minute walking test. The aeropollenological study of the aerial environment of the southern coast of the Crimea in the region of Yalta showed that the «bloom» of the Mediterranean Cypress occurs during the period from February till April inclusive. The highest concentrations of cypress pollen are observed in March and early April. The overall effectiveness of SHRT for the patients with broncho-pulmonary pathology arriving for the treatment at the southern coast of the Crimea from other Crimean localities does not depend on the period of «flowering» (the presence of pollen in the air) of the Mediterranean Cypress. In these patients, the termination of the spa and health resort-based treatment during the «flowering» of the Mediterranean Cypress resulted in nothing more than a strained adaptive response manifested as the altered blood leukocyte count. Such reaction

  16. Feeling safe and motivated to achieve better health: Experiences with a partnership-based nursing practice programme for in-home patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leine, Marit; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Borge, Christine Råheim; Hustavenes, Magne; Bondevik, Hilde

    2017-09-01

    To explore chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' experiences with a partnership-based nursing practice programme in the home setting. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suffer from psychological and physiological problems, especially when they return home after hospitalisation from exacerbation. Many express a need for information and knowledge about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Partnership as practice is a patient-centred framework providing an individualised practice for each patient. This study intends to achieve a nuanced and improved understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' experiences with a partnership-based nursing practice programme comprising home visits from a respiratory nurse after hospital discharge, alongside interdisciplinary collaboration. This study has a qualitative design with interviews. Six individual semi-structured interviews collected in 2012-2013 constitute the material. Interviews were recorded, transcribed to written text and analysed using systematic text condensation. Three key themes were identified: to be seen, talked with and understood; healthcare support at home-continuity, practical support and facilitation; and exchange of knowledge. However, there were two generic themes that permeated the material: feeling safe and comforted, and motivation to achieve better health. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can experience feeling safe and comforted, and be motivated to make changes in order to achieve better health after participating in a partnership-based nursing practice programme that includes home visits from a respiratory nurse and interdisciplinary cooperation after hospital discharge. To feel safe is of great importance, and how this relates to the patient's ability to cope with illness should be explored in further research. The results suggest that the partnership-based nursing practice programme that includes home visits and interdisciplinary

  17. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, J.; Graham, A.; Hughes, J.M.B.; Gibbs, J.S.R.; Jackson, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study

  18. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, J. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Graham, A. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, J.M.B. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Gibbs, J.S.R. [Department of Cardiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Jackson, J.E. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jejackson@hhnt.org

    2006-03-15

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study.

  19. The protective effect of Transhinone II A in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghu; Li Zhiping; Xu Yong; Xu Feng; Wang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and it's possible mechanism of Tanshinone II A in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Having the right hemithorax of female Wistar rats irradiated 30 Gy in 10 fractions within 14 days by 6 MV photons, the radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis animal model was established. In the treatment group, sodium Tanshinone II A sulfonate (15 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection 1 hour before each fraction of irradiation. Five months after irradiation, the difference of the histopathological changes, the hyckoxyproline content and expression of TGF-β1 between the radiation alone group, tanshinone plus radiation and control group were analyzed by HE stain, Massion stain, immunohistochemical methor and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) method. Results: The histopathological comparison revealed the protective effect of Tanshinone II A. The content of hydroxyproline was (21.99±3.96), (38.25± 7.18), (28.94±4.29) μg/g in the control group, radiation alone group and radiation plus Tanshinone II A. The expression of TGF-β1 (mRNA and protein) was reduced by Tanshinone II A. Pathological changes of the pulmonary fibrosis was reduced by Tanshinone II A yet. Conclusions: Our study shows that Tanshinone II A can inhibit radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and the possible mechanism of its may be made possible through down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in the irritated lung tissue. (authors)

  20. Oral supplement enriched in HMB combined with pulmonary rehabilitation improves body composition and health related quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis (Prospective, Randomised Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Olveira, Casilda; Doña, Esperanza; Palenque, Francisco Javier; Porras, Nuria; Dorado, Antonio; Godoy, Ana M; Rubio-Martínez, Elehazara; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Martín-Valero, Rocío

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is recommended for bronchiectasis but there is no data about its effect on body composition. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) for 12 weeks in normally-nourished non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis patients compared with the effect of PR plus a hyperproteic oral nutritional supplement enriched with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle strength, quality of life and serum biomarkers. single center randomized controlled trial, parallel treatment design: Participants were randomly assigned to receive PR for 12 weeks or PR plus ONS (PRONS) (one can per day). Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks: body composition (Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), phase angle by Bio-impedance), health related quality of life (Spanish QOL-B-V3.0, Physical Functioning Scale), handgrip strength, diet questionnaire, and plasma levels of prealbumin, myostatin and somatomedin-c. Thirty patients were randomized (15 per group) without differences in clinical and respiratory variables. In the PRONS group bone mineral density (BMD), mean and maximum handgrip dynamometry, MAMC, QOLB and prealbumin were significantly increased from baseline at 12 and 24 weeks and Fat free Mass (FFM) and FFM index, at 12 weeks. In the PR group only mean handgrip dynamometry and prealbumin were significantly increased at 12 and 24 weeks. In both groups plasma myostatin was reduced at 12 weeks (without significant differences). The addition of a hyperproteic ONS enriched with HMB to Pulmonary Rehabilitation could improve body composition, BMD, muscle strength and health related quality of life in bronchiectasis patients. Clinical Trials Number NCT02048397. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Modifying effects of preexisting pulmonary fibrosis on biological responses of rats to inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Rebar, A.H.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the modifying effects of preexisting, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis on the deposition, retention, and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat. Among rats exposed to similar airborne concentrations of 239PuO2, initial lung burdens of 239Pu per kilogram body mass were similar whether or not pulmonary fibrosis was present. However, clearance of 239Pu from the lungs was significantly decreased in the rats with preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. The incidence of lung lesions (epithelial hyperplasia, diffuse macrophage increases and aggregation, and loose and dense connective tissue) was significantly greater among rats with preexisting pulmonary fibrosis than among the exposed controls. Rats with preexisting fibrosis had shorter life spans than 239PuO2-exposed control rats. When groups of rats with similar alpha doses to the lungs were compared, the incidences of neoplastic lesions in the lung, the times to death of rats with lung neoplasms, and the risk of lung tumors per unit of alpha dose to the lungs in rats with or without pulmonary fibrosis were similar. The results of this study suggest that humans with uncomplicated pulmonary fibrosis may not be more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of inhaled 239PuO2 than are individuals with normal lungs, assuming that the total alpha doses to the lungs are similar

  2. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  3. The Effect of Integration of Self-Management Web Platforms on Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Primary Care (e-Vita Study): Interrupted Time Series Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom-Kamp, Esther Pwa; Verdijk, Noortje A; Kasteleyn, Marise J; Harmans, Lara M; Talboom, Irvin Jsh; Looijmans-van den Akker, Ingrid; van Geloven, Nan; Numans, Mattijs E; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-08-16

    Worldwide nearly 3 million people die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. Integrated disease management (IDM) improves quality of life for COPD patients and can reduce hospitalization. Self-management of COPD through eHealth is an effective method to improve IDM and clinical outcomes. The objective of this implementation study was to investigate the effect of 3 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease eHealth programs applied in primary care on health status. The e-Vita COPD study compares different levels of integration of Web-based self-management platforms in IDM in 3 primary care settings. Patient health status is examined using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). The parallel cohort design includes 3 levels of integration in IDM (groups 1, 2, 3) and randomization of 2 levels of personal assistance for patients (group A, high assistance, group B, low assistance). Interrupted time series (ITS) design was used to collect CCQ data at multiple time points before and after intervention, and multilevel linear regression modeling was used to analyze CCQ data. Of the 702 invited patients, 215 (30.6%) registered to a platform. Of these, 82 participated in group 1 (high integration IDM), 36 in group 1A (high assistance), and 46 in group 1B (low assistance); 96 participated in group 2 (medium integration IDM), 44 in group 2A (high assistance) and 52 in group 2B (low assistance); also, 37 participated in group 3 (no integration IDM). In the total group, no significant difference was found in change in CCQ trend (P=.334) before (-0.47% per month) and after the intervention (-0.084% per month). Also, no significant difference was found in CCQ changes before versus after the intervention between the groups with high versus low personal assistance. In all subgroups, there was no significant change in the CCQ trend before and after the intervention (group 1A, P=.237; 1B, P=.991; 2A, P=.120; 2B, P=.166; 3, P=.945). The e-Vita eHealth-supported COPD

  4. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  5. Pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Okuzaki, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    When the chest is exposed to x radiation and Co-60 gamma radiation, radiation damage may occur in the lungs 2 to 10 weeks after irradiation. This condition is generally referred to as radiation pneumonitis, with the incidence ranging from 5.4% to 91.8% in the literature. Then radiation pneumonitis may develop into pulmonary fibrosis associated with roentgenologically diffuse linear and ring-like shadows and strong contraction 6 months to one year after irradiation. Until recently, little attention has been paid to pulmonary pneumonitis as a delayed effect of A-bomb radiation. The recent study using the population of 9,253 A-bomb survivors have suggested that the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis tended to be high in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Two other studies using the cohort of 16,956 and 42,728 A-bomb survivors, respectively, have shown that the prevalence of roentgenologically proven pulmonary fibrosis was higher in men than women (1.82% vs 0.41%), was increased with aging and had a higher tendency in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  6. Effects of transuranics on pulmonary lymph nodes of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Pulmonary lymph nodes have been suggested as the ''critical'' tissue for insoluble, inhaled transuranic compounds owing to the high concentration of transuranics in these lymph nodes. About 800 rats were given from 0.2 to 3600 nCi of 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, intrapleural injection, or intraperitoneal injection. From about 1 to 10 percent of deposited plutonium was translocated to pulmonary lymph nodes, the amount depending on the time after deposition and the route of administration; 238 PuO 2 was cleared from pulmonary lymph nodes faster than 239 PuO 2 owing to the greater in vivo solubility of 238 PuO 2 . No primary tumors of pulmonary lymph nodes were observed, indicating that this tissue was not the critical tissue for carcinogenic induction

  7. Update on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ivan M; Pugh, Meredith E; Hemnes, Anna R

    2017-01-01

    Chronic, unresolved thromboemboli are an important cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with specific treatment strategies differing from other types of PH. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is classified as group 4 PH by the World Health Organization. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed, complication of acute pulmonary embolism that does not resolve and results in occlusion of large pulmonary arteries with a fibro-thrombotic material. The etiology of CTEPH remains uncertain, and it is unknown why certain patients with acute pulmonary embolism develop this disorder. The evaluation for CTEPH is an important part of the evaluation for PH in general, and it is crucial not to overlook this diagnosis, as it is the only form of PH that is potentially curable. Patients diagnosed with CTEPH should be referred to an expert center for consideration of pulmonary endarterectomy, and surgical removal of the chronic thromboembolic material. Not all patients with CTEPH are surgical candidates, however, and there are emerging treatments-medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty-that have shown benefit in this patient population. Without treatment, CTEPH can lead to progressive pulmonary vascular obstruction, right heart failure, and death. Thus, it is important for clinicians to recognize this subtype of PH. In this review, we provide an overview of current understanding of the pathogenesis of CTEPH and highlight recommendations and recent advances in the evaluation and treatment of CTEPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventive and curative effects of dicaffeoylquinic acid on early pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Song Liangwen; Dong Junxing; Huang Shanying; Li Yang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of dicaffeoylquinic acid (IBE5) on prevention and treatment of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) in mice and its mechanism. Methods: Hydroxyproline content determination, imaging analysis, collagen I and III assay, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7 ) immunohistochemistry were performed. Results: 1)Hydroxyproline content decreased in fibrotic lung tissue after administration of IBE5(P<0.05). 2)The number of pulmonary alveoli reduced, alveolus interstitium was thickened and collagen deposition and fibrosis were formed in lung tissue of BLM group. The break of pulmonary alveoli and extension of pulmonary fibrosis were decreased by use of IBE5 (P<0.05). 3)A lot of collagen I and III were synthesized in lung interstitium in BLM group and their quantity was reduced in IBE5 group (P<0.05). 4) In BLM group, α-SMA expression increased and located in myofibroblasts in fibrotic area, and MMP7 immunohistochemical signal was located in myofibroblasts also. They were decreased in IBE5 group(P<0.05). Conclusion: IBE5 plays a preventive and curative role in pulmonary fibrosis by inhibition of transformation of fibroblasts towards myofibroblasts and MMP7 expression. (authors)

  9. Compliance of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Schafer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The lack of adherent and non-adherent to recommended treatment is a very common problem that interferes with the successful care and assistance to people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-COPD. This study compared the profi le of COPD patients that were adherent with non-adherent to a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Methods: was done an exploratory prospective observational study involving 24 patients with COPD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, divided into two groups according to full participation of the proposed treatment: Adhesive Group (GA = 18 subjects and non-adherent (GN = 06 subjects. The treatment occurred in 08 weeks, 3 times a week, lasting 1 hour and 30 minutes, assisted by a multidisciplinary team composed by physiotherapist, physical education professional, nutritionist, pharmacist, psychologist and pneumologist. Results: The GA did not differ from GN about the situation sociodemographic, anthropometric, cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and respiratory function. GN had more comorbidities when compared to GA and higher average amount of drugs used. All patients were characterized with reduced quality of life and correlation between cardiac function and quality of life was seen for both groups. Conclusion: Our results show that the advanced stage of disease and worsening of symptoms were determinants for the adherence of patients with COPD in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program. KEYWORDS: COPD. Pulmonary Rehabilition. Interdisciplinary Health Team.

  10. Pinterest as a Resource for Health Information on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A Social Media Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R.; Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth H.; Alber, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how Pinterest group pinboards are used to communicate health information on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method A nonprobability census sampling method retrieved 399 pins from the 10 most followed COPD group pinboards. Pins were coded according to COPD information categories,…

  11. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W.; Pritzker, Marc R.; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  12. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Effects of Bufei Yishen Granules Combined with Acupoint Sticking Therapy on Pulmonary Surfactant Proteins in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Bufei Yishen granules combined with acupoint sticking therapy (the integrated therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SPs, including SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D may be included in pathophysiology of COPD. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of the integrated therapy on SPs. COPD rat models were established. The treatment groups received Bufei Yishen granules or acupoint sticking or their combination. Using aminophylline as a positive control drug. The levels of SPs in serum, BALF, and lung were measured. The results showed that the integrated therapy markedly reduced the levels of SPs in serum and increased these indicators in the lung. The integrated therapy was better than aminophylline in reducing the levels of SPs and was better than Bufei Yishen granules in reducing SP-A, SP-C, and SP-D in serum. The integrated therapy was better than aminophylline and Bufei Yishen granules in increasing SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D mRNA in the lung. SP-A and SP-D in BALF were positively correlated with PEF and EF50. The levels of SPs are associated with airway limitation. The beneficial effects of the integrated therapy may be involved in regulating pulmonary surfactant proteins.

  14. Impact of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty on Hemodynamics and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: the Initial Korean Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woochan; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Park, Taek Kyu; Chang, Sung A; Jung, Dong Seop; Cho, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Mok; Kim, Tae Jung; Park, Hye Yoon; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Duk Kyung

    2018-01-22

    The treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). However, not all patients are eligible for PEA, and some patients experience recurrence of pulmonary hypertension even after PEA. Patients who underwent balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) between December 2015 and April 2017 were enrolled from the Samsung Medical Center CTEPH registry. Enrolled patients underwent right heart catheterization, echocardiography, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) at baseline, 4 and 24 weeks after their first BPA session. We compared clinical and hemodynamic parameters at the baseline and last BPA session. Fifty-two BPA sessions were performed in 15 patients, six of whom had a history of PEA. BPA resulted in improvements in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class (2.9 ± 0.8 to 1.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.002), 6MWD (387.0 ± 86.4 to 453.4 ± 64.8 m, P = 0.01), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (14.1 ± 3.6 to 15.6 ± 4.3 mm, P = 0.03) and hemodynamics, including a decline in mean pulmonary artery pressure (41.1 ± 13.1 to 32.1 ± 9.5 mmHg, P < 0.001) and in pulmonary vascular resistance (607.4 ± 452.3 to 406.7 ± 265.4 dyne.sec.cm⁻⁵, P = 0.01) but not in cardiac index (2.94 ± 0.79 to 2.96 ± 0.93 L/min/m², P = 0.92). Six cases of complications were recorded, including two cases of reperfusion injury. BPA might be a safe and effective treatment strategy for both inoperable CTEPH patients and patients with residual pulmonary hypertension after PEA. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Treatment of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: The Role of Medical Therapy and Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Timothy M; Poch, David S; Auger, William R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially curable disease when treated with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). However, even at experienced surgical centers, nearly one-third of patients with CTEPH will be deemed inoperable for reasons including distal disease, comorbidities, or out-of-proportion pulmonary hypertension. It is in these patients with inoperable CTEPH that pulmonary hypertension (PH)-targeted medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty have potential therapeutic value. Previous unblinded cohort trials have assessed PH-targeted medical therapy in various subpopulations of CTEPH patients using epoprostenol, treprostinil, sildenafil, bosentan, and iloprost, each demonstrating measurable pulmonary hemodynamic effects. However, riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is the first FDA-approved therapy for inoperable CTEPH to demonstrate both an improvement in functional capabilities (6-minute walk time) as well as significant gains in secondary pulmonary hemodynamic end points in a large placebo-controlled trial. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty is an interventional procedure using telescoping catheters placed in the pulmonary arteries, through which wires and balloons are used to mechanically disrupt chronic clot material and relieve pulmonary vascular obstruction. Contemporary case series from multiple centers worldwide have demonstrated pulmonary hemodynamic improvement with this approach. As a result of these advances, patients with inoperable CTEPH who had few options as recently as 5 years ago now have alternatives with emerging evidence of therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection.

  17. Effects and mechanism of oridonin on pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia-hypercapnia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Xing; Sun, Yu; Chen, Chan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Quan; Qian, Guo-Qing; Dong, Wei; Chen, Yan-Fan

    2009-06-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by suppressing apoptosis and enhancing cell proliferation in the vascular wall. Inducing pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) apoptosis had been regarded as a therapeutic approach for PAH. Oridonin can cause apoptosis in many cell lines, while little has been done to evaluate its effect on PASMC. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal control (NC); hypoxia-hypercapnia (HH); Hypoxia-hypercapnia + oridonin (HHO). Rats were exposed to hypoxia-hypercapnia for four weeks. Cultured human PASMC (HPASMC) were assigned to three groups: normoxia (NO); hypoxia (HY); hypoxia + oridonin (HO). The mean pulmonary artery pressure, mass ratio of right ventricle over left ventricle plus septum (RV/(LV + S)), the ratio of thickness of the pulmonary arteriole wall to vascular external diameter (WT%) and the ratio of the vessel wall area to the total area (WA%) were measured. Morphologic changes of pulmonary arteries were observed under light and electron microscopes. The apoptotic characteristics in vitro and in vivo were detected. The mPAP, RV/(LV + S), WT%, and WA% in the HH group were significantly greater than those in the NC (P HHO groups (P HHO groups; and the expression of Bcl-2 in group HH was greater than that in the NC and HHO groups. HPASMC mitochondrial membrane potentials in group HO was lower than in group HY (P < 0.01), and cyt-C in the cytoplasm, AI, and caspase-9 in the HO group were greater than that in the HY group (P < 0.01), but the expression of Bcl-2 in the HO group was less than that in the HY group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that oridonin can lower pulmonary artery pressure effectively, and inhibit pulmonary artery structural remodeling by inducing smooth cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  18. Pulmonary hypertension and echocardiogram parameters in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H T; Chee, K H; Chong, A W

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing health hazard in the United States and worldwide. OSA is now recognized as a disorder with systemic manifestations and its association with obesity and adverse cardiovascular consequences. There is increasing evidence that OSA may be associated with systemic hypertension and an increased incidence of stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias. Less information is available about the association between OSA and pulmonary hypertension (PH). We therefore conduct this study to look at the prevalence of the pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea patient and to identify risk factors leading to pulmonary hypertension among OSA patient. We studied and analyzed all OSA patient confirmed by polysomnograph in the year 2015. Twenty-five patients with OSA were included in this study with prevalence of pulmonary hypertension of 16%. Univariate analysis of various factors revealed a statistically significant association between having the lowest SpO 2 of pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.016). There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, smoking status, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) with occurrence of pulmonary hypertension. AHI is not a good predictor for pulmonary hypertension. The real value of using AHI to predict the health risk of OSA is doubtful. We recommend routine echocardiogram among OSA patient. The objective information in the echocardiogram provides evidence for counseling of patient with disease of OSA and hence hopefully can improve compliance of patient to treatment especially usage of CPAP.

  19. Melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 production in human pulmonary fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2012-04-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) causes harmful alterations in the lungs and airway structures and functions that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to COPD, active cigarette smoking causes other respiratory diseases and diminishes health status. Furthermore, recent studies show that, α, β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein in CS induces the production of interleukin (IL)-8, which is known to be related to bronchitis, rhinitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and asthma. In addition, lung and pulmonary fibroblasts secrete IL-8, which has a chemotactic effect on leukocytes, and which in turn, play a critical role in lung inflammation. On the other hand, melatonin regulates circadian rhythm homeostasis in humans and has many other effects, which include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by the reduced expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-6 and increased glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activities. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 secretion in human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPFs). It was found that acrolein-induced IL-8 production was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in HPFs, and that melatonin suppressed IL-8 production in HPFs. These results suggest that melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 production via ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal inhibition in HPFs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Safe and effective prescription of exercise in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: rationale and methods for an integrated knowledge translation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Pat; Reid, W Darlene; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Brooks, Dina; Goodridge, Donna; Chung, Frank; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Neufeld, Andrea; Hoens, Alsion

    2013-01-01

    Patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) engage in low levels of activity, putting them at risk for relapse and future readmissions. There is little direction for health care providers regarding the parameters for safe exercise during an AECOPD that is effective for increasing activity tolerance before discharge from hospital, especially for patients with associated comorbid conditions. To report the rationale for and methods of a study to develop evidence-informed care recommendations that guide health care providers in the assessment, prescription, monitoring and progression of exercise for patients hospitalized with AECOPD. The present study was a multicomponent knowledge translation project incorporating evidence from systematic reviews of exercise involving populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and⁄or common comorbidities. A Delphi process was then used to obtain expert opinion from clinicians, academics and patients to identify the parameters of safe and effective exercise for patients with AECOPD. Clinical decision-making tool(s) for patients and practitioners supported by a detailed knowledge dissemination, implementation and evaluation framework. The present study addressed an important knowledge gap: the lack of availability of parameters to guide safe and effective exercise prescription for hospitalized patients with AECOPD, with or without comorbid conditions. In the absence of such parameters, health care professionals may adopt an 'activity as tolerated' approach, which may not improve physical activity levels in their patients. The present study synthesizes the best available evidence and expert opinion, and will generate decision-making tools for use by patients and their health care providers.

  1. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo E-mail: jmgoo@plaza.snu.ac.kr; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-11-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia.

  2. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia

  3. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and dysregulated iron homeostatis in rat models of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms ofvariation in susceptibility. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and altere...

  4. Effect of influenza infection on the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of pulmonary macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.M.; Pesanti, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mouse-adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 virus on pulmonary macrophage function was evaluated by using an in vitro system which allowed direct virus interaction with macrophages and then separate analysis of the steps required for bacterial clearance by macrophages. Infection of macrophages with this virus resulted in the appearance of a hemagglutinating activity on the macrophage surface; expression of this activity was inhibited by amantadine, 2-deoxyglucose, and cycloheximide and by pretreatment of the virus inoculum with with ultraviolet light and specific antiserum. After influenza infection, net ingestion of viable Staphylococcus aureus by macrophage monolayers was unaltered and there was no change in the fraction of the monolayer which ingested cocci over a wide range of bacterial inputs. Influenza-infected microphages also inactivated intracellular S. aureus at a rate indistinguishable from controls. Therefore, these in vitro studies do not support the hypothesis that the defect in pulmonary antibacterial mechanisms associated with influenza infections results from a direct effect of virus infection on either the phagocytic or bactericidal activity of resistant pulmonary macarophages

  5. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  6. 16S rDNA analysis of the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on pulmonary and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhao; Yang, Zhongshan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Han, Niping; Yuan, Jiali; Cheng, Yu

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of FMT on regulations of dysbacteriosis of pulmonary and intestinal flora in rats with 16S rDNA sequencing technology. A total of 27 SPF rats (3-4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (K), model control group (MX), and fecal microbiota transplantation group (FMT); each group contained nine rats. The OTU values of the pulmonary and intestinal flora of the MX group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. After FMT, the OTU value of pulmonary flora increased, while the value of OTU in intestinal flora declined. At the phylum level, FMT down-regulated Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , and Bacteroidetes in the pulmonary flora. At the genus level, FMT down-regulated Pseudomonas , Sphingobium , Lactobacillus , Rhizobium , and Acinetobacter , thus maintaining the balance of the pulmonary flora. Moreover, FMT could change the structure and diversity of the pulmonary and intestinal flora by positively regulating the pulmonary flora and negatively regulating intestinal flora. This study may provide a scientific basis for FMT treatment of respiratory diseases.

  7. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  8. Bronchial arterial infusion versus bronchial combined pulmonary arterial infusion for pulmonary metastatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua; Jia Ningyang; Zhang Dianbo; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary metastatic tumor response to different ways of transcatheter arterial infusion. Methods: Thirty-five patients with pulmonary metastatic tumors were randomized divided into two groups: 15 patients with 49 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and 20 patients with 65 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BM)combined with pulmonary arterial infusion (PAI). The therapeutic response was assessed by the WHO evaluation criteria. Results: The total effective rate(CR + PR) of BAI was 65.3% (32/49), PAI + BAI was 61.5%(40/65) showing no statistical difference. The median survival time of BAI was 9 mo, BAI + PAI was 11.5 mo, demonstrating no statistical significance. Conclusions: BAI should be the primary treatment for pulmonary metastatic tumor. (authors)

  9. Precision Medicine: The New Frontier in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Robert; Kaminski, Naftali; Woodruff, Prescott G; Bradford, Williamson Z; Richeldi, Luca; Martinez, Fernando J; Collard, Harold R

    2016-06-01

    Precision medicine is defined by the National Institute of Health's Precision Medicine Initiative Working Group as an approach to disease treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. There has been increased interest in applying the concept of precision medicine to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in particular to search for genetic and molecular biomarker-based profiles (so called endotypes) that identify mechanistically distinct disease subgroups. The relevance of precision medicine to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is yet to be established, but we believe that it holds great promise to provide targeted and highly effective therapies to patients. In this manuscript, we describe the field's nascent efforts in genetic/molecular endotype identification and how environmental and behavioral subgroups may also be relevant to disease management.

  10. Danshensu prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats by inhibiting the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via TGF-β-smad3-associated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Dong, Mingqing; Luo, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Li, Yongjun

    2018-02-05

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is characterized by the remodeling of pulmonary artery. Previously we showed that tanshinone IIA, one lipid-soluble component from the Chinese herb Danshen, ameliorated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting pulmonary artery remodeling. Here we explored the effects of danshensu, one water-soluble component of Danshen, on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and its mechanism. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 4 weeks to develop hypoxic pulmonary hypertension along with administration of danshensu. Hemodynamics and pulmonary arterial remodeling index were measured. The effects of danshensu on the proliferation of primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and transforming growth factor-β-smad3 pathway were assessed in vitro. Danshensu significantly decreased the right ventricle systolic pressure, the right ventricle hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling index in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats. Danshensu also reduced the increased expression of transforming growth factor-β and phosphorylation of smad3 in pulmonary arteries in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats. In vitro, danshensu inhibited the hypoxia- or transforming growth factor-β-induced proliferation of primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Moreover, danshensu decreased the hypoxia-induced expression and secretion of transforming growth factor in primary pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts and NR8383 cell line, inhibited the hypoxia or transforming growth factor-β-induced phosphorylation of smad3 in rat primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. These results demonstrate that danshensu ameliorates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats by inhibiting the hypoxia-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, and the inhibition effects is associated with transforming growth factor-β-smad3 pathway. Therefore danshensu may be a potential treatment for hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. [Supervised exercise training in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension - analyses of the effectiveness and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxer, S; Rhyner, M; Treder, U; Speich, R; van Gestel, A J R

    2012-02-01

    Both in today's scientific research and in clinical practice, there exists a need to address the uncertainty concerning the effectiveness and safety of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is commonly believed that CPET may be dangerous for patients with PAH, because increasing pressure on the pulmonary arteries may worsen right-sided heart failure. Recently, the first clinical trials on exercise training in patients with pulmonary hypertension reported promising results. Extension of the walking distance at the 6-minute walk test improved quality of life, endurance capacity and a reduction in symptoms were observed after CPET. Furthermore, CPET was well tolerated by the patients in five clinical trials. In conclusion, it may be postulated that CPET is an effective therapy in patients with PAH and was tendentially well tolerated by the patients.

