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Sample records for pulchra cogn melastomataceae

  1. Morfologia dos tricomas em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma (D. Don cogn. (melastomataceae

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    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastomataceae é a família que apresenta a maior diversidade de tricomas. Dr. Wurdack em seu "Atlas of hairs" reconheceu 46 tipos de tricomas para as Melastomataceae neotropicais com o uso de MEV, e referiu 17 destes para o gênero Tibouchina. Em Melastomataceae a morfologia dos tricomas tem sido extensivamente usada na delimitação dos táxons, assim como em estudos que antecederam ao trabalho de Cogniaux, a monografia das Melastomataceae brasileiras publicada em 1885. Em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma a morfologia dos tricomas foi substancial para a circunscrição de várias espécies. O uso da MEV permitiu uma caracterização dos 15 tipos diferentes de tricomas observados nas 41 espécies examinadas. Os diferentes tipos são descritos com base no aspecto morfológico tanto em MO como em MEV e ilustrados através de eletromicrografias de varredura e fotomicrografias.The Melastomataceae display greater trichome diversity. Dr. Wurdack, in his Atlas of hairs, recognized 46 types of trichomes for the Neotropical Melastomataceae through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and referred 17 of them to the genus Tibouchina. The trichome morphology has been extensively used in the delimitation of the taxa in Melastomataceae, as well as in previous studies by Cogniaux, the monograph of Brazilian Melastomataceae published in 1885. The morphology of the trichomes was essential for the delimitation of several species in Tibouchina section Pleroma. The use of SEM provided the best characterization of the 15 different types of trichomes recognized among the 41 species examined. These were described based on the morphological appearance, both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and illustrated by scanning electron micrographs and photomicrographs.

  2. Memecylon clarkeanum Cogn. (Melastomataceae - a Threatened Species, New Record for India

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    Ambikabai Raghavanpillai Sivu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon clarkeanum Cogn., an endemic and threatened species of Sri Lanka characterized by narrowly filiform foliar sclereids is reported and described as a new record for India from Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram and Palakkad districts of Kerala.

  3. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

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    Furlan, Claudia M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Regina M.; Bulbovas, Patricia [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sanz, Maria J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, Parque Tecnologico, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O{sub 3} and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O{sub 3} and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r{sup 2} = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution.

  4. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, Claudia M.; Moraes, Regina M.; Bulbovas, Patricia; Sanz, Maria J.; Domingos, Marisa; Salatino, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O 3 ) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h -1 , respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h -1 ), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O 3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h -1 ). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O 3 and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O 3 and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r 2 = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution

  5. Levantamento de Tibouchina Aubl. (Melastomataceae no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar – Núcleo Curucutu – São Paulo. Survey of Tibouchina Aubl. (Melastomataceae at the Serra do Mar State Park – Curucutu Nucleous – São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Cíntia Vieira da SILVA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamentodas espécies de Tibouchina Aubl. (Melastomataceaeocorrentes no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar,Núcleo Curucutu, Estado de São Paulo. Foramregistradas sete espécies de Tibouchina:Tibouchina cerastifolia (Naud. Cogn., Tibouchinaclinopodifolia (DC. Cogn., T. fothergillae (DC.Cogn., T. pulchra (Cham. Cogn., T. sellowiana(Cham. Cogn., T. trichopoda (DC. Baill. eT. virgata (Gard. Cogn. Para reconhecimento dasespécies são apresentadas chave analítica, descrições,ilustrações, observações fenológicas, distribuiçãogeográfica e comentários.This work is a survey of the species ofTibouchina Aubl. (Melastomataceae at the Serra doMar State Park, Curucutu Nucleus, situated inSão Paulo State. Seven species were recordedfor Tibouchina: T. cerastifolia (Naud. Cogn.,T. clinopodifolia (DC Cogn., T. fothergillae (DC.Cogn., T. pulchra (Cham. Cogn., T. sellowiana(Cham. Cogn., T. trichopoda (DC. Baill.and T. virgata (Gard. Cogn. Analytical key,descriptions, illustrations, phenological observations,geographic distribution and comments on thespecies are presented.

  6. La consulenza di parte nel caso Cogne

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    Elena Bianchini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interview with Prof. Pietro Pietrini is principally focused on his expert activity done in reference to the so-called “Cogne case”. First, Prof. Pietrini expressed his appreciation about the interviews carried out with his client, he finds it adequate from the point of view of both quality and quantity. He also appreciated the work done in cooperation with Prof. Balloni, the expert appointed by the Surveillance Court of Bologna. Then, he points out that meetings with AMF have certainly represented a real beginning of her psychotherapeutic path, which aim is to give back to Lady F. her role of being a wife, a mother and a woman outside of the walls of the prison. Finally, Prof. Pietrini hopes that this family, particularly the two sons, would no longer be in the focus of attention or at least that the interest on this case will not continue since the incident happened a long time ago.

  7. Pollinator guild organization and its consequences for reproduction in three synchronopatric species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae

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    Ana Maria Franco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator guild organization and its consequences for reproduction in three synchronopatric species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae. In co-flowering plant species, pollinator sharing can result in interspecific pollen transfer and fecundity reduction. Competition will be relaxed whenever there is a large amount of initial pollen supply or if each plant species occupies different habitat patches. Reproduction in Tibouchina cerastifolia (Naudin Cogn., T. clinopodifolia (DC. Cogn. and T. gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. was studied in an area of Atlantic rainforest to examine whether synchronopatry induces time partitioning among pollinator species. Eleven bee species comprised the pollinator guild. Among pollinators, there were overlaps in bee species composition and in flower visitation time. Direct competition for pollen in Tibouchina Aubl. at the study site seems to lead to different activity periods among the bee species, in which Bombus pauloensis Friese,1913 was most active earlier, while the other species were active later in the day. Bombus pauloensis, the largest bee species recorded on Tibouchina flowers, was the most important and efficient pollinator. This species harvested pollen before the other species and had the shortest handling time. The plants reproduced sexually by selfing or outcrossing, and hybridization was not avoided by incompatibility reactions at the style. The avoidance of direct competition for pollen and no pollinator partitioning among the synchronopatric species of Tibouchina may reflect a facilitative interaction among these pioneer plants.

  8. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

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    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  9. Pollinator guild organization and its consequences for reproduction in three synchronopatric species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae

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    Ana Maria Franco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator guild organization and its consequences for reproduction in three synchronopatric species of Tibouchina (Melastomataceae. In co-flowering plant species, pollinator sharing can result in interspecific pollen transfer and fecundity reduction. Competition will be relaxed whenever there is a large amount of initial pollen supply or if each plant species occupies different habitat patches. Reproduction in Tibouchina cerastifolia (Naudin Cogn., T. clinopodifolia (DC. Cogn. and T. gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. was studied in an area of Atlantic rainforest to examine whether synchronopatry induces time partitioning among pollinator species. Eleven bee species comprised the pollinator guild. Among pollinators, there were overlaps in bee species composition and in flower visitation time. Direct competition for pollen in Tibouchina Aubl. at the study site seems to lead to different activity periods among the bee species, in which Bombus pauloensis Friese,1913 was most active earlier, while the other species were active later in the day. Bombus pauloensis, the largest bee species recorded on Tibouchina flowers, was the most important and efficient pollinator. This species harvested pollen before the other species and had the shortest handling time. The plants reproduced sexually by selfing or outcrossing, and hybridization was not avoided by incompatibility reactions at the style. The avoidance of direct competition for pollen and no pollinator partitioning among the synchronopatric species of Tibouchina may reflect a facilitative interaction among these pioneer plants.Organização da guilda de polinizadores e sua consequência para reprodução em três espécies sincropátricas de Tibouchina (Melastomataceae. Em espécies de plantas que co-florescem, a partilha de polinizadores pode resultar em transferência interespecífica de pólen e redução da fecundidade. A competição pode ser relaxada quando existe uma grande quantidade de suprimento de p

  10. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

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    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  11. Una nueve especie del género Killipia (Melastomatacea

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    Ruiz Rodgers Natalia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Killipia (Melastomataceae from the "Serranía de los Paraguas" in the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia, is described and illustrated.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie del género Killipia (Melastomataceae, de la Serranía de los Paraguas en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia.

  12. Development of real-time PCR assay for genetic identification of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra.

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    Hwang, In Kwan; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Hyun-Su; Choi, Dong-Ho; Kang, Pil-Won; Lee, Yang-Han; Cho, Nam-Soo; Park, Ki-Won; Chae, Ho Zoon

    2015-10-01

    The mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra is one of the commercially important fishes in the market today. However, B. pulchra identification methods have not been well developed. The current study reports a novel real-time PCR method based on TaqMan technology developed for the genetic identification of B. pulchra. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) nucleotide sequences of 29 B. pulchra, 157 skates and rays reported in GenBank DNA database were comparatively analyzed and the COI sequences specific to B. pulchra was identified. Based on this information, a system of specific primers and Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe were designed. The assay successfully discriminated in 29 specimens of B. pulchra and 27 commercial samples with unknown species identity. For B. pulchra DNA, an average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 19.1±0.1 was obtained. Among 27 commercial samples, two samples showed average Ct values 19.1±0.0 and 26.7±0.1, respectively and were confirmed to be B. pulchra based on sequencing. The other samples tested showed undetectable or extremely weak signals for the target fragment, which was also consistent with the sequencing results. These results reveal that the method developed is a rapid and efficient tool to identify B. pulchra and might prevent fraud or mislabeling during the distribution of B. pulchra products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The mitochondrial genomes of the acoelomorph worms Paratomella rubra, Isodiametra pulchra and Archaphanostoma ylvae.

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    Robertson, Helen E; Lapraz, François; Egger, Bernhard; Telford, Maximilian J; Schiffer, Philipp H

    2017-05-12

    Acoels are small, ubiquitous - but understudied - marine worms with a very simple body plan. Their internal phylogeny is still not fully resolved, and the position of their proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha remains debated. Here we describe mitochondrial genome sequences from the acoels Paratomella rubra and Isodiametra pulchra, and the complete mitochondrial genome of the acoel Archaphanostoma ylvae. The P. rubra and A. ylvae sequences are typical for metazoans in size and gene content. The larger I. pulchra  mitochondrial genome contains both ribosomal genes, 21 tRNAs, but only 11 protein-coding genes. We find evidence suggesting a duplicated sequence in the I. pulchra mitochondrial genome. The P. rubra, I. pulchra and A. ylvae mitochondria have a unique genome organisation in comparison to other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. We found a large degree of protein-coding gene and tRNA overlap with little non-coding sequence in the compact P. rubra genome. Conversely, the A. ylvae and I. pulchra genomes have many long non-coding sequences between genes, likely driving genome size expansion in the latter. Phylogenetic trees inferred from mitochondrial genes retrieve Xenacoelomorpha as an early branching taxon in the deuterostomes. Sequence divergence analysis between P. rubra sampled in England and Spain indicates cryptic diversity.

  14. Chemical mediation of bacterial surface colonisation by secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra

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    Maximilien, Ria; de Nys, Rocky; Holmström, Carola

    1998-01-01

    -occurring algal species, all of which lack furanones. There was also a strong inverse correlation between bacterial abundance and furanone content (previously determined) for different sections of the thallus of D. pulchra, consistent with inhibition of bacteria by furanones. Based on these observations we....... pulchra the most. As inhibition of growth did not provide an adequate explanation for the inverse relationship between levels of furanones and bacteria abundance on D. pulchra, we proceeded to investigate the effects of these metabolites on other bacterial characteristics relevant to colonisation...... of different bacterial isolates or phenotypes by furanones, as well as affecting overall bacterial abundance on the alga, should have strong effects on the species composition of the bacterial community on the alga's surface. The effects of furanones on specific bacterial colonisation traits are discussed...

  15. Embryonic muscle development of Convoluta pulchra (Turbellaria-acoelomorpha, platyhelminthes).

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    Ladurner, P; Rieger, R

    2000-06-15

    We studied the embryonic development of body-wall musculature in the acoel turbellarian Convoluta pulchra by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin-bound stains for F-actin. During stage 1, which we define as development prior to 50% of the time between egg-laying and hatching, actin was visible only in zonulae adhaerentes of epidermal cells. Subsequent development of muscle occurred in two distinct phases: first, formation of an orthogonal grid of early muscles and, second, differentiation of other myoblasts upon this grid. The first elements of the primary orthogonal muscle grid appeared as short, isolated, circular muscle fibers (stage 2; 50% developmental time), which eventually elongated to completely encircle the embryo (stage 3; at 60% of total developmental time). The first primary longitudinal fibers appeared later, along with some new primary circular fibers, by 60-63% of total developmental time (stage 4). From 65 to 100% of total developmental time (stages 5 to 7), secondary fibers, using primary fibers as templates, arose; the number of circular and longitudinal muscles thus increased, and at the same time parenchymal muscles began appearing. Hatchlings (stage 8) possessed about 25 circular and 30 longitudinal muscles as well as strong parenchymal muscles. The remarkable feature of the body wall of many adult acoel flatworms is that longitudinal muscles bend medially and cross each other behind the level of the mouth. We found that this development starts shortly after the appearance of the ventral mouth opening within the body wall muscle grid. The adult organization of the body-wall musculature consists of a grid of several hundred longitudinal and circular fibers and a few diagonal muscles. Musculature of the reproductive organs developed after hatching. Thus, extensive myogenesis must occur also during postembryonic development. Comparison between the turbellarians and the annelids suggests that formation of a primary orthogonal muscle grid and

  16. Dissociation of Circadian and Circatidal Timekeeping in the Marine Crustacean Eurydice pulchra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Hastings, M. H.; Green, E. W.; Tauber, E.; Sládek, Martin; Webster, S. G.; Kyriacou, C. P.; Wilcockson, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 19 (2013), s. 1863-1873 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : tidal rhythms * circadian rhythms * circatidal oscillator * Eurydice pulchra * casein kinase 1 * clock genes, chromatophore Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.916, year: 2013

  17. Effect of hydro-methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera pulchra on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigofera pulchra (family: fabaceae) is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries from Sudan to the dry deciduous parts of Madagascar for variety of conditions and ailments related to stomach, intestinal, liver, circulatory and immune system ...

  18. BOMBACACEAE NEOTROPICAE NOVAE VEL MINUS COGNITAE VII. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE PACHIRA PULCHRA PLANCH. & LIND. EX TRIANA & PLANCH

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    FERNÁNDEZ-ALONSO JOSÉ LUIS

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aclara la identidad de Pachira pulchra, especie poco conocida descrita del nortede la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia y se complementa su descripción al darse aconocer sus frutos y semillas. Se incluye una clave para el grupo de especiesandinas del género Pachira, relacionadas con la que se comenta en este trabajo.

  19. How Delisea pulchra furanones affect quorum sensing and swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Manefield, M.; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2000-01-01

    Halogenated furanones produced by the benthic marine macroalga Delisea pulchra inhibit swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1. This study demonstrates that exogenously added furanones control transcription of the quorum sensing regulated gene swrA in competition with the cognate signal...

  20. Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. - uma Cucurbitaceae pouco conhecida na alimentação humana Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae[ign

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    Vera Lúcia Gomes Klein

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available São mencionados os diversos usos como alimento dos frutos de Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn., além de sua descrição morfológica e de seus nomes vulgares, objetivando um melhor conhecimento e ou divulgação dessa nova opção entre as fontes já bastantes conhecidas de alimentos.On mention here the food uses of the fruits of "Cyclanthera pedata (L. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. besides the its morphology description and common families having in view the knowing or else the divulgation of new options among the sourrées already wellknown.

  1. Fildesia Pulchra,, gen. et sp. nov.-Leaf fossil from lower Tertiary from Fildes peninsula, King George Island, Antartic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohn, R.; Roesler, O.; Czajkowski, S.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes Fildesia pulchra gen. et sp. nov., a compound leaf collected at Fossils Hill, Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica) in vulcanoclastics of probably early Tertiary age. (author) [pt

  2. A rapid real-time PCR method to differentiate between mottled skate (Beringraja pulchra) and other skate and ray species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ra; Kwon, Kisung; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2018-07-30

    Skates and rays are commercially important fish in South Korea, and among them, Beringraja pulchra has the highest economic value. However, the similar morphological traits among skates and rays are often exploited for seafood fraud. Here, we designed both Beringraja pulchra-specific and skate-universal primer sets, capable of detecting short sequences in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, and developed highly sensitive and reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to differentiate between Beringraja pulchra and other skate and ray species. AΔCq method based on differences in the amplification efficiency was developed, validated, and then used to confirm the presence of Beringraja pulchra in twenty-six commercial skate products. The averageΔCq value obtained for other skate species (18.94 ± 3.46) was significantly higher than that of Beringraja pulchra (1.18 ± 0.15). For on-site applications, we developed an ultra-fast qPCR assay, allowing for completion of the entire analytical procedure within 30 min. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new species of Centris (Centris (Fabricius from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. (C. pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Thiago Mahlmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, C. (C. byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species C. pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and C. byrsonimae sp. n.. Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of C. pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of C. pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of C. pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of C. byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group.

  4. Inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra on swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; de Nys, R.; Maximilien, R.

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal, uncoordinated swarming motility of the opportunistic human pathogen Proteus mirabilis was seen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium, This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation...