  12. [Effects of captopril on hemodynamics, gas exchange and exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitl, C E; Nery, L E; Romaldini, H; Herrmann, J L; Portugal, O P; dos Santos, M L; Martinez Filho, E E

    1989-02-01

    Captopril, a potent inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, was tested in patients with COPD (means forced expired volume in the first second--FEV1 = 0.73 l) and pulmonary hypertension (PAP = 41.3 mmHg). In the first phase of the experiment, patients underwent and incremental exercise test to the limit of tolerance. These were double blind, randomized, cross-over studies, where the patients received oral placebo (Pl) or captopril (Cp) 25 mg, on different days. In a second phase, the patients were submitted to hemodynamic and gasometric studies in the supine position, before placebo, the 60 min after and immediately after exercise (cycling-like leg movements). After 30 min of rest the same protocol was repeated with oral administration of 25 mg of captopril. In the metabolic evaluation (cycloergometry) captopril increased significantly exercise tolerance (means VO2-uptake at maximal exercise: CP = 0.81 vs Pl = 0.73 1/min), associated with a slower heart rate and higher O2-pulse at maximal exercise. In the hemodynamic study, when the effects of Cp and Pl were compared, the mean values of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were similar at rest, but significantly lower during exercise, after captopril (means PAP Cp = 41.3 vs Pl = 51.2 mmHg; XPVR Cp = 278 vs Pl = 392 dyn. sec. cm5). There were similar systemic hemodynamic effects after Cp, but these were more intense in the pulmonary circulation (lower PVR/SVR ratio post-Cp in relation to post-Pl, during exercise). The cardiac index, systemic O2 transport and arterial and mixed venous blood gases were similar at rest and during exercise, with Pl or Cp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The modelling of health effects in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Steinhauer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The presentation gives a brief overview of the types of health effects considered in each of the three subsystems of COSYMA, the way that the corresponding models are implemented and their present default parameter values. The risk of early effects is calculated using hazard functions, as recently recommended by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and NRPB. The early fatal effects specified in COSYMA comprise those following the irradiation of the bone marrow (hematopoietic syndrome), the lung (pulmonary syndrome), the GI-tract (gastrointestinal syndrome) and skin (skin burns). In addition the mortality of pre-and neonates after exposure in utero is quantified. Of the possible non-fatal effects the only ones included are those which lead to a severe disability of the affected person for the rest of their life or which require medical treatment and/or social care

  14. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm -5 , and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulmonary resection can improve treatment outcome in re-treatment pulmonary tuberculosis and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rifaat

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Surgery is effective when medical therapy fails to control pulmonary TB and its complications. MDR-TB patients are among those who benefit from pulmonary resection. Postoperative medical therapy is important to improve results and in achieving negative sputum conversion in TB patients including MDR-TB patients.

  16. Effect of high fat diet on pulmonary expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and its downstream targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Learta Oruqaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP is involved in lung development and surfactant production. The latter one requires a paracrine interaction between type II alveolar cells and lipofibroblasts in which leptin triggers PTHrP-induced effects. Whether increased plasma leptin levels, as they occur in high fat diet, modify the expression of PTHrP remains unclear. Furthermore, the effect of high fat diet under conditions of forced pulmonary remodelling such as response to post myocardial infarction remains to be defined. Materials and methods: C57 bl/6 mice were randomized to either normal diet or high fat diet at an age of 6 weeks. Seven months later, the mice were euthanized and the lung was removed and frozen in fluid nitrogen until use. Samples were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. Leptin deficient mice were used to investigate the effect of leptin on pulmonary expression of PTHrP more directly. A subgroup of mice with and without high fat diet underwent in vivo ischemia (45 min and reperfusion (4 weeks. Finally, experiments were repeated with prolonged high-fat diet. Key findings: High fat diet increased plasma leptin levels by 30.4% and the pulmonary mRNA expression of PTHrP (1,447-fold, PTH-1 receptor (4.21-fold, and PTHrP-downstream targets ADRP (7.54-fold and PPARγ (5.27-fold. Pulmonary PTHrP expression was reduced in leptin deficient mice by 88% indicating leptin dependent regulation. High fat diet further improved changes in pulmonary adaptation caused by ischemia/reperfusion (1.48-fold increased PTH-1 receptor protein expression. These effects were lost during prolonged high fat diet. Significance: This study established that physiological regulation of leptin plasma levels by high fat diet affects the pulmonary PTHrP expression and of PTHrP downstream targets. Modification of pulmonary expression of PTH-1 receptors by high fat diet after myocardial infarction suggests that the identified interaction may

  17. Pulmonary dysfunction in obese early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Supriyatno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Obesity leads to various complications, including pulmonary dysfunction. Studies on pulmonary function of obese children are limited and the results are controversial. This study was aimed to determine proportion of pulmonary dysfunction on early adolescents with obesity and to evaluate correlation between obesity degree with pulmonary dysfunction degree.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Indonesia, from November 2007 to December 2008. Subjects were 10 to 12 year-old adolescents with obesity. Subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT to assess FEV1/FVC, FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25.Results 110 subjects fulfilled study criteria, 83 (75.5% were male and 27 (24.5% were female with median BMI 26.7 (22.6-54.7 kg/m2; 92 subjects (83.6% were superobese. History of asthma and allergic rhinitis were found in 32 (29.1% and 46 (41.8% subjects, respectively. 64 (58.2% subjects had abnormal PFT results consisting of restrictive type in 28 (25.5% subjects, obstructive in 3 (2.7%, and combined type in 33 (30%. Mean FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25 values were below normal, while mean FEV1/FVC ratio was normal. There was no statistically significant correlation between BMI and PFT parameters. No significant correlation was found between degree of obesity and the severity of pulmonary dysfunction.Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction occurs in 58.2% obese early adolescents. The most common abnormality was combined type (30%, followed by restrictive (25.5%, and obstructive type (2.7%. There was no correlation between BMI and pulmonary function test parameters. (Med J Indones 2010;19:179-84Key words: early adolescents, obesity, pulmonary function test

  18. Preventive effect of interferon-γ of Chinese genotype on radiation pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Li; Song Liangwen; Liu Tao; Zhang Yong; Yin Jiye; Diao Ruiying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitive effect of Interferon-γ (γ-IFN) of Chinese genotype on proliferation of human lung fibroblast (HLF) induced by radiation, and examine its possible mechanism and role in prevention and treatment of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: The proliferation of HLF was determined by MTT assay, the expression of γ-smooth muscle actin (αa-SMA) and the synthesis of collagen type IV by immunocytochemistry assays. Results: Chinese α-IFN was observed to inhibit, proportionally to irradiation dose, the proliferation of HLF induced by 60 Co γ-irradiation. The expression of γ-SMA was remarkable in cytoplasmic matrix after the irradiation, suggesting that irradiation could induce the transformation from fibroblast (FB) to myofibroblast (MFB). The expression of collagen IV was increased with irradiation. Compared with the irradiated group, the expression of collagen IV was lower when γ-IFN was administered before being irradiated. Conclusion: 60 Co γ irradiation can induce pulmonary fibrosis by promoting the proliferation of HLF, inducing the transformation from FB to MFB, and increasing the excreting of collagen type IV. γ-IFN can prevent pulmonary fibrosis by effectively inhibiting the abnormal proliferation of HLF and the excessive synthesis of collagen IV after irradiation. (authors)

  19. Cost effectiveness of prostacyclins in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Antonio; Barberà, Joan A; Escribano, Pilar; Sala, Maria L; Febrer, Laia; Oyagüez, Itziar; Sabater, Eliazar; Casado, Miguel A

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is considered an orphan disease. Prostacyclins are the keystone for PAH treatment. Choosing between the three available prostacyclin therapies could be complicated because there are no comparison studies, so the final decision must be driven by factors such as efficacy, administration route, safety profile and economic aspects. This study provides a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility comparison of initiating prostacyclin therapy with three different treatment alternatives (inhaled iloprost [ILO], intravenous epoprostenol [EPO] and subcutaneous treprostinil [TRE]) for patients with PAH. The goal of this work is to help physicians with their therapeutic decision-making. A Markov model was built to simulate a patient cohort with class III PAH according to the classification of the New York Heart Association (NYHA). Four health states corresponding with the NYHA classes plus death were allowed for patients in the model. Changing the treatment was possible when patients worsened from functional class III to IV. The time horizon was 3 years, allowing patients to transition between health states on a 12-week cycle basis. The study perspective was that of the National Health System (NHS) [only direct medical costs were included]. Unitary costs were obtained from the Drug Catalogue and e-Salud Database in 2009 and are given in euros (€). Data on health resources and treatment pathways were informed by a four-member expert panel. Efficacy was obtained from pivotal clinical trials of ILO, EPO and TRE, the latter used in Spain as a foreign medication. Utilities for each health state were obtained from the literature. The final efficacy measure was life-years gained (LYG), and utilities were used to obtain quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs and effects were discounted at a 3% rate. To check for the robustness of the results, sensitivity analyses were performed. At the end of the 3 years, in the base case of the deterministic

  20. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Won-kyung; Au, Virginia; Rose, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon congenital malformation, and may be partial or total. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is more common than total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. Whilst many patients with PAPVR remain asymptomatic, some may present in later age with symptoms related to left-to-right shunt, right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. We report two cases of PAPVR detected on Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) for the work up of pulmonary hypertension. The cases demonstrate that, although uncommon, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return can be a contributing factor to pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veins should be carefully examined when reading a CTPA study.

  1. Glycyrrhizic acid alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal form of interstitial lung disease that lacks effective therapies at present. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a natural compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Glycyrrhiza glabra, was recently reported to benefit lung injury and liver fibrosis in animal models, yet whether GA has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of GA on pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The results indicated that GA treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of tansforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the lungs. Further, we demonstrated that GA treatment inhibited proliferation of 3T6 fibroblast cells, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro, implying that GA-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of GA in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis are increasing public health problem in eastern region of country. A large number of clinical cases of leishmaniasis and tuberculosis have been reported in Sudan. Such type of co-infections lead to decreased host ’s immune system. This is a case report of 48 years old male with visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis. He arrived at hospital with complaints of fever with rigor, abdominal pain, weakness, loss of appetite, yellowish discoloration of urine and sclerosis at lower back. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed the presence of Leishmania donovani bodies (2+. His treatment was initiated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (inj. Fungizone 15 infusions on alternate days with 5% dextrose. He had 20 years past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. His chest X-ray showed increased bronchovascular marking encysted pleural effusion on lower segment of right lung. Ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration cytology of pleural fluid for protein, sugar, lactate dehydrogenase, adenosine deaminase, cell type and cell count. Cytological reports confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy (four drug regimen: rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutal, and pyrazinamide was started. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis and pulmonary tuberculosis is a real threat in developing countries. There is a need of cost effective diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for these co-infections.

  3. Effectiveness of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of bronchial-type mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kourakata, Hiroyo

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) pulmonary disease with associated nodules and bronchiectasis is an increasingly prevalent condition. This condition is often difficult to diagnose in the early stages of the disease, because of the limited effectiveness of sputum culture cytology. The effectiveness of bronchoscopy in the isolation and diagnosis of MAC in respiratory secretions is still unclear. Over a three-year period, we examined the effectiveness of bronchoscopy in 45 non-HIV-infected patients who had clusters of small peripheral lung nodules. These nodules were associated with changes of the draining bronchi detected by high-resolution CT (HRCT). A total of 22 of 45 patients (48.9%) had cultures positive for MAC. In the MAC-positive group, 10 patients tested positive for disease in sputum and 22 tested positive for disease in bronchial washings. A total of 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) fulfilled the American Thoracic Society criteria for pulmonary MAC disease, and 9 (20.0%) others with cultures positive for MAC did not fulfill the criteria. Radiographic measures and sputum cultures of 13 of 16 patients (81.3%) with negative cultures revealed no further disease progression. We found that HRCT was a useful technique in the diagnosis of MAC-pulmonary disease. We also found that bronchoscopy was a more sensitive diagnostic technique than sputum culture, analysis in the differential diagnosis of MAC pulmonary diseases. (author)

  4. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current

  5. Effects of chlorphentermine and phentermine on the pulmonary disposition of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the rat in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether chlorphentermine (CP) affects pulmonary disposition of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in rat in vivo. Further, the effects of CP were compared with those of phentermine (P), the nonchlorinated congener. The right jugular vein and left carotid artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated and fresh saline solution containing 150 micrograms indocyanine green and a mixture of labeled and unlabeled 5-HT was injected into the jugular vein, and arterial blood samples were collected for 20 s. In order to compare the effect of CP and P on pulmonary disposition of 5-HT, 2.6 nmol [ 14 C]-5-HT was employed for in vivo single-pass experiments. Each animal was used for 2 in vivo single-pass experiments. After the first experiment, which served as a control, animals received an indicated dose of CP or P, to commence the second ''drug-treated'' in vivo experiment. Pulmonary clearance of 5-HT was inhibited by prior administration of CP (1 mg/kg) by 42%, whereas at the highest dose (20 mg/kg) P inhibited 5-HT clearance by only 25%. Pulmonary accumulation of CP was greater than P at higher doses, and the inhibition of 5-HT clearance correlated with the pulmonary accumulation of these drugs. In addition to the in vivo demonstration of the CP inhibition of pulmonary clearance of 5-HT in the rat, these studies also demonstrate a higher affinity of the lung tissue for CP than for P and a greater propensity for the impairment of pulmonary 5-HT clearance

  6. Retention of inhaled plutonium oxide. Elimination procedures by pulmonary lavage and effect of the alveolar macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, Daniel.

    1977-03-01

    A large fraction of the plutonium particles, reaching the deeper lung are retained in the alveolar macrophages during several months. Cell function changes were measured in vivo and in vitro. Stimulation of macrophage mobility and phagocytosis or natural clearance processes were uneffective on PuO 2 excretion. In vivo pulmonary lavage was the only effective therapy. The procedures of in toto pulmonary lavage in order to obtain the highest number of macrophages are described. A study of the physiological and histological consequences showed no long-term pathology, lesions observed during 48 h after lavage were restored quickly. A single lavage eliminated 12-25% only of the lung burden. A procedure of ten repeated lavages (1 per week) eliminated 60-90% of the lung burden. The action of lavage seemed twofold: direct elimination in the rinsing liquid and faster pulmonary clearance with low lymph node overload. Survivals in treated animals kept for long-term observations were compatible with the lung burdens remaining after treatment. Demontration of an inhibiting effect on pulmonary fibrosis should indicate a larger utilization [fr

  7. Health effects assessment in population exposed to 222Rn in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, R.; Mocsy, I.; Muntean, N.

    1996-01-01

    The carcinogenetic effect produce by ionizing radiation upon human health, mainly by drinking water consumption with an elevated 222 Rn content is well documented. The objective of the paper was to demonstrated the possible relationship between the incidence of pulmonary and gastric cancer and 222 Rn presence in water and indoor air. The 222 Rn content was assessed by the standard method in drinking water sampled in two sources in Transylvania area from located in Tirgu Mures and Miercurea Ciuc towns. The 222 Rn concentration in indoor air was indirectly determined. On the basis of the registered values the pulmonary and gastric internal dose received by the residents of the towns was calculated. In parallel was performed a retrospective epidemiological study (1980-1992) regarding the incidence of gastric and pulmonary cancer in two towns in terms of morbidity, mortality and lethality indices. By comparing the estimated carcinogenic risk for this type of cancer with the specific mortality rate registered in our study, we estimate the contribution of 222 R to the cancer mortality percentage in the two towns, as follows: 0.47% for Tirgu Mures and 0.01% for Miercurea Ciuc town for pulmonary cancer and 0.23% and 0.015% for gastric cancer. (author)

  8. Pulmonary venous remodeling in COPD-pulmonary hypertension and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund; Gustafsson, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular arterial remodeling is an integral and well-understood component of pulmonary hypertension (PH). In contrast, morphological alterations of pulmonary veins in PH are scarcely described. Explanted lungs (n = 101) from transplant recipients with advanced chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) were analyzed for venous vascular involvement according to a pre-specified, semi-quantitative grading scheme, which categorizes the intensity of venous remodeling in three groups of incremental severity: venous hypertensive (VH......) grade 0 = characterized by an absence of venous vascular remodeling; VH grade 1 = defined by a dominance of either arterialization or intimal fibrosis; and VH grade 2 = a substantial composite of arterialization and intimal fibrosis. Patients were grouped according to clinical and hemodynamic...

  9. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  10. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

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    Nargiz Muganlinskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE. A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with ‘saddle pulmonary embolism’ based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation

  11. Can a Self-Management Education Program for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Improve Quality of Life ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Labrecque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a self-management program on health-related quality of life (HRQoL and morbidity commonly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.

  12. The effect of the calcium antagonist, isradipine, on working capacity, pulmonary function, morbidity and survival rate in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Anders Michael; Graudal, Niels Albert; Petersen, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Beneficial effects of calcium antagonists on the pulmonary haemodynamics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been observed in several studies. Such effects include a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance, an increase in cardiac output, and an increase in oxygen...... delivery. The clinical implications of these effects are uncertain. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, long-term study described here is the first to investigate the clinical effects of a calcium antagonist on patients with COPD. The aim was to test the hypothesis that the calcium antagonist......, isradipine, could increase working capacity and lung function, and decrease morbidity and mortality. Fifty-two patients with COPD were investigated. During a 22-month observation period no statistically significant differences between the isradipine group and the placebo group were found with regard...

  13. Review of the Association between Splenectomy and Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, Lucas M; Palevsky, Harold I

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that there may be a link between splenectomy and the later development of pulmonary hypertension, in particular World Health Organization group IV pulmonary hypertension (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an odds ratio as high as 18 for the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after splenectomy in comparison with matched control subjects who have not undergone splenectomy. The mechanisms governing the association between removal of the spleen and the subsequent development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain incompletely understood; however, recent advances in understanding of coagulation homeostasis have shed some light on this association. Splenectomy increases the risk of venous thromboembolic disease, a necessary precursor of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, by generating a prothrombotic state. This prothrombotic state likely results from a reduction in the removal of circulating procoagulant factors from the bloodstream after splenectomy. Although much is to be learned, circulating microparticles have emerged as the most likely mediator for the development of thrombosis after splenectomy. Apparently because of a reduction in reticuloendothelial cell clearance, microparticle levels are elevated in patients after splenectomy. Elevated circulating microparticle levels have been linked to thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension in a dose-dependent fashion. It is important for health care providers to be aware of the link between splenectomy and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We are optimistic that clarification of the exact mechanisms that govern this association will yield clinical guidelines and potential treatments.

  14. Pulmonary histiocytosis X - imaging aspects of pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Maeda, Lucimara; Ferreira, Daniel Miranda; Montandon, Cristiano; Marins, Jose Luiz C.

    1999-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is an idiopathic disease which is and uncommon but important cause of pulmonary fibrosis in young adults. Chest radiographs and high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lungs of 7 patients diagnosed as pulmonary histiocytosis X were examined retrospectively. The authors reviewed the pathologic, clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary histiocytosis X, focusing on differential diagnosis and disease progression. Pulmonary histiocytosis X can be suspected on the basis of chest radiographic findings; predominantly upper lobe nodules and cysts present an increased sensitivity and are virtually pathognomonic of this disorder. Chest HRCT allows good assessment of the evolution of pulmonary histiocytosis X and is also valuable in distinguishing histiocytosis from other disorders that produces nodules or cysts. (author)

  15. Pulmonary CT angiography protocol adapted to the hemodynamic effects of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of a standard pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) protocol with a pulmonary CTA protocol optimized for use in pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five consecutive pregnant patients with suspected PE were retrospectively included in the study: 25 patients (group A) underwent standard-protocol pulmonary CTA and 20 patients (group B) were imaged using a protocol modified for pregnancy. The modified protocol used a shallow inspiration breath-hold and a high concentration, high rate of injection, and high volume of contrast material. Objective image quality and subjective image quality were evaluated by measuring pulmonary arterial enhancement, determining whether there was transient interruption of the contrast bolus by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava (IVC), and assessing diagnostic adequacy. RESULTS: Objective and subjective image quality were significantly better for group B-that is, for the group who underwent the CTA protocol optimized for pregnancy. Mean pulmonary arterial enhancement and the percentage of studies characterized as adequate for diagnosis were higher in group B than in group A: 321 +\\/- 148 HU (SD) versus 178 +\\/- 67 HU (p = 0.0001) and 90% versus 64% (p = 0.05), respectively. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the IVC was observed more frequently in group A (39%) than in group B (10%) (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: A pulmonary CTA protocol optimized for pregnancy significantly improved image quality by increasing pulmonary arterial opacification, improving diagnostic adequacy, and decreasing transient interruption of the contrast bolus by unopacified blood from the IVC.

  16. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Ji, Y.X.; Jiang, W.L.; Lv, C.J. [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC{sub 50} of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  17. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Ji, Y.X.; Jiang, W.L.; Lv, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC 50 of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway

  18. Pulmonary embolism and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Faucal, P. de; Touze, M.D.; Dupas, B.

    1988-01-01

    Risks related to pulmonary embolism require use of diagnostic procedures with good sensitivity, and the potential complications of effective anticoagulant therapy require procedures with good specificity. Clinical signs are not more accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary than are ECG, blood gas and chest X ray examinations. Perfusion-ventilation scintigraphy has good diagnostic accuracy approaching that of pulmonary angiography which remains the gold standard. Since pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep venous thrombosis, distal clot detection should be associated with lung explorations. Plethysmography, ultrasonography, doppler studies and scintigraphy of the lower limbs could provide data supplementing those of contrast venography. The value and role of these examinations are analyzed and discussed in terms of different clinical situations [fr

  19. Pulmonary arteriography by digital subtraction angiographic method in cyanotic heart disease with pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junjiro; Hirose, Hajime; Nakano, Susumu

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriography was performed by digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) method in 10 patients with cyanotic heart disease associated with pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia. Ten patients consisted of five patients with tetralogy of Fallot, three with single ventricle and pulmonary stenosis, and two with pseudotruncus arteriosus. Hepato-clavicular position was taken in four patients. Pulmonary artery and its main branches were opacified and recognized clearly, and their diameter could be measured accurately with a small amount of contrast medium. There was a good correlation between the diameter of pulmonary artery measured by DSA and that measured by conventional pulmonary arteriography. DSA is a useful method for evaluating the size and the stenosis of pulmonary artery especially in small cyanotic infants. (author)

  20. Pulmonary hypertension and vasculopathy in incontinentia pigmenti: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshenqiti A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abduljabbar Alshenqiti,1 Marwan Nashabat,1 Hissah AlGhoraibi,1 Omar Tamimi,2 Majid Alfadhel1 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Saud bin Abdulaziz Uiversity for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Cardiology, King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs (NGHA, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Incontinentia pigmenti (IP; Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome is a rare, genetic syndrome inherited as an X-linked dominant trait. It primarily affects female infants and is lethal in the majority of males during fetal life. The clinical findings include skin lesions, developmental defects, and defects of the eyes, teeth, skeletal system, and central nervous system. Cardiovascular complications of this disease in general, and pulmonary hypertension in particular, are extremely rare. This report describes the case of a 3-year-old girl with IP complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Extensive cardiology workup done to the patient indicates underlying vasculopathy. This report sheds light on the relationship between IP and pulmonary hypertension, reviews the previously reported cases, and compares them with the reported case. Keywords: incontinentia pigmenti, IKBKG, pulmonary hypertension, vasculopathy, Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome, lines of Blaschko, hyperpigmentation

  1. Prostacyclin and milrinone by aerosolization improve pulmonary hemodynamics in newborn lambs with experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vasanth H; Swartz, Daniel D; Rashid, Nasir; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Ma, Changxing; Ryan, Rita M; Morin, Frederick C

    2010-09-01

    Aerosolized prostacyclin (PGI2) produces selective pulmonary vasodilation in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The response to PGI2 may be increased by phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitors such as milrinone. We studied the dose response effects of aerosolized PGI2 and aerosolized milrinone both alone and in combination on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics in newborn lambs with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced PH. We hypothesized that coaerosolization of PGI2 with milrinone would additively decrease pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), prolong the duration of action of PGI2, and selectively dilate the pulmonary vasculature. Near-term lambs were delivered by C-section and instrumented and PH was induced by L-NAME (bolus 25 mg/kg; infusion 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)) and indomethacin. In the first set of experiments, PGI2 was aerosolized at random doses of 2, 20, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) followed by milrinone at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) over 10 min. In the second set of experiments, milrinone at 1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) was aerosolized in combination with PGI2 at doses of 20, 100, and 200 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) over 10 min. Pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) and PVR decreased significantly with increasing doses of aerosolized PGI2 and milrinone. The combination of PGI2 and milrinone significantly reduced PAP and PVR more than either of the drugs aerosolized alone. Addition of milrinone significantly increased the duration of action of PGI2. When aerosolized independently, PGI2 and milrinone selectively dilated the pulmonary vasculature but the combination did not. Milrinone enhances the vasodilatory effects of PGI2 on the pulmonary vasculature but caution must be exercised regarding systemic hypotension.

  2. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other''. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    safe and effective use of PAH therapies in children in the cardiac intensive care is limited. Extrapolation of adult data has afforded safe medical treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children. Large multicenter trials are needed in the search for safe and effective therapy of pulmonary hypertension in children. PMID:26945333

  4. Long-term effect of bosentan in adults versus children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic-to-pulmonary shunt : Does the beneficial effect persist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Duffels, Marielle G. J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Hillege, Hans L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term response to bosentan in adults and especially children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic-to-pulmonary shunt are scarce. METHODS: We studied bosentan efficacy in 30 patients (20 adults, 10 children) with the disease at short- (4 months),

  5. Long-term effect of bosentan in adults versus children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic-to-pulmonary shunt: Does the beneficial effect persist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Duffels, Marielle G. J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Hillege, Hans L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Data on long-term response to bosentan in adults and especially children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic-to-pulmonary shunt are scarce. Methods We studied bosentan efficacy in 30 patients (20 adults, 10 children) with the disease at short- (4 months),

  6. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  7. Pediatric Pulmonary Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Barbour

    2018-04-01

    tomography (CT of the chest with contrast has 100% sensitivity for pulmonary abscess and empyema but is more expensive and less frequently available. Most patients require admission and parenteral antibiotics covering Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, anaerobes, gram-negative bacilli, and in selected cases, Pseudomonas. Combined ceftriaxone and clindamycin is generally effective.1,5-6 With treatment, mortality is less than 5%, significantly better than for adults.1 Topics: Pulmonary abscess, pediatrics, radiograph, air-fluid level, infection, empyema, lung

  8. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during

  9. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis

  10. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Farzaneh; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Egemnazarov, Bakytbek; Shid-Moosavi, S Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam A; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2012-01-31

    Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during conditions of sustained hypoxia. The

  11. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  12. Effect of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction on computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules : Intra-individual comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Harder, Annemarie M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Van Hamersvelt, Robbert W.; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; Milles, Julien; Schilham, Arnold M R; Lammers, Jan Willem; De Jong, Pim A.; Leiner, Tim; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) on the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) for pulmonary nodules. Methods In this prospective study twenty-five patients were included who were scanned for pulmonary nodule follow-up. Image

  13. A comparative study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed cab drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization is associated with an enormous increase in vehicular traffic emitting exhausts and polluting the atmosphere. Emissions from vehicular traffic constitute the most significant source of ultraparticle in an urban environment. Cab drivers who work near areas located in the vicinity of traffic junctions through which maximum number of vehicles passes are more prone to develop health issues pertaining to the respiratory system. The effect of this occupational hazard in this unorganised workforce is not adequately studied. This study is designed to determine the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in cab drivers exposed to automobile exhaust. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFTs on 20 cab drivers who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their work venue nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 age, gender-matched, and anthropometric profile cab drivers who work in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution. PFT by computerized spirometer measuring forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and forced expiratory flow (FEF 25%-75% were measured. Statistical analysis was done by Student′s t test (two-tailed, independent for intergroup analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared. FVC, FEV in first second, PEFR, FEV 1 /FVC, and FEF 25%-75% were all found to be statistically significantly lower in cab drivers as compared to control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study finds a significant decline in various PFT parameters recorded in the study group as compared with the control group. These suggests a tendency for obstructive lung disease among cab drivers exposed to a polluted urban environment.

  14. Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

  15. Pulmonary edema predictive scoring index (PEPSI), a new index to predict risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema and improvement of hemodynamics in percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takumi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Shimura, Nobuhiko; Ishiguro, Haruhisa; Yanagisawa, Ryoji; Taguchi, Hiroki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to identify useful predictors for hemodynamic improvement and risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE), a major complication of this procedure. Percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) has been reported to be effective for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PTPA has not been widespread because RPE has not been well predicted. We included 140 consecutive procedures in 54 patients with CTEPH. The flow appearance of the target vessels was graded into 4 groups (Pulmonary Flow Grade), and we proposed PEPSI (Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index) = (sum total change of Pulmonary Flow Grade scores) × (baseline pulmonary vascular resistance). Correlations between occurrence of RPE and 11 variables, including hemodynamic parameters, number of target vessels, and PEPSI, were analyzed. Hemodynamic parameters significantly improved after median observation period of 6.4 months, and the sum total changes in Pulmonary Flow Grade scores were significantly correlated with the improvement in hemodynamics. Multivariate analysis revealed that PEPSI was the strongest factor correlated with the occurrence of RPE (p PEPSI to be a useful marker of the risk of RPE (cutoff value 35.4, negative predictive value 92.3%). Pulmonary Flow Grade score is useful in determining therapeutic efficacy, and PEPSI is highly supportive to reduce the risk of RPE after PTPA. Using these 2 indexes, PTPA could become a safe and common therapeutic strategy for CTEPH. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  17. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  18. Paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: cyclooxygenase-2/prostacyclin pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is the pathophysiological characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Some paracrine factors secreted by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMEPCs have the potential to strengthen endothelial integrity and function. This study investigated whether BMEPCs have the therapeutic potential to improve monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH via producing vasoprotective substances in a paracrine fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were cultured for 7 days to yield BMEPCs. 24 hours or 3 weeks after exposure to BMEPCs in vitro or in vivo, the vascular reactivity, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, prostacyclin (PGI2 and cAMP release in isolated pulmonary arteries were examined respectively. Treatment with BMEPCs could improve the relaxation of pulmonary arteries in MCT-induced PAH and BMEPCs were grafted into the pulmonary bed. The COX-2/prostacyclin synthase (PGIS and its progenies PGI2/cAMP were found to be significantly increased in BMEPCs treated pulmonary arteries, and this action was reversed by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Moreover, the same effect was also observed in conditioned medium obtained from BMEPCs culture. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of BMEPCs effectively ameliorates MCT-induced PAH. Factors secreted in a paracrine fashion from BMEPCs promote vasoprotection by increasing the release of PGI2 and level of cAMP.

  19. Etiopathogenetic Mechanisms of Pulmonary Hypertension in Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Adegunsoye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common disorder with significant health consequences and is on the rise in consonance with the obesity pandemic. In view of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and pulmonary hypertension as depicted by multiple studies, current clinical practice guidelines categorize obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension and recommend an assessment for sleep disordered breathing in evaluating patients with pulmonary hypertension. The dysregulatory mechanisms associated with hypoxemic episodes observed in sleep related breathing disorders contribute to the onset of pulmonary hypertension and identification of these potentially treatable factors might help in the reduction of overall cardiovascular mortality.

  20. Effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Jen,1 Stephen,1 Rennard,2 Don D Sin1,31Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Internal Medicine Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Institute of Heart and Lung Health and the UBC James Hogg Research Center, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic inflammation in the small airways. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS on lung inflammation in COPD remains uncertain. We sought to determine the effects of ICS on inflammatory indices in bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD.Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane database for randomized, controlled clinical trials that used bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate the effects of ICS in stable COPD. For each chosen study, we calculated the mean differences in the concentrations of inflammatory cells before and after treatment in both intervention and control groups. These values were then converted into standardized mean differences (SMD to accommodate the differences in patient selection, clinical treatment, and biochemical procedures that were employed across the original studies. If significant heterogeneity was present (P < 0.1, then a random effects model was used to pool the original data; otherwise, a fixed effects model was used.Results: We identified eight original studies that met the inclusion criteria. Four studies used bronchial biopsies (n = 102 participants and showed that ICS were effective in reducing CD4 and CD8 cell counts (SMD, −0.52 units and −0.66 units, 95% confidence interval. The five studies used bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 309, which together showed that ICS reduced neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (SMD, −0.64 units and −0.64 units, 95% confidence interval. ICS on the other hand

  1. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  2. Effects of copper nanoparticle exposure on host defense in a murine pulmonary infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassian Vicki H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs and environmental bacteria can occur simultaneously. NPs induce inflammatory responses and oxidative stress but may also have immune-suppressive effects, impairing macrophage function and altering epithelial barrier functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential pulmonary effects of inhalation and instillation exposure to copper (Cu NPs using a model of lung inflammation and host defense. Methods We used Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p. in a murine lung infection model to determine if pulmonary bacterial clearance is enhanced or impaired by Cu NP exposure. Two different exposure modes were tested: sub-acute inhalation (4 hr/day, 5 d/week for 2 weeks, 3.5 mg/m3 and intratracheal instillation (24 hr post-exposure, 3, 35, and 100 μg/mouse. Pulmonary responses were evaluated by lung histopathology plus measurement of differential cell counts, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Results Cu NP exposure induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of total cells and neutrophils to the lungs as well as increased total protein and LDH activity in BAL fluid. Both inhalation and instillation exposure to Cu NPs significantly decreased the pulmonary clearance of K.p.-exposed mice measured 24 hr after bacterial infection following Cu NP exposure versus sham-exposed mice also challenged with K.p (1.4 × 105 bacteria/mouse. Conclusions Cu NP exposure impaired host defense against bacterial lung infections and induced a dose-dependent decrease in bacterial clearance in which even our lowest dose demonstrated significantly lower clearance than observed in sham-exposed mice. Thus, exposure to Cu NPs may increase the risk of pulmonary infection.

  3. Singing for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Epsley, Charlotte; Coren, Esther; McKeough, Zoe J

    2017-12-19

    Singing is a complex physical activity dependent on the use of the lungs for air supply to regulate airflow and create large lung volumes. In singing, exhalation is active and requires active diaphragm contraction and good posture. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic lung disease characterised by airflow obstruction. Singing is an activity with potential to improve health outcomes in people with COPD. To determine the effect of singing on health-related quality of life and dyspnoea in people with COPD. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Specialised Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization trials portal and PEDro, from their inception to August 2017. We also reviewed reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references. We included randomised controlled trials in people with stable COPD, in which structured supervised singing training of at least four sessions over four weeks' total duration was performed. The singing could be performed individually or as part of a group (choir) facilitated by a singing leader. Studies were included if they compared: 1) singing versus no intervention (usual care) or another control intervention; or 2) singing plus pulmonary rehabilitation versus pulmonary rehabilitation alone. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted authors of trials for missing data. We calculated mean differences (MDs) using a random-effects model. We were only able to analyse data for the comparison of singing versus no intervention or a control group. Three studies (a total of 112 participants) were included. All studies randomised participants to a singing group or a control group. The comparison groups included a film workshop, handcraft work, and no intervention. The frequency of the singing intervention in the studies ranged from 1 to 2 times a week over a 6 to 24

  4. Pressure-wire-guided percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty: a breakthrough in catheter-interventional therapy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takumi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Shimura, Nobuhiko; Ishiguro, Haruhisa; Yanagisawa, Ryoji; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru

    2014-11-01

    This study sought to prove the safety and effectiveness of pressure-wire-guided percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA). PTPA has been demonstrated to be effective for treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, a major and occasionally fatal complication after PTPA is reperfusion pulmonary edema. To avoid this, we developed the PEPSI (Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index). The pressure wire has been used to detect insufficiency of flow in a vessel. We included 350 consecutive PTPA sessions in 103 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. During these 5 years, 140 PTPA sessions were performed without guidance, 65 with guidance of PEPSI alone, and 145 with both PEPSI and pressure-wire guidance. Each PTPA session was finished after achieving PEPSI scores of PEPSI guidance and each target lesion achieving distal mean pulmonary arterial pressure PEPSI (0% and 6.9%, respectively). Furthermore, the group guided by pressure wire and PEPSI accomplished the same hemodynamic improvements with fewer numbers of target lesions treated and sessions performed. The combined approach using pressure wire and PEPSI produced more efficient clinical results and greatly reduced reperfusion pulmonary edema and vessel complications. This is further evidence that PTPA is an alternative strategy for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conduct...

  6. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  7. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15, with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment.

  8. Effect of fenspiride on pulmonary function in the rat and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, D; Laude, E A; Emery, C J; Howard, P

    1995-03-01

    1. Fenspiride is an anti-inflammatory agent that may have a role in reversible obstructive airways disease. Small, but significant, improvements have been seen in airways function and arterial oxygen tension in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These changes have been attributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the drug. However, airways function can be improved by other means, e.g. improved ventilation/perfusion ratio or reduced airways resistance. The possibility that fenspiride may have actions other than anti-inflammatory was investigated in two animal species. 2. In the rat, actions on the pulmonary circulation were investigated in the isolated perfused lung, but fenspiride proved to be a poor pulmonary vasodilator, showing only a small reversal of the raised pulmonary artery pressure induced by hypoxia. 3. Ventilation was measured in the anaesthetized rat using whole-body plethysmography. Fenspiride caused no increase in ventilation or changes in arterial blood gases. However, a profound hypotensive action was observed with high doses. 4. The possibility that a decrease in airways resistance (R(aw)) might occur with fenspiride was investigated in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Capsaicin (30 mumol/l) was used to increase baseline R(aw) through bronchoconstriction. Fenspiride gave a dose-dependent partial reversal of the raised R(aw), and its administration by aerosol proved as efficacious as the intravenous route. In addition, the hypotensive side-effect found with intravenous injection was alleviated by aerosolized fenspiride.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 )-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O 3 can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O 3 -induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O 3 pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O 3 exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O 2 ) or hypoxia (10.0% O 2 ), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O 3 or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O 3 exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O 3 exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O 3 exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O 3 -induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). • It is unknown if comorbid

  10. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs

  12. Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination for Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Dorothy; Cason, E; Pasquel, F J; Ali, M K; Narayan, K M V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death globally. In addition to the mortality associated with it, people with COPD experience significant morbidity, making this set of conditions a major public health concern. Infections caused by influenza virus are a preventable cause of morbidity and vaccination has been shown to be effective. The evidence of their benefit in persons with COPD mainly comes from high-income countries where influenza vaccination is used in routine practice, but little is known about the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and scalability of vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. We therefore systematically reviewed and present evidence related to vaccination against influenza in persons with COPD with a special focus on studies from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Available data from 19 studies suggest that the use of influenza vaccine in persons with COPD is beneficial, cost-effective, and may be relevant for low- and middle-income countries. Wider implementation of this intervention needs to take into account the health care delivery systems of LMICs and use of prevalent viral strains in vaccines to be most cost effective.

  13. Objective quantification of pulmonary effects in X-ray chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcela de; Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Pereira, Paulo M.C.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.; Pina, Diana R. de

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious lung disease of great concern worldwide. Even after treatment, TB leaves pulmonary sequelae that compromise the quality of life of patients. The exam of diagnostic imaging done more frequently is the X-ray chest. The evaluation of pulmonary involvement of these patients is performed visually by the radiologist. The detection and quantification aided by computer systems are of great importance for the more accurate assessment of pulmonary involvement. The objective of this study was to evaluate computationally the reduction of lung damage in X-ray of chest in patients treated with two different medication regimens. (author)

  14. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension: acute vasoresponsiveness to inhaled nitric oxide and the relation to long-term effect of sildenafil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Iversen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Severe pulmonary sarcoidosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms. Objectives: To assess the acute vasoresponsiveness in patients with sarcoidosis and PH and the relation to the therapeutic effect of sildenafil...

  15. Detection and follow-up of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. the pulmonary risk in South America (PRISA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Héctor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2030, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide. Most knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on studies performed in Europe or North America and little is known about the prevalence, patient characteristics and change in lung function over time in patients in developing countries, such as those of Latin America. This lack of knowledge is in sharp contrast to the high levels of tobacco consumption and exposure to biomass fuels exhibited in Latin America, both major risk factors for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies have also demonstrated that most Latin American physicians frequently do not follow international chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnostic and treatment guidelines. The PRISA Study will expand the current knowledge regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk factors in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay to inform policy makers and health professionals on the best policies and practices to address this condition. Methods/Design PRISA is an observational, prospective cohort study with at least four years of follow-up. In the first year, PRISA has employed a randomized three-staged stratified cluster sampling strategy to identify 6,000 subjects from Marcos Paz and Bariloche, Argentina, Temuco, Chile, and Canelones, Uruguay. Information, such as comorbidities, socioeconomic status and tobacco and biomass exposure, will be collected and spirometry, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and electrocardiogram will be performed. In year four, subjects will have repeat measurements taken. Discussion There is no longitudinal data on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease incidence and risk factors in the southern cone of Latin America, therefore this population-based prospective cohort study will fill knowledge gaps in the prevalence and incidence of

  16. Safety and effectiveness of tadalafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: Japanese post-marketing surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroyoshi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Taketsuna, Masanori; Tajima, Koyuki; Murakami, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of tadalafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in real-world clinical practice. This prospective, multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance included patients with PAH who were observed for up to 2 years after initiation of tadalafil. Safety was assessed by analyzing the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs). Effectiveness measurements included the assessment of the change in World Health Organization (WHO) functional classification of PAH, 6-minute walk test, cardiac catheterization, and echocardiography. Among 1676 patients analyzed for safety, the overall incidence of ADRs was 31.2%. The common ADRs (≥1.0%) were headache (7.0%), diarrhea (1.9%), platelet count decreased (1.8%), anemia, epistaxis, and nausea (1.6% each), flushing (1.3%), hepatic function abnormal (1.1%), hot flush, and myalgia (1.0% each). The common SADRs (≥0.3%) were cardiac failure (0.7%), interstitial lung disease, worsening of PAH, and platelet count decreased (0.3% each). Among 1556 patients analyzed for effectiveness, the percentages of patients with improvement of WHO functional class at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the initiation of tadalafil, and last observation were 17.1%, 24.8%, 28.9%, and 22.5%, respectively. At all observation points (except pulmonary regurgitation pressure gradient at end diastole at 3 months), the mean 6-minute walk distance, cardiac catheterization, and echocardiogram measurements showed statistically significant improvement. This surveillance demonstrated that tadalafil has favorable safety and effectiveness profiles for long-term use in patients with PAH in Japan.

  17. Factors influencing self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disler, R T; Gallagher, R D; Davidson, P M

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common, chronic and burdensome condition requiring the individual to engage in a range of self-management strategies. The capacity to engage in self-management is dependent on a range of internal (e.g., personal) and external (e.g., health service) factors. This paper seeks to define self-management, identify the determinants which influence the individual's ability to cope and adjust to living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the community, and identify implications for clinical practice and research. Integrative review. Medline, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar. Integrative review using prospective research questions. Papers were included in the review if they were published in peer reviewed journals and written in English between 2000 and 2010. Articles were accepted for inclusion if they discussed the determinants that influenced self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the community. Confirmation of results and discussion themes was validated by specialists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and complex care. Self-management is less well characterised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic conditions. Functional limitation and the need to balance disease management with everyday life are the two key elements that patients face in managing their condition. Provider characteristics, socioeconomic status and health literacy are sparsely discussed yet are known to influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management must be a key focus internationally as the disease incidence increases. Collaborative care is required between patients and health providers in order facilitate patients in confident management of their condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Current and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Collum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is commonly present in patients with chronic lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD or Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF where it is classified as Group III PH by the World Health Organization (WHO. PH has been identified to be present in as much as 40% of patients with COPD or IPF and it is considered as one of the principal predictors of mortality in patients with COPD or IPF. However, despite the prevalence and fatal consequences of PH in the setting of chronic lung diseases, there are limited therapies available for patients with Group III PH, with lung transplantation remaining as the most viable option. This highlights our need to enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of Group III PH. In this review we have chosen to focus on the current understating of PH in IPF, we will revisit the main mediators that have been shown to play a role in the development of the disease. We will also discuss the experimental models available to study PH associated with lung fibrosis and address the role of the right ventricle in IPF. Finally we will summarize the current available treatment options for Group III PH outside of lung transplantation.

  19. Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: New Horizons in the Interventional Management of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D; Zener, Rebecca; Jaberi, Arash; de Perrot, Marc; Granton, John; Moriarty, John M; Tan, Kong T

    2017-09-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an underdiagnosed potential complication of acute or recurrent pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Multiple studies suggest that up to 5% of patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolic disease go on to develop CTEPH. The prognosis of untreated CTEPH is poor, but advances in medical and surgical treatments over the past few decades have improved patient outcomes. The gold standard and curative treatment for CTEPH is pulmonary endarterectomy; however, some patients are inoperable and others who have undergone pulmonary endarterectomy experience persistent or recurrent pulmonary hypertension despite medical therapy. In recent years, balloon pulmonary angioplasty has emerged as a primary and adjunctive treatment for these CTEPH patients at expert or specialized centers. This review outlines an approach to balloon pulmonary angioplasty for CTEPH, including clinical presentation and evaluation; patient selection and indications; treatment planning; equipment and technique; overcoming technical challenges; recognition and management of complications; postprocedural care and clinical follow-up; and expected outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis as a pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis - a case report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a very rare disease mainly arising in reproductive-aged women. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis as a pulmonary involvement of tuberous sclerosis is found in only 1 out of 100 patients. Pulmonary involvement in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis itself and that as a pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis has been considered very similar with regard to clinical, radiologic, and pathologic manifestations. We report 1 case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis as a pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis in a 39-year-old Korean woman

  1. Nutrition Therapy in Elderly with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minidian Fasitasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important health element for elderly people and influence aging process. Malnutrition prevalence is increasing in this population. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the chronic diseases in elderly that is related to malnutrition. The association between malnutrition and pulmonary disease (including COPD has been known for a long time. Malnutrition has negative impacts on pulmonary structure, elasticity, and function, strength and endurance of respiratory muscles, pulmonary immunity defense mechanism, and breath control. Inversely, pulmonary disease (including COPD will increase energy need and may reduce dietary intake. Nutrition intervention in COPD patient is intended for regulating anorexia, improving pulmonary function, and controlling weight loss. Nutrient requirements will be calculated according to the results of nutrition assessment. This article will discuss about nutrition therapy in elderly with COPD. It describes respiratory system in aging, association COPD and nutrition, and nutrition assessment, as well as nutrition intervention in elderly people with COPD.

  2. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Iversen, J.S.; Krag, A.

    2010-01-01

    of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). BRS is reduced at exposure to chronic hypoxia such as during sojourn in high altitudes. In this study, we assessed the relation of BRS to pulmonary dysfunction and cardiovascular characteristics and the effects of hyperoxia. Forty-three patients with cirrhosis and 12 healthy...

  3. Pulmonary rehabilitation for moderate COPD (GOLD 2)--does it have an effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Vibeke; Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Jensen, Birgitte Nybo

    2011-01-01

    Although pulmonary rehabilitation is an integrated part of standard care in patients with severe COPD, it is uncertain whether those with less severe COPD benefit from such treatment. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation in patients with moderate COPD...

  4. Fetal MRI correlates with postnatal CT angiogram assessment of pulmonary anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Heather Y; Boe, Justin; Rubesova, Erika; Barth, Richard A; Tacy, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve, pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation results in significant pulmonary artery dilatation. Branch pulmonary artery dilatation often compresses the tracheobronchial tree, causing fluid trapping in fetal life and air trapping and/or atelectasis after birth. Prenatal diagnosis predicts poor prognosis, which depends on the degree of respiratory insufficiency from airway compromise and lung parenchymal disease after birth. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been useful in evaluating the effects of congenital lung lesions on lung development and indicating severity of pulmonary hypoplasia. This report is the first demonstrating the utility of fetal MRI in tetralogy of Fallot/absent pulmonary valve patients, which predicted postnatal pulmonary artery size and visualized airway compression and lung parenchymal lesions. The distribution of lobar fluid trapping on fetal MRI correlated with air trapping on postnatal computed tomography angiogram. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preliminary studies of pulmonary perfusion scanning in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Wang Yanqun

    1986-01-01

    A comparative analysis of pulmonary perfusion scanning through cardiac catheterization of 57 patients including 32 patients with congenital heart disease, 8 patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and 7 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension is reported. The lung scintigram obtained with In-113m or Tc-99m-MAA represents the distribution of pulmonary blood. It has been found that the lung scintigram was abnormal in patients of congenital heart disease with pulmonary hypertension (i. e. pulmonary artery pressure between 41-80 mmHg) and the extent of radoiactive regional defects is proportional to the level of pulmonary hypertension. The results of the analysis indicated that pulmonary perfusion scanning being a noninvasive technique would be a useful method in evaluating the level of pulmonary hypertension in patients with left to right shunt before and after surgical operation

  6. Denervation of pulmonary artery during mitral valve surgery in patients with high pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Богачев-Прокофьев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Pulmonary hypertension impairs the mitral valve and often leads to more severe symptoms of heart failure, low exercise tolerance and thus higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of simultaneous radiofrequency ablation of ganglionated plexi of the pulmonary artery in patients with high pulmonary hypertension during mitral valve surgery.Methods. The inclusion criteria were based on patients’ echocardiography/right heart catheterization data. The main criteria were mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥40 mm Hg at rest and a positive reactive test with nitric oxide inhalation. From January 2014 to May 2015, 14 patients underwent radiofrequency denervation of the pulmonary artery in addition to planned mitral valve surgery. Mean patient age was 53.4±7.8 years, with 57.1% of patients being females.Results. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 116±12 minutes, mean cross-clamp time was 95±13 minutes, and mean ablation time amounted to 9.5±3.1 minutes. Pulmonary artery pressure decreased significantly from a mean of 56.5±9.8 mmHg to 32.0±7.3 mmHg immediately after the operation (p<0.001, and to 28.4±5.2 mmHg and 29.7±4.4 mmHg on the first and third days at ICU respectively. Mean ICU stay was 3.1±1.2 days. There were neither early deaths nor specific complications.Conclusions. Simultaneous radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary artery ganglionated plexi when performing mitral valve surgery in patients with pulmonary hypertension is a safe and effective procedure. Further research and long-term follow-up would help to determine whether a decrease in the mean pressure of the pulmonary artery can be interpreted as a clinical advantage.

  7. Splenectomy correlates with increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S-W; Wang, I-K; Lin, C-L; Chen, H-J; Liao, K-F

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there was an association between splenectomy and pulmonary tuberculosis. This was a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Programme. We identified 18 960 patients (aged 20 years or older) with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis as the case group and 73 988 participants without pulmonary tuberculosis as the control group from 1998 to 2011. Both groups were matched for sex, age (per 5 years) and index year of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with splenectomy and other co-morbidities was estimated. After controlling for confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.91 in patients with splenectomy (95% CI 1.06-3.44), compared with the participants without splenectomy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR 3.07, 95% CI 2.94-3.21), pneumoconiosis (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.90-2.56), chronic kidney diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.33-1.67), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.50-1.64) and chronic liver diseases (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25-1.37) were associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. The sub-analysis demonstrated that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 4.81 (95% CI 2.31-10.0) for patients co-morbid with splenectomy and any of the above diseases. Splenectomy is associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. There is a synergistic effect between splenectomy and other co-morbidities on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  8. Solitary pulmonary nodule by pulmonary hematoma under warfarin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.; Kulke, H.; Liebau, G.; Braun, H.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Pulmonary hematoma is a rare cause of a pulmonary nodule. Mostly it results from penetrating or blunt chest injuries. The case of a patient is reported, whose chest X-ray showed a pulmonary nodule suspected of malignancy. This patient was maintained permanently on anticoagulants (warfarin derivates) after cardiac valve replacement with a prosthesis. A definite diagnosis could not be established by non-invasive methods. A needle biopsy of the lung was impracticable because of the location of the pulmonary lesion; an exploratory thoracotomy could not be carried out due to a general indication of nonoperability. Control examinations showed that the pulmonary nodule had vanished completely within four months. In consideration of the patient's clinical situation it can be concluded that the pulmonary lesion was caused by a hematoma of the lung. (orig.) [de

  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule by pulmonary hematoma under warfarin therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppach, W.; Kulke, H.; Liebau, G.; Braun, H.

    1983-06-01

    Pulmonary hematoma is a rare cause of a pulmonary nodule. Mostly it results from penetrating or blunt chest injuries. The case of a patient is reported, whose chest X-ray showed a pulmonary nodule suspected of malignancy. This patient was maintained permanently on anticoagulants (warfarin derivates) after cardiac valve replacement with a prosthesis. A definite diagnosis could not be established by non-invasive methods. A needle biopsy of the lung was impracticable because of the location of the pulmonary lesion; an exploratory thoracotomy could not be carried out due to a general indication of nonoperability. Control examinations showed that the pulmonary nodule had vanished completely within four months. In consideration of the patient's clinical situation it can be concluded that the pulmonary lesion was caused by a hematoma of the lung.

  10. Web-based Health Information Seeking and eHealth Literacy among Patients Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael L; Shuster, Jonathan J; Chaney, Beth H; Paige, Samantha R; Alber, Julia M; Chaney, J Don; Sriram, P S

    2017-09-05

    Many people living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have low general health literacy; however, there is little information available on these patients' eHealth literacy, or their ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise online health information and apply this knowledge to address or solve disease-related health concerns. A nationally representative sample of patients registered in the COPD Foundation's National Research Registry (N = 1,270) was invited to complete a web-based survey to assess socio-demographic (age, gender, marital status, education), health status (generic and lung-specific health-related quality of life), and socio-cognitive (social support, self-efficacy, COPD knowledge) predictors of eHealth literacy, measured using the 8-item eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS). Over 50% of the respondents (n = 176) were female (n = 89), with a mean age of 66.19 (SD = 9.47). Overall, participants reported moderate levels of eHealth literacy, with more than 70% feeling confident in their ability to find helpful health resources on the Internet. However, respondents were much less confident in their ability to distinguish between high- and low-quality sources of web-based health information. Very severe versus less severe COPD (β = 4.15), lower lung-specific health-related quality of life (β = -0.19), and greater COPD knowledge (β = 0.62) were significantly associated with higher eHealth literacy. Higher COPD knowledge was also significantly associated with greater knowledge (ρ = 0.24, p = .001) and use (ρ = 0.24, p = .001) of web-based health resources. Findings emphasize the importance of integrating skill-building activities into comprehensive patient education programs that enable patients with severe cases of COPD to identify high-quality sources of web-based health information. Additional research is needed to understand how new social technologies can be used to help medically underserved COPD patients

  11. Mechanistic and dose considerations for supporting adverse pulmonary physiology in response to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Chad M.; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Grafstroem, Roland C.

    2008-01-01

    Induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma from formaldehyde inhalation exposure remains a debated and controversial issue. Yet, recent evidences on pulmonary biology and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of formaldehyde lend support for such adverse effects. Specifically, altered thiol biology from accelerated enzymatic reduction of the endogenous bronchodilator S-nitrosoglutathione and pulmonary inflammation from involvement of Th2-mediated immune responses might serve as key events and cooperate in airway pathophysiology. Understanding what role these mechanisms play in various species and lifestages (e.g., child vs. adult) could be crucial for making more meaningful inter- and intra-species dosimetric extrapolations in human health risk assessment

  12. Assessment of pulmonary hypertension by CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, Sebastian; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Heussel, Claus P.; Fink, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Borst, Mathias M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification the group of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) comprises the classic primary pulmonary hypertension and several conditions with definite or very high risk factors to develop pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therapeutic advances drive the need for a comprehensive pre-therapeutic evaluation for optimal treatment. Furthermore, follow-up examinations need to be performed to monitor changes in disease status and response to therapy. Up to now, the diagnostic imaging work-up of PH comprises mainly echocardiography, invasive right heart catheterization and ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Due to technical advances helical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became more important in the evaluation and for differential diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Both modalities are reviewed and recommendations for clinical use are given. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary rehabilitation in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Melinda; Mathur, Sunita; Chowdhury, Noori A; Helm, Denise; Singer, Lianne G

    2013-06-01

    While awaiting lung transplantation, candidates may participate in pulmonary rehabilitation to improve their fitness for surgery. However, pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes have not been systematically evaluated in lung transplant candidates. This investigation was a retrospective cohort study of 345 pre-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation participants who received a lung transplant between January 2004 and June 2009 and had available pre-transplant exercise data. Data extracted included: 6-minute walk tests at standard intervals; exercise training details; health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures; and early post-transplant outcomes. Paired t-tests were used to examine changes in the 6MW distance (6MWD), exercise training volume and HRQL during the pre-transplant period. We evaluated the association between pre-transplant 6MWD and transplant hospitalization outcomes. The final 6MWD prior to transplantation was only 15 m less than the listing 6MWD (n = 200; p = 0.002). Exercise training volumes increased slightly from the start of the pulmonary rehabilitation program until transplant: treadmill, increase 0.69 ml/kg/min (n = 238; p volumes are well preserved among lung transplant candidates participating in pulmonary rehabilitation, even in the setting of severe, progressive lung disease. Participants with greater exercise capacity prior to transplantation have more favorable early post-transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  15. Lung Transplantation in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 00:00 Lung Transplantation in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Consensus Statements Issued by the Scientific Leadership Council ... a treatment option for selected patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) when medical therapy is no longer effective. ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbidity: possible implications in the disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Paggiaro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is becoming the first cause of pulmonary disability and death. Because of the increase in the mean age of the population, COPD is frequently associated with important comorbidities that require medical attention. In the last 10 years many observational studies (large surveys of population or databases of the main health organisations or of General Practitioners in different Countries have extensively documented that many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, diabetes, depression, and lung cancer have a higher prevalence in COPD patients than in non-COPD ones (after correction for many confounding factors, such as smoking habit. There are two different views relating the association between COPD and comorbidities. These comorbidities may be just randomly associated with COPD (due to common risk factors including age, but many data support the hypothesis that chronic inflammation derived from airway wall and lung parenchima of COPD patients may “spill over” the systemic circulation and mediate, at least partially, negative effects on other organs or systems. Some comorbidities seem more commonly associated with the functional abnormalities of COPD (like skeletal muscle dysfunction and malnutrition, or osteoporosis, which are related to the inactivity due to dyspnoea, while for others the systemic effect of some cytokines (IL-6,TNFalfa, etc. or mediators (CRP, serum amyloid A, etc. may play a role.Since comorbidities represent major causes of death in COPD patients, and are responsible of poorer quality of life and hospitalisation during COPD exacerbations, their presence requires a new approach, including an interdisciplinary co-operation and the use of specific strategies able to affect the several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary components of the disease. New pharmacologic options (such as roflumilast active on both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary inflammation might be

  17. Measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance of Fontan candidates with pulmonary arterial distortion by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Sam; Mizukami, Ayumi; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Kondou, Chisato; Nakanishi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Makoto; Momma, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    We measured the distribution of blood flow to the right (R) and left lung (L) by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging and calculated pulmonary vascular resistance (Rp) in 13 patients, whose right and left pulmonary artery pressures were different by 2 to 9 mmHg due to pulmonary arterial distortion (5 interruption, 8 stenosis). The right lung/left lung blood flow ratio was determined and from the ratio and the total pulmonary blood flow, which was determined using the Fick's principle, the absolute values of right and left pulmonary blood flow were calculated. Using the right and left pulmonary blood flow and the right and left pulmonary arterial pressures, right and left pulmonary vascular resistance were calculated, separately. Vascular resistance of the whole lung (Rp) was then calculated using the following equation. 1/(Rp of total lung)=1/(Rp of right lung)+1/(Rp of left lung). Rp calculated from this equation was 1.8+/-0.8 U·m 2 and all values were less than 3 U·m 2 (range 0.3-2.8). Rp estimated from the conventional method using the total pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary arterial pressures, without using the right/left blood flow ratio, ranging from 0.4 to 3.8 U·m 2 and 5 of 13 patients showed Rp>3 U·m 2 . All patients underwent Fontan operation successfully. These data indicated that this method is useful to estimate Rp and to determine the indication of Fontan operation in patients with pulmonary arterial distortions. (author)

  18. Suspected acute pulmonary emboli: cost-effectiveness of chest helical computed tomography versus a standard diagnostic algorithm incorporating ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcos, G.; Chi, K.K.G.; Berry, G.; Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW; Shiell, A.