  5. Economia de pólen favorecida pela heteranteria em Desmocelis villosa (Melastomataceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Queroanne Isabel Xavier; Araújo,Francielle Paulina de

    2016-01-01

    Resumo A heteranteria sempre despertou interesse quanto à sua funcionalidade. As flores de Desmocelis villosa (Melastomataceae), possuem estames dimorfos, sendo um grupo composto por cinco anteras amarelas e o outro por cinco anteras de cor púrpura. O presente estudo avaliou se a heteranteria promove divisão de trabalho nessa espécie. Foi realizado um experimento com remoção de anteras de cada tipo para se comparar a taxa de visitação por abelhas. Ao vibrar o conjunto de estames, as abelhas c...

  6. Micorrizas arbusculares del tipo 'Arum' y 'Paris' y endófitos radicales septados oscuros en Miconia ioneura y Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae 'Arum' and 'Paris' arbuscular mycorrhizal types and dark septate root endophytes in Miconia ioneura and Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae

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    Carlos Urcelay

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la colonización de las raíces por simbiontes fúngicos en Miconia ioneura y Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae. Se observaron y describen estructuras micorrícicas arbusculares pertenecientes a los tipos 'Paris' (hifas y rulos intracelulares y 'Arum' (hifas intercelulares y arbúsculos. Además se observaron endófitos septados oscuros (hifas y esclerocios. Se registra por primera vez la ocurrencia de ambos tipos micorrícicos arbusculares y de endófitos septados oscuros en raíces de especies pertenecientes a la familia Melastomataceae. Se discuten las implicancias ecológicas y evolutivas de la ocurrencia simultánea de los distintos tipos de colonización micorrícica en raíces de la misma especie.The roots of Miconia ioneura and Tibouchina paratropica (Melastomataceae were studied for fungal symbionts colonization. Typical structures of 'Paris' (intracellular hyphae and coils and 'Arum' (intercellular hyphae and arbuscules arbuscular mycorrhizal types were observed and are described here. Dark septate fungi (hyphae and sclerotia were also observed. The occurrence of both types of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation and dark septate fungi in the roots of species belonging to Melastomataceae is reported for the first time. The possible ecological and evolutionary implications of the co-occurrence of these mycorrhizal colonisation types in the same species are discussed.

  7. Espécies novas do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Melastomataceae Tibouchina Lutzii Brade n.sp

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    A. C. Brade

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available A posição desta espécie é após Tibouchina floribunda Cogn. No hábito assemelha-se a Tibouchina Schwackei Cogn. mas distingue-se bem desta pelo revestimento diferente e a côr alva da página inferior da folha.

  8. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mottled skate: Raja pulchra (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a mottled skate, Raja pulchra was sequenced as being circular molecules of 16,907 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich control region. The organization of the PCGs is the same as those found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of 29.8% A, 28.0% C, 27.9% T, and 14.3% G with a bias toward A + T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of [Formula: see text] which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome will provide essential information for better phylogenetic resolution and precision of the family Rajidae and the genus Raja as well as for establishment of a fish stock recovery plan of the species.

  10. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  11. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species. PMID:22837688

  12. Rapid development of microsatellite markers with 454 pyrosequencing in a vulnerable fish, the mottled skate, Raja pulchra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1-10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni's correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  13. Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manefield, M.; Welch, M.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2001-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora regulates expression of virulence factors and antibiotic production via an N-3- oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) dependent quorum sensing mechanism. The marine alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones known to antagonise 3-oxo-C6-HSL...

  14. Reprodución de tres especies de Clidemia (Melastomataceae en Brasil

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    Gladys Flávia Melo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el sistema reproductivo de Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don, C. bullosa DC. y C. hirta (L. D. Don. Las tres especies se distribuyen en las márgenes de la selva de Dois Irmos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil donde forman pequeñas poblaciones y se pueden calificar como especies simpátricas. El periodo de floración se extiende todo el año. Hay visitas esporádicas de abejas Halictidae (Augochloropsis sp. que recogen polen por vibración ("buzz pollination". Las tres especies son agamospérmicas y muestran un elevado índice de esterilidad masculina, medida por la escasa viabilidad polínica.We compared the reproductive systems in populations of Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don, C. bullosa DC. and C. hirta (L. D. Don. (Melastomataceae. The three species occur in small populations in forest margins at Mata de Dois Irmos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil and are sympatric. They flower throughout the year, and are occasionaly visited by Halictidae bees, Augochloropsis sp.; the bees collect pollen by vibration ("buzz pollination". The three species are agamospermous and exhibit a high level of male sterility, as measured by their low pollen viability.

  15. Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae, a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.

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    Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia

    Full Text Available Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934 are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae. Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided.

  16. Population Assessment and Degree of Threat of Chalybea Macrocarpa (Melastomataceae Endemic Specie from Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andres Gil

    2014-05-01

    Evaluación poblacional y grado de amenaza de Chalybea macrocarpa (Melastomataceae especie endémica de Colombia Se presentan los resultados de la evaluación poblacional de Chalybea macrocarpa, considerada En Peligro (EN por su área de distribución restringida, presión generada por cultivos y ganadería extensiva. El estudio se realizó en el departamento de Boyacá, en el municipio de Arcabuco, en tres localidades establecidas con información de herbario y bibliografía; con trabajo de campo se identificó la distribución, densidad y fenología como subcriterios para delimitar el área de extensión de presencia y de ocupación de la misma. Se tomaron datos estructurales (altura, cobertura y DAP para determinar las clases de edades de la población. Con la información recopilada y de vegetación asociada, se re-categorizó la especie bajo el criterio B de la UICN. Se distribuye hacia el noroccidente y sur de Arcabuco, en un área de extensión de 59.9 km2, de ocupación 4 km2, y una densidad poblacional de 73 individuos/km2. La floración y fructificación es continua en el año, sin embargo, la mayor floración es de marzo a agosto y la fructificación de septiembre a febrero. La estructura por edades, permitió identificar diez clases entre plántulas, juveniles y adultos. La población está representada por pocos individuos de plántulas (10.6 % y juveniles (20.9 %, comparado con adultos (68.5 %. Finalmente, dadas las condiciones actuales de la población de C. macrocarpa se propone la recategorización del riesgo de extinción En Peligro Crítico (CR B1ab (iii.

  17. Cloning and characterization of WRKY gene homologs in Chieh-qua (Benincasa hispida Cogn. var. Chieh-qua How) and their expression in response to fusaric acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yizhou; Jiang, Biao; Peng, Qingwu; Liu, Wenrui; Lin, Yue; Xie, Dasen; He, Xiaoming; Li, Shaoshan

    2017-05-01

    The WRKY transcription factors play an important role in plant resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we cloned 10 WRKY gene homologs (CqWRKY) in Chieh-qua (Benincasa hispida Cogn. var. Chieh-qua) using the rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) or homology-based cloning methods. We characterized the structure of these CqWRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences with cucumber homologs suggested possible structural conservation of these genes among cucurbit crops. We examined the expression levels of these genes in response to fusaric acid (FA) treatment between resistant and susceptible Chieh-qua lines with quantitative real-time PCR. All genes could be upregulated upon FA treatment, but four CqWRKY genes exhibited differential expression between resistant and susceptible lines before and after FA application. CqWRKY31 seemed to be a positive regulator while CqWRKY1, CqWRKY23 and CqWRKY53 were negative regulators of fusaric resistance. This is the first report of characterization of WRKY family genes in Chieh-qua. The results may also be useful in breeding Chieh-qua for Fusarium wilt resistance.

  18. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  19. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Tibouchina hatschbachii (Melastomataceae, an endemic and habitat-restricted shrub from Brazil

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    Fabiano Rodrigo Maia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tibouchina hatschbachii Wurdack (Melastomataceae is an autogamous shrub restricted to granite (GO and sandstone (SO rock outcrops from subtropical Brazil. We designed primers for the amplification of microsatellite regions for T. hatschbachii, and characterized these primers to estimate genetic diversity parameters and contemporary genetic structure patterns. Eight loci were successfully amplified and were characterized using 70 individuals from three natural populations. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.200 to 0.772 per locus. All loci were polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from two to eight. The low degree of polymorphism may be explained by the fact that T. hatschbachii has disjunct populations and a recent genetic bottleneck, and also that it is self-pollinated. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.115 to 1.000 and from 0.112 to 0.800, respectively. We observed private alleles in all loci. These are important features that enable us to identify population differentiation and help to us understand gene flow patterns for T. hatschbachii in subtropical Brazil. Eight microsatellite loci from other species of Tibouchina amplified positively in T. hatschbachii.

  20. Revision of Pachycentria (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausing, Gudrun

    2000-01-01

    A revision of Pachycentria Blume, which includes the monotypic Pogonanthera Blume, is presented. Pachycentria comprises eight species and one subspecies. Two species, P. vogelkopensis and P. hanseniana, are newly described. The genus is distinguished from other genera in the Medinillinae by a small

  1. Espécies de Melastomataceae Juss. com potencial para restauração ecológica de mata ripária no cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiamar Albuquerque

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melastomataceae Juss. é a sexta família em importância no bioma Cerrado, sendo comuns em vegetação secundária. As espé-cies desta família apresentam estratégias de vida e adaptações como grande produção de sementes, dispersão efi ciente de propágulos, altas taxas de germinação e crescimento rápido que podem propiciar a ativação dos processos ecológicos envolvidos na rege-neração natural de habitats perturbados. O objetivo foi caracterizar as espécies de Melastomataceae em vegetação secundária e avaliar seu potencial para uso na restauração ecológica de áreas degradadas de matas ripárias. Este estudo foi realizado na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados, à margem direita do córrego Sarandi, Distrito Federal, Brasil, em uma área de um hectare, onde foram instadas parcelas e transectos para avaliação dos parâmetros: caracterís-ticas botânicas, ecológicas e reprodutivas, síndromes de polinização e de dispersão de sementes, reprodução vegetativa, riqueza de espécies, abundância, cobertura, fenofases de floração e frutificação. A partir da análise destes parâmetros definiuse os critérios para avaliar o potencial de uso das espécies na restauração ecológica. Entre as 14 espécies da família de Melastomataceae registradas,Miconia chamissoisNaud. (35.42% e 42.53%,Ossaea congestiflora(Naud. Cong. (23.6% e 13.29%,Macairea radulaDC (19.66% e 17.22% eTococa formicariaMart. (6.78% e 3.87% apresentaram maior abundância e cobertura, respectivamente. As espécies estudadas apresentaram, em sua maioria, grande oferta de recursos ali-mentares ao longo do ano, que, associadas a outras características permitiram identifi car o potencial de restaurabilidade de cada espécie avaliada. O potencial para uso na res-tauração ecológica foi alto para as espécies:Miconia chamissois,Miconia ibaguensis,Miconia albicans,Miconia theaezanse Tococa formicaria. Estas espécies podem atuar como nucleadoras

  2. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

    2011-05-01

    Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  3. A Monograph of Conostegia (Melastomataceae, Miconieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogenetic analysis identified a clade containing all species of Conostegia, but that also included species of Clidemia and Miconia nested inside. A taxonomic revision of a more broadly circumscribed Conostegia is presented here. In total, 77 species of Conostegia are recognized. One species from Ecuador, Conostegia ortizae is described as new. Twenty-nine new combinations are proposed for the species of Clidemia and Miconia that fall inside Conostegia. Two new names are proposed for the two species for which the epithet was previously occupied in Conostegia. An infrageneric classification of Conostegia is proposed recognizing three sections based on the results of the molecular phylogeny. This taxonomic revision includes ample documentation of the anatomy and morphology of most species in the genus, taxonomic descriptions, a dichotomous key, and distribution maps for all species.

  4. Seed germination in Miconia theaezans (Bonpl. Cogniaux (Melastomataceae

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    Simone Godoi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light and temperature were studied on the seeds of Miconia theazeans by isothermic and alternating temperature incubations. The optimum temperature for seed germination was determined by final percentage and germination rates as located in the range of 27.5 to 30 °C and by germination kinetics at the range of 19.5 to 30 °C. The germination was dependent on diffusion processes. The minimum and maximum temperatures were 12.5-15°C and 32.5-35°C, respectively. The seeds showed strong light dependence for germination with the necessity of daily 4-6 h white light irradiation for the maximum induction of germination. However, under 30-20 °C alternating temperatures, daily 2 hours white light was enough to induce germination and attained maximum under 4 h photoperiod. The results indicated that M. theazeans presented characteristics of early successional species.O efeito da luz e da temperatura na germinação de sementes de Miconia theazeans foi analisado através de incubações isotérmicas e de alternâncias de temperaturas. Através das porcentagens finais e velocidade de germinação concluímos que a temperatura ótima de germinação localizaram-se entre 27,5 e 30 °C e pela cinética de germinação verificamos que entre 19,5 e 30 °C a germinação é dependente de processos de difusão. As temperaturas mínima e máxima foram de 12,5-15 °C e 32,5-35 °C, respectivamente. As sementes apresentaram forte dependência da presença de luz branca para a indução da germinação com a necessidade de 4-6 horas de luz diária para a máxima indução do processo. Entretanto, com a alternância de temperaturas de 30 e 20 °C, fotoperíodo de 2 horas foi suficiente para a indução da germinação sendo o máximo de indução obtida a partir de 4 horas diárias. Estes resultados indicam que Miconia theazeans é uma espécie importante que coloniza clareiras e áreas perturbadas em uma floresta natural.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of Luffa operculata Cogn. and its main active principle in the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo; Costa, Henrique Olival; Souza, Flávia Coelho de; Lopes, Elaine Monteiro Cardoso; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-26

    The prevalence of rhinosinusitis is quite high. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis, there are other forms of treatment, including phytotherapy. One of the most widely used herbal medicines for treatment of rhinosinusitis is Luffa operculata. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata, determining the toxicity to its use and identifying the active principles presented in the aqueous extract. The secondary objective was to evaluate the action of active principles on bacteria commonly involved in acute rhino sinusitis. The study was conducted in experimental model of sinusitis. Three different concentrations of L. operculata were used as local treatment of rhino sinusitis. The results were compared with those observed in control groups that received nasal saline solution. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, spleen, myocardium, brain and lungs of all animals evaluated the toxicity of L. operculata. The aqueous extract used was subjected to chromatographic analysis and an active principle was isolated and tested for in vitro inhibition of bacterial colonies usually found in rhino sinusitis. Intranasal treatment of sinusitis with L. operculata showed better clinical evolution than control group. Statistically significant difference (p>0.10) between the treated group and the control group was observed in the histologic evaluation for inflammatory pattern. The aqueous extract of L. operculata used presented a predominance of 2,3-dicafeoilglicaric acid, a substance not yet described in the literature. There was a significant difference in bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes on blood-agar plates when under the influence of both the aqueous extract and the active substance. Topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata is effective compared to the application of saline solution for the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis in an experimental model. L. operculata determined in vitro inhibition of growth of S. pyogenes. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Prokaryotic community composition in alkaline-fermented skate (Raja pulchra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gwang Il; Kim, Gahee; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Byung Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Prokaryotes were extracted from skates and fermented skates purchased from fish markets and a local manufacturer in South Korea. The prokaryotic community composition of skates and fermented skates was investigated using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. The ranges for pH and salinity of the grinded tissue extract from fermented skates were 8.4-8.9 and 1.6-6.6%, respectively. Urea and ammonia concentrations were markedly low and high, respectively, in fermented skates compared to skates. Species richness was increased in fermented skates compared to skates. Dominant and predominant bacterial groups present in the fermented skates belonged to the phylum Firmicutes, whereas those in skates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria. The major taxa found in Firmicutes were Atopostipes (Carnobacteriaceae, Lactobacillales) and/or Tissierella (Tissierellaceae, Tissierellales). A combination of RT-PCR and pyrosequencing for active bacterial composition showed that the dominant taxa i.e., Atopostipes and Tissierella, were active in fermented skate. Those dominant taxa are possibly marine lactic acid bacteria. Marine bacteria of the taxa Lactobacillales and/or Clostridia seem to be important in alkaline fermentation of skates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Population assessment and degree of threat of chalybea Macrocarpa (Melastomataceae) endemic species from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Leguizamon, Pablo Andres; Morales Puentes, Maria Eugenia; Diaz Perez, Carlos Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Population assessment results from chalybea macrocarpaare shown, the specie is considerate ENDANGERED (EN) by its restricted area, threatened is generated by crops and extensive cattle farming. the study was conducted in the Boyaca Department (Colombia), Municipality of Arcabuco, in three established localities using herbarium and literature information; field work made possible identified distribution, density and phenology like sub criteria, allowing identify the presence extension and occupancy area. We took structural data (height, coverage and DBH) to determinate the population age's classes. Which the gathered information and the associated vegetation, the specie is re-categorized which the b IUCN criteria. It is distributed to the northwest and southern in Arcabuco, in an area of 59.9 km"2, 4 km"2 of occupancy and a population density of 50 individual/km"2. Flowering and fruiting is continuous through the year, however, most of the flowering is from March to August and fruiting from September to February. Age structure allows identified ten species between seedlings, juveniles and adults. Population is represented by few seedling individuals (10.6 %) and juveniles (20.9 %) versus adults (68.5 %). finally, C. macrocarpais upgraded to Critical Risk (CR B1ab (iii)).

  8. A new species of Medinilla (Melastomataceae) from Sumatra and notes on allied species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayar, M.P.

    1970-01-01

    Frutex. Ramis junioribus subangulatis, puberubs, vetustioribus teretibus glabratis. Folia opposita, elliptico-lanceolata, 6—10 cm longa, 1.5—2.8 cm lata, basi cuneata, apice longe acuminato-attenuata, margine integra, supra glabra, subtus minute puberula, 3-nervia, venulis transversis indistinctis,

  9. Ecological factors affecting the fruiting success of a Tibouchina trichopoda (DC. Baill. (Melastomataceae flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of resources for pollinators modulate the reproduction of plants. This study attempted to determine whether and how the fruiting success of Tibouchina trichopoda flowers varies due to plant size, number of flowers produced, distance between individuals and cardinal orientation of the flowers. From July 2009 to February 2010, we conducted monthly evaluations of 21 plants in an area of regenerating forest within the Atlantic Forest biome, located near the municipality of Antonina, in southern Brazil. Floral density was monitored weekly. During the study period, the species bloomed twice: once during the cool, dry season, showing an extended flowering period with scattered flowering individuals; and once during the hot, rainy season, showing a brief flowering period with a high density of flowering individuals. Plant size was not found to influence fruiting success. There was greater production of flowers and fruits during the brief flowering period. The extent of the floral display positively affected the fruiting success of the flowers, the effect being greater when the density of flowers was low and tending to stabilize at higher densities. The northern-facing portions of tree crowns produced more flowers and therefore had greater fruiting success than did the southern-facing portions. However, the proportion of fruits produced per flower was the same.

  10. Fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) from Brazil, with reference to classical biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Claudine D S; Barreto, Robert W; Killgore, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    A survey of fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens was carried out in Brazil aimed at finding potential classical biocontrol agents for management of this invasive alien weed in Hawaii. Coccodiella miconiae, Glomerella cingulata (= Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae) and the new species Guignardia miconiae and Korunomyces prostratus were found associated with foliar diseases and are described herein. Two previously undescribed spore stages of Coccodiella miconiae also were obtained allowing a complete description of this species. Pseudocercospora tamonae associated with leaf spots of other species of Miconia also was collected and also was proven to be pathogenic to M. calvescens.

  11. Anther specializations related to the division of labor in Microlicia cordata (Spreng. Cham. (Melastomataceae

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    Mariana de Souza Carvalho Velloso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In heterantherous flowers, some anthers have an attraction and feeding function, while others are related to plant reproduction. Microlicia cordata has dimorphic stamens organized in two cycles: the antesepalous one with large stamens and pink anthers, and the antepetalous one with small stamens and yellow anthers. Division of labor was analyzed using the parameters of structure, composition, amount and estimated viability of pollen, and the color of floral parts. The anthers of the pollinating stamens were larger than the anthers of the feeding stamens, although anatomically similar. There was a difference in the amount of pollen produced by the anthers of the two cycles, but no difference was found in pollen viability. Considering a bee color vision model, the color of the anthers of the pollinating stamens contrasted less with that of the corolla, and thus is probably less attractive to visitors. Conversely, the anthers of the feeding stamens and the ventral appendage of the connective of the pollinating stamens contrasted more with the corolla, presenting the same color to the pollinators. These results are in accordance with the idea of division of labor among anthers of heterantherous flowers, especially regarding the quantity of pollen and the color of the floral parts.

  12. Foliar growth of Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil

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    PM. Andrade

    Full Text Available Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered herbaceous, perennial, iteroparous, evergreen species geographically restricted to southeastern-center Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. The individuals occur as patches on rocky riverbanks shaded by seasonal semideciduous Atlantic forest; they are fixed by roots and have a pending stem. Aiming to investigate leaf development and its importance for individual survival, fifteen contiguous plots (1 x 1 m were set down in Jambreiro Forest (19° 58’-59’ S and 43° 52’-55’ W, 800-1100 m altitude, in the municipality of Nova Lima. A total of 260 individuals with the largest leaf blade length > 1 cm was tagged and measured in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Leaf expansion was recorded each month during 26 months until April 2000. Plant size was measured through leaf blade length, petiole length, stem length, and number of leaves. Significant changes were detected only after two years, thus indicating that plant growth is slow. The proportion of surviving leaves after two years was 60%. Total blade expansion took over 14 months, a slow growth rate when compared to leaves of other tropical forest canopy and understory species. Long leaf lifespans are to be found in plants exhibiting slow growth, and we observed that some leaves lived longer than three years. Petiole growth can help to better position the leaf in the search for light, thus contributing to the growth and survival of the plant. The relationships among size measures were significant, reinforcing the great contribution of leaf size for plant size. The age of the largest individual was estimated as 36 years based on the median annual leaf production rate.

  13. NOTES ON THE FLORAL MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF TESSMANNIANTHUS CARINATUS (MELASTOMATACEAE

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    RICARDO KRIEBEL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second collection of Tessmannianthus carinatus Almeda, a species previously known only from the type. Two flowering trees were encountered at the type locality of Cerro Jefe, Panama . Species in this genus are very rare and the colors and posture of fresh floral parts have seldom been observed and described. The first known images of flowers at anthesis are here provided. In addition, observations on the posture and color of the stamens were made, including dissections of a flower preserved in spirit, and scanning electron micrographs of the unusual anther apices. Lastly, anatomical sections were conducted of these flowers which revealed the presence of styloids in the hypanthium, anthers and styles. These crystals had only been reported from the wood of one species in the genus and their presence suggests a relationship to the tribes Astronieae and Henrietteeae.

  14. Two thrush species as dispersers of Miconia prasina (Sw. DC. (Melastomataceae: an experimental approach

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    MAS. Alves

    Full Text Available We carried out a seed germination experiment using two thrush species in captivity. We compared the number of germinated seeds and germination time of control seeds (manually removed from fruits and ingested seeds of Miconia prasina by two bird species, Turdus albicollis and T. amaurochalinus, and also compared retention times of seeds by both thrush species. Control seeds germinated more frequently than those ingested for one species, T. albicollis. The germination time of ingested seeds by T. amaurochalinus was similar to the control seeds but seeds ingested by T. albicollis took longer to germinate than the controls. Both thrush species had a similar seed defecation pattern. The cumulative number of defecated seeds increased by 2 hours after fruit ingestion. At the end of the first 30 minutes both species had already defecated approximately 50% of the seeds ingested Our results suggest that both species could act as disperser agents of M. prasina.

  15. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-09-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water temperature (12.8 to 24.2°C), and the best hatching temperature was 18°C. The number of fish hatched was 4 to 5 fish/egg capsules, and the hatching rate was 100%. The sex ratios of hatching larvae were 45.5% female and 54.5% male. Therefore this study will provide fundamental data and information for artificial reproduction of the mottled skate.

  16. Germinação e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. (Melastomataceae Germination and post-seminal development of Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. (Melastomataceae

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    Antonio Carlos Silva de Andrade

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes temperaturas (20,25, 30, 35 e 30-20ºC sob condição de luz (fotoperíodo de oito horas e escuro sobre a germinação de sementes de Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. Posteriormente, estudou-se a morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal, visando o conhecimento das estruturas essenciais da plântula. Os resultados demonstraram que a temperatura ótima para a germinação de sementes foi de 30ºC; as temperaturas de 20 e 35ºC causaram o decréscimo da porcentagem e da velocidade de germinação. As sementes são tipicamente fotoblásticas positivas, necessitando de vários dias de exposição a luz para alcançar a máxima germinação. O estudo do desenvolvimento pós-seminal permitiu classificar a plântula como faneroepígea, típica de espécies colonizadoras de grandes clareiras.The germination responses of Tibouchina moricandiana (DC Baill. were tested under different temperature (20, 25, 30, 35 and 30-20ºC and light regime (8 hours photoperiod or darkness. A morphological study of the post-seminal development was carried out to establish descriptions of normal and abnormal seedlings. The optimun temperature for seed germination was 30ºC; 20 and 35ºC caused a decrease of percentage and speed of germination; they did not germinate in the dark and required consecutive days of light exposure to achieve maximun percentage. The seedlings to the phaneroepigeal type, which is characteristic from pionner species of large gaps.

  17. Description of the immature stages and life history of Euselasia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) on Miconia (Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Nishida

    2010-01-01

    The immature stages and life histories of Euselasia chrysippe (Bates, 1866) and E. bettina (Hewitson, 1869) are described, providing the first detailed morphological characters for the subfamily Euselasiinae. The larvae of Euselasia chrysippe and E. bettina ...

  18. Interaction Frugivores and Miconia Floribunda (Bonpl Dc. (Melastomataceae in the Yariguíes Serranía Pnn (Santander

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    Alejandro Cabrejo Bello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the species of birds that feed on the fruits of Miconia floribunda (Bonpl DC. and describe their foraging behavior, which influence on seed dispersal processes of the species in an area of the National Park of YariguíesSerranía (Santander, Colombia. The area is home to forests in good condition to serve as transition between the Magdalena River valley and the highlands of eastern Colombian Andes. Seed dispersal is a fundamental process that models the structure of the vegetation cover, promotes the establishment and perpetuation of the same, to abundant bird life and is a constant source of food. The observations showed a sampling intensity of 19 hours per researcher, accumulating a total of 57 hours of observation. 176 events were recorded frugivory, recording 13 species of birds belonging to four families, predominantly Thraupidae family with 10 species belonging to five genera, which constituted 89% of the frequency of visits for this study. There were two types of manipulation of the fruit: engulfed and mash. For two species of Diglossa manipulation technique was macerated fruit so it may be less efficient seed dispersal because they dropped some of the fruit in the vicinity of the parent plant, which decreases the chances of recruitment.

  19. Revision on the genus Phyllagathis (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae). I. The species in Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cellinese, Nicoletta

    2002-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phyllagathis Blume is presented under a wider generic concept than used by earlier authors. A comprehensive synopsis of the genus is provided in the general part, where morphological characters and their variations are discussed. This paper will focus in particular on the

  20. Two new species of Leandra s.str. (Melastomataceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reginato, M.; Goldenberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Two species of Leandra that occur in the Atlantic Forest, in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil, are described and illustrated here. Leandra cristata has been found in the understory of montane rain forest, and can be recognized by the distinct nodal ridges on the young branches, by the

  1. Structure and floristic composition of the vegetation of the biological corridor between national parks Purace and cave Guacharos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez O, Yitsully; Coca, Ana; Cantillo, Edgar Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The floristic composition and structure of disturbed and non disturbed vegetation at the biological corridor located among the National Natural Parks Purace, Cueva de los Guacharos was studied based on 16 plots in three localities of the Huila Department, Colombia, between 1950 and 2450 m. A total of 1.5 ha was sampled. The Cyatheo - Cecropion angustifoliae alliance was defined. It includes the associations Ladenbergio macrocarpae - Elaeagietum myrianthae and Guettardo hirsutae - Hedyosmetum translucidi. At the less disturbed areas the communities Helicostylis tovarensis - Alfaroa williamsii, Quercus humboldtii - Wettinia fascicularis and Weinmannia pubescens - Clusia dixonii were found. The community Baccharis nitida and Saurauia pulchra was found in the most disturbed areas. The basal area value per species was similar for all the associations. The community Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis showed the highest basal area value, 7.3 and 4.6 m2. Regarding forest tall, an average of 11 m was found in the associations, with values from 10 to 15 m. An average of 13 m was found in the communities, with variations from 7 to 17 m. The dominant stratum in both cases was the arboreal inferior. The importance indexes show an equal representativeness of the species inside each unit, with the exception of the Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis community. The best represented families regarding their species number are Lauraceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataceae

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of selected desert soil cyanobacteria: Three species new to science including Mojavia pulchra gen. et sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeháková, Klára; Johansen, J. R.; Casamatta, D.A.; Xuesong, L.; Vincent, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2007), s. 481-502 ISSN 0031-8884 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Nostoc * desert * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2007

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of selected desert soil cyanobacteria: Three species new to science including .i.Mojavia pulchra./i. gen. et sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeháková, Klára; Johansen, J. R.; Casamatta, D.A.; Xuesong, L.; Vincent, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2007), s. 481-502 ISSN 0031-8884 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/03/P024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Mojavia * microbiotic soil crusts * Nostoc Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2007

  4. Morphological characterization of fruits, diaspores and germination of Miconia ligustroides (DC. Naundim (Melastomataceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.12648

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    Mariana Aline Silva Artur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Miconia ligustroides (DC. Naudim, popularly known as “vassoura-preta” or “jacatirão-do-brejo” is widely distributed in Brazil. It is a recommended species for restoration of riparian areas and its fruits are attractive to wildlife. However, little is known about the morphology of its fruits and diaspores. Such morphological characterization studies are important for species identification, corroborating future studies of phenology and germination. Therefore, the fruits, diaspores and germination of M. ligustroides were morphologically characterized by observations through naked eye, stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses of chemical composition of seeds were also performed. The fruits are spherical and uniform within the analyzed sample, having a large number of tiny obtriangular yellowish-brown diaspores. The diaspores are considered ananfitropos, and have crystals in their external envelope. Concerning chemical composition, they are proteins. Germination is of phanerocotylar type and starts at 12 Days After Sowing (DAS; at 17 DAS each diaspore may produce up to three seedlings. The morphological characterization performed in this work was efficient to describe the fruits, seeds and germination of this species, thus providing the basis for future studies.  

  5. Associações espaciais entre indivíduos de diferentes espécies de Miconia spp. Ruiz & Pav. (Melastomataceae

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as associações espaciais de indivíduos pertencentes a todas as espécies arbóreas do gênero Miconia presentes no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental de espécies dos gêneros Eucalyptus e Corymbia. Como o gênero Miconia possui a maioria das espécies pioneiras, a hipótese testada foi de que os pares de espécies analisadas apresentam indivíduos com sobreposição total ou parcial de habitat. Considerando o histórico da área, é possível supor que todos os indivíduos se regeneraram a partir da chuva e do banco de sementes. Foi estabelecido um transecto cruzando a área de estudo no sentido de seu maior comprimento, a partir do qual foram determinadas as coordenadas dos indivíduos do gênero Miconia com DAS (diâmetro medido na altura do solo maior ou igual a 1 cm. As associações espaciais entre os indivíduos das diferentes espécies foram analisadas por meio da função K de Ripley bivariada. Foram amostrados indivíduos de Miconia pepericarpa DC., Miconia sellowiana Naudin, Miconia albicans Triana, Miconia argyrophylla DC., Miconia chartacea Triana e Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC. Naudin. De forma geral, os resultados demonstraram ausência de associação espacial negativa entre os pares das espécies, indicando que os indivíduos de Miconia spp. compartilham parcial ou totalmente o mesmo espaço no sub-bosque de um plantio de eucalipto. Os resultados obtidos, apesar de não poderem ser extrapolados para outras espécies, corroboram a ideia de que algumas espécies pioneiras tendem a coexistir, em florestas tropicais, em áreas onde há maior disponibilidade de luz.

  6. Efeito de diferentes temperaturas na germinação de sementes e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae

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    A.K.M. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana é uma espécie nativa do Brasil utilizada na medicina tradicional em comunidades rurais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a temperatura mais adequada para a germinação de sementes e formação de plântulas de M. albicans. Para avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação da espécie foram utilizadas 1200 sementes postas a germinar sob temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e nas temperaturas alternadas de 20-30 e 25-35 ºC. Foram avaliados a percentagem de germinação (PG, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, o tempo médio de germinação (TMG, e o comprimento das raízes primárias e do caule das plântulas. Os resultados encontrados indicaram PG acima de 63% paras as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. Para o IVG, foram observados valores entre 2,17 a 2,93 para as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC, indicando maior vigor; em relação ao TMG, a maioria dos tratamentos alcançou resultado acima de 15 dias, indicando que as sementes germinaram lentamente. Levando-se em consideração todos os parâmetros avaliados, a temperatura de 25 ºC propiciou o melhor desempenho para as sementes da espécie.

  7. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478 Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. & Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologia utilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H

  8. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob

  9. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

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    Nayanne Larissa Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae, Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae, Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart. (Loranthaceae, and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl. Frodin (Araliaceae are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM, and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM, respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies.