    2000-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the investigation of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE). To compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods of diagnosing acute PE, chest helical computed tomography (CT) alone and in combination with venous ultrasound (US) of legs and pulmonary angiography (PA) were compared to a conventional algorithm using ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy supplemented in selected cases by US and PA. A decision-analytical model was constructed to model the costs and effects of the three diagnostic strategies in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 patients each. Transition probabilities were based on published data. Life years gained by each strategy were estimated from published mortality rates. Schedule fees were used to estimate costs. The V/Q protocol is both more expensive and more effective than CT alone resulting in 20.1 additional lives saved at a (discounted) cost of $940 per life year gained. An additional 2.5 lives can be saved if CT replaces V/Q scintigraphy in the diagnostic algorithm but at a cost of $23,905 per life year saved. It resulted that the more effective diagnostic strategies are also more expensive. In patients with suspected PE, the incremental cost-effectiveness of the V/Q based strategy over CT alone is reasonable in comparison with other health interventions. The cost-effectiveness of the supplemented CT strategy is more questionable. Copyright (2000) The Australasian College of Physicians

  19. Acute effects on pulmonary function in young healthy adults exposed to traffic-related air pollution in semi-closed transport hub in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Zhao, Yan; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Bin; Liu, Qichen; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Transport hub is an important part of urban comprehensive transportation system. Traffic-related air pollution can reach high level because of difficulty of diffusion and increase of emission in transport hub. However, whether exposure in this semi-closed traffic micro-environment causes acute changes in pulmonary function of commuters still needs to be explored. Forty young healthy adults participated in this randomized, crossover study. Each participant underwent 2 h exposure in a designated transport hub and, on a separate occasion, in an appointed park. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed pre-, during and post-exposure. Mixed linear models were used to analyze the pulmonary effects of traffic-related air pollutants. Participants had significantly higher exposures to PM 2.5 , BC and CO in the transport hub than in the park. Exposure in transport hub induced significant reductions in FEV 1 and PEF compared with the park during exposure 1 and 2 h. The reductions were significant associated with traffic-related air pollutants. For instance, per 10 μg/m 3 increment in PM 2.5 was associated with -0.15 % (95 % CI -0.28, -0.02 %) reduction in FEV 1 during exposure 2 h. However, effects became attenuate after 2 h exposure. Short-term exposure in transport hub had acute reduction effects on pulmonary function. More attention should be paid to the health effects of exposure in the semi-closed traffic micro-environment.

  20. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources to provide ... its battle against the deadly lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PULMONARY FIBROSIS WALK SURPASSES PARTICIPATION AND FUNDRAISING GOALS Nearly ...

  1. Functional and prognostic effects when emphysema complicates idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Kokosi, Maria; Maher, Toby M; Nair, Arjun; Karwoski, Ronald; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Walsh, Simon L F; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the combination of fibrosis and emphysema has a greater effect than the sum of its parts on functional indices and outcome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), using visual and computer-based (CALIPER) computed tomography (CT) analysis.Consecutive patients (n=272) with a multidisciplinary IPF diagnosis had the extent of interstitial lung disease (ILD) scored visually and by CALIPER. Visually scored emphysema was subcategorised as isolated or mixed with fibrotic lung. The CT scores were evaluated against functional indices forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide ( D LCO ), transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide ( K CO ), composite physiologic index (CPI)) and mortality.The presence and extent of emphysema had no impact on survival. Results were maintained following correction for age, gender, smoking status and baseline severity using D LCO , and combined visual emphysema and ILD extent. Visual emphysema quantitation indicated that relative preservation of lung volumes (FVC) resulted from tractionally dilated airways within fibrotic lung, ventilating areas of admixed emphysema (pemphysema. Conversely, only isolated emphysema (pemphysema in IPF, beyond that explained by the additive extents of both fibrosis and emphysema. With respect to the location of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema distribution determines the functional effects of emphysema. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  2. MRI of pulmonary perfusion; MRT der Lungenperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Risse, F.; Semmler, W. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Lung perfusion is a crucial prerequisite for effective gas exchange. Quantification of pulmonary perfusion is important for diagnostic considerations and treatment planning in various diseases of the lungs. Besides disorders of pulmonary vessels such as acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, these also include diseases of the respiratory tract and lung tissue as well as pulmonary tumors. This contribution presents the possibilities and technical requirements of MRI for diagnostic work-up of pulmonary perfusion. (orig.) [German] Die Perfusion der Lunge ist eine entscheidende Voraussetzung fuer einen effektiven Gasaustausch. Die Bestimmung der Lungenperfusion ist bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen der Lunge fuer Diagnostik und Therapieplanung bedeutsam. Hierzu zaehlen neben Erkrankungen der Lungengefaesse wie akute Lungenembolie und pulmonale Hypertension ebenso Erkrankungen der Atemwege, des Lungengeruests und Lungentumoren. In diesem Beitrag werden die Moeglichkeiten und technischen Voraussetzungen der MRT zur Diagnostik der Lungenperfusion dargestellt. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Pulmonary Functions, Physical Activity Level and Quality of Life in Obese and Pre-Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Aktan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are studies regarding pulmonary functions of obese individuals in literature; however, there is insufficient data regarding pre-obese individuals. This study aimed to compare the pulmonary functions, physical activity levels, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL of obese and pre-obese individuals. Methods: The characteristics of 62 subjects participating in the study were recorded All subjects were evaluated using pulmonary function tests (PFT, short form-36 health survey (SF-36, obesity and weight loss quality of life measure (OWLQOL, international physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ, and modified medical research council (mMRC scale. Results: The severity of perceived dyspnea in obese subjects was significantly higher than that in pre-obese subjects. The PFT parameters (FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25–75, FEF25–75%, MVV, and MVV% were significantly lower in obese subjects. Although individuals in both groups were inactive, the inactivity levels in obese subjects were significantly higher. HRQOL scores were significantly lower in obese individuals. The body mass index (BMI was significantly correlated with dyspnea severity, SF-36 subscores, OWLQOL scores, and PFT parameters. Conclusion: While an increasing BMI has an adverse effect on the pulmonary functions of pre-obese individuals, increased BMI coupled with reduced pulmonary functions causes a decrease in the physical activity levels and reduces HRQOL of obese individuals.

  4. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 2: accuracy, cost-effectiveness, and current recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte de; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur [Liga Norte-Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-03-15

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common, often incidental, radiographic finding. The investigation and differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules remain complex, because there are overlaps between the characteristics of benign and malignant processes. There are currently many strategies for evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules. The main objective is to identify benign lesions, in order to avoid exposing patients to the risks of invasive methods, and to detect cases of lung cancer accurately, in order to avoid delaying potentially curative treatment. The focus of this study was to review the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules, to discuss the current role of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, addressing its accuracy and cost-effectiveness, and to detail the current recommendations for the examination in this scenario. (author)

  5. Pulmonary agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Oyola, Mercedes; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Gordillo, Gisel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; García, Carlos A.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Torres, David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is an infrequent pathology which occurs predominantly among females with no lateral preference. We report on the case of a newborn male diagnosed with prenatal diaphragm hernia though at birth seemed more likely either to be a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (congenital pulmonary airway malformation) or pulmonary agenesis. The patient died six days after birth and necropsy confirmed pulmonary agenesis. La agenesia pulmonar es una alteración poco frecuente, con...

  6. The flavonoid quercetin reverses pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Morales-Cano

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts vasodilator, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects and reduces blood pressure, oxidative status and end-organ damage in humans and animal models of systemic hypertension. We hypothesized that oral quercetin treatment might be protective in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Three weeks after injection of monocrotaline, quercetin (10 mg/kg/d per os or vehicle was administered for 10 days to adult Wistar rats. Quercetin significantly reduced mortality. In surviving animals, quercetin decreased pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and muscularization of small pulmonary arteries. Classic biomarkers of pulmonary arterial hypertension such as the downregulated expression of lung BMPR2, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, upregulated survivin, endothelial dysfunction and hyperresponsiveness to 5-HT were unaffected by quercetin. Quercetin significantly restored the decrease in Kv currents, the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors and reduced the Akt and S6 phosphorylation. In vitro, quercetin induced pulmonary artery vasodilator effects, inhibited pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, quercetin is partially protective in this rat model of PAH. It delayed mortality by lowering PAP, RVH and vascular remodeling. Quercetin exerted effective vasodilator effects in isolated PA, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PASMCs. These effects were associated with decreased 5-HT2A receptor expression and Akt and S6 phosphorylation and partially restored Kv currents. Therefore, quercetin could be useful in the treatment of PAH.

  7. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre F, Carlos E; Torres D, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a relatively common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its appearance during the course of COPD is associated with a worsened prognosis, due to reduced life expectancy and greater use of health care resources. Although a well-defined lineal relationship has not been shown, the prevalence of PH in patients with COPD is higher in cases characterized by greater obstruction and severity. PH is infrequent in cases of mild and moderate COPD. In cases of COPD, PH is generally mild or moderate, and seldom impairs right ventricular function. In many cases it is not apparent during rest, and manifests itself during exercise. PH can be severe or out of proportion with the severity of COPD. In this situation, the possibility of associated conditions should be explored, although COPD might be the only final explanation. There is scarce knowledge about the prevalence and behavior of PH in patients with COPD residing at intermediate and high altitudes (>2.500 meters above sea level), which is a common situation in Latin America and Asia. PH in COPD is not exclusively related with hypoxia/hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. The mechanical disturbances related with COPD (hyper inflation and high alveolar pressure) and inflammation may prevail as causes of endothelial injury and remodeling of pulmonary circulation, which contribute to increased pulmonary vascular pressure and resistance. The appearance of signs of cor p ulmonale indicates advanced PH. This condition should therefore be suspected early when dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, and impairment of diffusion are not in keeping with the degree of obstruction. PH is confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Right heart catheterization may be justified in selected cases. Long-term oxygen therapy is the only intervention proven to be temporarily useful. Conventional vasodilators do not produce medium- or long-term improvement and can be detrimental to the ventilation-perfusion relation

  8. Effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Seon Ok; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Jae Seung

    2018-05-17

    Malignancy is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Inferior vena cava filters are a viable alternative when anticoagulation is infeasible because of the risk of bleeding. Although the current guidelines recommend that all patients with a vena cava filter be treated with anticoagulation treatment when the risk of bleeding is reduced, studies concerning the role of concomitant anticoagulation after vena cava filter insertion in high-risk patients are scarce. Since many cancer patients suffer from a high risk of hemorrhagic complications, we aimed to determine the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with a malignant solid tumor. A retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary embolism was performed between January 2010 and May 2016. Patients with a solid tumor and vena cava filter inserted because of pulmonary embolism were included. Using Cox proportional hazards model, the prognostic effect of clinical variables was analyzed. A total of 180 patients were analyzed, with 143 patients receiving and 37 patients not receiving post-filter anticoagulation treatment. Mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. The presence of metastatic cancer and that of pancreatobiliary cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. However, post-filter anticoagulation did not show significant effect on mortality regardless of the stage of cancer. In patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism, the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality may not be critical, especially in patients with a short life expectancy.

  9. Pulmonary Artery Dissection: A Fatal Complication of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare but it is a really life-threatening condition when it happens. Most patients die suddenly from major bleeding or tamponade caused by direct rupture into mediastinum or retrograde into the pericardial sac. What we are reporting is a rare case of a 46-year-old female patient whose pulmonary artery dissection involves both the pulmonary valve and right pulmonary artery. The patient had acute chest pain and severe dyspnea, and the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was confirmed by ultrasonography and CT angiography. Moreover, its etiology, clinical manifestations, and management are also discussed in this article.

  10. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcaterra, G.; Lam, J.; Losekoot, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors performed retrograde pulmonary arteriography by means of a pulmonary venous wedge injection in 10 patients with no demonstrable intrapericardial pulmonary arteries by 'conventional' angiographic techniques. In all cases but one, the procedure demonstrated the feasibility of a further operation. No complications were observed. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography is an important additional method for determining the existence of surgically accessible pulmonary arteries when other techniques have failed. (Auth.)

  11. Effects of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program for Several Asthme. Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to present the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation programs in the treatment of a patient with asthma. Case: this is the case of a young Caucasian girl —17 years old— with severe asthma diagnosis, with symptoms since she was eight years old, 10th grade student. She was referred to the program of Pulmonary Rehabilitation after three hospitalizations during the last year due to asthmatic crises, dyspnoea in activities of daily living, and intolerance to physical exercise. In the initial evaluation, a patient with non-controlled asthma was found; she was receiving short-acting medication admitting that she was not complying with regular use and with a prescribed dose of the pharmacological treatment and that she ignored the importance of this commitment for optimal evolution. The patient expressed concern about the progressive deterioration at her respiratory and functional level during the last year and her fear and anxiety for not being able to breathe during activities befitting her age. One month after receiving bronchodilators and long-acting steroids permanently and complying with recommendations about regular use and adequate inhalatory technique, the patient was included in a three-timesa-week program of pulmonary rehabilitation during eight weeks for upper and lower extremity endurance and resistance training. This intervention showed significant changes in the patient at functional level and a greater social participation.

  12. Potential Occupational Risks Associated with Pulmonary Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manke, Amruta; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Rojanasakul, Yon

    Given their remarkable properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have made their way through various industrial and medicinal applications and the overall production of CNTs is expected to grow rapidly in the next few years, thus requiring an additional recruitment of workers. However, their unique applications and desirable properties are fraught with concerns regarding occupational exposure. The concern about worker exposure to CNTs arises from the results of recent animal studies. Short-term and sub-chronic exposure studies in rodents have shown consistent adverse health effects such as pulmonary inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis, genotoxicity and mesothelioma after inhalation or instillation of several types of CNTs. Furthermore, physicochemical properties of CNTs such as dispersion, functionalization and particle size can significantly affect their pulmonary toxicity. Risk estimates from animal studies necessitate implementation of protective measures to limit worker exposure to CNTs. Information on workplace exposure is very limited, however, studies have reported that CNTs can be aerosolized and attain respirable airborne levels during synthesis and processing activities in the workplace. Quantitative risk assessments from sub-chronic animal studies recommend the health-based need to reduce exposures below the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m 3 . Practice of prevention measures including the use of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, health surveillance program, safe handling and use, as well as worker training can significantly minimize worker exposure and improve worker health and safety.

  13. Evaluation of pulmonary artery flow in acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongzhong; Li Kuncheng; Zhao Xigang; Zhao Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the value of MR imaging in evaluating the pulmonary artery hemodynamics and pulmonary artery pressure in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Methods: MR studies were performed in 21 patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism (diagnosed by contrast enhanced MR pulmonary angiography) and 20 healthy volunteers. The pulmonary artery hemodynamic parameters, such as the diameters of main and right pulmonary artery, peak velocity, average velocity, flow volume, flow patterns, and ejection acceleration time in main pulmonary artery were measured. The findings in patients and volunteers were compared. The hemodynamic parameters in patients were correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure acquired with right heart catheterization. Results: The diameters of main pulmonary artery (2.93 vs 2.52 cm) and right pulmonary artery (2.49 vs 1.92 cm) in patients and volunteers showed significant differences (t=3.55, P<0.01 and t=4.19, P<0.01, respectively); Peak velocity (85.29 vs 100.63 cm/s), average velocity (11.00 vs 17.12 cm/s), flow volume (89.15 vs 98.96 ml/s), and ejection acceleration time (105.09 vs 163.85 ms) in main pulmonary artery were significantly different between patients and volunteers (t values were 2.89, 6.37, 2.21, and 9.46, respectively; P values were 0.01, <0.01, 0.03, and <0.01, respectively). The peak velocity-time curve of main pulmonary artery acquired with velocity encoded cine of MR in patients demonstrated earlier and lower peak velocity as well as abnormal retrograde flow. In addition, linear correlations were seen between the mean pulmonary pressure and the diameter of main pulmonary artery (r=0.62, P=0.001), diameter of right pulmonary artery (r=0.63, P=0.001), and ejection acceleration time (r=-0.55, P=0.005). Conclusion: MR imaging is a promising technique not only for the detection of pulmonary thromboemboli but also for the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters in pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  14. Ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pulmonary function in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M.; Balmes, John R.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Mann, Jennifer; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Pratt, Boriana; Tager, Ira B.; Nadeau, Kari; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N =297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110 ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1 ng/m3 increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. PMID:24938508

  15. The toxic autoimmune syndrome with pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizhskij, Z.M.; Artyunina, G.P.; Trofimova, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    A case was considered in detail of a patient with pulmonary edema of immunnocomplex nature in aerogenic intoxication by nickel tetracarbonyl. It was shown that acute aerogenic intoxication nickel carbonyl by led to unfolded toxic autoimmune syndrome. In this case autoimmune immunecomplex pulmonary lesion (AIPL) menifested by progressing pulmonary edema with expressed parenchymatous respiratory insufficiency played a leading role. Lesion of endothelium of pulmonary capillaries by immune complexes has the most significant in pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. The fact that edema appears due to AIPL, is confirmed by high efficiency of glucocorticoid therapy. Use of glucorticoids serves as a diagnostic test which provides an effective roentgenologic diagnosis of AIPL and differential diagnosis of any other pathological processes in the lungs

  16. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  17. Abnormal pulmonary artery stiffness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: in vivo study with intravascular ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund M T Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that pulmonary artery stiffness is an important determinant of right ventricular (RV afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS to evaluate the mechanical properties of the elastic pulmonary arteries (PA in subjects with PAH, and assessed the effects of PAH-specific therapy on indices of arterial stiffness. METHOD: Using IVUS and simultaneous right heart catheterisation, 20 pulmonary segments in 8 PAH subjects and 12 pulmonary segments in 8 controls were studied to determine their compliance, distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness index β. PAH subjects underwent repeat IVUS examinations after 6-months of bosentan therapy. RESULTS: AT BASELINE, PAH SUBJECTS DEMONSTRATED GREATER STIFFNESS IN ALL MEASURED INDICES COMPARED TO CONTROLS: compliance (1.50±0.11×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg vs 4.49±0.43×10(-2 mm(2/mmHg, p<0.0001, distensibility (0.32±0.03%/mmHg vs 1.18±0.13%/mmHg, p<0.0001, elastic modulus (720±64 mmHg vs 198±19 mmHg, p<0.0001, and stiffness index β (15.0±1.4 vs 11.0±0.7, p = 0.046. Strong inverse exponential associations existed between mean pulmonary artery pressure and compliance (r(2 = 0.82, p<0.0001, and also between mean PAP and distensibility (r(2 = 0.79, p = 0.002. Bosentan therapy, for 6-months, was not associated with any significant changes in all indices of PA stiffness. CONCLUSION: Increased stiffness occurs in the proximal elastic PA in patients with PAH and contributes to the pathogenesis RV failure. Bosentan therapy may not be effective at improving PA stiffness.

  18. Upfront triple combination therapy-induced pulmonary edema in a case of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with Sjogren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimikazu Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Clinical efficacy of combination therapy using vasodilators for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is well established. However, information on its safety are limited. We experienced a case of primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with PAH where the patient developed pulmonary edema immediately after the introduction of upfront triple combination therapy. Although the combination therapy successfully stabilized her pre-shock state, multiple ground glass opacities (GGO emerged. We aborted the dose escalation of epoprostenol and initiated continuous furosemide infusion and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV, but this did not prevent an exacerbation of pulmonary edema. Chest computed tomography showing diffuse alveolar infiltrates without inter-lobular septal thickening suggests the pulmonary edema was unlikely due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema and pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was also denied from no remarkable inflammatory sign and negative results of drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests (DLST. We diagnosed the etiological mechanism as pulmonary vasodilator-induced trans-capillary fluid leakage. Following steroid pulse therapy dramatically improved GGO. We realized that overmuch dose escalation of epoprostenol on the top of dual upfront combination poses the risk of pulmonary edema. Steroid pulse therapy might be effective in cases of vasodilator-induced pulmonary edema in Sjogren's syndrome associated with PAH. Keywords: Steroid therapy, Ground glass opacity, Inter-lobular septal thickening, Epoprostenol, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Trans-capillary fluid leakage

  19. The feasibility and accuracy of enhanced MR pulmonary perfusion imaging in evaluating therapeutic effect of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Nana; Lv Biao; Zhao Zhaoqi; Huang Xiaoyong; Lu Dongxu; Mi Hongzhi; Yu Weiyong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging (MRPP) in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Sixty patients suspected of PE underwent MRPP. Twenty-seven patients also underwent radionuclide perfusion imaging. 22 patients repeated MRPP examination after 3 day to 1 month antieoagulation or thrombolytic therapy. The feasibility and accuracy of MRPP in the diagnosis and follow-up of PE were evaluated according to the transformation rate of signal (TROS), time-signal curve and some parameters of main pulmonary artery (such as peak value of flow, mean flow velocity and flow rate). The t test and rank sum test were used for the statistics. Results: MRPP showed a high agreement with radionuclide perfusion imaging. TROS was (2.86 ± 2.48) vs(6.72 ± 2.54) (t=3.370, P 0.05). Conclusion: MRPP shows a high agreement with radionuclide perfusion imaging and is a useful method for the diagnosis and follow-up of PE. (authors)

  20. Pulmonary artery pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, V; Hervé, P; Lecarpentier, Y; Duroux, P; Simonneau, G; Chemla, D

    2001-03-15

    The purpose of this time-domain study was to compare pulmonary artery (PA) pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE) and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Pulmonary artery pressure waveform analysis provides a simple and accurate estimation of right ventricular afterload in the time-domain. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH are both responsible for severe pulmonary hypertension. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH predominantly involve proximal and distal arteries, respectively, and may lead to differences in PA pressure waveform. High-fidelity PA pressure was recorded in 14 patients (7 men/7 women, 46 +/- 14 years) with CPTE (n = 7) and PPH (n = 7). We measured thermodilution cardiac output, mean PA pressure (MPAP), PA pulse pressure (PAPP = systolic - diastolic PAP) and normalized PAPP (nPAPP = PPAP/MPAP). Wave reflection was quantified by measuring Ti, that is, the time between pressure upstroke and the systolic inflection point (Pi), deltaP, that is, the systolic PAP minus Pi difference, and the augmentation index (deltaP/PPAP). At baseline, CPTE and PPH had similar cardiac index (2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.5 l/min/m2), mean PAP (59 +/- 9 vs. 59 +/- 10 mm Hg), PPAP (57 +/- 13 vs. 53 +/- 13 mm Hg) and nPPAP (0.97 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.13). Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism had shorter Ti (90 +/- 17 vs. 126 +/- 16 ms, p PPAP (0.26 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01). Our study indicated that: 1) CPTE and PPH with severe pulmonary hypertension had similar PA pulse pressure, and 2) wave reflection is elevated in both groups, and CPTE had increased and anticipated wave reflection as compared with PPH, thus suggesting differences in the pulsatile component of right ventricular afterload.

  1. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' experience with pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Pinto, Juliana Maria; Martín-Nogueras, Ana María; Morano, Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa; Macêdo, Tereza Efigênia Pessoa Morano; Arenillas, José Ignacio Calvo; Troosters, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to give an in-depth consideration of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' subjective view of the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on their lives. A systematic review in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases yielded 3306 articles, of which 387 were duplicates, 263 remained after screening abstract and title; of them, 4 were excluded (editorial or due to lacking of full text) remaining a total of 259 for full text reading. Among these, eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included. The meta-ethnography approach synthesized an understanding of the studies, which focused on constructing interpretations and developed a 'line-of-argument' synthesis. The psychosocial support of PR contributes to the patients' strength and desire for participation and the health education leads to illness-perception learning. Both psychosocial support and health education develop patients' empowerment, while PR promotes opportunities to health transitions. The empowerment experienced by the patients in taking advantage of these opportunities leads to positive impacts over time. If they do not exploit these occasions, negative impacts arise in their life, which make the treatment assistance or follow-up more difficult. The COPD patients' feedback revealed that PR promotes a better 'way of life', well-being and important behavioural changes towards health promotion.

  3. Pulmonary effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and levobupivacaine in parturients undergoing spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean delivery: a randomised controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Kleber, N.; Mitterschiffthaler, G.; Keller, C.; Benzer, A.; Putz, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia is the method of choice for elective caesarean delivery, but has been reported to worsen dynamic pulmonary function when using bupivacaine. Similar investigations are lacking for ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. We have therefore compared the pulmonary effects of

  4. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional.

  5. [Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones.

  6. Environmental and health effects review for obscurant graphite flakes. Final report, 1991 July--1993 May

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Landis, W.G.; Downs, J.L.; Tiller, B.L.; Moore, E.B. Jr.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    The health and environmental effects of obscurant graphite flakes were reviewed and compared to predicted levels of graphite flake material in the field during typical testing and training scenarios. Graphite flake dispersion and deposition for simulated mechanical and pyrotechnic releases were determined using a modified Gaussian atmospheric plume-dispersion model. The potential for wind resuspension of graphite flakes is controlled by weathering processes and incorporation rates in soil. Chemically, graphite flakes pose little risk to aquatic or terrestrial systems. Mechanical damage to plants and invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from the flakes is also minimal. In humans, the pathological and physiological response to inhaled graphite flake is similar to that induced by nuisance dusts and cause only transient pulmonary changes. Repeated exposure to very high concentrations (such as those near the source generator) may overwhelm the clearance mechanisms of the lung and result in pulmonary damage from the retained particles in unprotected individuals. However, these lesions either resolve with time or are of limited severity. Health effects of mixed aerosols of mixed aerosols of graphite and fog oil are similar to those produced by graphite flakes alone. Environmental impacts of fog oil-coated graphite flakes are not well known.

  7. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, β-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective effect of fenspiride on the bronchi in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzubova, N A; Lebedeva, E S; Fedin, A N; Dvorakovskaya, I V; Titova, O N

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride on contractive activity of bronchial smooth muscles on the model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of rats induced by 60-day exposure to nitrogen dioxide. The administration of fenspiride during the acute stage of the disease (day 15) abolished the constricting effect of the pollutant on the bronchial smooth muscles. Dilatation effect of fenspiride in a low dose (0.15 mg/kg) was mediated by its interaction with nerve endings of bronchial capsaicin-sensitive nerve C-fibers. The interaction of drug with receptors of C-fibers prevented neurogenic inflammation, which was confirmed by the absence of structural changes in the lungs typical of this pathology. The broncholytic effect of fenspiride in a high dose (15 mg/kg) was mediated by not only afferent pathways, but also its direct relaxing action on smooth muscle cells. The observed anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatation effect of fenspiride in very low doses can be used for prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in risk-group patients contacting with aggressive environmental factors.