  10. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; de Souza, Herbert Cristian; Peixoto, Juliana Andrade; Silva, Claudia Peres; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Gimenez, Valéria Maria Meleiro; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Andrade e Silva, Márcio Luís; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM), and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM), respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies. PMID:22924053

  11. Maturação e morfometria dos frutos de miconia Albicans (Swartz triana (melastomataceae em um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecídua montana em Lavras, MG Maturation and morphometrics of the fruits of Miconia albicans (Swartz triana (melastomataceae in a remnant of montane seasonal semideciduous forest in Lavras, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a dinâmica da maturação dos frutos e avaliar quantitativamente algumas características físicas dos frutos de Miconia albicans (Swartz Triana em um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua Montana. A atividade, intensidade e sincronia de 20 indivíduos foram analisadas em relação aos eventos de frutificação, correlacionando-os com as variáveis climáticas. Analisou-se a morfometria (comprimento, largura e massa de 130 frutos de 10 indivíduos. A intensidade da fenofase de frutos maduros nas plantas correlacionou-se significativamente com a precipitação média do período (rS = 0,611; P The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of fruit maturation and quantitatively assess some physical characteristics of the fruits of Miconia albicans (Swartz Triana in a remnant of Montane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. The activity and synchrony of 20 individuals were analyzed in regard to the proportion of fruiting events, and to help to determine their correlation to abiotic factors. Morphometric traits (fruit length, diameter and mass of 130 fruits from ten individuals were analyzed. The number of fruits maturing showed a significant correlation with the mean precipitation (rS = 0.611; P < 0.05. M. albicans presented a high number of small seeds per fruit ( = 28.05 ± 1.45 s.d.. The fresh mass of the fruit was approximately equal to the pulp mass (rS = 0.988; P < 0.05. Thepulp contributed with 94% of the total mass, demonstrating the potential importance of this species for frugivores. The results indicate the period of high intrapopulation synchrony of the studied phenophases, which can be a useful guide in the collection of seeds for germoplasm banks and recovery of degraded areas.

  12. Flowering phenology of Mouriri guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its interaction with the crepuscular bee Megalopta amoena (Halictidae) in the restinga of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA,Fabiana dos Santos; RIBEIRO,Monique Hellen Martins; NUNEZ,Cecilia Veronica; ALBUQUERQUE,Patricia Maia Correia de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouriri guianensis is a Brazilian endemic plant species distributed throughout the Amazon forest, Caatinga, Mata Atlântica and Cerrado domains, extending northward into Venezuela. The aim of this study was to describe the flowering phenology, floral biology and visitors associated with M. guianensis, highlighting the crepuscular bee species Megalopta amoena. Mouriri guianensis flowers from September to March. The flowering, the details of floral biology and the activities of floral v...

  13. Variable production of transparent exopolymeric particles by haploid and diploid life stages of coccolithophores grown under different CO2 concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrotti, M.L.; Fiorini, S.; Kerros, M.E.; Middelburg, J.J.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The production of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) by the coccolithophores, Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Syracosphaera pulchra was investigated in batch cultures. The abundance, size spectra and carbon content of TEP were examined during the exponential growth phase of both

  14. Nannoplankton from the Bombay-Saurashtra continental shelf of India: An appraisal using cluster analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Nigam, R.

    the clusters, the most striking feature of the biotope A was the total absence of Braarudosphaera bigelowi, Syracosphaera pulchra and Thoracosphaera sp. while the biotope B was represented by all the 12 species identified. The study indicates that oxygen...

  15. LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DEL GENERO SICYOS (CUCURBITACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia las especies del género Sicyos que viven dentro del territorio de la República Argentina; señalando que hasta el presente se han hallado seis. Luego de una diagnosis del género, suministra una clave, descripciones y figuras de cada una de ellas, a fin de facilitar su reconocimiento. Las especies estudiadas son S. malvifolius Griseb., S. polyacanthus Cogn., S. Odanellii Mart.-Crov., S. Kunthii Cogn. (nuevo habitante para la flora argentina, S. Warmingii Cogn, S. Warmingii Cogn. var. longispina Mart.-Crov. (nueva variedad y S. ignarus Mart.-Crov. (especie nueva para la ciencia.

  16. Disease: H01840 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ty. Frequently, it has additional features including orofacial malformations, limb defects, and musculoskeletal, behavioral, and cogn...itive abnormalities. The specific etiology of MBS is unknown, and theories of the u

  17. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  18. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    of either better or novel drugs in pharmaceutical industrie ... been employed in folk medicine for wound care. Some these plants ... and cellular events leading to the growth and regenerat ... e growth and regeneration ... The test bacteria were S. aureus, E. coli, P. ..... (Melastomataceae) stem formulated in a simple ointment.

  19. Pilidiella tibouchinae sp. nov. associated with foliage blight of Tibouchina granulosa (quaresmeira) in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, B.E.C.; Barreto, R.W.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Tibouchina granulosa (Melastomataceae), Brazilian glorytree (Brazilian common name - quaresmeira), a common tree of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, is widely used as an ornamental for its violet or pink blossoms. Little is known about fungal diseases affecting this species, although these represent a

  20. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Pérez; M.A. Alfaro-Alpízar; M.T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, (Miconia calvescens) de Candolle (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. (Erora opisena) (Druce), (Parrhasius...

  1. Testing the effects of elevated pCO2 on coccolithophores (Prymnesiophysceae): comparison between haploid and diploid life stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorini, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The response of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. Mohler, Calcidiscus leptoporus (G. Murray et V. H. Blackman) J. Schiller, and Syracosphaera pulchra Lohmann to elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was investigated in batch cultures. We reported on the response of both

  2. Distribution of chaetognaths in the polluted and unpolluted waters around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Desai, B.N.

    were in appreciable numbers throughout the period of collection. Breeding of S. bedoti was continuous in the nearshore waters with a few intense spawning periods. The other species present were S.bombayensis,S. enflata, S, oceania,S. pulchra and S...

  3. ‘Appalachian Joy’ is a supernumery, white-bracted cultivar of cornus florida resistant to powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wholesale nursery industry in Tennessee contributes more than $200 million to the annual economy of the state and are in excess of $50 million annually for flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Two fungal diseases, dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew (Discula destructiva and Erysiphe pulchra, r...

  4. Quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to powdery mildew in cornus florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) caused by Erysiphe pulchra is one of the most destructive diseases in nursery production of flowering dogwood throughout the southeastern U.S. Since the mid-1990s, efforts to breed for resistance to the disease have been undertaken, but to-date on...

  5. Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Anim Cogn DOI 10.1007/s10071-012-0503-0 Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat Lydia du Toit ? Nigel C. Bennett ? Alecia Nickless ? Martin J. Whiting L. du Toit , A. Nickless , M. J. Whiting (email) School...

  6. Color Afterimages in Autistic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, John; Stanworth, Kirstie; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Franklin, Anna

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that attenuated adaptation to visual stimuli in autism is the result of atypical perceptual priors (e.g., Pellicano and Burr in "Trends Cogn Sci" 16(10):504-510, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.08.009). This study investigated adaptation to color in autistic adults, measuring both strength of afterimage and the…

  7. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    .... ``Local and global effects of motivation on cognitive control.'' Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 12(4):692-718...., Shelton, J.T., Scullin, M.K. ``A characterization of individual differences in prospective memory...., & Braver, T.S. (November 2010) ``The contextual and local effects of motivation on cognitive control...

  8. Drug: D10626 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10626 Drug Encenicline (USAN/INN) ... C16H17ClN2OS D10626.gif ... Chemical group: DG01852 ... Treatment of cogn...itive disorders ... CAS: 550999-75-2 PubChem: 254741587 ChEMBL: CHEMBL2151572 ...

  9. Vague-to-Crisp Dynamics of Percept Formation Modeled as Operant (Selectionist) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    simplifying heuristics versus careful thinking: scientific analysis of millennial spiritual issues. Zygon J Sci Religion 43(4):797 821 Li Y , Nara S (2008...and the pleasures of learning: wanting and liking new information. Cogn Emot 19(6):793 814 Neiman T, Loewenstein Y (2013) Covariance based synaptic

  10. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.H.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Verschuere, B.; Donchin, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain

  11. Gender-related clinical and neurocognitive differences in individuals seeking treatment for pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for selecting appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and cogn...... and cognitive differences in treatment-seeking people with pathological gambling as a function of gender....

  12. Mapping Cultural Ecosystem Services for the Continental US Using Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing recognition of the positive impact of landscape on the health and well-being of individuals. As the backdrop of outdoor activities they offer many societally beneficial cultural ecosystem services (CES) contributing to rest and relaxation, restorative and cogn...

  13. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from

  14. Top-down and bottom-up influences on the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex during visual word recognition: an analysis of effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Crone, Julia; Richlan, Fabio; Klackl, Johannes; Wimmer, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    The functional role of the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT) in visual word processing has been studied extensively. A prominent observation is higher activation for unfamiliar but pronounceable letter strings compared to regular words in this region. Some functional accounts have interpreted this finding as driven by top-down influences (e.g., Dehaene and Cohen [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:254-262; Price and Devlin [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:246-253), while others have suggested a difference in bottom-up processing (e.g., Glezer et al. [2009]: Neuron 62:199-204; Kronbichler et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1584-1594). We used dynamic causal modeling for fMRI data to test bottom-up and top-down influences on the left vOT during visual processing of regular words and unfamiliar letter strings. Regular words (e.g., taxi) and unfamiliar letter strings of pseudohomophones (e.g., taksi) were presented in the context of a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does the item sound like a word?"). We found no differences in top-down signaling, but a strong increase in bottom-up signaling from the occipital cortex to the left vOT for pseudohomophones compared to words. This finding can be linked to functional accounts which assume that the left vOT contains neurons tuned to complex orthographic features such as morphemes or words [e.g., Dehaene and Cohen [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:254-262; Kronbichler et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1584-1594]: For words, bottom-up signals converge onto a matching orthographic representation in the left vOT. For pseudohomophones, the propagated signals do not converge, but (partially) activate multiple orthographic word representations, reflected in increased effective connectivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Ruth; Reina, Miriam; Herrera, Edna; Avila, Fabio Andres; Chaparro, Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  16. Results of Surveys for Special Status Reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woollett, J J

    2008-09-18

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a live-trapping and visual surveys for special status reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The survey was conducted under the authority of the Federal recovery permit of Swaim Biological Consulting (PRT-815537) and a Memorandum of Understanding issued from the California Department of Fish and Game. Site 300 is located between Livermore and Tracy just north of Tesla road (Alameda County) and Corral Hollow Road (San Joaquin County) and straddles the Alameda and San Joaquin County line (Figures 1 and 2). It encompasses portions of the USGS 7.5 minute Midway and Tracy quadrangles (Figure 2). Focused surveys were conducted for four special status reptiles including the Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus), the San Joaquin Whipsnake (Masticophis Hagellum ruddock), the silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra), and the California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronanum frontale).

  17. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-05-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata , 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra . The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra , suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species.

  18. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra. Conclusions: The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra, suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species. PMID:28529836

  19. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Ribeiro Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta segunda contribuição à fauna dos Cerambycidae do Estado do Maranhão arrolam-se 123 espécies das quais 114 constituem novos registros. Novas espécies descritas em Cerambycinae: Ophtalmoplon similis (Hexoplonini, Gorybia bispinosa (Piezocerini, Aneuthetochorus punctatus, Minibidion bicolor (Ibidionini, Piezophidion thoracicum (Elaphidionini, Temnopis rubricollis (Oemini; em Lamiinae: Anobrium minimum (Pteropliini, Cacostola bimaculata, C. parafusca, Trestonia rugosicollis (Onciderini, Eupromerella maculosa, E. picturata, Nesozineus unicolor (Acanthoderini, Piruana pulchra (Desmiphorini, Pachypeza ferruginea (Hippopsini.This is the second contribution for the cerambycid fauna of Maranhão state, Brazil, which deals with 123 species of which 114 are new records for the state. New species described in Cerambycinae: Ophtalmoplon similis (Hexoplonini, Gorybia bispinosa (Piezocerini, Aneuthetochorus punctatus, Minibidion bicolor (Ibidionini, Piezophidion thoracicum (Elaphidionini, Temnopis rubricollis (Oemini; in Lamiinae: Anobrium minimum (Pteropliini, Cacostola bimaculata, C. parafusca, Trestonia rugosicollis (Onciderini, Eupromerella maculosa, E. picturata, Nesozineus unicolor (Acanthoderini, Piruana pulchra (Desmiphorini, Pachypeza ferruginea (Hippopsini.

  20. Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14530-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Cyanolyca turcosa voucher ANSP 512... 35 4.5 FJ173444_1( FJ173444 |pid:none) Phylloscopus trivir...gatus isolate P... 34 5.8 FJ173443_1( FJ173443 |pid:none) Phylloscopus trivirgatu...1( FJ598176 |pid:none) Cyanolyca pulchra voucher QCAZ 300... 34 7.6 FJ173456_1( FJ173456 |pid:none) Phylloscopus

  2. Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mergulhao, L.P.; Mohan, R.; Murty, V.S.N.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Sinha, D.K.

    , Anoplosolenia braciliensisi, Calciosolenia murrayi and Oolithotus antillarum. Minor species such as Discosphaera tubifera, Syracosphaera pulchra, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Neosphaera coccolithomor- pha, Algirosphaera oryza, Michaelsarsia adriati- cus, Gladiolithus... profunda, Oolithotus antillarum) are presented (figure 2a?b). In addition to the majority of isolated coccol- iths, a few coccospheres comprising of G. oceanica, E. huxleyi, G. flabellatus, A. oryza, F. profunda, C. leptoporus were also observed...

  3. Eukaryotic interference with homoserine lactone mediated procaryotic signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Michael Christian; de Nys, Rocky; Gram, Lone

    1996-01-01

    Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) plays a widespread role in intercellular communication among bacteria. The Australian macroalga Delisea pulchra produces secondary metabolites which have structural similarities to AHL molecules. We report here that these metabolites inhibited AHL-controlled pr......-controlled processes in prokaryotes. Our results suggest that the interaction between higher organisms and their surface-associated bacteria may be mediated by interference with bacterial regulatory systems....

  4. The use of polliniferous resources by Melipona capixaba, an endangered stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees' original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, "ruderal" (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants.

  5. ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-EXPRESSION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasova, Irina Vladimirovna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying the problem of professional self-expression of university teacher. Thesis about the existence of 6 cognitive attributes of the university teacher’s self expression was theoretically identified and empirically acknowledged as a concept: 1) representation of a particular level of people’s self-conscience including professional; 2) describing method, by which a person shows, regulates his activity during objectivation in professional work; 3) acting as the cogn...

  6. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Procrastination: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rozental, Alexander; Carlbring, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Procrastination, to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay, is a persistent behavior pattern that can cause major psychological suffering. Approximately half of the student population and 15%-20% of the adult population are presumed having substantial difficulties due to chronic and recurrent procrastination in their everyday life. However, preconceptions and a lack of knowledge restrict the availability of adequate care. Cogn...

  7. Using Metaphor in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim PİSTOF; Esat SANLI

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive therapy is a method of psychotherapy used to treat many psychological and psychiatric disorders and is based on cognitive model of emotional disorders. Throughout the therapy, it is important for the clients to be trained in their problems and to perceive the fact which is one of the fundamental actions of cognitive behavioral therapy, that the emotional state interacts not only with in the thoughts, but also physical functions and environment. . Besides employing cogn...

  8. On Broca, brain, and binding: A new framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hagoort, P.

    2005-01-01

    In speaking and comprehending language, word information is retrieved from memory and combined into larger units (unification). Unification operations take place in parallel at the semantic, syntactic and phonological levels of processing. This article proposes a new framework that connects psycholinguistic models to a neurobiological account of language. According to this proposal the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) plays an important role in unification. Research in other domains of cogn...

  9. Towards a New Kind of Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Slipper, Callan

    2013-01-01

    To explore Chiara’s cognitive proposal, this article takes a phenomenological and interdisciplinary approach in an attempt to give insight into the experience of cognition and offer a basis for understanding it within the context of human development. The article outlines three modes of cognition that can be seen in human being using a schematic understanding of childhood development as a basis. These modes of cognition are then looked at from an evolutionary perspective seeing how human cogn...

  10. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Fulks JL, O’Bryhim BE et al (2010) Dopamine release and uptake impairments and behavioral alterations observed in mice that model fragile x mental...D2 dopamine receptor agonist. J Cogn Neurosci 4(1):58–68 Luo Y, Shan G et al (2010) Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0626 TITLE: Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a

  11. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Curvis, Will; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cogn...

  12. Real-time decreased sensitivity to an audio-visual illusion during goal-directed reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Tremblay

    Full Text Available In humans, sensory afferences are combined and integrated by the central nervous system (Ernst MO, Bülthoff HH (2004 Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 162-169 and appear to provide a holistic representation of the environment. Empirical studies have repeatedly shown that vision dominates the other senses, especially for tasks with spatial demands. In contrast, it has also been observed that sound can strongly alter the perception of visual events. For example, when presented with 2 flashes and 1 beep in a very brief period of time, humans often report seeing 1 flash (i.e. fusion illusion, Andersen TS, Tiippana K, Sams M (2004 Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 21: 301-308. However, it is not known how an unfolding movement modulates the contribution of vision to perception. Here, we used the audio-visual illusion to demonstrate that goal-directed movements can alter visual information processing in real-time. Specifically, the fusion illusion was linearly reduced as a function of limb velocity. These results suggest that cue combination and integration can be modulated in real-time by goal-directed behaviors; perhaps through sensory gating (Chapman CE, Beauchamp E (2006 J. Neurophysiol. 96: 1664-1675 and/or altered sensory noise (Ernst MO, Bülthoff HH (2004 Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 162-169 during limb movements.