  9. Long-term air humidification therapy is cost-effective for patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Richard J; Hockey, Hans; Rea, Harry

    2014-06-01

    To establish the cost-effectiveness of long-term humidification therapy (LTHT) added to usual care for patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchiectasis. Resource usage in a 12-month clinical trial of LTHT was estimated from hospital records, patient diaries, and the equipment supplier. Health state utility values were derived from the St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score. All patients who remained in the trial for 12 months and who had at least 90 days of diary records were included (87 of 108). Clinical costs were NZ $3973 (95% confidence interval [CI] $1614-$6332) for the control group and NZ $3331 (95% CI $948-$6920) for the intervention group. The mean health benefit per patient was -6.9 SGRQ units (95% CI -13.0 to -7.2; P < 0.05) or +0.0678 quality-adjusted life-years (95% CI 0.001-0.135). With the intervention costing NZ $2059 annually, the mean cost per quality-adjusted life-year was NZ $20,902 (US $18,907) and the bootstrap median was NZ $19,749 (2.5th percentile -$40,923, 97.5th percentile $221,275). At a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of NZ $30,000, the probability of cost-effectiveness was 61%, ranging from 49% to 72% as the cost of LTHT was varied by ±30%. At a WTP of NZ $20,000, the probability was 49% (range 34%-61%). LTHT is moderately cost-effective for patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchiectasis at a WTP threshold that is acceptable for public funding of medicines in New Zealand. These findings must be interpreted with caution because of the modest size of the clinical study, necessary lack of blinding in the clinical trial, and uncertainty in estimating health state utility from the SQRQ. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J., E-mail: mcampen@salud.unm.edu

    2016-08-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3})-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O{sub 3} can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O{sub 3}-induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O{sub 3} pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O{sub 3} exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10.0% O{sub 2}), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O{sub 3} or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O{sub 3} exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O{sub 3} exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O{sub 3} exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O{sub 3}-induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive

  11. Pulmonary lymphatics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system has been more difficult to acquire than that of other organ systems owing to the complexity of the respiratory function of the lungs and to the technical difficulties involved. This is especially true of the lymphatics of the lung and is illustrated by the fact that the first measurement of pulmonary lymph flow was in 1942 by Warren and Drinker. A review of the literature reveals that few experiments have been designed to study the pulmonary lymphatics per se in relation to the effects of external radiation or after the inhalation of radioactive particles. However, the documented involvement of hilar lymph nodes implies that the lung lymphatics have a role in transporting particles from the alveoli or malignant cells from the parenchyma. Information from clinical and experimental sources, though scattered, is fairly abundant and of value in assessing the role of the pulmonary lymphatics. Our method for collecting pulmonary lymph is presented. Studies on the pulmonary lymph flow in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental congestive heart failure are described. We irradiated (4000 to 5000 R) the medial one-third of both lungs of a series of dogs. The lymph flow of the lungs was measured immediately after the course of irradiation and after a period of about 5 months. Although lung biopsies showed characteristic radiation pneumonitis in many areas, alterations in the lung parenchyma were not quantitatively reflected in the pulmonary lymph flow either in the acute stage or after fibrosis had time to develop

  12. Inflammatory biomarkers and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients.......Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients....

  13. Development of a theory-based intervention to increase prescription of inspiratory muscle training by health professionals in the management of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Alanna M; Li, Linda C; Reid, W Darlene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide an overview of the literature on barriers to evidence-based practice (EBP) and the effectiveness of implementation interventions in health care; and (2) to outline the development of an implementation intervention for improving the prescription of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) by physical therapists and other health professionals for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Individuals, organizations, and the research itself present barriers to EBP in physical therapy. Despite the evidence supporting the use of IMT, this treatment continues to be under-used in managing COPD. Current health services research shows that traditional information-based approaches to implementation, such as didactic lectures, do not adequately address the challenges health professionals face when trying to make changes in practice. We propose the development of a theory-based intervention to improve health professionals' use of IMT in the management of COPD. It is postulated that a behavioural intervention, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), may be more effective than an information-based strategy in increasing the prescription of IMT by health professionals. TPB may be used to understand the antecedents of health professionals' behaviour and to guide the development of implementation interventions. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this proposed intervention in the management of people with COPD.

  14. Percutaneous balloon dilation of pulmonary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Yangde; Huang Ming; Li Jinkang; Qian Jinqing; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Siyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Review our experience of balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis in 32 cases. Methods: Totally 32 cases of pulmonary stenosis admitted from 1995-2001 with age of 1.5-13 yrs mean 6.8. Diagnosis was made by clinical manifestations, EKG, ECHO and angiocardiography. Results: Before dilation, the mean systolic pressure of right ventricle was (93.5 ± 28.5) mmHg, after the procedure it reduced to (42 ± 9.0) mmHg. The pressure gradient between right ventricle and pulmonary artery before dilation was (76 ± 30) mmHg and become (24.5 ± 8.5) mmHg after dilation. The gradient pressure after dilation was less than 25 mmHg in 90.6% cases. A case of Noonan syndrome showed no response to balloon dilation and died during valvulectomy from accompanying left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: Balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis is effective and safe. The selection of proper diameter of pulmonary valvular rings and sized of the balloon are the major factors

  15. A clinical study on the interventional treatment of acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xixiang; Zhang Minghua; Ci Xiao; Wang Chunmei; Lin Xiaojie; Si Tongguo; Huang Linfen; Feng Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventional procedures in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Pulmonary arterial thrombolytic therapy, suction and fragmentation of thromhi, anti-spasm, and balloon dilation were performed in eighteen cases with clinically highly suspected PE confirmed by emergent pulmonary artery angiography beforehand. Wedged pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary recanalization rate, the display ratio of distal pulmonary capillary net, blood gas analysis, blood oxygen saturation, and the improvement of clinical symptoms and signs were used for evaluation of the effectiveness. Seventeen of the alive cases with dislodgement of deep vein thrombi of the lower extremities were confirmed for the formation of PE and then thrombolytic treatment of the thrombotic deep vein was performed after the placement of inferior vena cava filter. Results: Pulmanory artery angiographies showed embolism of the pulmonary arterial trunks or more than two of the branches. The post-treatment pulmonary patency reached 80%-90% in three cases, 90%-95% in eleven cases and 100% in five cases. The display ratio of distal pulmonary capillary net was over 90% in all the cases. Wedged pulmonary arterial pressure decreased to below 25 mmHg in thirteen cases, and to 25-30 mmHg in five cases. Blood oxygen saturation rate improved immediately to 90%-95% in ten cases and to 95%-100% in eight cases. Cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, and chest pain were completely relieved in thirteen cases and significantly relieved in five cases. Digestive track bleeding was complicated in one case. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery angiography is the golden standard for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Interventional therapy is very effective for acute pulmonary embolism, which can significantly reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  16. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Latson, Larry A.; Truong, Mylene T.; Aaltonen, Eric; Shiau, Maria C.; Girvin, Francis; Alpert, Jeffrey B.; Wickstrom, Maj; Ko, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CTPA plays a key role in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. • Improvements in CT technology have improved visualization of pulmonary arteries. • Knowledge of the technical pitfalls is essential for accurate diagnosis. • Dual energy CT imaging enables parenchymal iodine evaluation. • An awareness of the entities affecting the pulmonary arteries is important. - Abstract: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  17. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: bedros.taslakian@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Latson, Larry A., E-mail: larry.latson@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Truong, Mylene T., E-mail: mtruong@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX (United States); Aaltonen, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Aaltonen@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Shiau, Maria C., E-mail: Maria.Shiau@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Girvin, Francis, E-mail: Francis.Girvin@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Alpert, Jeffrey B., E-mail: Jeffrey.Alpert@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Wickstrom, Maj, E-mail: Maj.Wickstrom@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Ko, Jane P., E-mail: Jane.Ko@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CTPA plays a key role in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. • Improvements in CT technology have improved visualization of pulmonary arteries. • Knowledge of the technical pitfalls is essential for accurate diagnosis. • Dual energy CT imaging enables parenchymal iodine evaluation. • An awareness of the entities affecting the pulmonary arteries is important. - Abstract: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  18. Isolated pulmonary vasculitis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Zurbano, Felipe; Gómez-Román, Javier; Martínez-Meñaca, Amaya; López, Marta; Hernández, Miguel A; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Single-organ vasculitis has been reported to affect the skin, kidneys, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, genitourinary tract, calf muscles, aorta, coronary arteries, retina, or gastrointestinal tract. However, isolated pulmonary vasculitis is a very rare entity. Our aims were to describe a case of localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels and review the literature. A patient with localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels that presented as pulmonary arterial hypertension is described. A MEDLINE database search of cases with localized pulmonary vasculitis was also conducted. A 30-year-old man presented with pulmonary hypertension due to isolated pulmonary medium-sized vessel vasculitis that was confirmed histologically. Initially he responded to corticosteroids and vasodilator treatment, but therapy eventually lost efficacy. Treatment with rituximab was not effective, and as the clinical situation worsened, lung transplant was performed. Isolated large pulmonary vessel disease, often related to Takayasu disease or giant cell arteritis, may present as pulmonary artery hypertension, thus mimicking chronic thromboembolic disease. Medium- and small-vessel pulmonary vasculitis usually develops in the context of a systemic disease. Some cases of isolated small-vessel vasculitis have been reported presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, our case developed pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to medium-sized vessels vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung transplantation in isolated pulmonary vasculitis. Pulmonary isolated vasculitis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension but it must be taken into consideration after more common disorders are excluded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thrombin has biphasic effects on the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in endothelial cells and contributes to experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin F Nickel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A potential role for coagulation factors in pulmonary arterial hypertension has been recently described, but the mechanism of action is currently not known. Here, we investigated the interactions between thrombin and the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in pulmonary endothelial cells and experimental pulmonary hypertension. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic treatment with the selective thrombin inhibitor melagatran (0.9 mg/kg daily via implanted minipumps reduced right ventricular hypertrophy in the rat monocrotaline model of experimental pulmonary hypertension. In vitro, thrombin was found to have biphasic effects on key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in endothelial cells (HUVECs. Acute thrombin stimulation led to increased expression of the cGMP-elevating factors endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC subunits, leading to increased cGMP levels. By contrast, prolonged exposition of pulmonary endothelial cells to thrombin revealed a characteristic pattern of differential expression of the key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, in which specifically the factors contributing to cGMP elevation (eNOS and sGC were reduced and the cGMP-hydrolyzing PDE5 was elevated (qPCR and Western blot. In line with the differential expression of key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, a reduction of cGMP by prolonged thrombin stimulation was found. The effects of prolonged thrombin exposure were confirmed in endothelial cells of pulmonary origin (HPAECs and HPMECs. Similar effects could be induced by activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a link between thrombin generation and cGMP depletion in lung endothelial cells through negative regulation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, possibly mediated via PAR-1, which could be of relevance in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  20. Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The pulmonary route is an interesting route for drug administration, both for effective local therapy (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis) and for the systemic administration of drugs (e.g., peptides and proteins). Well-designed dry powder inhalers are highly efficient

  1. British Thoracic Society quality standards for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David; Callister, Matthew; Akram, Ahsan; Cane, Paul; Draffan, Jeanette; Franks, Kevin; Gleeson, Fergus; Graham, Richard; Malhotra, Puneet; Pearson, Philip; Subesinghe, Manil; Waller, David; Woolhouse, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 7 quality statements have been developed, each describing a key marker of high-quality, cost-effective care for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules, and each statement is supported by quality measures that aim to improve the structure, process and outcomes of healthcare. Discussion BTS Quality Standards for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline recommendations. PMID:29682290

  2. Pulmonary functions in air conditioner users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Sharma, Sameer; Tandon, O P

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioning may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment, than just lowering temperature. The present study was planned to assess the effect of air conditioners (AC) on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker males. The study group comprised of ten subjects who were using AC's in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While ten subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using PK Morgan 232 spirometer in a closed room. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and Forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75) were significantly reduced in subjects using car AC's. Inspiratory flow rates also showed a trend towards decline in AC users but could not reach the level of significance. The lung volumes and capacities were not significantly different in the two groups except for forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec (FEV 0.5 sec), which also decreased in AC users. The airway resistance and lung compliance did not show significant change. In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF25-75% which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction.

  3. Nuclear medicine diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, S; Magdsick, G; Stroetges, M W [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1978-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an emergency situation. The earlier therapy begins, the more effective it will be. This, however, asks for immediate diagnosis. At present the most effective method of diagnosing and localizing pulmonary embolism is perfusion scintiscan of the lung. It should be completed by chest radiography to exclude peripheral infiltration and/or central lung cancer. Generally, these two procedures ensure optimal diagnosis. In case of additional disease of the pleura, mediastinum and lung parenchyma, further measures may be necessary: especially in chronic obstructive lung disease ventilation perfusion ratio and outwash of xenon might be helpful. Scintiscan of the lung is suited for early diagnosis as well as for follow-up examinations. Only if thrombectomy is planned, pulmonary angiography should be preferred. Scintiscan of the lung with marked particle suspensions ensures a minimum of complications. There is only one incident in 10 000 examinations. According to Quinn (1964) and Felix (1971) pulmonary scintiscan might be harmful in patients with right heart failure. We made no such observation in 4000 cases.

  4. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  5. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  6. AEROBIC EXERCISE IN PULMONARY REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  7. Effect of Feikangning composition in improving the pulmonary function in patients with COPD merged with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yun Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Feikangning composition in improving the pulmonary function in patients with COPD merged with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, and observe the changes of ET-1 and D-D levels before and after treatment. Methods: A total of 52 patients with COPD merged with PAH who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group (n=31 and the control group (n=21. The patients in the two groups were given routine treatments after admission. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given Feikangning composition. ET-1 and D-D levels before treatment and 1 month after treatment in the two groups were detected. FEV1, FVC, FEV1%, mPAP, TPR, and SteO2 before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. Results: FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% after treatment in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group. PAP and SteO2 after treatment in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while TPR was significantly lower than that in the control group. ET-1 and D-D levels after treatment in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Conclusions: Feikangning composition can effectively improve the ventilation function in patients with COPD merged with PAH, and regulate the endothelin balance, with a significant efficacy.

  8. Strength training versus chest physical therapy on pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zeinab Ahmed Hussein

    2016-03-04

    Mar 4, 2016 ... physical therapy treatment program on pulmonary functions in Down syndrome children. Methods: ... There is an increased prevalence of sleep-related upper airway ... eral health and daily activity performance ability [12].

  9. Effect of pranayama and suryanamaskar on pulmonary functions in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, P Shyam; Chandrasekhar, M; Ambareesha, Kondam; Nikhil, C

    2014-12-01

    Pranayama improved lung functions in numerous studies. Yoga involve isometric contraction and improves skeletal muscle strength. Yoga training improves the strength of expiratory as well as inspiratory muscles. The present study is planned to find the effect of pranayama on pulmonary functions in medical students. This study is conducted on 50 students doing lst year M.B.B.S. Consent form has been taken from them. They have been given yoga training 30 min daily for 2 mnth under the guidance of a trained yoga instructor. Vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV), Breath holding time (BHT), 40 mm endurance, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) are measured before & after yoga training. VC has increased from 2972 ± 213.151 to 3372 ± 528.7722. TV has increased from 496 ± 84.06347 to 588 ± 150.8863. ERV also shows increase in values from 888 ± 183.303 to 1096 ± 386.7385. BHT also shows increase in values from 33 ± 5.773503 to 58.6 ± 12.78019. 40 mm endurance also shows increase in values from 30.8 ± 5.139715 to 53.52 ± 15.68736. PEFR also shows increase in value from 388.8 ± 15.36229 to 425.2 ± 38.74274. There is a statistically significant increase in all the above mentioned pulmonary functions following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future.

  10. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2013-01-01

    Normal pulmonary vascular development in infancy requires maintenance of low pulmonary vascular resistance after birth, and is necessary for normal lung function and growth. The developing lung is subject to multiple genetic, pathological and/or environmental influences that can adversely affect lung adaptation, development, and growth, leading to pulmonary hypertension. New classifications of pulmonary hypertension are beginning to account for these diverse phenotypes, and or pulmonary hypertension in infants due to PPHN, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The most effective pharmacotherapeutic strategies for infants with PPHN are directed at selective reduction of PVR, and take advantage of a rapidly advancing understanding of the altered signaling pathways in the remodeled vasculature. PMID:24083892

  12. Radioisotopic studies on pulmonary function in experimental burn shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, W.; Barcikowski, S.; Maziarz, Z.; Zajgner, J.; Markiewicz, A.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, which can initiate severe complications, often lead to many therapeutic failures in burn shock. Early recognition of respiratory disturbances is often required to improve results of treatment of burn shock. The authors investigated changes in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in napalm-burnt rabbits using 133 Xe. Simultaneously, they determined effect of treatment with cytochrome C on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in animals burnt with napalm. It was found that in napalm-burnt rabbits burn shock was accompanied by a significant deterioration in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. The most marked changes were observed one and two days after burn. It was also found a beneficial effect of treatment with cytochrome C on alveolar ventilation. The authors pointed out the usefulness of radioisotopic investigations of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in burn shock. (author)

  13. Persistent diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema mimicking pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Demura, Y; Ishizaki, T; Nakanishi, M; Ameshima, S; Itoh, H

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old male non-smoker with a history of atopic asthma presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and this appeared to be corroborated by lung function testing and a chest radiograph. However, a chest CT showed no evidence of pulmonary emphysema and instead demonstrated free air along the bronchovascular sheaths indicative of pulmonary interstistial emphysema, possibly caused by repeated prior exacerbations of asthma. His lung function tests and symptom...

  14. Cardiovascular health effects of oral and pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes in ApoE-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Daniel V.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Andersen, Maria H. G.

    2016-01-01

    or pulmonary exposures to MWCNTs (4 or 40μg each week) in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed a Western-type diet. Intratracheal instillation of MWCNTs was associated with oxidative damage to DNA in lung tissue and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma, whereas the exposure only...

  15. Comparative effects of acute O2 breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, J.M.; Gabathuler, J.; Righetti, A.; Junod, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O 2 (O 2 ) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O 2 breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exersice. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established. (author)

  16. Effect of collagen type IV, MMPs and TIMPs on remodeling of radiation pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Ruiying; Song Liangwen; Wang Shaoxia; Yin Jiye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of collagen type IV, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs(TIMPs) on early remodeling after radiation pulmonary injury. Methods: Right lungs of rats were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20 Gy to induce radiation pulmonary injury, and the lung specimens were taken at weeks 1, 2, 4 after irradiation. Quantitative analysis was performed on pulmonary collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-1 at the level of gene expression and protein synthesis using real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Results: Gene detection using real-time PCR: gene expression of collagen type IV increased at week 1 and decreased at week 2 after irradiation; MMP-2 reached peak at week 2 in which an opposed alteration trend was displayed; MMP-9 appeared a significant trend of elevation, then decrease and elevation again which was similar to those of collagen type IV; expression of TIMP-1 was lower, and there was no marked difference among all time points; TIMP-2 displayed a trend of slight elevation, then decrease and elevation again, which was opposed to MMP-2. Immunohistochemistry-image analysis: Pulmonary collagen type IV obviously increased at week 1, and began to decrease at week 2; MMP-2 decreased at week 2 and then increased; an opposed alteration trend to that of collagen type IV was displayed; alteration trend of MMP-9 was similar to that of collagen type IV but the extent was higher; gene expression of TIMP-1 slightly increased at 2 week and an opposed trend to of MMP-9 was displayed. Conclusions: Collagen type IV, MMP-2, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors were involved in ineffective remodeling in the early radiation pulmonary injury; MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in degradation of collagen type IV; Disturbance of collagen type IV degradation might have relationship with the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. (authors)

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Surgery, Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, and Systemic Therapy for Pulmonary Oligometastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester-Coll, Nataniel H., E-mail: nataniel.lester-coll@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Rutter, Charles E.; Bledsoe, Trevor J. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Goldberg, Sarah B. [Department of Medicine (Medical Oncology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Decker, Roy H.; Yu, James B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary oligometastases have conventionally been managed with surgery and/or systemic therapy. However, given concerns about the high cost of systemic therapy and improvements in local treatment of metastatic cancer, the optimal cost-effective management of these patients is unclear. Therefore, we sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of initial management strategies for pulmonary oligometastases. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov modeling approach was used to compare average cumulative costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) among 3 initial disease management strategies: video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) wedge resection, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and systemic therapy among 5 different cohorts of patient disease: (1) melanoma; (2) non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma without an EGFR mutation (NSCLC AC); (3) NSCLC with an EGFR mutation (NSCLC EGFRm AC); (4) NSCLC squamous cell carcinoma (NSCLC SCC); and (5) colon cancer. One-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to analyze uncertainty with regard to model parameters. Results: In the base case, SBRT was cost effective for melanoma, with costs/net QALYs of $467,787/0.85. In patients with NSCLC, the most cost-effective strategies were SBRT for AC ($156,725/0.80), paclitaxel/carboplatin for SCC ($123,799/0.48), and erlotinib for EGFRm AC ($147,091/1.90). Stereotactic body radiation therapy was marginally cost-effective for EGFRm AC compared to erlotinib with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $126,303/QALY. For colon cancer, VATS wedge resection ($147,730/2.14) was the most cost-effective strategy. Variables with the greatest influence in the model were erlotinib-associated progression-free survival (EGFRm AC), toxicity (EGFRm AC), cost of SBRT (NSCLC SCC), and patient utilities (all histologies). Conclusions: Video-assisted thoracic

  18. Pulmonary blastoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Robert J

    2014-05-13

    Pulmonary blastomas are a rare aggressive neoplasm comprising 0.25-0.5% of all primary lung tumors and portend a poor prognosis. They display a biphasic histology with mesenchymal and epithelial components. Historically, the term pulmonary blastoma had included both pure fetal adenocarcinomas, pleuropulmonary blastomas as well as the classic biphasic blastomas. However recent World Health Organisation re-classifications separated well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinomas and pleuropulmonary blastomas from the biphasic tumours.

  19. Influence of Disease Severity and Exercise Limitation on Exercise Training Intensity and Load and Health Benefits From Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with COPD: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia C; Fuhr, Desi P; Byers, Bradley W; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Moore, Linn E; Stickland, Michael K

    2018-04-11

    Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fail to achieve health benefits with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Exercise intensity and load represent stimulus for adaptation but it is unclear whether inappropriate exercise intensity and/or load are affected by severity of COPD, which may affect health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether COPD severity and/or the severity of pulmonary limitation to exercise (PLE) impacted exercising intensity or load and whether resultant intensity/load affected health outcomes derived from PR. Patients with COPD (n = 58, age = 67 ± 7 y, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] % predicted = 52 ± 21%) were recruited upon referral to PR. Primary health outcomes evaluated were 6-min walk distance and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Patients were stratified for disease severity using Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and PLE severity by change in inspiratory capacity during exercise. Exercise intensity and load were calculated from daily exercise records. Participants achieved comparable training duration and load regardless of GOLD severity. Patients with more severe PLE achieved greater training duration (more severe: 546 ± 143 min., less severe: 451 ± 109 min., P = .036), and relative training load (more severe: 2200.8 ± 595.3 kcal, less severe: 1648.3 ± 597.8 kcal, P = .007). Greater overall training load was associated with greater improvements in 6-min walk distance (r = 0.24, P = .035). No significant relationships were observed between PLE, GOLD severity, training parameters, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire response. Improvements in exercise tolerance can be explained by achieving greater training loads, demonstrating the importance of appropriate training load to maximize health outcomes in PR.

  20. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty: a treatment option for inoperable patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko eOgawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, stenoses or obstructions of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi can cause an elevation in pulmonary artery resistance, which in turn can result in pulmonary hypertension. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension can be cured surgically by pulmonary endarterectomy; however, patients deemed unsuitable for pulmonary endarterectomy due to lesion, advanced age, or comorbidities have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, advances have been made in balloon pulmonary angioplasty for these patients, and this review highlights this recent progress.

  1. Computer-Assisted Detection of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittenberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and often potentially life threatening disease. Severe morbidity and mortality can be prevented if PE is diagnosed and treated in time. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has emerged as an effective method for diagnosis of PE, but interpreting a CTPA is complicated

  2. [Pulmonary complications of malaria: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón Estévanez, Itxasne; Górgolas Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-04-15

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, being a public health challenge in more than 90 countries. The incidence of pulmonary manifestations has increased in recent years. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the most severe form within the pulmonary complications of malaria, with high mortality despite proper management. This syndrome manifests with sudden dyspnoea, cough and refractory hypoxaemia. Patients should be admitted to intensive care units and treated with parenteral antimalarial drug treatment and ventilatory and haemodynamic support without delay. Therefore, dyspnoea in patients with malaria should alert clinicians, as the development of respiratory distress is a poor prognostic factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulmonary arterial lesions in explanted lungs after transplantation correlate with severity of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jørn; Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Boesgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular findings are largely unreported in end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Pulmonary vascular lesions in explanted lungs from 70 patients with COPD/emphysema or α-1-antitrypsin deficiency were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were stratified...... of pulmonary vascular lesions in COPD correlate with the severity of PH. Morphologic lesions similar to those characteristic of IPAH can be observed as PH in COPD progresses to levels characteristic of IPAH....... by the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) assessed by right-heart catheterization in 3 hemodynamically distinct groups: (1) non-PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP]50 mm Hg; median HE Grade 4 (range 3-6), with generalized arterial dilatation and plexiform lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The extent...

  4. Effect of sulfur dioxide on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Inhaled SO2 may cause damage by injuring upper airways. To what extent can SO2 also alter pulmonary macrophage function in the parenchyma and what is the impact of exercise? We studied the effect of SO2 on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis in resting and in exercising animals by measuring the rates of macrophage endocytosis in situ for 1 h of a test particle of insoluble radioactive colloidal gold (198Au), 1, 24, or 48 h after inhalation exposure to SO2. Resting hamsters exposed for 4 h to 50 ppm SO2 had no significant reduction in macrophage endocytosis compared with air-breathing control hamsters. However, if hamsters were exposed to the same concentration of SO2 while continuously running (40 min at 0.9 km/h), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure even though the exposure time was only one-sixth as long. Twenty-four hours later, the percentage of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained significantly depressed. By 48 h, the rate had returned to control values. Exercise alone did not affect endocytosis. Hamsters exposed to 50 ppm SO2, with or without exercise, also showed significant reductions in the number of lavaged macrophages. This decrease was greatest and most persistent in the SO2 plus exercise group. These data indicate that even when animals are exposed to water-soluble gases, which are normally removed by the upper airways, exercise can potentiate damage to more peripheral components of the pulmonary defense system such as the macrophage

  5. Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Waugh, Darryn; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Williams, D'Ann L; Paulin, Laura; Saha, Anik; Aloe, Charles M; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    There is limited evidence of the effect of exposure to heat on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, and the interactive effect between indoor heat and air pollution has not been established. To determine the effect of indoor and outdoor heat exposure on COPD morbidity and to determine whether air pollution concentrations modify the effect of temperature. Sixty-nine participants with COPD were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and data from the 601 participant days that occurred during the warm weather season were included in the analysis. Participants completed home environmental monitoring with measurement of temperature, relative humidity, and indoor air pollutants and simultaneous daily assessment of respiratory health with questionnaires and portable spirometry. Participants had moderate to severe COPD and spent the majority of their time indoors. Increases in maximal indoor temperature were associated with worsening of daily Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale scores and increases in rescue inhaler use. The effect was detected on the same day and lags of 1 and 2 days. The detrimental effect of temperature on these outcomes increased with higher concentrations of indoor fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (P pollution concentrations. For patients with COPD who spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor heat exposure during the warmer months represents a modifiable environmental exposure that may contribute to respiratory morbidity. In the context of climate change, adaptive strategies that include optimization of indoor environmental conditions are needed to protect this high-risk group from the adverse health effects of heat.

  6. Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds. So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups (20 mice/group. The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected, the 2nd group was treated with ink (200 mg/kg and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg and the 4th group was treated with ink plus amphotericin B (Ink 200 mg/kg and AMB 150 mg/kg. Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation and was administered for 3 consecutive days. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compared with IPA group; IE-treated, AMB-treated, and AMB + IE-treated animals had a 67.80%, 83.41%, and 72.68% reduction in the pulmonary fungal burden, respectively. Treatment with IE and/or AMB for one and three days significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissues as compared with the infected untreated group. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress.