  13. Gustavo Lozano Contreras Bogotá, 22 de Mayo De 1938 - Bogotá, 10 de julio de 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Garavito Favio Antonio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sin duda alguna, el profesor Lozano fue uno de los mejores conocedores de la Flora de Colombia. Explorador de prácticamente todos los ecosistemas de nuestro país, colectó y estudió rigurosamente miles de plantas. Como resultado, dejó plasmado su conocimiento en varios libros y en numerosas publicaciones en revistas nacionales y extranjeras. Son notables los nuevos hallazgos y contribuciones en el conocimiento de las familias Bromeliaceae, Campanulaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Juglandaceae, Magnoliaceae, Melastomataceae y Metteniusaceae, entre otras. Además, fue pionero en el estudio de la ecología de robledales y de páramos.

  14. Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some Indonesian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, F; Bakhtiar, A; Bézivin, C; Amoros, M; Boustie, J

    2002-08-01

    Ten methanolic extracts from eight Indonesian medicinal plants were phytochemically screened and evaluated for antiviral (HSV-1 and Poliovirus) and cytotoxic activities on murine and human cancer lines (3LL, L1210, K562, U251, DU145, MCF-7). Besides Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae), the Indonesian Loranthaceae species among which Elytranthe tubaeflora, E. maingayi, E. globosa and Scurrula ferruginea exhibited attractive antiviral and cytotoxic activities. Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) was found active on Poliovirus. S. ferruginea was selected for further studies because of its activity on the U251 glioblastoma cells.

  15. Nuevos registros para la flora de Honduras y el Parque Nacional Montaña de Celaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  16. Synthetic furanones inhibit quorum-sensing and enhance bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.; Hentzer, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth, but resistance to antibiotics can develop readily. The discovery that bacterial quorum-sensing regulates bacterial virulence as well as the formation of biofilms opens up new ways...... to control certain bacterial infections. Furanone compounds capable of inhibiting bacterial quorum-sensing systems have been isolated from the marine macro alga Delisea pulchra. Objectives: Two synthetic furanones were tested for their ability to attenuate bacterial virulence in the mouse models of chronic...

  17. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-09-14

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided.

  18. Five Ochna species have high antibacterial activity and more than ten antibacterial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus N. Eloff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New measures to control infections in humans and other animals are continuously being sought because of the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. In a wide tree screening survey of the antimicrobial activity of extracts of tree leaves (www.up.ac.za/phyto, Ochna pulchra, a small tree found widely in southern Africa, had good antibacterial activity. We therefore investigated the antibacterial activity of acetone leaf extracts of some other available Ochna spp. Antibacterial activity and the number of antibacterial compounds in acetone leaf extracts of Ochna natalitia, Ochna pretoriensis, O. pulchra, Ochna gamostigmata and Ochna serullata were determined with a tetrazolium violet serial microplate dilution assay and bioautography against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria commonly associated with nosocomial infections. The percentage yields of the extracts varied from 2.5% to 8%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the five species ranged from 40 µg/mL to 1250 µg/mL. E. coli was sensitive to all the extracts. The O. pretoriensis extract was the most active with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.065 mg/mL and 0.039 mg/mL against E. coli and E. faecalis, respectively. The O. pretoriensis extract also had the highest total activities of 923 mL/g and 1538 mL/g, indicating that the acetone extract from 1 g of dried plant material could be diluted to 923 mL or 1538 mL and would still kill these bacteria. Based on the bioautography results, the two most active species, O. pretoriensis and O. pulchra, contained at least 10 antibacterial compounds with similar Rf values. Some of these antibacterial compounds were polar and others were non-polar. Variation in the chemical composition of the species

  19. Key to Plecoptera nymphs from the Brazilian Amazon (Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Moacir Ferreira; Gorayeb, Inocêncio DE Sousa

    2016-12-19

    Nymphs of 22 species of Plecoptera from the Brazilian Amazon are keyed and illustrated to enhance their usefulness as water quality indicator taxa. Four described species of Anacroneuria, two species of Macrogynoplax, and two species of Enderleina have been associated with adults: Anacroneuria marlieri, A. manauensis, A. minuta, A. singularis, M. delicata, M. pulchra, E. froehlichi, and E. flinti. Nymphs of 14 additional morphospecies not yet associated with adults are included. Characters of the head, pronotum, mesonotum, and metanotum are used to distinguish late instar nymphs.

  20. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR—the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea–Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  1. New species and new records of Notonecta (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna F. Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notonecta itatiaia sp. nov. is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro. Like other Notonecta species that occurs in Brazil, N. itatiaia has no remarkable diagnostic features than the shape of genital capsule. Along with the first description of a Notonecta from Brazil in eighty years, N. disturbata is newly recorded from the states of Pará, Piauí and São Paulo, and N. pulchra from Pará. A key to species of Notonecta (males occurring in Brazil is given.

  2. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Tellkamp, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae) had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  3. La flora vascular de la Sierra de Chiribiquete, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés B. Rocio

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary checklist of Chiribiquete flora has 549 species of vascular plants, which belong to 315 genera and 107 families. The families with the highest species number were: Rubiaceae (32, Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 and Bromeliaceae (24; there were 30% of the families represented by one species. The majar tloristic affinities of the Chiribiquete flora are with the Amazonregion and the Guayana central province. Eleven species (including ten new are endemic to Chiribiquete and 167 are endemic to the Guayana region.El catálogo preliminar de la flora de Chiribiquete incluye 549 especies de plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 315 géneros y a 107 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies son Rubiaceae (32 Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 y Bromeliaceae (24; el 30% de las familias están representadas por una especie. Las afinidades florísticas son mayores con la región amazónica y con la provincia Guayana central. Once especies (incluyendo diez novedades  taxonómicas tienen área de distribución endémica de Chiribiquete y 167 están restringidas a la región Guayana.

  4. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  5. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  6. Effects of gut passage on the germination of seeds ingested by didelphid marsupials in a neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guimarães Lessa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects that passage through the guts of seven didelphid species had on the seed germination of 10 plant species. This study was conducted in an area of riparian woodland in a cerrado (savanna reserve in southeastern Brazil. We found seeds of 23 angiosperm species in 427 fecal samples obtained from seven didelphid species. The plant families most often represented by the seeds found in the fecal samples were Melastomataceae (5 species and Rubiaceae (4 species . Most gut-passed seeds showed no significant difference in germinability when compared with the hand-extracted seeds. Among the ingested seeds, only those of Clidemia urceolata DC. (Melastomataceae and Myrcia sp. (Myrtaceae showed an increase in germinability (final proportion of germinated seeds, indicating that didelphid gut passage does not always benefit seed germination. The average germination time of consumed seeds ranged from 12 days (Cipocereus minensis (Werderm. Ritter to 171 days (Cordiera sessilis (Vell. Kuntze. The small number of seeds destroyed after gut passage and the results obtained during the germination experiments underscore the importance of didelphid marsupials to the dynamics of plant reproduction, especially those of small-seeded cerrado species.

  7. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arellano

    Full Text Available In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  8. Transcriptional response of Nautella italica R11 towards its macroalgal host uncovers new mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Gardiner, Melissa; Deshpande, Nandan; Egan, Suhelen

    2018-04-01

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are essential for the functioning of temperate marine ecosystems, but there is increasing evidence to suggest that their survival is under threat from anthropogenic stressors and disease. Nautella italica R11 is recognized as an aetiological agent of bleaching disease in the red alga, Delisea pulchra. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding the molecular mechanisms involved in this model host-pathogen interaction. Here we report that mutations in the gene encoding for a LuxR-type quorum sensing transcriptional regulator, RaiR, render N. italica R11 avirulent, suggesting this gene is important for regulating the expression of virulence phenotypes. Using an RNA sequencing approach, we observed a strong transcriptional response of N. italica R11 towards the presence of D. pulchra. In particular, genes involved in oxidative stress resistance, carbohydrate and central metabolism were upregulated in the presence of the host, suggesting a role for these functions in the opportunistic pathogenicity of N. italica R11. Furthermore, we show that RaiR regulates a subset of genes in N. italica R11, including those involved in metabolism and the expression of phage-related proteins. The outcome of this research reveals new functions important for virulence of N. italica R11 and contributes to our greater understanding of the complex factors mitigating microbial diseases in macroalgae. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do estado do Maranhão, Brasil: III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e quatro espécies são registradas para o Estado do Maranhão: Prioninae (uma, Disteniinae (uma, Cerambycinae (49 e Lamiinae (33. O número total de espécies assinaladas para o Estado eleva-se a 367. Nove novas espécies são descritas em Cerambycinae: Chlorida inexpectata sp. nov. (Bothriospilini; Jupoata germana sp. nov. (Cerambycini; Eburodacrys separatus sp. nov. e Eburodacrys cincora sp. nov. (Eburiini; Ectenessa affinis sp. nov. (Ectenessini; Minibidion bicolor sp. nov. (Ibidionini, Tropidiina; Compsibidion maculatum sp. nov. e Compsibidion ytu sp. nov. (Ibidionini,Ibidionina; Ideratus beatus sp. nov. (Ideratini. Três espécies são descritas em Lamiinae: Aerenea gibba sp. nov. (Compsosomatini; Mimasyngenes barbozai sp. nov. (Desmiphorini; Cacostola exilis sp. nov. (Onciderini. Uma variação no colorido de Adesmus paradiana Galileo & Martins, 2004 é observada. Corrigenda de Piruana pulchra Martins et al., 2009 para Piruauna pulchra (Desmiphorini.

  10. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  11. Diagnostic reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation method and standing height in the identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Castaldo, Attilio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the capability of both cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 3 and 4 (CS3-4 interval) and the peak in standing height to identify the mandibular growth spurt throughout diagnostic reliability analysis. A previous longitudinal data set derived from 24 untreated growing subjects (15 females and nine males,) detailed elsewhere were reanalyzed. Mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Condylion (Co)-Gnathion (Gn) (total mandibular length) and Co-Gonion Intersection (Goi) (ramus height) and their arithmetic mean (mean mandibular growth [mMG]). Subsequently, individual annual increments in standing height, Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG were arranged according to annual age intervals, with the first and last intervals defined as 7-8 years and 15-16 years, respectively. An analysis was performed to establish the diagnostic reliability of the CS3-4 interval or the peak in standing height in the identification of the maximum individual increments of each Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG measurement at each annual age interval. CS3-4 and standing height peak show similar but variable accuracy across annual age intervals, registering values between 0.61 (standing height peak, Co-Gn) and 0.95 (standing height peak and CS3-4, mMG). Generally, satisfactory diagnostic reliability was seen when the mandibular growth spurt was identified on the basis of the Co-Goi and mMG increments. Both CVM interval CS3-4 and peak in standing height may be used in routine clinical practice to enhance efficiency of treatments requiring identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

  12. Electrocorticographic Mapping of Expressive Language Function without Requiring the Patient to Speak: A Report of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Pesters et al. / Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports 6 (2016) 13–18have noteworthy limitations. First, a thorough ECS interrogation is very time- consuming ...comparison with fMRI and ESM findings. Clin EEG Neurosci 2014;45(3):205–11. [6] Kamada K, Ogawa H, Kapeller C, Prueckl R, Guger C, et al. Rapid and...Mazoyer BM, Tzourio N, Frak V, Syrota A, Murayama N, Levrier O, et al. The cortical representation of speech. J Cogn Neurosci 1993;5(4):467–79. [13

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Faktor Kognitif dan Faktor Afektif terhadap Usability Situs E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Prayogo, Putra Indra; Susanto, Novie; Sriyanto, Sriyanto

    2015-01-01

    The development of the internet facility now be used for the activity of trade (commerce) by makes e-commerce sites. E-commerce site serves an electronic transaction of sale and purchase from producers to consumers must have good USAbility value so ease of use. The development site is now considered not only focus on the ease of use (cognitive) but required a development of the emotional side (affective) so that users feel are interested in using these sites. For testing the influence of cogn...

  14. Mapeo congnitivo y exploración háptica para comprender la disposición del espacio de videntes e invidentes.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanabria

    2010-01-01

    La forma como videntes e invidentes representan el espacio genera una fuente de conocimiento que nos permite estudiar nuevas alternativas para orientar procesos de aprendizaje en la movilidad y orientación de personas que carecen de visión. Este documento caracteriza el proceso de razonamiento espacial a partir del conocimiento del mapeo cognitivo y plantea una serie de antecedentes de investigación que nos llevan a comprender la representación espacial de las personas. El mapeo cogn...

  15. Think Twice: Review of Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 499 pp. ISBN 978-0374275631. In Thinking, Fast and Slow, Nobel Prize-winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman significantly sharpens our understanding of human decision-making and the systems of thinking that underlie it. He offers a compelling critique of the rational-agent model, arguing that, while we can and do use reason, we often fall back on a type of thinking that operates quickly and requires less cogn...

  16. Antileishmanial Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Miconia langsdorffii, Isolated Compounds, and Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. was evaluated against the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to identification of the triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as the major compounds in the fraction that displayed the highest activity. Several ursolic acid semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared, to find out whether more active compounds could be obtained. Among these ursolic acid-derived substances, the C-28 methyl ester derivative exhibited the best antileishmanial activity.

  17. The effects of sweep numbers per average and protocol type on the accuracy of the p300-based concealed information test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ariana B; Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    In the first of two experiments, we compared the accuracy of the P300 concealed information test protocol as a function of numbers of trials experienced by subjects and ERP averages analyzed by investigators. Contrary to Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), we found no evidence that 100 trial based averages are more accurate than 66 or 33 trial based averages (all numbers led to accuracies of 84-94 %). There was actually a trend favoring the lowest trial numbers. The second study compared numbers of irrelevant stimuli recalled and recognized in the 3-stimulus protocol versus the complex trial protocol (Rosenfeld in Memory detection: theory and application of the concealed information test, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 63-89, 2011). Again, in contrast to expectations from Farwell et al. (Cogn Neurodyn 6(2):115-154, 2012), there were no differences between protocols, although there were more irrelevant stimuli recognized than recalled, and irrelevant 4-digit number group stimuli were neither recalled nor recognized as well as irrelevant city name stimuli. We therefore conclude that stimulus processing in the P300-based complex trial protocol-with no more than 33 sweep averages-is adequate to allow accurate detection of concealed information.

  18. Relative judgment theory and the mediation of facial recognition: Implications for theories of eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Ryan M; Gronlund, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Many in the eyewitness identification community believe that sequential lineups are superior to simultaneous lineups because simultaneous lineups encourage inappropriate choosing due to promoting comparisons among choices (a relative judgment strategy), but sequential lineups reduce this propensity by inducing comparisons of lineup members directly to memory rather than to each other (an absolute judgment strategy). Different versions of the relative judgment theory have implicated both discrete-state and continuous mediation of eyewitness decisions. The theory has never been formally specified, but (Yonelinas, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1341-1354, 1994) dual-process models provide one possible specification, thereby allowing us to evaluate how eyewitness decisions are mediated. We utilized a ranking task (Kellen and Klauer, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 40:1795-1804, 2014) and found evidence for continuous mediation when facial stimuli match from study to test (Experiment 1) and when they mismatch (Experiment 2). This evidence, which is contrary to a version of relative judgment theory that has gained a lot of traction in the legal community, compels reassessment of the role that guessing plays in eyewitness identification. Future research should continue to test formal explanations in order to advance theory, expedite the development of new procedures that can enhance the reliability of eyewitness evidence, and to facilitate the exploration of task factors and emergent strategies that might influence when recognition is continuously or discretely mediated.

  19. Isoprene emissions from a tundra ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Potosnak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-system fluxes of isoprene from a moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf-level emission rates of isoprene from a common species (Salix pulchra in that same ecosystem were measured during three separate field campaigns. The field campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2005, 2010 and 2011 and took place at the Toolik Field Station (68.6° N, 149.6° W on the north slope of the Brooks Range in Alaska, USA. The maximum rate of whole-system isoprene flux measured was over 1.2 mg C m−2 h−1 with an air temperature of 22 °C and a PAR level over 1500 μmol m−2 s−1. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra averaged 12.4 nmol m−2 s−1 (27.4 μg C gdw−1 h−1 extrapolated to standard conditions (PAR = 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 and leaf temperature = 30 °C. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates were well characterized by the Guenther algorithm for temperature with published coefficients, but less so for light. Chamber measurements from a nearby moist acidic tundra ecosystem with little S. pulchra emitted significant amounts of isoprene, but at lower rates (0.45 mg C m−2 h−1 suggesting other significant isoprene emitters. Comparison of our results to predictions from a global model found broad agreement, but a detailed analysis revealed some significant discrepancies. An atmospheric chemistry box model predicts that the observed isoprene emissions have a significant impact on Arctic atmospheric chemistry, including a reduction of hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations. Our results support the prediction that isoprene emissions from Arctic ecosystems will increase with global climate change.

  20. POLEN DE LAS MAGNOLIOPSIDA EN EL VOLCÁN (PAMPLONA, COLOMBIA II: FAMILIAS HYPERICACEAE, LAMIACEAE, LOBELIACEAE, POLYGONACEAE, RHAMNACEAE, ROSACEAE, RUBIACEAE, SCROPHULARIACEAE Y SOLANACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE D. MERCADO-GÓMEZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la morfología polínica de las especies pertenecientes a las familias, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Lobeliaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae y Solanaceae, encontradas en la zona El Volcán (Pamplona, Colombia. Las observaciones, descripciones y microfotografías de los granos de polen se realizaron con microscopio de luz, contando un mínimo de 25 granos por especie. Todas las familias presentan un carácter euripalinologico, excepto Melastomataceae la cual es estenopalinologica. Asimismo, al realizar comparaciones sobre algunas especies que fueron descritas en otras zonas del bosque altoandino y páramo en la cordillera Central y Occidental, fue posible determinar variaciones en la morfología polínica.