  7. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography pulmonary imaging in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is reproducible: implications for future clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Thida; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Kayani, Irfan; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Groves, Ashley M.; Screaton, Nicholas J.; Porter, Joanna C.; Maher, Toby M.; Lukey, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of disease activity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are lacking. We performed this study to investigate the reproducibility of pulmonary 18 F-FDG PET/CT in patients with IPF. The study group comprised 13 patients (11 men, 2 women; mean age 71.1 ± 9.9 years) with IPF recruited for two thoracic 18 F-FDG PET/CT studies performed within 2 weeks of each other. All patients were diagnosed with IPF in consensus at multidisciplinary meetings as a result of typical clinical, high-resolution CT and pulmonary function test features. Three methods for evaluating pulmonary 18 F-FDG uptake were used. The maximal 18 F-FDG pulmonary uptake (SUVmax) in the lungs was determined using manual region-of-interest placement. An 18 F-FDG uptake intensity histogram was automatically constructed from segmented lungs to evaluate the distribution of SUVs. Finally, mean SUV was determined for volumes-of-interest in pulmonary regions with interstitial lung changes identified on CT scans. Processing included correction for tissue fraction effects. Bland-Altman analysis was performed and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined to assess the reproducibility between the first and second PET scans, as well as the level of intraobserver and interobserver agreement. The mean time between the two scans was 6.3 ± 4.3 days. The interscan ICCs for pulmonary SUVmax analysis and mean SUV corrected for tissue fraction effects were 0.90 and 0.91, respectively. Intensity histograms were different in only 1 of the 13 paired studies. Intraobserver agreement was also excellent (0.80 and 0.85, respectively). Some bias was observed between observers, suggesting that serial studies would benefit from analysis by the same observer. This study demonstrated that there is excellent short-term reproducibility in pulmonary 18 F-FDG uptake in patients with IPF. (orig.)

  8. Integrated Transitions of Care for Patients With Rare Pulmonary Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Kathleen; Lattimer, Cheri; Lett, James E; Heggen-Peay, Cherilyn L; Simone, Laura

    Many continuing education (CE) resources are available to support case management professionals in developing competencies in transitions of care (TOC) that apply generally across disease areas. However, CE programs and tools are lacking for advanced TOC competencies in specific disease areas. This article describes 2 projects in which leading TOC, case management, and CE organizations collaborated to develop CE-accredited interdisciplinary pathways for promoting safe and effective TOC for patients with rare pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interdisciplinary pathways apply to PAH and IPF case management practice and TOC across settings that include community-based primary care and specialty care, PAH or IPF centers of expertise, acute care and post-acute settings, long-term care, rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities, and patients' homes. Both PAH and IPF are chronic, progressive respiratory diseases that are associated with severe morbidity and mortality, along with high health care costs. Because they are relatively rare diseases with nonspecific symptoms and many comorbidities, PAH and IPF are difficult to diagnose. Early diagnosis, referral to centers of expertise, and aggressive treatment initiation are essential for slowing disease progression and maintaining quality of life and function. Both the rarity and complexity of PAH and IPF pose unique challenges to ensuring effective and safe TOC. Expert consensus and evidence-based approaches to meeting these challenges, and thereby improving PAH and IPF patient outcomes, are presented in the 2 interdisciplinary TOC pathways that are described in this article. In coordinating care for patients with complex pulmonary diseases such as PAH and IPF, case managers across practice settings can play key roles in improving workflow processes and communication, transition planning, coordinating TOC with centers of expertise

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  10. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... more members within the same family have Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or any other form of Idiopathic Interstitial ...

  11. Enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging in diagnosing pulmonary embolism: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaoyong; Du Jing; Zhang Zhaoqi; Guo Xi; Yan Zixu; Jiang Hong; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging (MRPP) in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography (MRPA) and pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Methods: Fourteen patients were definitely diagnosed as PE, whose ages were from 19 to 71 years old and mean 45.5 ± 19.8 years old. All patients under went MRPA and MRPP and 3 patients were examined again after thrombolytic treatment. Five patients underwent pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Setting ROI in top, middle, bottom of lung area and abnormal area respectively, we detected signal intensity and time-signal curve to obtain the transformation rate of signal (TROS) during perfusion peak value. Results: In 14 pulmonary embolism patients, MRPA found 62 branches of pulmonary artery obstruction. Fifty-five abnormal pulmonary perfusion zones were found by MRPP, and the above results were very alike. The coincidence was 88.71%. In 14 cases, MRPP could show 25 subsegments lesion below segments. In 5 patients who had both results Of MRPP and ECT at the same time. MRPP shows 33 perfusion defect zones and 37 segments were found by ECT, the sensitivity was 89.19%. After thrombolytic treatment, both the status of the affected pulmonary artery improved markedly and perfusion defect zones reduced obviously in 3 cases by MRPP and MRPA. TROS in normal perfusion zones perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones had significant difference (t=22.882, P<0.01). Conclusion: Contrast enhanced MR pulmonary perfusion can show both perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones in pulmonary embolism. Time-signal curve can show the period of maximum no perfusion zones in pulmonary artery embolism zones. And the amplitude of fluctuation is small with miminum TROS. MRPP has significant values especially in showing pulmonary artery embolism in segments and subsegments. Using both MRPP and

  12. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  13. Multi-slice CT pulmonary function evaluation in emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Xiaojun; Zhang Guozhen; Zhu Yanping; Shan Lin; Mao Dingbiao; Ding Qiyong; Hua Yanqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of evaluating the lung function by MSCT in emphysema. Methods: The MSCT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were respectively performed in 147 receptors within one week. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (120 receptors), including normal, mild, moderate and severe abnormal pulmonary function based on the PFT, for comparing the correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT pulmonary function and PFT and settingup the primary, grade criteria of abnormal pulmonary, function in emphysema, group B (27 receptors) for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy in group A. The total lung was respectively scanned at the full inspiration and full expiration with MSCT. The pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT were measured with Siemens Pulmo pulmonary quantitative software. Results: There was correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT and PFT. The Piex/in -910 showed best correlation with FEV 1 % (r= -0. 905, P -910 (χ 2 0.267, P=0.966, accuracy 81.5%), and the primary criteria for abnormal pulmonary, function of emphysema was normal (0-9.9), mild (10.0-34.9), moderate (35.0-74.9) and severe (≥75.0). Conclusion: It is feasible to evaluate the abnormal lung function of emphysema with pulmonary quantitative indexes of CT. The Piex/in 910 was the most effective one in various indexes. (authors)

  14. Guideline-based survey of outpatient COPD management by pulmonary specialists in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl R

    2012-02-01

    pulmonary specialists differed in their assessment of the benefits of various therapeutic measures from evidence-based results. Referral for pulmonary rehabilitation was uncommon, regardless of the severity of COPD.Conclusion: The findings of this large national survey suggest that most pulmonary specialists adhere to the current COPD guideline recommendations in daily practice. However, physicians' knowledge of guidelines is not sufficient as the sole benchmark when assessing their implementation in day-to-day practice. Necessary changes in the health care system must include more effective ways to transfer knowledge to clinical practice and to give access to interventions of proven clinical benefit.Keywords: pulmonary rehabilitation, survey, GOLD, clinical outcomes, therapy, diagnosis

  15. Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking. PMID:7138793

  16. A comparative analysis of pulmonary ventilation-perfusion imaging with pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jincheng; Mi Hongzhi; Wang Qian; Zhang Weijun; Lu Biao; Yang Hao; Ding Jian; Lu Yao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of ventilation-perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism were studied, male: female 15:15, mean age was (36.2 +- 13.9) years. The chest radiograms were obtained in all 30 patients. All patients underwent radionuclide ventilation-perfusion imaging and pulmonary angiography. Results: Of the 30 patients, 22 with lobe, multiple segment or multi-subsegment perfusion defects and normal or nearly normal ventilation images were reported as PE. 20 of them were confirmed to be with PE by pulmonary angiography, 2 patients were not confirmed. Eight of 30 patients with multiple perfusion defects, ventilative abnormalities were reported as non-PE and the diagnoses were confirmed by pulmonary angiography. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of PE by ventilation-perfusion imaging was 100%, 80.0% and 93.3% respectively. Conclusions: (1) Ventilation-perfusion imaging is one of the most valuable methods in the diagnosis of PE. (2) The results suggest that pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed non-invasively in most patients on the basis of clinical manifestation, chest radiograms and ventilation-perfusion imaging findings. (3) Pulmonary angiography is required while clinical manifestation and ventilation-perfusion imaging findings are discordant with each other

  17. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic adequacy of lung scintigraphy with that of pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) in the care of pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient characteristics, radiology report content, additional imaging performed, final diagnosis, and diagnostic adequacy were recorded for pregnant patients consecutively referred for lung scintigraphy or pulmonary CTA according to physician preference. Measurements of pulmonary arterial enhancement were performed on all pulmonary CTA images of pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy and pulmonary CTA studies deemed inadequate for diagnosis at the time of image acquisition were further assessed, and the cause of diagnostic inadequacy was determined. The relative contribution of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the heart was measured on nondiagnostic CTA images and compared with that on CTA images of age-matched nonpregnant women, who were the controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pulmonary CTA examinations were performed on 25 pregnant patients, and 25 lung scintigraphic studies were performed on 25 pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy was more frequently adequate for diagnosis than was pulmonary CTA (4% vs 35.7%) (p = 0.0058). Pulmonary CTA had a higher diagnostic inadequacy rate among pregnant than nonpregnant women (35.7% vs 2.1%) (p < 0.001). Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava was identified in eight of 10 nondiagnostic pulmonary CTA studies. CONCLUSION: We found that lung scintigraphy was more reliable than pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava is a common finding at pulmonary CTA of pregnant patients.

  18. Deployment Pulmonary Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-11

    of health and hazard data to monitor the extent and severity of occupationally-related lung disease and related workplace exposures for use in public...during pregnancy . J. Occup. Environ. Med. Jun 2012;54(6):689-697. 112. Barton CA, McGuire A, Waller M, et al. Smoking prevalence, its determinants...disease and related workplace exposures for use in public health education and in disease prevention.” 38 Department of Defense (DoD) Directive

  19. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Effect of Milrinone Infusion on Pulmonary Vasculature and Stroke Work Indices: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis in 69 Patients Awaiting Cardiac Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Dmitry; Haglund, Nicholas A; Di Salvo, Thomas G

    2017-08-01

    Although milrinone infusion is reported to benefit left ventricular function in chronic left heart failure, few insights exist regarding its effects on pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function. We retrospectively reviewed right heart catheterization data at baseline and during continuous infusion of milrinone in 69 patients with advanced heart failure and analyzed the effects on ventricular stroke work indices, pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial compliance. Compared to baseline, milrinone infusion after a mean 58 ± 61 days improved mean left ventricular stroke work index (1540 ± 656 vs. 2079 ± 919 mmHg·mL/m 2 , p = 0.0007) to a much greater extent than right ventricular stroke work index (616 ± 346 vs. 654 ± 332, p = 0.053); however, patients with below median stroke work indices experienced a significant improvement in both left and right ventricular stroke work performance. Overall, milrinone reduced left and right ventricular filling pressures and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance by approximately 20%. Despite an increase in pulmonary artery capacitance (2.3 ± 1.6 to 3.0 ± 2.0, p = 0.013) and a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance (3.8 ± 2.3 to 3.0 ± 1.7 Wood units), milrinone did not reduce the transpulmonary gradient (13 ± 7 vs. 12 ± 6 mmHg, p = 0.252), the pulmonary artery pulse pressure (25 ± 10 vs. 24 ± 10, p = 0.64) or the pulmonary artery diastolic to pulmonary capillary wedge gradient (2.0 ± 6.5 vs. 2.4 ± 6.0, p = 0.353). Milrinone improved left ventricular stroke work indices to a greater extent than right ventricular stroke work indices and had beneficial effects on right ventricular net input impedance, predominantly via augmentation of left ventricular stroke volume and passive unloading of the pulmonary circuit. Patients who had the worst biventricular performance benefited the most from chronic milrinone infusion.

  1. Bronchial artery embolization for the treatment of hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis: its clinical effect with an analysis of the causes of recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shoumin; Li Jingying; Wang Guoxing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical effect of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in treating massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis and to analyze the causes of recurrence in order to improve the therapeutic results. Methods: A total of 39 cases of patients with recurrent massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis, who were encountered during the period from Oct. 2007 to Sep. 2010, were enrolled in this study. The lesions included infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n= 28) and chronic fibrocavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (n= 11). BAE with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles only was performed in 14 cases (group A), while BAE with both PVA particles and coils was carried out in 25 cases (group B). All the patients were followed up for 12 - 48 months. The results were compared between the two groups. Results: Immediate hemostasis was obtained in 36 cases (92.3%), the clinical result was excellent in 3 cases. The complete cure or excellent result with single embolization procedure was achieved in 30 cases (76.9%). Recurrence was seen in 9 cases (23.1%). The difference in the recurrence rate between group A (42.9%) and group B (12.0%) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The relapsing rate of patients with chronic fibrocavitary pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly higher than that of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (45.5% vs. 14.3%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: BAE has an instant effect of hemostasis and satisfactory clinical result. Nowadays BAE has already become the treatment of first choice for hemoptysis caused by pulmonary tuberculosis. The dual embolization technique with the combination use of PVA particles and coils can effectively reduce the recurrence of' pulmonary tuberculosis hemoptysis. (authors)

  2. Pulmonary functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulfidan; Saler, Tayyibe; Saglam, Zuhal Aydan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Esra; Demir, Tuncalp; Temiz, Levent Umit

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether alterations in pulmonary function takes place in subclinical hypothyroidism by examining the diffusion lung capacity and muscle strength of such patients. This is a descriptive study conducted in 2009 at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Hundred and twenty-six patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 58 age and sex matched individuals were recruited. Simple spirometry tests were performed, and pulmonary diffusion capacity (DLco) and muscle strength were measured. ScH patients showed a significant reduciton of the following pulmonary function tests (% predicted value) as compared with control subjects: FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, DLco, DLco/VA, Pimax, Pimax% and Pemax%. These data indicate that pulmonary functions are effected in subclinical hypothyrodism. Therefore patients with or who are at high risk of having subclinical hypothyroidism, should be subjected to evaluation of pulmonary functions with simple spirometry.

  3. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsi...

  4. Fatigue in patients with COPD participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J Wong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cindy J Wong1, Donna Goodridge1, Darcy D Marciniuk2, Donna Rennie1,31College of Nursing, 2College of Medicine, 3Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaBackground: Fatigue is a distressing, complex, multidimensional sensation common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While fatigue negatively impacts functional performance and quality of life, there has been little study of the fatigue that affects participants in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical dimensions of fatigue and their relationships to dyspnea, mental health, sleep, and physiologic factors.Patients and methods: A convenience sample of 42 pulmonary rehabilitation participants with COPD completed self-report questionnaires which measured dimensions of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data on other clinical variables were abstracted from pulmonary rehabilitation program health records.Results: Almost all (95.3% participants experienced high levels of physical fatigue. High levels of fatigue were also reported for the dimensions of reduced activity (88.1%, reduced motivation (83.3%, mental fatigue (69.9%, and general fatigue (54.5%. Close to half (42.9% of participants reported symptoms of anxiety, while almost one quarter (21.4% reported depressive symptoms. Age was related to the fatigue dimensions of reduced activity (ρ = 0.43, P < 0.01 and reduced motivation (ρ = 0.31, P < 0.05. Anxiety was related to reduced motivation (ρ = -0.47, P < 0.01. Fatigue was not associated with symptoms of depression, sleep quality, gender, supplemental oxygen use, smoking status, or Medical Research Council dyspnea scores.Conclusions: Fatigue (particularly the physical and

  5. Hypoxia, leukocytes, and the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Davie, Neil J; Reeves, John T; Frid, Maria G

    2005-02-01

    Data are rapidly accumulating in support of the idea that circulating monocytes and/or mononuclear fibrocytes are recruited to the pulmonary circulation of chronically hypoxic animals and that these cells play an important role in the pulmonary hypertensive process. Hypoxic induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, stromal cell-derived factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, endothelin-1, and tumor growth factor-beta(1) in pulmonary vessel wall cells, either directly or indirectly via signals from hypoxic lung epithelial cells, may be a critical first step in the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to the pulmonary circulation. In addition, hypoxic stress appears to induce release of increased numbers of monocytic progenitor cells from the bone marrow, and these cells may have upregulated expression of receptors for the chemokines produced by the lung circulation, which thus facilitates their specific recruitment to the pulmonary site. Once present, macrophages/fibrocytes may exert paracrine effects on resident pulmonary vessel wall cells stimulating proliferation, phenotypic modulation, and migration of resident fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. They may also contribute directly to the remodeling process through increased production of collagen and/or differentiation into myofibroblasts. In addition, they could play a critical role in initiating and/or supporting neovascularization of the pulmonary artery vasa vasorum. The expanded vasa network may then act as a conduit for further delivery of circulating mononuclear cells to the pulmonary arterial wall, creating a feedforward loop of pathological remodeling. Future studies will need to determine the mechanisms that selectively induce leukocyte/fibrocyte recruitment to the lung circulation under hypoxic conditions, their direct role in the remodeling process via production of extracellular matrix and/or differentiation into myofibroblasts, their impact on the phenotype of resident smooth muscle

  6. Right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; McCauley, Roy; Westra, Sjirk; Baba, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary aplasia and bronchopulmonary foregut malformations in which a patent communication between the foregut and the pulmonary system is present are rare congenital abnormalities. Pulmonary aplasia associated with a pulmonary sling is an even rarer abnormality. We report a unique case of right pulmonary aplasia, aberrant left pulmonary artery, and bronchopulmonary sequestration with an esophageal bronchus diagnosed by multidetector helical CT. (orig.)

  7. Biophysical Influence of Airborne Carbon Nanomaterials on Natural Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Russell P.; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air–water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handl...

  8. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Görel; Marntell, Stina; Edner, Anna; Funkquist, Pia; Morgan, Karin; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2009-05-07

    Sedation with alpha2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the alpha2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3-7 years and weighing 380-520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg). Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q) was estimated with MIGET. During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased (12.8 +/- 0.7 to 10.8 +/- 1.2 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased (5.9 +/- 0.3 to 6.1 +/- 0.2 kPa) compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-a)O2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  9. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Karin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  10. Effects on pulmonary function of whole lung irradiation for Wilm's tumour in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, M.R.; Lemerle, J.; Jean, R.; Rufin, P.; Scheinmann, P.; Paupe, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of whole lung irradiation on lung function was investigated in 48 children treated for Wilm's tumour with pulmonary metastases. Lung function tests were performed before irradiation and were repeated annually for as long as possible, the length of follow-up varying from two to 17 years. A reduction in both lung volume and in dynamic compliance was clearly observed. In some patients these changes occurred in the early post-irradiation months, but in most the decrease observed progressed over longer periods of time. Static pressure volume curves, bloodgases, and carbon monoxide transfer were normal. These findings make it unlikely that post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis was involved. Another explanation for the decreased lung volume and dynamic compliance might be failure of alveolar multiplication. Muscular injury is unlikely as the patients were able to produce normal transthoracic pressures. A failure of chest wall growth is also possible and would explain the progressive restrictive impairment but not the early lung function changes. It is suggested that the early effects detected in some patients were the result of lung injury and that later effects resulted from impaired chest wall growth. (author)

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  12. Does Increased Body Mass Index Effect the Gains of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Doğan Şahin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the gain of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in obese, pre-obese, and normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who underwent a PR program. Methods: COPD patients (n=137 underwent pulmonary and cardiac system examination and pulmonary function tests (PFTs before PR. Chest X-rays, arterial blood gases, body mass index, quality of life (QOL questionnaires, anxiety and depression scores, and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (MMRC scores were evaluated in all patients. A 6-min walk test was performed to determine the exercise capacity of the patients. All patients underwent an 8-week outpatient PR program. The patients were reevaluated at the end of 8th week in terms of all parameters. Results: The study group consisted of 44 normal-weight, 52 pre-obese, and 41 obese COPD patients. Before PR, there was no significant difference in terms of 6-min walk distance (6MWD, PFT, MMRC, or QOL scores between the groups (p>0.05 for all. After PR, partial arterial oxygen pressure and arterial saturation, MMRC, and QOL scores improved significantly in all three groups (p<0.05 for all. 6MWD and walkwork significantly increased after PR in all three groups (p<0.001 for all, but the gain in 6MWD was significantly lower in obese patients compared to pre-obese and normal-weight patients (p=0.049. Conclusion: Pre-obese and obese patients benefit from PR similarly to the normal-weight patients in terms of gas exchange, dyspnea perception, and QOL. But it seems to be that exercise capacity improves less in obese COPD patients compared to pre-obese and normal- weight patients.

  13. Monaldi's technique for treatment of pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Valdes, Edelberto

    2010-01-01

    The pulmonary abscesses are usually treated with antibiotics and postural drainage. However, some patients don't improve with conservative measures or have contraindications for conventional surgical treatment. The aim of present paper was the presentation of three cases underwent percutaneous drainage of pulmonary abscesses. The technique used for tube insertion, complications and postoperative course of patients were described. In such cases operation was successful without mortality and with a bronchopleural cutaneous fistula like the only complication requiring a further intervention (pneumonectomy). The percutaneous drainage of pulmonary abscesses was safe and effective in our patients. (author)

  14. The effect of vitamin D prophylaxis on radiation induced pulmonary damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, G.; Yildiz, F.; Iskit, A.; Surucu, S.; Firat, P.; Hayran, M.; Ozyigit, G.; Cengiz, M.; Erdemli, E.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D has a selective radio and chemosensitizing effect on tumor cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that vitamin D inhibits collagen gel construction, induces type II pneumocyte proliferation and surfactant synthesis in the lungs, and decreases vascular permeability caused by radiation. The aim of this experimental study was to determine if vitamin D has a protective effect against radiation-induced pulmonary damage. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was comprised of control animals. Group 2, which was administered 0.25 μg/kg/day of vitamin D3 for 8 weeks, was the vitamin D control group. Rats in groups 3 and 4 were given 20 Gy right hemithorax radiotherapy, and in addition group 4 was given vitamin D3 treatment, which began the day before the radiotherapy and continued for 8 weeks. At the 8 th and the 12 th weeks of the study 4 rats from each group were sacrificed. Right lungs were dissected for light and electron microscopic study. The electron microscopy examinations revealed statistically significant differences between group 3 and 4, and in group 4 there was less interstitial inflammation and collagen deposition, and the alveolar structure and the cells lining the alveolar walls were protected. These results confirm that vitamin D has a protective effect against radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. These findings should be evaluated with further clinical studies. (author)

  15. Electrocautery device does not provide adequate pulmonary vessel sealing in transumbilical anatomic pulmonary lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Ping; Chu, Yen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Chieng-Ying; Chen, Tzu-Ping; Chao, Yin-Kai; Wu, Ching-Yang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Ko, Po-Jen; Liu, Yun-Hen

    2016-05-01

    Safe pulmonary vessel sealing device plays a crucial role in anatomic lung resection. In 2014, we reported high rates of massive bleeding complications during transumbilical lobectomy in a canine model due to difficulty in managing the pulmonary vessel with an endostapler. In this animal survival series, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of pulmonary vessel sealing with an electrocautery device to simplify the transumbilical thoracic surgery. Under general anesthesia, a 3-cm longitudinal incision was made over the umbilicus. Under video guidance, a bronchoscope was inserted through the incision for exploration. The diaphragmatic wound was created with an electrocautery knife and used as the entrance into the thoracic cavity. Using the transumbilical technique, anatomic lobectomy was performed with electrosurgical devices and endoscopic vascular staplers in 15 canines. Transumbilical endoscopic anatomic lobectomy was successfully completed in 12 of the 15 animals. Intraoperative bleeding developed in three animals during pulmonary hilum dissection, where one animal was killed due to hemodynamic instability and the other two animals required thoracotomy to complete the operation. There were five delayed bleeding and surgical mortality cases caused by inadequate vessel sealing by electrosurgical devices. Postmortem examination confirmed correct transumbilical lobectomy in the twelve animals that survived the operations. Transumbilical anatomic lobectomy is technically feasible in a canine model; however, the electrosurgical devices were not effective in sealing the pulmonary vessel in the current canine model.

  16. Comparative effects of acute O/sub 2/ breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschopp, J M; Gabathuler, J; Righetti, A; Junod, A F

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O/sub 2/(O/sub 2/) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O/sub 2/ breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exercise. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established.

  17. The effects of elastic tubing-based resistance training compared with conventional resistance training in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Fosco, Luciana Cristina; Bonfim, Rafaela; Bertolini, Giovana Navarro; Guarnier, Flavia Alessandra; Cecchini, Rubens; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik; Ramos, Dionei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of elastic tubing training compared with conventional resistance training on the improvement of functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, fat-free mass, and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, randomized, eight-week clinical trial. The study was conducted in a university-based, outpatient, physical therapy clinic. A total of 49 patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Participants were randomly assigned to perform elastic tubing training or conventional resistance training three times per week for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was functional exercise capacity. The secondary outcome measures were peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), fat-free mass, and cytokine profile. After eight weeks, the mean distance covered during six minutes increased by 73 meters (±69) in the elastic tubing group and by 42 meters (±59) in the conventional group (p tubing training had a greater effect on functional exercise capacity than conventional resistance training. Both interventions were equally effective in improving muscle strength and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Pulmonary vascular limitation to exercise and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Mart N.; van Kan, Coen; Blumenthal, Judith; Jansen, Henk M.; Wells, Athol U.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is frequently observed in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can be used to detect less advanced pulmonary vascular impairment, and therefore may be of prognostic use. We studied the

  19. Mexican registry of pulmonary hypertension: REMEHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Zarate, Julio; Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia; Zamudio, Tomas Pulido; Gutierrez-Fajardo, Pedro; Elizalde Gonzalez, Jose; Leon, Mario Seoane Garcia De; Gamez, Miguel Beltran; Abril, Francisco Moreno Hoyos; Michel, Rodolfo Parra; Aguilar, Humberto Garcia

    REMEHIP is a prospective, multicentre registry on pulmonary hypertension. The main objective will be to identify the clinical profile, medical care, therapeutic trends and outcomes in adult and pediatric Mexican patients with well-characterized pulmonary hypertension. REMEHIP a multicenter registry began in 2015 with a planned recruitment time of 12 months and a 4-year follow-up. The study population will comprise a longitudinal cohort study, collecting data on patients with prevalent and incident pulmonary hypertension. Will be included patients of age >2 years and diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension by right heart catheterization within Group 1 and Group 4 of the World Health Organization classification. The structure, data collection and data analysis will be based on quality current recommendations for registries. The protocol has been approved by institutional ethics committees in all participant centers. All patients will sign an informed consent form. Currently in Mexico, there is a need of observational registries that include patients with treatment in the everyday clinical practice so the data could be validated and additional information could be obtained versus the one from the clinical trials. In this way, REMEHIP emerges as a link among randomized clinical trials developed by experts and previous Mexican experience. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary endarterectomy in the management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenkins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a type of pulmonary hypertension, resulting from fibrotic transformation of pulmonary artery clots causing chronic obstruction in macroscopic pulmonary arteries and associated vascular remodelling in the microvasculature. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers the best chance of symptomatic and prognostic improvement in eligible patients; in expert centres, it has excellent results. Current in-hospital mortality rates are 90% at 1 year and >70% at 10 years. However, PEA, is a complex procedure and relies on a multidisciplinary CTEPH team led by an experienced surgeon to decide on an individual's operability, which is determined primarily by lesion location and the haemodynamic parameters. Therefore, treatment of patients with CTEPH depends largely on subjective judgements of eligibility for surgery by the CTEPH team. Other controversies discussed in this article include eligibility for PEA versus balloon pulmonary angioplasty, the new treatment algorithm in the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines and the definition of an “expert centre” for the management of this condition.

  1. Legalizing Cannabis: A physician's primer on the pulmonary effects of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmansingh, Denyse; Pawar, Leena; Savici, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Habitual smoking of marijuana is associated with multiple respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and wheezing .These symptoms are not significantly different from those exhibited by tobacco smokers. Furthermore, endobronchial biopsies of habitual smokers of marijuana and /or tobacco have shown that both marijuana and cigarette smoking cause significant bronchial mucosal histopathology and that these effects are additive. Although marijuana smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothoraces. The relationship between marijuana smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. These findings should warn individuals that marijuana smoking may result in serious short-term and long-term respiratory complications, and habitual marijuana use should be viewed with caution. The medical literature so far does not support routine evaluation by pulmonary function tests or imaging studies; until more definitive data is available, we do not recommend the regular use of these tests in the evaluation of habitual marijuana smokers.

  2. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  3. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  4. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  5. Organic mononitrites of 1,2-propanediol act as an effective NO-releasing vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension and exhibit no cross-tolerance with nitroglycerin in anesthetized pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson KF

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kristofer F Nilsson,1,2 Waldemar Goździk,3 Claes Frostell,4 Stanisław Zieliński,3 Marzena Zielińska,3 Kornel Ratajczak,5 Piotr Skrzypczak,5 Sylwia Rodziewicz,5 Johanna Albert,6 Lars E Gustafsson1,† 1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 4Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department and Clinic of Surgery, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland; 6Department of Surgery, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden †Lars E Gustafsson passed away on October 04, 2017 Purpose: Clinically available intravenous (IV nitric oxide (NO donor drugs such as nitroglycerin (GTN cause systemic hypotension and/or tolerance development. In a porcine model, novel NO donor compounds – the organic mononitrites of 1,2-propanediol (PDNO – were compared to GTN with regard to pulmonary selectivity and tolerance development. The vasodilatory effects of inorganic nitrite were investigated.Materials and methods: In anesthetized piglets, central hemodynamics were monitored. At normal pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, IV infusions of PDNO (15–60 nmol kg-1 min-1, GTN (13–132 nmol kg-1 min-1, and inorganic nitrite (dosed as PDNO were administered. At increased PVR (by U46619 IV, IV infusions of PDNO (60–240 nmol kg-1 min-1 and GTN (75–300 nmol kg-1 min-1 before and after a 5 h infusion of GTN (45 nmol kg-1 min-1 were given.Results: At normal PVR, PDNO (n=12 and GTN (n=7 caused significant dose-dependent decreases in mean systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, whereas inorganic nitrite (n=13 had no significant effect. At increased PVR, PDNO (n=6 and GTN (n=6 significantly decreased mean systemic and pulmonary

  6. Effectiveness of structured planned post discharge support to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for reducing readmission rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Ersgard, Karen Bagger; Soerensen, Tina Brandt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, characterized by airflow limitation. The disease has a significant impact on the lives of patients and is a challenge for the health care due to readmissions to hospitals. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed...... exacerbation. TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS: Studies that evaluated discharge interventions that supported patients managing symptoms of COPD. TYPES OF STUDIES: Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental or cohort studies. OUTCOMES: Readmission, defined as hospitalization...... to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of discharge interventions that can reduce readmission of patients with COPD. TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized patients, aged 18 years or over, who had been diagnosed with COPD and were admitted to hospital due to acute...