  1. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil

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    V. C. Maia

    Full Text Available One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total. Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively. Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha, Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7% were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera. Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera, inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera, and predators (Diptera.

  2. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  3. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Urso-Guimarães

    Full Text Available Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera. This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Distictela (Bignoniaceae, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae, Ouratea (Ochnaceae, and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae. The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  4. Melastoma malabathricum (L. Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

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    S. Mohd. Joffry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum.

  5. Composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma floresta tropical semidecídua submontana em Marcelândia - MT

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Júnior,Elbert Viana; Soares,Thelma Shirlen; Costa,Marcus Filipe Fernandes da; Moraes e Silva,Versides Sebastião

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma área de floresta estacional semidecidual localizada no município de Marcelândia-MT, em área de tensão ecológica, na região de contato floresta ombrófila/floresta estacional. Foram amostrados 4008 indivíduos, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 92 espécies, em 74 parcelas de 10 m x 250 m. As famílias que apresentaram maior valor percentual de árvores foram: Lauraceae (15,99%), Melastomataceae (12,97%), Sapo...

  6. Characterization of a Semideciduous Forest in Varginha, MG. and comparison with remaining forest fragments in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Pereira Naves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A floristic and phytossociological survey was made at the biggest area of continue forest at Parque Florestal Municipal São Francisco de Assis, in Varginha county, south of Minas Gerais state. The area has 10 ha and possesses a water stream. It was sampled 25 plots of 20m x 20m and recorded all the individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH equal to or larger than 5 cm. The phytossociological survey recorded 1568 individuals, and basal area of 23.65 m².ha-¹ distributed in 103 species, 72 genera and 42 families. The floristic survey recorded 111 species, 77 genera and 43families. The families with bigger number of species were: Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae and the most important species were Casearia arborea, Copaifera langsdorffii, Tachigali rugosa and Myrcia splendens. The obtained results are in accordance wih the expected ones for the semideciduous seasonal forests of the region.

  7. Caracterización florística de ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, afluente del Río Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Guayana Venezolana Floristic charaterization of enviroments of the lower Cucurital river basin, affluent of Caroní river, Bolívar State, Venezuelan Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyda Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento florístico de la cuenca del Río Caroní se realizaron colecciones botánicas en varios ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, que incluyen formaciones boscosas, tanto en penillanura como ribereñas, morichales, sabanas, arbustales y ambientes perturbados; en los bosques se hicieron colecciones en parcelas de 0,1 ha y fuera de ellas. De manera general, las familias con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Melastomataceae (46, Rubiaceae (33, Euphorbiaceae (23, Cyperaceae (19, Myrtaceae (18, Fabaceae (18, Clusiaceae (15, Arecaceae (15, Caesalpiniaceae (14, Chrysobalanaceae (14, Lauraceae (14, Poaceae (13 y Burseraceae (12, siendo las más representativas de la cuenca baja. Los géneros con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Miconia (17, Psychotria (13, Ocotea (10, Myrcia (8, Protium (7, Licania (7 y Rhynchospora (7. Melastomataceae y Rubiaceae predominaron en todos los ambientes con excepción de la sabana; Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae y Euphorbiaceae fueron las de mayor importancia en los bosques, y Myrtaceae y Cyperaceae en los bosques ribereños, esta última junto con las Poaceae predominaron en morichal y sabana. Se encontraron 19 especies restringidas a la Guayana venezolana, de las cuales 12 se conocen sólo del estado Bolívar, evidenciando que las condiciones ecológicas, topográficas y edáficas determinan la presencia de elementos florísticos particulares. Las actividades humanas son escasas, lo que se ha reflejado en poca alteración de las comunidades vegetales y en el mantenimiento del carácter prístino de los ambientes. Los escasos ambientes intervenidos han sido colonizados por especies herbáceas y arbustivas típicas de la región.As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of the Caroní river basin, botanical collections were made in several environments of the lower Cucurital river basin, including forests, riverine forests, palm swamp forests (morichal

  8. Coleopterous galls from the Neotropical region

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on Neotropical coleopterous galls were compiled from the literature, which showed that 82 galls have so far been recorded among 77 plant species. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae plant families display the greatest richness in galls. Most galls are induced on stems or buds, while leaves constitute the second most attacked plant organ. Only 16 coleopteran gallers have been identified at the species level; most records are presented at the order level. The identified species belong to four families: Apionidae, Buprestidae, Curculionidae and Erirhinidae. The galls are found in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Colombia (probably, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Eighteen species of Coleoptera are inquilines of galls and are associated with 18 plant species, most frequently with Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Fabaceae. The inquilines were recorded mainly in leaf galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The identity of these weevils is poorly known. General data indicate a lack of taxonomic studies in the Neotropical region.

  9. Magnoliophyta species of restinga, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Zickel, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restinga vegetation occurs along the entire coast of Brazil. The 187 km of coastline of the state ofPernambuco demonstrates a diversity of habitats, such as beaches, dunes, and restingas. The present study sought toelaborate a checklist of the phanerogamic species found there. The species listed were compiled from surveysundertaken between 1951 and 2007, as well as from herbaria collections in that state. A total of 477 species distributedamong 303 genera and 95 families were encountered. The families with the greatest numbers of species were Poaceae(39 species, Fabaceae (34, Cyperaceae (26, Euphorbiaceae (25, Myrtaceae (24, Rubiaceae (20, Caesalpiniaceae(17, Mimosaceae (16, Asteraceae (14, Orchidaceae (14, Bromeliaceae (9, Boraginaceae (8, Malvaceae (8,Solanaceae (8, and Annonaceae, Araceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Melastomataceae (7 each.Approximately 60 % of the species were common to other restinga areas in northeastern Brazil, and 39.3 % wererestricted to the coast of Pernambuco.

  10. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan

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    Ping-Chun Lucy Hou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet trade is an important mechanism for introducing alien species. We surveyed a total of 434 pet shops in major cities of Taiwan and found 49 species of alien amphibians belonging to 14 families and 31 genera. Two of the alien species, Rana catesbeiana and Kaloula pulchra, have established in the fields and the other three, Bufo marinus, Xenopus laevis, and Dendrobates auratus, have invasion records in other countries. There were 16 CITES Appendix II species. The most frequently displayed species were the horned frogs, eratophrys spp. And the most abundant species was the American Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. We urge the authority of Taiwan establishing regulations on pet trade and enforcing the wildlife conservation law to reduce the risks of alien species invasions.

  11. Survey of the marine benthic infauna collected from the United States radioactive waste disposal sites off the Farallon Islands, California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reish, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Benthic biological samples were taken in 1977 from the vicinity of the Farallon Islands radioactive waste disposal sites for characterization of the infaunal macroinvertebrates and foraminifera. A total of 120 invertebrate species were collected, of which 75 species (63 percent) were polychaetes. Forty-three of these polychaete species have not previously been reported from depths greater than 1000m. A total of 1044 macroinvertebrate specimens were collected of which 54 percent were polychates. Only the nematods were present at all six benthic stations, but the community structure was dominated by the polychaetes Tauberia gracilis, Allia pulchra, Chaetozone setosa, and Cossura candida. Living and dead foraminifera were reported. The possible role of polychaetes in bioturbation and in the marine food chain is briefly discussed with respect to the various polychaete feeding mechanisms

  12. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  15. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-03

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties.

  16. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  17. Levantamento florísitico na Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, Ouro Preto, MG Floristic inventory in the Tripuí Ecological Station, Ouro Preto, MG

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    Gilberto Pedralli

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o levantamento florístico na Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, Ouro Preto, MG (43º34'33" W e 20º23'45"S. O clima da região é do tipo mesotérmico, com inverno seco (Cwb sg. Köppen e com temperaturas médias oscilando entre 14º e 19ºC. A Estação apresenta como principais tipos vegetacionais as florestas mesófilas estacionais, o cerrado, a vegetação aquática (brejos, lagoa artificial e córregos e as formações sucessionais ('candeial'. Para o levantamento florístico utilizou-se o método de parcelas e coletas por trilhas e caminhos, sendo identificadas 101 famílias, 242 gêneros e 462 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae (10,82%, Melastomataceae (8,22%, Myrtaceae (7,14% e Rubiaceae (4,76%.A floristic inventory was carried out in Tripuí Ecological Station, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state (43º34'33" W and 20º23'45"S. In this region the climate, according to Koppen's classification, is Cwb, i.e., with a mild summer and a dry winter. The main vegetation types identified were semideciduous mesophytic forests, cerrado, aquatic vegetation ('brejos', artificial lake and creeks and secondary formations ('candeial'. Through the floristic inventory in plots, trails and ways were identified 101 families, 242 genera and 462 species. Asteraceae (10,82%, Melastomataceae (8,22%, Myrtaceae (7,14% and Rubiaceae (4,76% were the families with the greatest specific richness.

  18. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra

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    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  19. De la Inmaculada a la Mujer Águila del Apocalipsis, imágenes marianas novohispanas 1555-1648

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    Nathalie Augier de Moussac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The mid XVI th century marian frescoes of the Franciscan convents of Huejotzingo, Puebla, are visual proves of the Immaculist devotion of the first missionaries. Amongst the numerous engravings from Northern Europe, which invaded New Spain via the Spanish port of Seville from the Conquest onwards, one image depicts the Virgin as the Tota Pulchra. Within the evangelisation of the New world and the intensive reproduction process it involved to impose Christian iconographies onto the American landscape, the type of the Tota pulchra was reinterpreted with an apocalyptic point of view. The Historia de los Indios de la Nueva España written by one of the first Franciscan friars who came to preach in New Spain, Toribio de Benavente, known as Motolinia, lays the principles of the Franciscan utopia derived from the millenarian theories of Joachim of Fiore, announcing the advent of the Age of the Holy Spirit and the reign of the New Eve. This particular context fostered new epiphanies around 1555, amongst which the image of the Mexican Guadalupe stands first. However it would not be until the publication, nearly a century later of Miguel Sánchez’s « Imagen de la Virgen María, Madre de Dios de Guadalupe…»(1648, whose text, largely inspired by the Augustinian exegesis identifies the Virgin of the Guadalupe with the Woman of the Revelation, that the image of the Tepeyac would acquire its canonical status of acheiropoieta and reveals itself as the living symbol of the New American Church.

  20. Arctic plant ecophysiology and water source utilization in response to altered snow: isotopic (δ18O and δ2H) evidence for meltwater subsidies to deciduous shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, R Gus; Leffler, A Joshua; Oberbauer, Steven F; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2018-06-28

    Warming-linked woody shrub expansion in the Arctic has critical consequences for ecosystem processes and climate feedbacks. The snow-shrub interaction model has been widely implicated in observed Arctic shrub increases, yet equivocal experimental results regarding nutrient-related components of this model have highlighted the need for a consideration of the increased meltwater predicted in expanding shrub stands. We used a 22-year snow manipulation experiment to simultaneously address the unexplored role of snow meltwater in arctic plant ecophysiology and nutrient-related components of the snow-shrub hypothesis. We coupled measurements of leaf-level gas exchange and leaf tissue chemistry (%N and δ 13 C) with an analysis of stable isotopes (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) in soil water, precipitation, and stem water. In deeper snow areas photosynthesis, conductance, and leaf N increased and δ 13 C values decreased in the deciduous shrubs, Betula nana and Salix pulchra, and the graminoid, Eriophorum vaginatum, with the strongest treatment effects observed in deciduous shrubs, consistent with predictions of the snow-shrub hypothesis. We also found that deciduous shrubs, especially S. pulchra, obtained much of their water from snow melt early in the growing season (40-50%), more than either E. vaginatum or the evergreen shrub, Rhododendron tomentosum (Ledum palustre). This result provides the basis for adding a meltwater-focused feedback loop to the snow-shrub interaction model of shrub expansion in the Arctic. Our results highlight the critical role of winter snow in the ecophysiology of Arctic plants, particularly deciduous shrubs, and underline the importance of understanding how global warming will affect the Arctic winter snowpack.

  1. Shrub water use dynamics in arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Tape, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    In the Arctic tundra, hydrologic processes influence the majority of ecosystem processes, from soil thermal dynamics to energy balance and trace gas exchange to vegetation community distributions. The tundra biome is experiencing a broad spectrum of ecosystem changes spurred by 20th century warming, including deciduous shrub expansion. Deciduous woody vegetation typically has high water use rates compared to evergreen and herbaceous species, and is projected to have a greater impact on energy balance than altered albedo from changes in snowpack. However, the impact of greater shrub cover on water balance has been overlooked. Shrubs have the potential to significantly dry the soil, accessing stored soil moisture in the organic layers, while increasing atmospheric moisture. The goal of this study is to quantify the water use dynamics (sap flux and stem water content) of three common arctic shrub species (Salix alexensis, S. pulchra, Betula nana) over two growing seasons. Stem water content was measured through a novel application of time domain reflectometry (TDR). Maximum sap flow rates varied by species: S. alexensis-600g/hr, S. pulchra-60g/hr, and B. nana-40g/hr. We found daily sap flow rates are highly correlated with atmospheric moisture demand (VPD) and not limited by soil moisture or antecedent precipitation. Stem water content varied between 20% and 60%, was correlated with soil moisture, and showed weak diurnal variation. This is one of the first studies to provide a detailed look at arctic tundra shrub water balance and explore the environmental controls on water flux. Planned future work will expand on these results for estimates of evapotranspiration over larger landscape areas.

  2. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  3. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. What’s in a name? How we define nanotech shapes public reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Kim, Jiyoun; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Audiences are most likely to form their opinions about issues based on the aspects that are primed and easily available in their minds (Hastie and Park, Psychol Rev 93:258–268, 1986; Tversky and Kahneman, Cogn Psychol 5:207–232, 1973). In this study, we examine how priming people with various definitions of nanotechnology differently shapes public perceptions of and engagement with the technology. Using a randomized experimental design embedded in a representative survey of the U.S. population (n = 1,736), we find that defining nanotechnology in terms of novel applications increases public support for nanotechnology but does not motivate audiences to gather more information about it. In contrast, definitions highlighting the potential risks and benefits of nanotechnology can increase likelihood of future information seeking.

  6. Individual differences in simultaneous color constancy are related to working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth C; Beilock, Sian L; Shevell, Steven K

    2012-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the possible role of higher-level cognitive mechanisms in color constancy. Following up on previous work with successive color constancy [J. Exper. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 37, 1014 (2011)], the current study examined the relation between simultaneous color constancy and working memory-the ability to maintain a desired representation while suppressing irrelevant information. Higher working memory was associated with poorer simultaneous color constancy of a chromatically complex stimulus. Ways in which the executive attention mechanism of working memory may account for this are discussed. This finding supports a role for higher-level cognitive mechanisms in color constancy and is the first to demonstrate a relation between simultaneous color constancy and a complex cognitive ability. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  7. Thermochronological evidence for polyphase post-rift reactivation in SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogné, N.; Gallagher, K.; Cobbold, P. R.; Riccomini, C.

    2012-04-01

    The continental margin of SE Brazil shows good evidence for tectonic activity well after the break-up of Western Gondwana (see Cobbold et al., 2001 for a review). Additionally, SE Brazil ranks as an HEPM (high elevation passive margin), summits reaching 2800 m. To constrain the onshore evolution of the margin, especially during the Tertiary, we did a new thermochronological and structural study. After an initial regional study, during which we found additional evidence for a major phase of exhumation during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Cogné et al., 2011), we focussed on a region that was clearly subject to Tertiary tectonics. This region includes the Tertiary Taubaté basin and the adjacent Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. We used two thermochronolgical methods on the same samples, apatite fission tracks (AFT) and U-Th/He on apatite (AHe). AFT ages range from 129.3±4.3 Ma to 60.7±1.9 Ma with mean track lengths (MTL) from 14.31±0.24 μm to 11.41±0.23 μm, whereas AHe ages range from 519.6±16.6 to 10.1±0.1 Ma. A subset of AHe ages, selected on the basis of data consistency and geological arguments, has a smaller range (122.4±2.5 to 45.1±1.5 Ma). We have combined inverse and forward modelling to assess the range of acceptable thermal histories. Results of inverse modelling confirm our earlier study by showing a Late Cretaceous phase of cooling. Around the onshore Taubaté Basin, for a limited number of samples, another period of cooling occurred during the Early Tertiary, around the time when the basin formed. The inferred thermal histories for most of the samples also imply a later reheating, followed by a Neogene cooling. According to forward modelling, the evidence for reheating seems to be robust around the margins of the Taubaté Basin, but elsewhere the data cannot really discriminate between this and a less complex thermal history. However forward modelling and geologically independent information support the conclusion that the whole

  8. Social learning and traditions in animals: evidence, definitions, and relationship to human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2012-11-01

    The number of publications concerned with social learning in nonhuman animals has expanded dramatically in recent decades. In this article, recent literature addressing three issues that have been of particular concern to those with both an interest in social learning and a background in experimental psychology are reviewed: (1) the definition as well as (2) empirical investigation of the numerous behavioral processes that support social learning in animals, and (3) the relationship of the 'traditions' seen in animals to the 'culture' that is so important in shaping the development of behavioral repertoires in humans. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1196 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. What's in a name? How we define nanotech shapes public reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Kim, Jiyoun; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Audiences are most likely to form their opinions about issues based on the aspects that are primed and easily available in their minds (Hastie and Park, Psychol Rev 93:258-268, 1986; Tversky and Kahneman, Cogn Psychol 5:207-232, 1973). In this study, we examine how priming people with various definitions of nanotechnology differently shapes public perceptions of and engagement with the technology. Using a randomized experimental design embedded in a representative survey of the U.S. population ( n = 1,736), we find that defining nanotechnology in terms of novel applications increases public support for nanotechnology but does not motivate audiences to gather more information about it. In contrast, definitions highlighting the potential risks and benefits of nanotechnology can increase likelihood of future information seeking.

  10. New trends in medical and service robots challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Pisla, Doina; Bleuler, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    This volume describes new frontiers in medical and service robotics in the light of recent developments in technology to advance robot design and implementation. In particular, the work looks at advances in design, development and implementation of contemporary surgical, rehabilitation and biorobots. Surgical robots allow surgeons greater access to areas under operation using more precise and less invasive methods. Rehabilitation robots facilitate and support the lives of the infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts affecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy. Biorobots are designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals. The need to substitute humans working on delicate, tiresome and monotonous tasks, or working with potentially health-damaging toxic materials, requires intelligent, high-performance service robots with the ability to cooperate, advanced communication and sophisticated perception and cogn...

  11. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  12. Estudo cefalométrico das características ântero-posteriores em jovens com dentadura decídua Cephalometric study of the antero-posterior characteristics in children with primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Flávio Rocha Mendlovitz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esse estudo propôs-se a avaliar as características cefalométricas ântero-posteriores em jovens com dentadura decídua. METODOLOGIA: foi avaliada uma amostra de 42 jovens do gênero masculino, divididos em dois grupos, um com 22 indíviduos aos 4 anos de idade (G1 e outro com 20 indíviduos aos 5 anos de idade (G2, no intuito de se obter valores cefalométricos e informações sobre o crescimento craniofacial. Selecionou-se apenas os que apresentavam tanto oclusão normal na dentadura decídua como perfis faciais harmoniosos. Foram avaliadas as medidas cefalométricas angulares SNA, SNB, ANB, SN.GoGn, 1.1, FMA, FMIA e IMPA e as lineares Nperp-A, Co-A, Co-Gn, diferença maxilo-mandibular, S-N, ENA-ENP, trespasse horizontal e a altura do ramo mandibular. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio do teste t de Student, com significância estatística de 5%, para detectar diferenças entre os grupos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: observou-se somente diferenças para as medidas relativas ao IMPA e ao ângulo inter-incisivos. Os jovens do G2 apresentaram os incisivos mais verticalizados em relação à sua base óssea que o G1. Todas as medidas lineares do G2 encontraram-se maiores que as do G1, mas somente as medidas relativas a Co-A, Co-Gn e diferença maxilo-mandibular apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes.AIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the antero-posterior cephalometric characteristics in children until primary dentition. METHODS: a group of 42 males, who had normal primary dentition, divided in two groups, one of four year-old boys (n=22 and the other of boys with five years old (n=20, were evaluated to determine cephalometric norms. Simultaneously, groups were evaluated to obtain information about the facial growth on those age. The measurements were taken on lateral cephalograms. Only those who had normal primary dentition and balanced profiles were selected. The cephalometric measurements were SNA, SNB

  13. What do we learn about development from baby robots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill. All told, this work has shed new light on development as a complex dynamical system. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1395. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1395 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Relationship between cranial and mandibular growth and the stages of maturation of the cervical vertebrae

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    Melissa Feres Damian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the expectation of craniofacial growth during the pubertal growth spurt (PGS is helpful in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Thus, this study investigated whether the stages of the vertebral maturation index (VMI would be valid for estimating cranial and mandibular growth during the initial stages of PGS, testing the null hypothesis that these structures do not demonstrate differential growth dependent on the maturation stage. A study population of 45 patients of both genders with 2 lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken at a 12-month interval, was selected from files. All patients should not have been previously submitted to orthodontic treatment and should be before or during the peak stage of PGS. The S-N and Co-Gn cephalometric measurements were traced on both radiographs of each patient, by computed cephalometric tracings, for evaluation of skull and mandible, respectively. The growth of these structures was established by the difference between the measurements obtained on both tracings. The VMI stage was also estimated on the radiographs, determining the position of patients on the PGS curve at two periods, baseline and after 12 months. Cephalometric tracings and VMI estimates were performed by two calibrated examiners. Descriptive statistics revealed that both cephalometric measurements increased during the study period, especially Co-Gn, which demonstrated (ANOVA and Tukey's test; 5% significance level, a statistically significant peak of development (p = 0.001, when the patient was in the VMI stage representing the PGS peak. It was concluded that the VMI stages were valid for the analysis of cranial growth and especially of mandibular growth at the initial stages of PGS, thus rejecting the null hypothesis.

  15. Comparisons of chewing rhythm, craniomandibular morphology, body mass and height between mothers and their biological daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Catherine; Louie, Ke'ale; Maawadh, Ahmed; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2015-11-01

    To study and compare the relationships between mean chewing cycle duration, selected cephalometric variables representing mandibular length, face height, etc., measured in women and in their teenage or young-adult biological daughters. Daughters were recruited from local high schools and the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Selection criteria included healthy females with full dentition, 1st molar occlusion, no active orthodontics, no medical conditions nor medication use that could interfere with normal masticatory motor function. Mothers had to be biologically related to their daughters. All data were obtained in the School of Dentistry. Measurements obtained from lateral cephalograms included: two "jaw length" measures, condylion-gnathion and gonion-gnathion, and four measures of facial profile including lower anterior face height, and angles sella-nasion-A point (SNA), sella-nasion-B point (SNB) and A point-nasion-B point (ANB). Mean cycle duration was calculated from 60 continuous chewing cycles, where a cycle was defined as the time between two successive maximum jaw openings in the vertical dimension. Other variables included subject height and weight. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the mother-daughter relationships and to study the relationships between cephalometric variables and chewing cycle duration. Height, weight, Co-Gn and Go-Gn were significantly correlated between mother-daughter pairs; however, mean cycle duration was not (r(2)=0.015). Mean cycle duration was positively correlated with ANB and height in mothers, but negatively correlated with Co-Gn in daughters. Chewing rate is not correlated between mothers and daughters in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. Method: We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Results: Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. Conclusion: The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental

  17. Análisis florístico del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayucu e Isla Mocagua, Amazonas (Colombia

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    Rudas L. Agustín

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study of the Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu and Isla Mocagua shows 1348 species, 574 genera and 128 families of vascular plants; 82% of the species are dicotyledons, 14% monocotyledons, 3.7% ferns and ca. 0.2% gymnosperms. Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae and Annonaceae represent 33% of the dicotyledonous species, whereas Araceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae are the main monocotyledonous families. Most families are Gondwanaland elements with sorne Laurasian elements; others are of unknown origino The main habit is represented by trees and shrubs (47% and 19% of the species, 25% are vines and herbs, 9% epiphytes and hemiepiphytes, and En un estudio florístico en cinco sectores del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu y en la Isla Mocagua, se encontraron 1348 especies de plantas vasculares, distribuidas en 574 géneros y 128 familias; 82% de las especies corresponden a dicotiledóneas, 14% a monocotiledóneas, 3.7% a pteridófitos y ca. de 0.2% a  gimnospermas. Las principales familias fueron Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae y Annonaceae  (dicotiledóneas, y Araceae, Arecaceae y Poaceae (monocotiledóneas. La mayoría de las familias corresponde a elementos de Gondwana con algunos elementos Laurásicos y otros sin origen asignado. El mayor número de las especies tienen hábito arbóreo o arbustivo (47% y 19% respectivamente, ca. del 25% de las especies son lianas y hierbas, 9% epífitas y hemiepífitas, mientras que las parásitas y saprófitas apenas representan < 1%. Los bosques de tierra firme presentan casi el doble de especies de arbustos, hierbas y epífitos que las planicies inundables. Algunos sectores del Parque relativamente distantes entre sí presentan una gran similaridad en cuanto a composición florística, hecho que puede atribuirse principalmente al tipo de agua (blanca, negra o mixta que los irriga. Una comparación con regiones similares en el corredor pacífico, el piedemonte amaz

  18. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

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    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  19. Composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma floresta tropical semidecídua submontana em Marcelândia - MT Floristic composition, diversity and similarity of a submontane semideciduous tropical forest in Marcelândia - MT

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    Elbert Viana Ferreira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma área de floresta estacional semidecidual localizada no município de Marcelândia-MT, em área de tensão ecológica, na região de contato floresta ombrófila/floresta estacional. Foram amostrados 4008 indivíduos, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 92 espécies, em 74 parcelas de 10 m x 250 m. As famílias que apresentaram maior valor percentual de árvores foram: Lauraceae (15,99%, Melastomataceae (12,97%, Sapotaceae (12,50%, Fabaceae - Mimosoideae (9,91%, Burseraceae (9,13% e Moraceae (7,29%. Os valores obtidos para os índices de diversidade Shannon-Weaver, de concentração de Simpson e de equitabilidade de Pielou indicaram que a área apresenta diversidade relativamente alta e baixa concentração de espécies com alta uniformidade nas proporções indivíduos/espécies dentro da comunidade vegetal. Os padrões de similaridade florística evidenciaram baixa similaridade entre as áreas avaliadas evidenciando existência de padrões fitogeográficos baseados na distribuição das espécies.The objective of this study was to analyze the floristic composition, diversity and similarity of a submontane, semideciduous tropical forest in Marcelândia-MT, in an ecological tension area in the forest contact region. The 33 families and 92 species specimens were found in 4008 individuals, in 74 plots of 10m x 250 m. The families that contributed most frequently to the floristic composition were Lauraceae (15.99%, Melastomataceae (12.97%, Sapotaceae (12.50%, Fabaceae - Mimosoideae (9.91%, Burseraceae (9.13% and Moraceae (7.29%. The Shannon-Weaver diversity, Simpson concentration and Pielou evenness indexes indicated that the area presents relatively high diversity and low concentration of species with high uniformity in the ratios of individuals per species. The floristic similarity standards had low similarity among the evaluated areas evidencing the

  20. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria.

  1. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the volatile oils from Trembleya phlogiformis leaves

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    Sarah R. Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trembleya phlogiformis DC., Melastomataceae, is a shrub whose leaves are used as a dye for dyeing wool and cotton. The present article aimed to carry out the morphological description of the species, to study the chemical composition of volatile oils from the leaves and flowers and the seasonal variability from the leaves during a year. Macroscopic characterization was carried out with the naked eye and with a stereoscopic microscope. Volatile oils were isolated by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of the volatile oil of T. phlogiformis flowers were: n-heneicosane (33.5%, phytol (12.3%, n-tricosane (8.4% and linoleic acid (6.1%. It was verified the existence of a large chemical variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. phlogiformis over the months, with the majority compound (oleic alcohol, ranging from 5.7 to 26.8% present in all samples. A combination of Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed the existence of three main clusters, probably related to the seasons. The results suggested that the volatile oils of T. phlogiformis leaves possess high chemical variability, probably related to variation associated with rainfall and the variation in the behavior of specimens throughout the year. This research provides insights for future studies on the volatile oils obtained from the T. phlogiformis leaves and flowers, mainly related to biological markers of applications monitored in the leaves and flowers of this species.

  2. Checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest at the Cachalu Biological Reserve, Santander (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Ruth; Reina Miriam; Herrera Edna; Avila Fabio Andres; Chaparro Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Reserva Biologica Cachalu is presented. Cachalu is located on the western slope of the Eastern Andes (Encino - Santander), and represents a sample of the sub - Andean forest of the Colombian Andes. The material was collected over a period of seven months in 2007 and 2008. General collections were carried out through Cachalu, and in a permanent plot at an altitudinal range between 1800 and 2350 m. A total of 443 species, included in 257 genera, and 101 families were recorded. Angiosperms represent 96% of the vascular flora, while pteridophyta 3.5% and gymnosperms only 0.5%. The Rubiaceae family has the highest richness at the genus and species level (18/36), followed by Melastomataceae (13/30), Orchidaceae (13/25), Asteraceae (13/21) and Solanaceae (8/21). The genera Psychotria, Miconia, Solanum and Anthurium show the highest number of species. For each species, the catalog contains the scientific name, collections used, habit, and the altitudinal range. The affinities of the flora of Cachalu with similar forests at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor are discussed. Additionally, species considered at any level of threat are pointed so that they may be prioritized in restoration and conservation programs.

  3. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area.

  4. Floristic survey of the herbaceous-shrub layer of a gallery forest in Alto Paraíso de Goiás - GO, Brazil

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    Eduardo Chaves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering species of the herbaceous and shrubby layer were sampled in a gallery forest at Portal da Chapada, Alto Paraíso de Goiás-GO in the Chapada dos Veadeiros during 12 months growing within 4.5 meters on either side of a raised pathway 2.4 Km long. The collections were included to University of Brasilia Herbarium (UB. A total of 138 species (103 genera and 40 families were recorded; the most species-rich families were Asteraceae (22, Poaceae (14, Rubiaceae (12, Fabaceae (11 and Melastomataceae (7. The richest family in number of genera was Asteraceae (19, followed by Poaceae (8, Fabaceae (8 and Rubiaceae (7. The results showed a meaningful increase in the Chapada dos Veadeiros flora, especially considering the herbaceous-shrubby layer of the gallery forests (223.6%. Despite the richness of the flora, the number of endemics species in the Goiás State was only 1.5%.

  5. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) mediate large-scale edge effects in a lowland tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects.

  6. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  7. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

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    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  8. Occurrence and gall characterization in a fragment of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil

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    Patrícia de Oliveira Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls surveys in Paraná are scarce and most sampling efforts in Brazil have still been concentrated on Cerrado regions. In this context, the present study investigated an area of semideciduous forest of Fazenda Monte Alegre in Telêmaco Borba, in order to contribute to the knowledge of galls in the state. Samples were collected on a 300m long track and 5m width, through active search up to two meters high. Fourty-one morphotypes were found, thirteen of which were identified to the host plant species level, ten according to level of genus, ten to family level and eight morphotypes were not identified. Among the identified families, Solanaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Melastomataceae and Leguminosae-Fabaceae represented the greatest quantity of morphotypes. Most of them occurred on the leaf (39%, 98.6% are entomogenous. 70.7% are glabrous, and as for the shape, most of them were classified as globular (43.9%. As for the way galls grouping on host plants, 46.3% showed up in isolation, and 53.7% in groupings. This study has contributed to enrich the knowledge on galls in the state of Paraná and for the Atlantic Forest Biome.

  9. Dieta de Traupíneos (Passeriformes, Emberizidae no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil Diet of Tanagers (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Marco A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Eleven species of tanagers in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, were studied for 12 months and the birds diet was described. Fruits of 52 plant species were the main item consumed for all tanagers, representing 59.70% of all items in 1330 events, although different proportions in the use of this resource have been found among the bird species. The main plant families found were Myrtaceae with eight species accounting for 22.29% (n=177, and Melastomataceae with seven species accounting for 22.29% (n=177 of fruit intake. The most frequent plant species in the diet was Cecropia glaziovi Snethl. (Cecropiaceae, which made up 17.76% (n=141 of fruit intake of all species of tanagers. Arthropod consumption came second with 22.63% (n=301, but flowers, leaves, nectar, food remains left by tourists and galls were also represented. Several environmental features influenced diet composition. An Asteraceae, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa Schultz, very common in the park, was important for some birds as its flowers attracted arthropods and its branches and leaves were used as a substrate for insectivory. Fruit intake rate, some bird-plant interaction and features of food-handling were also discussed, pointing to the importance of these birds for the structure of the heterogeneous local landscape, possibly through the spread of seeds of different plant species.

  10. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: Eradication, containment or something else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd; Goarant, Anne-Claire; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was first introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecific stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century. 