  7. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline B; de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Fentz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa) load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should......Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim...... of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa) affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28...

  8. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  9. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography pulmonary imaging in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is reproducible: implications for future clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Thida [Lister Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Kayani, Irfan; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Groves, Ashley M. [UCL/UCH, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Radiology Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Porter, Joanna C. [UCL/UCH, Centre for Respiratory Diseases, London (United Kingdom); Maher, Toby M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Lukey, Pauline [GSK, Fibrosis DPU, Research and Development, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Noninvasive markers of disease activity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are lacking. We performed this study to investigate the reproducibility of pulmonary {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with IPF. The study group comprised 13 patients (11 men, 2 women; mean age 71.1 {+-} 9.9 years) with IPF recruited for two thoracic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT studies performed within 2 weeks of each other. All patients were diagnosed with IPF in consensus at multidisciplinary meetings as a result of typical clinical, high-resolution CT and pulmonary function test features. Three methods for evaluating pulmonary {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were used. The maximal {sup 18}F-FDG pulmonary uptake (SUVmax) in the lungs was determined using manual region-of-interest placement. An {sup 18}F-FDG uptake intensity histogram was automatically constructed from segmented lungs to evaluate the distribution of SUVs. Finally, mean SUV was determined for volumes-of-interest in pulmonary regions with interstitial lung changes identified on CT scans. Processing included correction for tissue fraction effects. Bland-Altman analysis was performed and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined to assess the reproducibility between the first and second PET scans, as well as the level of intraobserver and interobserver agreement. The mean time between the two scans was 6.3 {+-} 4.3 days. The interscan ICCs for pulmonary SUVmax analysis and mean SUV corrected for tissue fraction effects were 0.90 and 0.91, respectively. Intensity histograms were different in only 1 of the 13 paired studies. Intraobserver agreement was also excellent (0.80 and 0.85, respectively). Some bias was observed between observers, suggesting that serial studies would benefit from analysis by the same observer. This study demonstrated that there is excellent short-term reproducibility in pulmonary {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in patients with IPF. (orig.)

  10. Tc-99m-MIBI Uptake in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Chan Hee; Hwang, Hee Sung; Bae, Moon Sun

    1996-01-01

    Technetium-99m MIBI was developed as a myocardiac perfusion imagine agent and has been used effectively in the detection and post-therapeutic evaluation of various neoplasm such as thyroid, lung, bone and breast tumors. As an infrequent findings, Tc-99m MIBI agent has shown in non-neoplastic pulmonary conditions including fibroding alveolitis, pulmonary actinomycosis, active pulmonary sarcoidosis, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis and active osteomyelitis. In a recent report conducted by Cetin Oncel, Tc-99m MIBI imaging is an effective method in the detection and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis. We have also experienced Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in active pulmonary tuberculosis incidentally found in a patient with suspected proliferative villonodular synovitis of the left ankle.

  11. Developing concepts in the pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosino, N.; Casaburi, R.; Ford, G.; Goldstein, R.; Morgan, M. D. L.; Rudolf, M.; Singh, S.; Wijkstra, P. J.

    Randomised trials have demonstrated that pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can improve dyspnoea, exercise tolerance and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation has traditionally been provided in secondary care to patients with moderate to severe disease. Current concepts are however recommending

  12. Pathophysiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Oswaldo L.; Machado, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension affects ∼10% of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), particularly those with the homozygous genotype. An increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure, estimated noninvasively by echocardiography, helps identify SCD patients at risk for pulmonary hypertension, but definitive diagnosis requires right-heart catheterization. About half of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension patients have precapillary pulmonary hypertension with potential etiologies of (1) a nitric oxide deficiency state and vasculopathy consequent to intravascular hemolysis, (2) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, or (3) upregulated hypoxic responses secondary to anemia, low O2 saturation, and microvascular obstruction. The remainder have postcapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Although the pulmonary artery pressure in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension is only moderately elevated, they have a markedly higher risk of death than patients without pulmonary hypertension. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of SCD-related pulmonary hypertension were published recently by the American Thoracic Society. Management of adults with sickle-related pulmonary hypertension is based on anticoagulation for those with thromboembolism; oxygen therapy for those with low oxygen saturation; treatment of left ventricular failure in those with postcapillary pulmonary hypertension; and hydroxyurea or transfusions to raise the hemoglobin concentration, reduce hemolysis, and prevent vaso-occlusive events that cause additional increases in pulmonary pressure. Randomized trials have not identified drugs to lower pulmonary pressure in SCD patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Patients with hemodynamics of pulmonary arterial hypertension should be referred to specialized centers and considered for treatments known to be effective in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. There have been reports that some of these treatments

  13. A study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushio, Norio

    1987-01-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator. (author)

  14. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in reptiles: a comparative study of four species with different lung structures and pulmonary blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2005-11-01

    Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts and is considered important for the local matching of ventilation to blood perfusion. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia on pulmonary and systemic blood flows and pressures were measured in four species of anesthetized reptiles with diverse lung structures and heart morphologies: varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus), caimans (Caiman latirostris), rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus), and tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). As previously shown in turtles, hypoxia causes a reversible constriction of the pulmonary vasculature in varanids and caimans, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 37 and 31%, respectively. These three species possess complex multicameral lungs, and it is likely that HPV would aid to secure ventilation-perfusion homogeneity. There was no HPV in rattlesnakes, which have structurally simple lungs where local ventilation-perfusion inhomogeneities are less likely to occur. However, tegu lizards, which also have simple unicameral lungs, did exhibit HPV, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 32%, albeit at a lower threshold than varanids and caimans (6.2 kPa oxygen in inspired air vs. 8.2 and 13.9 kPa, respectively). Although these observations suggest that HPV is more pronounced in species with complex lungs and functionally divided hearts, it is also clear that other components are involved.

  15. Stakeholder Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenauer, Peter K.; Au, David H.; Carson, Shannon S.; Lee, Todd A.; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T.; Vollmer, William M.; Mularski, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions. PMID:23155144

  16. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.

  17. The comparison of CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Yang Xufeng; Zhou Xuhui; Li Ziping; Fan Miao; Chen Jindi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the principal HRCT features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma and to explore their pathological mechanism, in order to improve the recognition of the CT signs of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma. Methods: The principal HRCT signs of thirty-five cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and forty cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively to explore the relationship between CT features and pathological findings. Results: The main features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma included larger masses, clear boundary, superficial sublobes and intra-tumor necrosis. While peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma mostly demonstrated as smaller nodules, deep sublobes, spiculations, spiculate protuberance, pleural indentation, vessel converging signs, and vacuole signs. The different of these above findings of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were significant (P<0.05). Peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma may depict bronchial casts and polygonal nodules; and peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma may demonstrate ground glass-like nodules. Conclusion: The difference of the CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and peripheral adenocarcinoma is based on their different histological features and biological behaviors. It is possible to differentiate them before operation in combination with clinical information. (authors)

  18. Health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: An overview of major respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic-Andersen Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  19. Social factors associated with pulmonary hydatid cyst in Aegean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social factors associated with pulmonary hydatid cyst in Aegean, Turkey. ... where there are insufficient environmental health and preventive medicine services. ... The offices of the public administration have a responsibility to inform citizens ...

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  1. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions

  2. Correlation between CT review findings and pulmonary function in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Fukuda, Kiyoshi; Homma, Toshiaki

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between CT and pulmonary function test results in five normal controls and ten patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. We used mean lung attenuation values (MLAV) and ΔEMP as the index of emphysematous change in CT. ΔEMP was defined as the ratio of the area (-960 Hounsfield Units ∼ -1024 HU) to the area (-774 HU ∼ -1024 HU). MLAV and ΔEMP were measured from histograms of the CT review. Mean MLAV in pulmonary emphysema was -947.1 ± 9.3 HU, and that in normal controls was -906.6 ± 23.6 HU. Mean ΔEMP in pulmonary emphysema was 50.0 ± 9.9 %, and that in normal controls was 18.8 ± 13.0 %. The data in pulmonary emphysema cases differed significantly from those in normal controls. Furthermore MLAV and ΔEMP had good correlation to VC, %VC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, RV/TLC, %V 25 and Raw. CT is an easier examination than pulmonary function test for patients, and can show the extent and the distribution of emphysematous area. In this study it is suggested that CT is a useful examination in severe pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  3. Thallium pulmonary scintigraphy. Relationship to pulmonary fluid volumes during left atrial hypertension and the acute release of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between thallium-201 lung activity and pulmonary fluid volumes, we compared thallium pulmonary scintigrams with measures of intravascular (PBV), extravascular (EVLW) and total lung water (TLW) during gradual left atrial (LA) hypertension and then serially after the acute release of pressure. The study group was composed of nine mongrel dogs who were each studied at seven levels of elevated LA pressure, and then every 15 minutes for 2 hours after the acute release of pressure. During LA pressure (congestion phase) elevation, lung counts (normalized for myocardial activity), correlated best with TLW (r . .91), rather than PBV (r . .84) or EVLW (r . .81). After the release of pressure (recovery phase), lung counts correlated well with EVLW (r . .92) and TLW (r . .82), but not with PBV (r . .28). Postmortem lung counts from 197 separate lung sections correlated well with the corresponding wet weight/dry weight ratio from that section (r . .81). Thus, we conclude that changes in pulmonary thallium emissions during cardiogenic pulmonary edema relate to corresponding changes in pulmonary fluid volumes. During congestion, the confounding effects of nonlinear increases in EVLW and PBV make thallium emissions more a marker of TLW than either the intravascular or extravascular pulmonary fluid compartment. After pressure release, PBV immediately returns to normal, at which time EVLW and pulmonary emissions correlate closely. These latter data, more applicable to postexercise stress thallium data, lend support to the hypothesis that elevated pulmonary emissions during postexercise thallium scintigrams reflect elevations in EVLW that develop during exercise

  4. Wedge and subselective pulmonary angiography in pulmonary hypertension secondary to venous obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, J.S.; Bookstein, J.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Peterson, K.L.; Moser, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary wedge or subselective angiography provided key diagnostic information in two cases of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary venous obstruction. Whereas conventional pulmonary angiograms and ventilation-perfusion lung scans were interpreted as showing embolism, plain radiographs demonstrated Kerley B lines, suggesting venous obstruction. Subselective or wedge angiography of nonopacified arteries verified their anatomical patency and also revealed venous stenoses, collaterals, and atrophy indicative of obstruction

  5. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, David A.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F.; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J.; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may co...

  6. Cost-effectiveness of alternative management strategies for patients with solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Michael K; Sanders, Gillian D; Barnett, Paul G; Rydzak, Chara E; Maclean, Courtney C; McClellan, Mark B; Owens, Douglas K

    2003-05-06

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a potentially useful but expensive test to diagnose solitary pulmonary nodules. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies for pulmonary nodule diagnosis and to specifically compare strategies that did and did not include FDG-PET. Decision model. Accuracy and complications of diagnostic tests were estimated by using meta-analysis and literature review. Modeled survival was based on data from a large tumor registry. Cost estimates were derived from Medicare reimbursement and other sources. All adult patients with a new, noncalcified pulmonary nodule seen on chest radiograph. Patient lifetime. Societal. 40 clinically plausible combinations of 5 diagnostic interventions, including computed tomography, FDG-PET, transthoracic needle biopsy, surgery, and watchful waiting. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The cost-effectiveness of strategies depended critically on the pretest probability of malignancy. For patients with low pretest probability (26%), strategies that used FDG-PET selectively when computed tomography results were possibly malignant cost as little as 20 000 dollars per QALY gained. For patients with high pretest probability (79%), strategies that used FDG-PET selectively when computed tomography results were benign cost as little as 16 000 dollars per QALY gained. For patients with intermediate pretest probability (55%), FDG-PET strategies cost more than 220 000 dollars per QALY gained because they were more costly but only marginally more effective than computed tomography-based strategies. The choice of strategy also depended on the risk for surgical complications, the probability of nondiagnostic needle biopsy, the sensitivity of computed tomography, and patient preferences for time spent in watchful waiting. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, FDG-PET strategies were cost saving or cost less than 100 000 dollars per QALY

  7. The role of inflammation in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: from cellular mechanisms to clinical phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Jens M.; Fini, Mehdi A.; Olschewski, Andrea; El Kasmi, Karim C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases sharing the common feature of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. The disease is usually characterized by mild to moderate pulmonary vascular remodeling that is largely thought to be reversible compared with the progressive irreversible disease seen in World Health Organization (WHO) group I disease. However, in these patients, the presence of PH significantly worsens morbidity and mortality. In addition, a small subset of patients with hypoxic PH develop “out-of-proportion” severe pulmonary hypertension characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that is irreversible and similar to that in WHO group I disease. In all cases of hypoxia-related vascular remodeling and PH, inflammation, particularly persistent inflammation, is thought to play a role. This review focuses on the effects of hypoxia on pulmonary vascular cells and the signaling pathways involved in the initiation and perpetuation of vascular inflammation, especially as they relate to vascular remodeling and transition to chronic irreversible PH. We hypothesize that the combination of hypoxia and local tissue factors/cytokines (“second hit”) antagonizes tissue homeostatic cellular interactions between mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and/or smooth muscle cells) and macrophages and arrests these cells in an epigenetically locked and permanently activated proremodeling and proinflammatory phenotype. This aberrant cellular cross-talk between mesenchymal cells and macrophages promotes transition to chronic nonresolving inflammation and vascular remodeling, perpetuating PH. A better understanding of these signaling pathways may lead to the development of specific therapeutic targets, as none are currently available for WHO group III disease. PMID:25416383

  8. Intravascular pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.A.O.; Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; McLoud, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The diagnosis of intravascular metastatic tumor emboli to the lungs is rarely made. The authors present a characteristic radiographic finding of intravascular lung metastases that they observed in four patients with diagnoses or right atrial myoxoma, invasive renal cell carcinoma, invasive pelvic osteosarcoma, and recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma. Substantiation of intravascular pulmonary metastases was achieved by means of autopsy, pulmonary artery biopsy, and surgical documentation of tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava or pelvic veins. In all four cases, chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated branching, beaded opacities extending from the hila into the periphery of the lung in the distribution of pulmonary arteries. In one case, similar findings were observed in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest. Follow-up studies in three cases showed progressive enlargement and varicosity of the abnormal pulmonary artery consistent with proliferation of intravascular tumor. In the case of metastatic osteosarcoma, intraluminal ossification was also observed at CT. In three of four cases, pulmonary infarction was demonstrated in the distribution of the abnormal pulmonary arteries seen at CT as small, peripheral, wedge-shaped opacities. The demonstration of progressively dilated and beaded pulmonary arteries in patients with extrathoracic malignancies is suggestive of intravascular lung metastases, particularly when accompanied by peripheral infarction

  9. Impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the long-term outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Filippi, Lucia; Palla, Antonio; Visonà, Adriana; Bova, Carlo; Marzolo, Marco; Porro, Fernando; Villalta, Sabina; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Bucherini, Eugenio; Nante, Giovanni; Battistelli, Sandra; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Beltramello, Giampietro; Prisco, Domenico; Casazza, Franco; Ageno, Walter; Palareti, Gualtiero; Quintavalla, Roberto; Monti, Simonetta; Mumoli, Nicola; Zanatta, Nello; Cappelli, Roberto; Cattaneo, Marco; Moretti, Valentino; Corà, Francesco; Bazzan, Mario; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Miniati, Massimo; Prandoni, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    The impact of residual pulmonary obstruction on the outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism is uncertain.We recruited 647 consecutive symptomatic patients with a first episode of pulmonary embolism, with or without concomitant deep venous thrombosis. They received conventional anticoagulation, were assessed for residual pulmonary obstruction through perfusion lung scanning after 6 months and then were followed up for up to 3 years. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were assessed according to widely accepted criteria.Residual pulmonary obstruction was detected in 324 patients (50.1%, 95% CI 46.2-54.0%). Patients with residual pulmonary obstruction were more likely to be older and to have an unprovoked episode. After a 3-year follow-up, recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension developed in 34 out of the 324 patients (10.5%) with residual pulmonary obstruction and in 15 out of the 323 patients (4.6%) without residual pulmonary obstruction, leading to an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.26 (95% CI 1.23-4.16).Residual pulmonary obstruction, as detected with perfusion lung scanning at 6 months after a first episode of pulmonary embolism, is an independent predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism and/or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension by perfusion lung scintigraphy: Gravitational effect of postural changes between the lateral decubitus positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masao; Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Okubo, Shinichi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1990-01-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension in patients with various heart diseases, we devised a new method using perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin. In this method, changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios of the right lung against the left lung between right and left lateral decubitus positions (rt/lt), were assessed in 62 patients and in 10 normal subjects. The rt/lt ratios were calculated as indices of the above changes. They correlated significantly with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (γ=-0.62, P<0.001), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (γ=-0.63, P<0.001) and pulmonary arteriolar resistance (γ=0.50, P<0.001) in all subjects. In 17 patients with valvular heart diseases, the ratio correlated significantly with mPAP (γ=-0.84, P<0.001). In 10 patients with various heart diseases, the U/S ratio, i.e. the index of changes in the count ratios of the upper field against the lower field for the right lung following postural change from the uprigth to the supine position, was also obtained as well as the rt/lt ratio. The latter evidenced a better correlation with mPAP (γ=-0.90, P<0.001) than the former (γ=-0.64, P<0.05). We conclude that this method is valuable as a noninvasive approach for the estimation of pulmonary hypertension. (orig.)

  11. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities : Results from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, HR; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, JP; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan,

  12. Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gminski, Richard; Marutzky, Rainer; Kevekordes, Sebastian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Bürger, Werner; Hauschke, Dieter; Ebner, Winfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-01

    Due to the reduction of air change rates in low-energy houses, the contribution to indoor air quality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from oriented strand boards (OSB) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory irritations, pulmonary effects and odor annoyance of emissions from OSB in healthy human volunteers compared to clean air. Twenty-four healthy non-smokers were exposed to clean air and OSB emissions for 2 h under controlled conditions in a 48 m(3) test chamber at three different time points: to fresh OSB panels and to the same panels after open storage for 2 and 8 weeks. Chemosensory irritation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, eye blink frequency, lung function and subjective perception of irritation of eyes, nose and throat were examined before, during and after exposure. Additionally, olfactory perception was investigated. Total VOC exposure concentrations reached 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/m(3) for the fresh OSB panels. Emissions consisted predominantly of α-pinene, Δ(3)-carene and hexanal. Two-hour exposure to high VOC concentrations revealed no irritating or pulmonary effects. All the subjective ratings of discomfort were at a low level and the medians did not exceed the expression 'hardly at all.' Only the ratings for smell of emissions increased significantly during exposure in comparison to clean air. In conclusion, exposure of healthy volunteers to OSB emissions did not elicit sensory irritations or pulmonary effects up to a VOC concentration of about 9 mg/m(3). Sensory intensity of OSB emissions in the chamber air was rated as 'neutral to pleasant.'

  13. Effectiveness of a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZ-505), exercise tolerance using the 6-min-walk test (6MWT), the Borg exercise exertion scale and ... determine whether a six week home-based Pulmonary. Rehabilitation ..... the study was consistent with the scenario relating to the historical ...

  14. The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on mortality, balance, and risk of fall in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamy, Ali; Bolton, Charlotte E; McKeever, Tricia M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of published studies that evaluate the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on survival and fall (including balance) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at stability. OVID, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane collaboration library were searched for literature dating from January 1980 up to November 2014 as well as an update in October 2015. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full text records, extracted data, and assessed studies for risk of bias; any disagreements were resolved by a third member of the team, and consensus was always sought. Initial searches yielded 3216 records but after review only seven studies were included and there were no studies focused solely on falls. Two cohort studies found some positive benefits of PR on balance, but the results were inconsistent across the studies. Regarding survival, two randomized controlled trials were conducted; one study showed significant survival benefit at 1 year, while the other one showed nonsignificant survival benefit at 3 years. Neither were adequately powered and in both, survival was a secondary outcome. There was only limited inconclusive evidence to show that PR has a significant beneficial effect on balance or survival.

  15. The Influence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Capacity - Results from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Beate; Schipf, Sabine; Schäper, Christoph; Felix, Stephan B; Steveling, Antje; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Friedrich, Nele; Ewert, Ralf; Ittermann, Till; Gläser, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus Type 1 (T1DM) is associated with metabolic and microvascular diseases as part of a multi-organ and multi-systemic disorder. The dense network of capillary vessels in the lungs may change during the course of the development of microangiopathy. The connective tissue as well as alveoli may be subjected to non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins which may in turn affect pulmonary function. Previous studies investigating lung function in patients with type 1 diabetes have only been performed on small numbers of patients. Our study is based on population data of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Objective: To investigate the influence of metabolic control on pulmonary system function and to establish a decreased pulmonary system function as a late complication of T1DM in a population based setting. Methods: The study is a case matched study with multiple controls based on participants with T1DM (SHIP-DM-1, n=73) and non-diabetics (SHIP-1, n=292) from the population based study of Pomerania. Data on lung function and exercise performance stratified by age, sex, body mass index and smoking habits in participants with T1DM and without diabetes were matched. Results: Participants with T1DM showed a significantly lower total lung capacity, residual volume and forced vital capacity. The transfer factor for carbon monoxide, the maximum power output and oxygen uptake during exercise were significantly decreased in comparison to the general population without diabetes. Conclusion: The pattern of abnormal pulmonary function as observed in the present study with a reduction in lung volume parameters and reduced oxygen uptake in participants with T1DM suggests a restrictive type of lung disease caused by an intrinsic lung tissue derangement as well as pulmonary microangiopathy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The acute effect of cigarette smoking on the high-sensitivity CRP and fibrinogen biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Wouter D; Akkermans, Reinier; Heijdra, Yvonne; Weel, Chris van; Schermer, Tjard R J; Scheepers, Paul T J; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-04-01

    The evidence on the acute effects of smoking on biomarkers is limited. Our aim was to study the acute effect of smoking on disease-related biomarkers. The acute effect of smoking on serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and plasma fibrinogen and its association with disease severity was studied by challenging 31 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with cigarette smoking and repeatedly measuring these biomarkers before and after smoking. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP increased directly after smoking by 9.4 mg/dl (95% CI: 4.2-14.5) and 0.13 mg/l (95% CI: 0.03-0.23), respectively. Fibrinogen levels remained elevated after 35 min, whereas hs-CRP normalized. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the hs-CRP change and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity was 0.25 (p = 0.06). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP increased directly after smoking in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Their association with disease risk and/or progression remains to be demonstrated.

  17. X-ray chest mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Contento, G.; Padovani, R.; Pitzalis, G.; Nigris, C.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980, the law which instituted the National Health Service (NHS) in Italy, attributing both the organization and the administration of all public health services to local government bodies referred to as 'Regioni', is being gradually enforced. One result is that the mass screening services are now set up on local basis, involving important practice and regulatory changes. These in particular concern chest X-ray mass screening centers, which were formerly organized as Provincial Antituberculosis Services, supervised by the Ministry of Health and dealing almost exclusively with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Today, chest X-ray mass screening is carried on the 'Centri Sociali di Pneumologia', which in some case inherited the staff and diagnostic facilities of Provincial Antituberculosis Services, but are directed by the Councillorship of Health of the 'Regioni' and, in most cases, deal with the diagnosis and care of general pulmonary diseases. Therefore, regulations and practices of mass screening are eventually different in most Italian 'Regioni', depending on different economic and social situations. In this connection, this paper reports up-to-date information and data on frequency, effectiveness, cost and radiation risks of chest X-ray screening in the 'Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia' (FVG), North-East Italy, population 1,300,000

  18. Predictors on delay of initial health-seeking in new pulmonary tuberculosis cases among migrants population in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxu Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the length of delay in initial health-seeking in new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases among migrant population in the eastern part of China, and factors associated with it. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire in six counties in Shanghai, Guangdong and Jiangsu from May to October, 2008, to estimate the extent and factors responsible for delayed initial health-seeking of the new PTB cases. The interval between self-reported onset of TB symptoms and date of first attendance at any medical institution was determined. More than the median duration was defined as delayed health-seeking. RESULTS: A total of 323 new migrant PTB patients participated in the study. Only 6.5% had medical insurance. The median and mean durations to initial health-seeking were respectively 10 and 31 days. There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors and delayed initial health-seeking. Average monthly working days >24 (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.03-2.51, and hemoptysis or bloody sputum (AOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.85 were significantly associated with delayed initial health-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to improve health seeking behavior among the migrant population in China must focus on strengthening their labor, medical security and health education.

  19. Pulmonary berylliosis. Experimental induction. Early detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Stephane

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the biological reactivity of industrial and environmental aerosols, notably beryllium powder aerosols. In order to study beryllium toxicity under its metal form, and the dose-effect relationship and the suspected carcinogen effect, a pulmonary berylliosis has been experimentally induced in rat and monkey. In order to develop means of rapid detection of exposure and sensitisation to beryllium, the author studied early pathological cellular mechanisms occurring during a pulmonary granulomatosis. Quantitative and qualitative modifications have been searched for, more particularly at the level of endo-alveolar cellular populations of macrophages and lymphocytes. The study has also been extended to the sensitisation of lymphocytes with respect to beryllium. After some generalities about beryllium (properties, sources, uses, exposure sources), and an overview of its toxicity (epidemiology, pathologies, experiments, biological mechanisms, detoxification), the author reports the introduction of a chronic pulmonary berylliosis into animals, discusses the various noticed pathologies and their analysis, and reports in situ and in vitro studies [fr

  20. Update on diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddini-Martinez, José; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; da Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Jezler, Sérgio; Lima, Mariana Silva; Rufino, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation. PMID:26578138

  1. Update on diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baddini-Martinez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation.

  2. Effects of vagus nerve stimulation and vagotomy on systemic and pulmonary inflammation in a two-hit model in rats.

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    Matthijs Kox

    Full Text Available Pulmonary inflammation contributes to ventilator-induced lung injury. Sepsis-induced pulmonary inflammation (first hit may be potentiated by mechanical ventilation (MV, second hit. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has been shown to attenuate inflammation in various animal models through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. We determined the effects of vagotomy (VGX and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS on systemic and pulmonary inflammation in a two-hit model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were i.v. administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS and subsequently underwent VGX, VNS or a sham operation. 1 hour following LPS, MV with low (8 mL/kg or moderate (15 mL/kg tidal volumes was initiated, or animals were left breathing spontaneously (SP. After 4 hours of MV or SP, rats were sacrificed. Cytokine and blood gas analysis was performed. MV with 15, but not 8 mL/kg, potentiated the LPS-induced pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokine response (TNF-α, IL-6, KC: p<0.05 compared to LPS-SP, but did not affect systemic inflammation or impair oxygenation. VGX enhanced the LPS-induced pulmonary, but not systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine response in spontaneously breathing, but not in MV animals (TNF-α, IL-6, KC: p<0.05 compared to SHAM, and resulted in decreased pO(2 (p<0.05 compared to sham-operated animals. VNS did not affect any of the studied parameters in both SP and MV animals. In conclusion, MV with moderate tidal volumes potentiates the pulmonary inflammatory response elicited by systemic LPS administration. No beneficial effects of vagus nerve stimulation performed following LPS administration were found. These results questions the clinical applicability of stimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in systemically inflamed patients admitted to the ICU where MV is initiated.

  3. The Effects of Iodine Attenuation on Pulmonary Nodule Volumetry using Novel Dual-Layer Computed Tomography Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, A M; Bangert, F; van Hamersvelt, R W; Leiner, T; Milles, Julien; Schilham, A M R; Willemink, M J; de Jong, P A

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effect of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using virtual non-contrast (VNC) and mono-energetic reconstructions. A consecutive series of patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced chest CT scan were included. Images were acquired on a novel dual-layer spectral CT system. Conventional reconstructions as well as VNC and mono-energetic images at different keV levels were used for nodule volumetry. Twenty-four patients with a total of 63 nodules were included. Conventional reconstructions showed a median (interquartile range) volume and diameter of 174 (87 - 253) mm 3 and 6.9 (5.4 - 9.9) mm, respectively. VNC reconstructions resulted in a significant volume reduction of 5.5% (2.6 - 11.2%; p<0.001). Mono-energetic reconstructions showed a correlation between nodule attenuation and nodule volume (Spearman correlation 0.77, (0.49 - 0.94)). Lowering the keV resulted in increased volumes while higher keV levels resulted in decreased pulmonary nodule volumes compared to conventional CT. Novel dual-layer spectral CT offers the possibility to reconstruct VNC and mono-energetic images. Those reconstructions show that higher pulmonary nodule attenuation results in larger nodule volumes. This may explain the reported underestimation in nodule volume on non-contrast enhanced compared to contrast-enhanced acquisitions. • Pulmonary nodule volumes were measured on virtual non-contrast and mono-energetic reconstructions • Mono-energetic reconstructions showed that higher attenuation results in larger volumes • This may explain the reported nodule volume underestimation on non-contrast enhanced CT • Mostly metastatic pulmonary nodules were evaluated, results might differ for benign nodules.

  4. Incident Pneumonia and Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Double Effect of Inhaled Corticosteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although their use improves quality of life and reduces exacerbations, it is associated with increased risk of pneumonia. Curiously, their use has not been associated with increased risk of pneumonia-related or overall mortality. We review pertinent literature to further explore the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on incident pneumonia and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The association of use of inhaled corticosteroids and incident pneumonia is substantial and has been present in the majority of the studies on the topic. This includes both randomized controlled trials and observational studies. However, all of the studies have substantial risk of bias. Most randomized trials are limited by lack of systematic ascertainment of pneumonia; they depended on adverse event reporting. Many observational studies included proper radiographic assessment of pneumonia, but they are limited by their retrospective, observational design. The unadjusted higher risk of pneumonia is associated with longer duration of use, more potent ICS compounds, and higher doses. That implies a dose–effect relationship. Unlike pneumonia, mortality is a precise outcome. Despite the robust association of inhaled corticosteroid use with increased risk of pneumonia, all studies find either no difference or a reduction in pulmonary-related and overall mortality associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids. These observations suggest a double effect of inhaled corticosteroids (i.e., an adverse effect plus an unexplained mitigating effect). PMID:25409118

  5. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  6. Effect of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil on the expression ET-1 and NO in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-Zhen; Li, Shu-Yan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Hong, Ze; Li, Jia-Xin

    2018-04-12

    This study aims to study the effect of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil on the expression endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group (HPH group) and HPH+fasudil group. The rat HPH model was established by intermittent hypoxia (IH) at atmospheric pressure. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI), ET-1 and NO levels, and pulmonary vascular structural changes were observed in all groups. MPAP, RVHI and ET-1 levels were significantly higher in HPH group than in control group, while NO was significantly lower than in control group. In addition, mPAP, RVHI and ET-1 were significantly lower in the HPH+fasudil group than in the HPH group. In the HPH group, ET-1 level was significantly and positively correlated with mPAP and RVHI, NO was negatively correlated with mPAP and RVHI levels, and ET-1 level was significantly and negatively correlated with NO level. In the HPH group, pulmonary arteriolar walls were generally thickened, and lumen stenosis was obvious; while after fasudil treatment, pulmonary arteriolar wall thickening and stenosis degree were significantly reduced. Fasudil can significantly reduce ET-l level and increase NO level in HPH rats, suppressing the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  7. A review of the availability and cost effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management interventions in rural Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michelle E; Spiliopoulos, Nicolaos; Collins, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease, which consumes a significant proportion of the Australian and New Zealand healthcare budget. Studies have shown that people living with COPD outside of urban areas have higher rates of hospitalisations. Two international reviews have demonstrated reduced hospital admissions and length of stay in people with COPD who participate in an integrated disease management program. However, most studies included in these reviews are in urban settings. The purpose of this review is to explore the type and cost-effectiveness of COPD management interventions located in rural or remote settings of Australia and New Zealand in order to inform planning and ongoing service development in the authors' local health district. Six databases and Google scholar were searched to find literature relating to the availability and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for the management of COPD in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand. Two studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. Both studies had small sample sizes, were single intervention studies and showed a positive influence on variables such as number of hospital admissions and length of stay at 12 months post-intervention. However, because of the limited number of studies and the lack of homogeneity of interventions, no conclusions regarding availability and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand could be drawn. Limited literature exists to inform planning and development of services for people with COPD living in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand. Approximately 50% of pulmonary rehabilitation programs are situated in rural and remote locations in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from existing programs need to be reported in a consistent and coordinated manner to allow evaluation of health resource utilisation.

  8. Clinical manifestations of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85% of reported tuberculosis cases were pulmonary ... Both pulmonary and nonpulmonary 32% ... 10% of patients with apparently localized tuberculosis ... mycetoma) in a cavity or erosion into an airway ... Dyspnoea is unusual unless there is extensive disease and ... via the airways into other parts of the lungs, causing a.

  9. Ginsenoside Rb1 Attenuates Agonist-Induced Contractile Response via Inhibition of Store-Operated Calcium Entry in Pulmonary Arteries of Normal and Pulmonary Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xing Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, enhanced vasoreactivity and vascular remodeling, which leads to right heart failure and death. Despite several treatments are available, many forms of PH are still incurable. Ginsenoside Rb1, a principle active ingredient of Panax ginseng, exhibits multiple pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system, and suppresses monocrotaline (MCT-induced right heart hypertrophy. However, its effect on the pulmonary vascular functions related to PH is unknown. Methods: We examined the vasorelaxing effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on endothelin-1 (ET-1 induced contraction of pulmonary arteries (PAs and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs from chronic hypoxia (CH and MCT-induced PH. Results: Ginsenoside Rb1 elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of ET-1-induced PA contraction. The vasorelaxing effect was unaffected by nifedipine, but abolished by the SOCE blocker Gd3+. Ginsenoside Rb1 suppressed cyclopiazonic acid (CPA-induced PA contraction, and CPA-activated cation entry and Ca2+ transient in PASMCs. ET-1 and CPA-induced contraction, and CPA-activated cation entry and Ca2+ transients were enhanced in PA and PASMCs of CH and MCT-treated rats; the enhanced responses were abolished by ginsenoside Rb1. Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates ET-1-induced contractile response via inhibition of SOCE, and it can effectively antagonize the enhanced pulmonary vasoreactivity in PH.

  10. Bufei Huoxue Capsule Attenuates PM2.5-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

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    Yue Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 may carry many toxic substances on its surface and this may pose a public health threat. Epidemiological research indicates that cumulative ambient PM2.5 is correlated to morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitigating the toxic effects of PM2.5 is therefore highly desired. Bufei Huoxue (BFHX capsules have been used in China to treat pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale. Thus, we assessed the effects of BFHX capsules on PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation and the underlying mechanisms of action. Using Polysearch and Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, pharmacological targets of BFHX capsules in atmospheric PM2.5-related respiratory disorders were predicted and found to be related to biological pathways of inflammation and immune function. In a mouse model of PM2.5-induced inflammation established with intranasal instillation of PM2.5 suspension, BFHX significantly reduced pathological response and inflammatory mediators including IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β. BFHX also reduced keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, and collagen fibers deposition in lung and improved lung function. Thus, BFHX reduced pathological responses induced by PM2.5, possibly via regulation of inflammatory mediators in mouse lungs.

  11. Beneficial Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) against Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghwani, Himanshu; Prabhakar, Pankaj; Mohammed, Soheb A; Dua, Pamila; Seth, Sandeep; Hote, Milind P; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Arava, Sudheer; Ray, Ruma; Maulik, Subir Kumar

    2018-04-17

    The study was designed to explore any beneficial effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) (OS) in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. OS is commonly known as “holy basil” and “Tulsi” and is used in the Indian System of Medicine as antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, adaptogenic, and cardioprotective. Monocrotaline (MCT) administration caused development of PH in rats after 28 days and rats were observed for 42 days. Treatments (sildenafil; 175 µg/kg, OS; 200 mg/kg) were started from day 29 after the development of PH and continued for 14 days. Parameters to assess the disease development and effectiveness of interventions were echocardiography, right and left ventricular systolic pressures, and right ventricular end diastolic pressure, percentage medial wall thickness (%MWT) of pulmonary artery, oxidative stress markers in lung tissue, NADPH oxidase (Nox-1) protein expression in lung, and mRNA expression of Bcl2 and Bax in right ventricular tissue. OS (200 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated increased lung weight to body weight ratio, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased RVSP, and RVoTD/AoD ratio. Moreover, OS treatment decreases Nox-1 expression and increases expression of Bcl2/Bax ratio caused by MCT. The present study demonstrates that OS has therapeutic ability against MCT-induced PH in rat which are attributed to its antioxidant effect. The effect of OS was comparable with sildenafil.

  12. Detection of pulmonary metastases with pathological correlation: effect of breathing on the accuracy of spiral CT. Editor's note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, F.V.; Cohen, M.D.; Waters, D.J.; Davis, M.M.; Karmazyn, B.; Gonin, R.; Hanna, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background. CT of the chest for suspected pulmonary metastases in adults is generally performed using a breath-hold technique. The results may not be applicable to young children in whom breath-holding may be impossible. Objective. Determine the effect of breathing on the accuracy of pulmonary metastasis detection by spiral CT (SCT). Materials and methods. Prior to euthanasia four anesthetized dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma underwent SCT with a collimation of 5 mm and a pitch of 2, during both induced breath-hold and normal quiet breathing. Images were reconstructed as contiguous 5-mm slices. Macroscopically evident metastases were noted at postmortem. Hard-copy SCT images were reviewed by ten radiologists, each of whom circled all suspected metastases. SCT images were compared with postmortem results to determine true and false positives. Results. The pathologist identified 132 macroscopically evident pulmonary metastases. For metastasis detection, there was no significant difference between breath-hold SCT and breathing SCT. Conclusion. In our animal model, SCT can be performed during normal resting breathing without significant loss of accuracy in the detection of pulmonary metastases. (orig.). With 3 tabs

  13. The diagnosis and treatment of two kinds of pulmonary embolism complications after interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hongying; Xiao Liang; Zhong Hongshan; Xu Ke; Zheng Yanbo; Lu Zaiming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the different types, clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary embolism after interventional therapy in order to promote the diagnosis and treatment for the severe complication. Methods: The cases of pulmonary embolism complications after interventional therapy were collected from three hospitals between 1998 and 2005. The patients were divided into two types of iodized oil and thrombus pulmonary embolism according to the different types of the embolus. The experience of the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment were summarized. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary embolism complication after interventional therapy were collected, including five with thrombus pulmonary embolism and four with iodized oil pulmonary embolism. All 5 cases of the thrombus pulmonary embolism suffered burst dyspnea and apsychia, two died and the others recovered or turned better. Aggravating dyspnea without shock occurred in the five iodized oil pulmonary embolism cases, 1 to 3 days after interventional therapy. The symptoms disappeared 15 to 50 days after combined therapy including majorly oxygen supply therapy. Conclusion: Pulmonary embolism is an emergent and severe complication after interventional therapy including acute thrombus pulmonary embolism without deep vein thrombosis which can be effectively treated be effectively treated with maintaining effective circulation and thrombolysis; and iodized oil pulmonary embolism with slow onsets could disappear within 1 month after combined therapy with mainly oxygen supplying therapy. The diagnosis and antidiastole mainly rely on enhancement of CT scan. (authors)

  14. Effects of particulate matter on the pulmonary and vascular system: time course in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Raimo O

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed within the scope of two multi-center European Commission-funded projects (HEPMEAP and PAMCHAR concerning source-composition-toxicity relationship for particulate matter (PM sampled in Europe. The present study aimed to optimize the design for PM in vivo toxicity screening studies in terms of dose and time between a single exposure and the determination of the biological responses in a rat model mimicking human disease resulting in susceptibility to ambient PM. Dust in thoracic PM size-range (aerodynamic diameter Results The neutrophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased tremendously after exposure to the highest RTD doses or EHC-93. Furthermore, PM exposure slightly affected blood coagulation since there was a small but significant increase in the plasma fibrinogen levels (factor 1.2. Pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress as well as changes in blood coagulation factors and circulating blood cell populations were observed within the range of 3 to 10 mg PM/kg of body weight without significant pulmonary injury. Conclusion The optimal dose for determining the toxicity ranking of ambient derived PM samples in spontaneously hypertensive rats is suggested to be between 3 and 10 mg PM/kg of body weight under the conditions used in the present study. At a lower dose only some inflammatory effects were detected, which will probably be too few to be able to discriminate between PM samples while a completely different response pattern was observed with the highest dose. In addition to the dose, a 24-hr interval from exposure to sacrifice seemed appropriate to assess the relative toxic potency of PM since the majority of the health effects were observed one day after PM exposure compared to the other times examined. The aforementioned considerations provide a good basis for conducting PM toxicity screening studies in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  15. Voluntary pulmonary function screening with GOLD standard: an effective and simple approach to detect lung obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyu; Gong, Wei; Tian, Yao; Yang, Min

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of lung obstruction is probably underestimated. Early detection and screening may alter the course and prognosis associated with lung disease. We investigated the effectiveness of voluntary lung function screening program and the agreement between the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and the lower limit of normal (LLN) standard for public screening in Xi'an China. Pulmonary function testing was conducted on volunteers recruited from eight community centers in Xi'an, China between July and August 2012. Participants underwent three forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuvers. The maneuver with the best FEV1 was retained. Participants filled out a medical history survey before undergoing pulmonary function testing. Patients that self-reported lung disease on the health survey were excluded from the analysis. A total of 803 volunteers participated in this study. And 722 participants (93.8%) did not self-report chronic lung disease and were analyzed. Of these participants, 143 subjects (19.8%) were diagnosed by GOLD standard and 134 subjects (18.6%) had obstruction with LLN definition. GOLD definition can identify more asymptomatic subjects (19.1%) with respect to LLN. GOLD definition can detect more lung obstruction in elder subjects compared with young people, the difference is significant (P=0.0007). The overall agreement between the 2 methods was good: the kappa estimate was 0.822. The agreement in subjects aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years was good: the kappa estimate was 0.82, 0.936 and 0.907 respectively and the agreement in subjects aged 18-29 was inferior: the kappa estimate was only 0.555. Voluntary lung function screening program with GOLD standard may be a simple and effective approach to ensuring high yield detection of lung obstruction in subjects aged 40-69.

  16. Effects on Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics of Two Different Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies in an Experimental Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Arnoldo; Gomez-Peñalver, Eva; Monge-Garcia, M Ignacio; Retamal, Jaime; Borges, João Batista; Tusman, Gerardo; Hedenstierna, Goran; Larsson, Anders; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of two lung-protective ventilation strategies on pulmonary vascular mechanics in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Experimental study. University animal research laboratory. Twelve pigs (30.8 ± 2.5 kg). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Thereafter, animals were randomized to 4 hours ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network protocol or to an open lung approach strategy. Pressure and flow sensors placed at the pulmonary artery trunk allowed continuous assessment of pulmonary artery resistance, effective elastance, compliance, and reflected pressure waves. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange data were collected. Acute respiratory distress syndrome led to pulmonary vascular mechanics deterioration. Four hours after randomization, pulmonary vascular mechanics was similar in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network and open lung approach: resistance (578 ± 252 vs 626 ± 153 dyn.s/cm; p = 0.714), effective elastance, (0.63 ± 0.22 vs 0.58 ± 0.17 mm Hg/mL; p = 0.710), compliance (1.19 ± 0.8 vs 1.50 ± 0.27 mL/mm Hg; p = 0.437), and reflection index (0.36 ± 0.04 vs 0.34 ± 0.09; p = 0.680). Open lung approach as compared to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network was associated with improved dynamic respiratory compliance (17.3 ± 2.6 vs 10.5 ± 1.3 mL/cm H2O; p mechanics similarly. The use of higher positive end-expiratory pressures in the open lung approach strategy did not worsen pulmonary vascular mechanics, improved lung mechanics, and gas exchange but at the expense of a lower cardiac index.

  17. Metformin use and health care utilization in patients with coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwakarma, Raju; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yu-Li; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Cardenas, Victor J; Sharma, Gulshan

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with persistent systemic inflammation. Anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to decrease acute exacerbations of COPD. The antidiabetic medication metformin decreases oxidative stress and inflammation and may benefit patients with COPD. We aimed at investigating the effect of metformin on health care utilizations in patients with coexisting COPD and diabetes mellitus (DM). We studied 5% Medicare beneficiaries with coexisting COPD and DM prescribed metformin or other antidiabetics during the period 2007-2010. The primary outcome was COPD-specific emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalizations; the secondary outcome was all-cause ER visits and hospitalizations over the 2-year follow-up after the index antidiabetic prescription. The effects of metformin were examined by COPD complexity and compared with the effects of other antidiabetic medications. Among 11,260 patients, 3,193 were metformin users and 8,067 were nonusers. Metformin users were younger, were less sick, were less likely to be on oxygen, and had fewer hospitalizations in the prior year compared with the nonusers. Over a 2-year period, metformin users had lower COPD-specific and all-cause ER visits and hospitalizations (7.11% vs 9.61%, p metformin on all-cause ER visits and hospitalizations. The use of metformin in patients with coexisting COPD and DM was associated with fewer COPD-specific ER visits and hospitalizations, especially in low-complexity COPD.

  18. The Transcriptional Signature of Active Tuberculosis Reflects Symptom Status in Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blankley

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Gene-expression microarray studies profiling the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis (TB patients have been undertaken in order to better understand the host immune response as well as to identify potential biomarkers of disease. To date most of these studies have focused on pulmonary TB patients with gene-expression profiles of extra-pulmonary TB patients yet to be compared to those of patients with pulmonary TB or sarcoidosis.A novel cohort of patients with extra-pulmonary TB and sarcoidosis was recruited and the transcriptional response of these patients compared to those with pulmonary TB using a variety of transcriptomic approaches including testing a previously defined 380 gene meta-signature of active TB.The 380 meta-signature broadly differentiated active TB from healthy controls in this new dataset consisting of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The top 15 genes from this meta-signature had a lower sensitivity for differentiating extra-pulmonary TB from healthy controls as compared to pulmonary TB. We found the blood transcriptional responses in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB to be heterogeneous and to reflect the extent of symptoms of disease.The transcriptional signature in extra-pulmonary TB demonstrated heterogeneity of gene expression reflective of symptom status, while the signature of pulmonary TB was distinct, based on a higher proportion of symptomatic individuals. These findings are of importance for the rational design and implementation of mRNA based TB diagnostics.

  19. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  20. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in a community-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme: A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Edwin K; Gorelik, Alexandra; Irving, Louis; Khan, Fary

    2017-03-06

    To investigate whether the use of cognitive behavioural therapy in pulmonary rehabilitation addresses the depression and anxiety burden and thereby improves rehabilitation outcomes. Prospective controlled clinical trial. A total of 70 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were referred to a community centre for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients were allocated to either the control group, consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation alone, or to the treatment group, receiving pulmonary rehabilitation and an additional 6 sessions of group-based cognitive behavioural therapy. Assessments consisting of questionnaires and walk tests were conducted pre- and post-pulmonary rehabilitation. A total of 28 patients were enrolled. The cognitive behavioural therapy group had significant improvements in exercise capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation (mean change 32.9 m, p = 0.043), which was maintained at 3 months post-pulmonary rehabilitation (mean change 23.4 m, p = 0.045). Patients in the cognitive behavioural therapy group showed significant short-term improvements in fatigue, stress and depression (mean change 2.4, p = 0.016, 3.9, p = 0.024 and 4.3, p = 0.047, respectively) and a 3-month post-pulmonary rehabilitation improvement in anxiety score (mean change 3.1, p = 0.01). No significant changes were seen in the control group. The addition of cognitive behavioural therapy improved patients' physical, psychological and quality of life results. Cognitive behavioural therapy should be considered for inclusion in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme to enhance outcomes.

  1. Interleukin-22 Inhibits Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minrui Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal fibrotic disease of the lungs with unclear etiology. Recent insight has suggested that early injury/inflammation of alveolar epithelial cells could lead to dysregulation of tissue repair driven by multiple cytokines. Although dysregulation of interleukin- (IL- 22 is involved in various pulmonary pathophysiological processes, the role of IL-22 in fibrotic lung diseases is still unclear and needs to be further addressed. Here we investigated the effect of IL-22 on alveolar epithelial cells in the bleomycin- (BLM- induced pulmonary fibrosis. BLM-treated mice showed significantly decreased level of IL-22 in the lung. IL-22 produced γδT cells were also decreased significantly both in the tissues of lungs and spleens. Administration of recombinant human IL-22 to alveolar epithelial cell line A549 cells ameliorated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and partially reversed the impaired cell viability induced by BLM. Furthermore, blockage of IL-22 deteriorated pulmonary fibrosis, with elevated EMT marker (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and overactivated Smad2. Our results indicate that IL-22 may play a protective role in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may suggest IL-22 as a novel immunotherapy tool in treating pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. The relationships of self-efficacy, physical activity, and paid work to health-related quality of life among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

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    Andenæs R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Randi Andenæs,1 Signe Berit Bentsen,2 Kari Hvinden,3,4 May Solveig Fagermoen,5,6 Anners Lerdal6,71Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Health Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway; 3LHL Helse AS, Glittreklinikken, Hakadal, Norway; 4Norwegian Advisory Unit for Learning and Mastery in Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 6Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Research, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, NorwayPurpose: Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD primarily affects the lungs, it is regarded as a systemic disorder associated with comorbidity and physical deterioration, which often results in reduced levels of health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Self-efficacy is an important concept in self-management, which is vital for improving HRQoL in patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to examine how general self-efficacy, leisure time physical activity, and sociodemographic variables such as employment status are related to the physical and mental health components of HRQoL in patients with COPD.Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 97 COPD patients (54.6% male, mean age 64.6 years, standard deviation [SD] 9.5 beginning a pulmonary rehabilitation program completed three self-report questionnaires: the short form (SF-12v2 Health Survey as a measure of HRQoL; the General Self-Efficacy Scale; and a standardized instrument measuring regular leisure time physical activity.Results: The physical health component median score was 31.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 16.3 and the mental health component median score was 45.9 (IQR 21.5. Two sets of linear regression analyses were performed, one

  3. Effect of lung resection on pleuro-pulmonary mechanics and fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salito, C; Bovio, D; Orsetti, G; Salati, M; Brunelli, A; Aliverti, A; Miserocchi, G

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the study was to determine in human patients the effect of lung resection on lung compliance and on pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Pre and post-operative values of compliance were measured in anesthetized patients undergoing resection for lung cancer (N=11) through double-lumen bronchial intubation. Lung compliance was measured for 10-12 cm H2O increase in alveolar pressure from 5 cm H2O PEEP in control and repeated after resection. No air leak was assessed and pleural fluid was collected during hospital stay. A significant negative correlation (r(2)=0.68) was found between compliance at 10 min and resected mass. Based on the pre-operative estimated lung weight, the decrease in compliance following lung resection exceeded by 10-15% that expected from resected mass. Significant negative relationships were found by relating pleural fluid drainage flow to the remaining lung mass and to post-operative lung compliance. Following lung re-expansion, data suggest a causative relationship between the decrease in compliance and the perturbation in pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Effect of Levosimendan and Milrinone in Cardiac Surgery Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension and Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhi; Kumar, Bhupesh; Dutta, Vikas; Arya, V K; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2016-06-01

    To compare the effects of levosimendan with milrinone in cardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction. A prospective, randomized study. Tertiary care teaching hospital. The study included patients with valvular heart disease and pulmonary artery hypertension undergoing valve surgery. Forty patients were allocated randomly to receive either milrinone, 50 µg/kg bolus followed by infusion at a rate of 0.5 µg/kg/min (group 1), or levosimendan, 10 µg/kg bolus followed by infusion at a rate of 0.1 µg/kg/min (group 2) for 24 hours after surgery. Hemodynamic parameters were measured using a pulmonary artery catheter, and biventricular functions were assessed using echocardiography. Mean pulmonary artery pressures and the pulmonary vascular resistance index were comparable between the 2 groups at several time points in the intensive care unit. Biventricular function was comparable between both groups. Postcardiopulmonary bypass right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions decreased in both groups compared with baseline, whereas 6 hours postbypass left ventricular ejection fraction improved in patients with stenotic valvular lesions. Levosimendan use was associated with higher heart rate, increased cardiac index, decreased systemic vascular resistance index, and increased requirement of norepinephrine infusion compared with milrinone. The results of this study demonstrated that levosimendan was not clinically better than milrinone. Levosimendan therapy resulted in a greater increase in heart rate, decrease in systemic vascular resistance, and a greater need for norepinephrine than in patients who received milrinone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of milrinone and epinephrine or dopamine on biventricular function and hemodynamics in right heart failure after pulmonary regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Agger, Peter; Sivén, Eleonora; Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Heiberg, Johan; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) secondary to pulmonary regurgitation (PR) impairs right ventricular (RV) function and interrupts the interventricular relationship. There are few recommendations for the medical management of severe RVF after prolonged PR. PR was induced in 16 Danish landrace pigs by plication of the pulmonary valve leaflets. Twenty-three pigs served as controls. At reexamination the effect of milrinone, epinephrine, and dopamine was evaluated using biventricular conductance and pulmonary catheters. Seventy-nine days after PR was induced, RV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) had increased by 33% (P = 0.006) and there was a severe decrease in the load-independent measurement of contractility (PRSW) (-58%; P = 0.003). Lower cardiac index (CI) (-28%; P Milrinone improved RV-PRSW and CI and maintained systemic pressure while reducing central venous pressure (CVP). Epinephrine and dopamine further improved biventricular PRSW and CI equally in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic and pulmonary pressures were higher in the dopamine-treated animals compared with epinephrine-treated animals. None of the treatments improved stroke volume index (SVI) despite increases in contractility. Strong correlation was detected between SVI and LV-EDVI, but not SVI and biventricular contractility. In RVF due to PR, milrinone significantly improved CI, SvO2, and CVP and increased contractility in the RV. Epinephrine and dopamine had equal inotropic effect, but a greater vasopressor effect was observed for dopamine. SV was unchanged due to inability of both treatments to increase LV-EDVI. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben

    2018-01-01

    . Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI...... inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous...... flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA.Results: Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed...

  7. Teaching the effects of gravity and intravascular and alveolar pressures on the distribution of pulmonary blood flow using a classic paper by West et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G

    2006-03-01

    "Distribution of blood flow in isolated lung; relation to vascular and alveolar pressures" by J. B. West, C. T. Dollery, and A. Naimark (J Appl Physiol 19: 713-724, 1964) is a classic paper, although it has not yet been included in the Essays on the American Physiological Society Classic Papers Project (http://www.the-aps.org/publications/classics/). This is the paper that originally described the "zones of the lung." The final figure in the paper, which synthesizes the results and discussion, is now seen in most textbooks of physiology or respiratory physiology. The paper is also a model of clear, concise writing. The paper and its final figure can be used to teach or review a number of physiological concepts. These include the effects of gravity on pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary vascular resistance; recruitment and distention of pulmonary vessels; the importance of the transmural pressure on the diameter of collapsible distensible vessels; the Starling resistor; the interplay of the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and alveolar pressures; and the vascular waterfall. In addition, the figure can be used to generate discovery learning and discussion of several physiological or pathophysiological effects on pulmonary vascular resistance and the distribution of pulmonary blood flow.

  8. Iloprost Instillation in Two Neonates with Pulmonary Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktas, S.; Aksu, M.; Hirfanoglu, I. M.; Atalay, Y.; Turkyilmaz, C.; Unal, S.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension may coexist with certain diseases in neonates. Iloprost inhalation is one of the treatments which cause selective pulmonary vasodilatation. Inhalation is not an easy way of drug administration in mechanically ventilated infants; as some exhibit desaturations during inhalation. Moreover, inhalation of drug requires cessation of mechanical ventilation, if patient is on high frequency oscillatory ventilation. We presented two patients with pulmonary hypertension; term baby with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and preterm baby with respiratory distress syndrome; who had iloprost instillation during mechanical ventilation treatment. Iloprost instillation was well tolerated with no side effects in the term patient with diaphragmatic hernia; whereas severe blood pressure fluctuations were observed in the preterm infant. This report may courage administration of iloprost in term neonates with resistant pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  9. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Fukuchi, Rie; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-20

    The pulmonary insulin delivery characteristics of liposomes were examined. Aerosolized liposomes containing insulin were administered into rat lungs and the enhancing effect on insulin delivery was evaluated by changes of plasma glucose levels. Liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhanced pulmonary insulin delivery in rats, however, liposomes with dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, distearoyl or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine did not. Liposomes with DPPC also enhanced the in vitro permeation of FITC dextran (Mw 4400, FD-4) through the calu-3 cell monolayer by reducing the transepithelial electrical resistance and did not harm lung tissues in rats. These findings suggest that liposomes with DPPC enhance pulmonary insulin delivery by opening the epithelial cell space in the pulmonary mucosa not mucosal cell damage. Liposomes with DPPC could be useful as a pulmonary delivery system for peptide and protein drugs.

  10. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

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