  11. Seed germination from lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fecal samples collected during the dry season in the Northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Adriana Renata; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Sanaiotti, Tânia Margarete; Gribel, Rogério

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential of lowland tapirs as seed dispersers in the northern Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed the viability of seeds after passage through the gut. Fecal samples were collected from 6 different vegetation physiognomies in Viruá National Park during the dry season. The samples were then kept in a greenhouse for 16 months to allow the seeds to germinate. The seedling species were identified and classified according to the type of fruit, plant habit, seed size and type of ingestion. Of the 111 fecal samples, 94 (84.7%) had viable seeds of 75 species. Melastomataceae was the most frequent family with viable seeds in the fecal samples (69.1% of samples, N= 18 species). The data suggest that the importance of the lowland tapirs as dispersers is not restricted to the species consumed actively by frugivory but also extends to species accidentally consumed during browsing. The occurrence of both large and small viable seeds in the fecal samples as well as a number of large drupes, which probably cannot be transported via endozoochory by any other animal species, provide evidence of the ecological importance of lowland tapirs to the dynamics of the forest-campinarana vegetation mosaic in the region. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  12. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

  13. Floristic and structural analysis of premontane humid forests in Amalfi (Antioquia, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza Cortes, William; Toro Murillo, Juan Lazaro; Lores Medina, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    The floristic composition and the structure of a humid hill forest were determined. The forest is located in the northernmost area of the Colombian Central Mountain Range. The methodology proposed by ISA-JAUM was employed in this study, from a 0.1 ha sample. Moreover, plant material was collected from clear spots, stubbles and grasslands. A total of 421 vascular plants species were found. Two hundred and thirty eight of these come from the 0.1 ha sample and only 150 had DBH> 2.5 cm, which highlights the benefits of the sample method employed, since it was possible to record a large number of epiphytic and herbaceous elements in the forest. In general, the composition matches what was previously reported in similar areas. The families Melastomataceae (32), Lauraceae (31), Rubiaceae (29) and Araceae (15) were the ones holding the largest number of species. New chorological records for the state of Antioquia were reported in this study; for instance, Colombobalanus excelsa (Fagaceae). High density of individuals (388) was found at structural level. The patterns of height and diametrical classes followed the typical distribution of disetaneous tropical forests, in which the largest amount of individuals occur in the lowest classes and few species with individuals having the greatest diameters and heights account for the major ecological weight in the forest. Despite the great diversity documented, these forests are currently subject to an intensive process of fragmentation and loss of coverage.

  14. Late glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in south Colombian Cauca Valley from sites Quilichao and la Teta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Rob; Rangel Orlando

    2002-01-01

    Two sedimentary cores with records of pollen and charcoal content within a chronology provided by radiocarbon are presented from the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). These records document the late glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environment history. Specifically, core Quilichao -1 (640 cm; 3 degrade 6' N, 76 degrade 31' W) represents the periods of 13/150-7720 14 C yr BP and following a hiatus from 2880 14 C yr BP to recent. Core la Teta - 2 (250 cm; 3 degrade 5' N, 76 degrade 32' W) provides a record from 8700 14 C yr BP around 13/150 21 4 C yr BP Quilichao shown an active late glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11/465-10/520 14 C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria Moraceae Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation on the slopes Andean forest with Quercus, Hedyosmum, Myrica and Alnus are common

  15. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  16. Effects of an accidental dry-season fire on the reproductive phenology of two Neotropical savanna shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, P; Zanelli, C B; Silva-Matos, D M

    2017-10-30

    Fire is a recurrent disturbance in savanna vegetation and savanna species are adapted to it. Even so, fire may affect various aspects of plant ecology, including phenology. We studied the effects of a spatially heterogeneous fire on the reproductive phenology of two dominant woody plant species, Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) and Schefflera vinosa (Araliaceae), in a savanna area in South-eastern Brazil. The study site was partially burnt by a dry-season accidental fire in August 2006, and we monitored the phenolology of 30 burnt and 30 unburnt individuals of each species between September 2007 and September 2008. We used restricted randomizations to assess phenological differences between the burnt and unburnt individuals. Fire had negative effects on the phenology of M. albicans, with a smaller production of reproductive structures in general and of floral buds, total fruits, and ripe fruits in burnt plants. All unburnt but only 16% of the burnt M. albicans plants produced ripe fruits during the study. Fire effects on S. vinosa were smaller, but there was a greater production of floral buds and fruits (but not ripe fruits) by burnt plants; approximately 90% of the individuals of S. vinosa produced ripe fruits during the study, regardless of having been burnt or not. The differences between the two species may be related to S. vinosa's faster growth and absence from the seed bank at the study site, whereas M. albicans grows more slowly and is dominant in the seed bank.

  17. Vegetation structure and composition of a tropical dry forest in regeneration in Bataclán (Cali, Colombia

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    Viviana Londoño Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of long-term vegetation in a tropical dry forest (TDF that is in the process of regeneration permits establishment of patterns of composition, structure and dynamics of plant communities and sheds light on the different stages of plant succession. In this study, the plant community of ecoparque Bataclán, Cali, Colombia was evaluated by determining its structure and composition in two regeneration strategies. One strategy consisted of natural regeneration with bamboo barriers and the other of natural regeneration without bamboo barriers. Three permanent plots of 500 m2 were established in each regeneration strategy (six plots in total. Composition and structure was determined, taking into account all the growth habits, with different sampling methods. We found no significant differences between vegetation structure and composition of the two strategies for forest regeneration. forty-one species belonging to 27 families were recorded (trees and shrubs 58.5 %, herbs 24.4 %, climbers or scandents 14.6 %, epiphytes 2.4 %. The dominant family was Melastomataceae and the dominant species was Miconia prasina. The orchidCatasetum ochraceum and the grass Thrasya petrosa were indicator species for high luminosity. We conclude that the plant community is in an early successional stage, where there is a mixture of planted and naturally regenerated species in the zone, characterized by pioneer species from TDF and other nearby life zones.

  18. Fructification phenology as an important tool in the recovery of iron mining areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L C; Barros, F V; Lemos-Filho, J P

    2009-08-01

    'Canga' is a name given to the ferruginous rocky fields that can be found in the 'Quadrilátero Ferrífero' of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The endemism and species richness make them areas of special biological importance, regarded as high-priority for conservation. Nevertheless, they are being threatened by intense mining activity. Aiming to understand more about this flora, this study was performed in order to determine the maturation or dispersal period of the fruits of four Canga species, Alibertia vaccinioides K.Schum. (Rubiaceae), Coccoloba acrostichoides Cham. (Polygonaceae), Miconia sellowiana Naudin (Melastomataceae), and one probable new species of Calyptranthes Sw. (Myrtaceae). Although fruit maturation or dispersal tended to occur at the end of the dry season, some asynchrony was observed in these species, with food sources being available during most of the year. This shows that these species have the potential to attract animals the whole year round, and planting them for the recovery of iron mining areas may increase the community's self-regeneration capacity, leading to a more successful restoration process.

  19. Estudio etnobotánico de las especies vegetales utilizadas como leña en San José de Suaita (Suaita, Santander, Colombia

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    Edison de Jesús Valderrama Ramírez

    2005-01-01

    son las de mayor recolección y consumo de leña coincidiendo con las de labranza y cosecha de los productos agrícolas especialmente café. Se identificaron tres formas de recolección por parte del campesino, que varían en la frecuencia y nivel de extracción. El consumo estimado fue de 4,9 kg per capita. Se encontraron un total de 52 especies utilizadas como leña, siendo las especies pertenecientes a la familia Melastomataceae las más numerosas. Del total de especies utilizadas el 94% provienen de los agroecosistemas y el 6% del bosque natural. Según las categorías de intensidad de uso, se muestran 11 especies como las más importantes. Según el IVI las especies más consumidas tienen valores de importancia intermedios y bajos, por lo que se asume que hay un criterio de calidad más no de abundancia para la selección de leña.

  20. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

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    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  1. Fructification phenology as an important tool in the recovery of iron mining areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Garcia

    Full Text Available "Canga" is a name given to the ferruginous rocky fields that can be found in the "Quadrilátero Ferrífero" of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The endemism and species richness make them areas of special biological importance, regarded as high-priority for conservation. Nevertheless, they are being threatened by intense mining activity. Aiming to understand more about this flora, this study was performed in order to determine the maturation or dispersal period of the fruits of four Canga species, Alibertia vaccinioides K.Schum. (Rubiaceae, Coccoloba acrostichoides Cham. (Polygonaceae, Miconia sellowiana Naudin (Melastomataceae, and one probable new species of Calyptranthes Sw. (Myrtaceae. Although fruit maturation or dispersal tended to occur at the end of the dry season, some asynchrony was observed in these species, with food sources being available during most of the year. This shows that these species have the potential to attract animals the whole year round, and planting them for the recovery of iron mining areas may increase the community's self-regeneration capacity, leading to a more successful restoration process.

  2. Geographical and Botanical Origin of Apis mellifera (Apidae) Honey in four Colombian Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Montoya, Paula Maria; Chamorro, Fermin J; Ramirez, Nedy; Giraldo, Catalina; Obregon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find palynological markers which permit differentiate honeys from the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander and Magdalena, by its geographical and botanical origin. Melissopalynological analyses were made of 184 honey samples obtained from 131 localities. A discriminant analysis and comparisons between the species composition of honey samples were made to find geo-graphical and botanical origin differences. A total of 297 pollen species distributed in 69 families was found, being Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. and Quercus humboldtii the most representatives. The major families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae and Melastomataceae. Six honey groups differentiated by its geographical origin were found: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Comunera Province. In a broader scale, honeys from the Andean and sub-Andean regions could be differentiated as well. Between the honey types differentiated by its botanical origin, the most important were monofloral honeys of Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. and Heliocarpus americanus, Asteraceae oligofloral honeys and mixtures of Q. humboldtii honeydew and floral nectar (Eucalyptussp., Brassicaceae Type, Asteraceae). This information in addition to the obtained by physico-chemical and sensorial analysis, may be the basis to acquire honeys' origin denomination.

  3. Antioxidant activity of an invasive plant, Melastoma malabathricum and its potential as herbal tea product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N. M.; Kuspradini, H.; Amirta, R.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan possesses abundant biodiversity of tropical medicinal plant. Melastoma malabathricum (known locally as karamunting, senduduk) is an invasive plant along with other species in the family of Melastomataceae with traditional medicinal purposes. This research explored the potential of Karamunting (M. malabathricum) plant for its antioxidant activity and the potential as a material for herbal tea product. The plant was macerated to yield ethanolic extract, and at the same time plant powder was packed into tea bags and extracted with hot water to obtain the infused water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the ethanol extracts of plant samples displayed ability to inhibit DPPH free radical formation by 82% at 50 ppm concentration. Evaluation of the tea water extract showed that the highest inhibition obtained by leaves powder by 90% and fruit 88% at 1 minutes immersion time. This finding suggest that leaves and fruit of M. malabathricum plants display potential as herbal tea material having antioxidant activity if the safety aspect can be assured.

  4. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  5. Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ngwe, Hla; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a lentiviral family member that encodes the retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, along with six additional accessory proteins, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Vif, Nef, and Vpr. The currently approved anti-HIV drugs target the Pol and Env encoded proteins. However, these drugs are only effective in reducing viral replication. Furthermore, the drugs' toxicities and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have become serious worldwide problems. Resistance eventually arises to all of the approved anti-HIV drugs, including the newly approved drugs that target HIV integrase (IN). Drug resistance likely emerges because of spontaneous mutations that occur during viral replication. Therefore, new drugs that effectively block other viral components must be developed to reduce the rate of resistance and suppress viral replication with little or no long-term toxicity. The accessory proteins may expand treatment options. Viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the promising drug targets among the HIV accessory proteins. However, the search for inhibitors continues in anti-HIV drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring compounds discovered from two Myanmar medicinal plants as well as their structure-activity relationships. A total of 49 secondary metabolites were isolated from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes and Picrasama javanica bark, and the types of compounds were identified as isopimarane diterpenoids and picrasane quassinoids, respectively. Among the isolates, 7 diterpenoids and 15 quassinoids were found to be Vpr inhibitors lacking detectable toxicity, and their potencies varied according to their respective functionalities.

  6. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng, E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2016-07-28

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  7. Contrasting shrub species respond to early summer temperatures leading to correspondence of shrub growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Stef; Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg; Myers-Smith, Isla H.

    2018-03-01

    The Arctic-alpine biome is warming rapidly, resulting in a gradual replacement of low statured species by taller woody species in many tundra ecosystems. In northwest North America, the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggests an increase in productivity of the Arctic and alpine tundra and a decrease in productivity of boreal forests. However, the responses of contrasting shrub species growing at the same sites to climate drivers remain largely unexplored. Here, we test growth, climate, and NDVI relationships of two contrasting species: the expanding tall deciduous shrub Salix pulchra and the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona from an alpine tundra site in the Pika valley in the Kluane Region, southwest Yukon Territories, Canada. We found that annual growth variability of both species at this site is strongly driven by early summer temperatures, despite their contrasting traits and habitats. Shrub growth chronologies for both species were correlated with the regional climate signal and showed spatial correspondence with interannual variation in NDVI in surrounding alpine and Arctic regions. Our results suggest that early summer warming represents a common driver of vegetation change for contrasting shrub species growing in different habitats in the same alpine environments.

  8. XANTHOLININI DELLA CINA, DELLA REGIONE ORIENTALE E DELL’AUSTRALIA. NUOVE SPECIE E NUOVI DATI GEONEMICI (COLEOPTERA, STAPHYLINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Bordoni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’autore descrive Erymus sinicus n. sp. del Fujian, affine a E. dalianus Bordoni dello Yunnan; Atopolinus brunneus n. sp. del Sichuan, affine a A. mirandus Bordoni del Meghalaya. Vengono forniti nuovi dati geonemici sugli Xantholinini della Cina e della Corea. L’autore descrive inoltre Thyreocephalus nigricantis n. sp. della Penisola Malese, affine a T. perakensis Bordoni della stessa Malesia, T. catastrophicus n. sp. delle isole della Sonda, caratteristico per la forma e la punteggiatura del capo, e Symilla cardamonica n. sp. del Tamil Nadu (India, affine a S. pulchra Bordoni e S. deplumis Bordoni dell’India meridionale e fornisce nuovi dati geonemici per altri Xantholinini della Regione Orientale. L’autore descrive infine Australinus bispinosus n. sp. dell’Australia, affine a A. sexsulciceps (Lea della stessa isola e Mitomorphus habbemanus n. sp. dell’Irian Jaya, isolato dalle congeneri per dimensioni, colorazione e punteggiatura; sono elencati nuovi dati geonemici relativi ad altri Xantholinini dell’Australia. Le seguenti specie sono nuove per le regioni indicate: Stenistoderus sinicus (Corea, Thyreocephalus amphidaseus (Pakistan, Adhavara ferrugunea (Cina, Phacophallus japonicus (Cambogia, Xanthophius filum (Cambogia, Yunna micophora (Shaanxi.

  9. Species composition of carrion blow flies in northern Thailand: altitude appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  10. Hybridization of two megacephalic map turtles (testudines: emydidae: Graptemys) in the Choctawhatchee River drainage of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, James; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Folt, Brian; Lechowicz, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Map turtles of the genus Graptemys are highly aquatic and rarely undergo terrestrial movements, and limited dispersal among drainages has been hypothesized to drive drainage-specific endemism and high species richness of this group in the southeastern United States. Until recently, two members of the megacephalic “pulchra clade,” Graptemys barbouri andGraptemys ernsti, were presumed to be allopatric with a gap in both species' ranges in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. In this paper, we analyzed variation in morphology (head and shell patterns) and genetics (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci) from G. barbouri, G. ernsti, and Graptemys sp. collected from the Choctawhatchee River drainage, and we document the syntopic occurrence of those species and back-crossed individuals of mixed ancestry in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. Our results provide a first counter-example to the pattern of drainage-specific endemism in megacephalic Graptemys. Geologic events associated with Pliocene and Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the existence of paleo-river systems appear to have allowed the invasion of the Choctawhatchee system by these species, and the subsequent introgression likely predates any potential human-mediated introduction.

  11. A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-08-01

    Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus.

  12. Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Claudia Maria; Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatao (state of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Piloes River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress. (author)

  13. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  14. Inhibition of luminescence and virulence in the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) pathogen Vibrio harveyi by intercellular signal antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, M; Harris, L; Rice, S A; de Nys, R; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-05-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections.

  15. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.

  16. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Moophayak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (44.7%, C. pinguis (Walker (15.1%, C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%, C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%; Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart (10.5%, A. villeneuvi (Patton (2.2%; Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%, L. porphyrina (Walker (12.4%, L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%; Hemipyrellia ligurriens(Wiedemann (1.3%, H. pulchra(Wiedemann (0.1%; Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot (0.6%, Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2% and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%. Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  17. Do variations in the composition and structure of vegetation allow floristic groups to be detected in a subtropical moist forest in southern Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in vegetation based on topographic location have become an interest of researchers. However, few studies have verified floristic associations related to the topographic position of a slope. In this work, we analyzed if variations in vegetation allow floristic groups to be detected in a subtropical moist forest. The vegetation was sampled in 25 plots of 400 m² distributed systematically, where individuals with a DBH ≥ 5.0 cm were measured. We sampled 1,727 individuals and 144 species. The NMDS ordination segregated three groups based on the topographic position of the slope (Monte Carlo, P ≥ 0.05; ANOSIM, P < 0.001. Euterpe edulis and Sloanea guianensis were notable in the lower and middle sections of the slope, whereas Ocotea aciphylla and Alchornea triplinervia were notable in the upper section. Some species were indicators of the analyzed sectors, such as Actinostemon concolor and Alsophila setosa in the lower section, Cyathea corcovadensis and Rudgea recurva in the middle section, and Myrcia pulchra and Podocarpus sellowii in the upper section. Our results indicate that the floristic and structural variations observed by Veloso and Klein (1959 and Klein (1980; 1984 for Vale do Itajaí in Santa Catarina are statistically valid today, because we verified the formation of different groups according to the topographic position of the slope.

  18. Exoproteome Analysis of the Seaweed Pathogen Nautella italica R11 Reveals Temperature-Dependent Regulation of RTX-Like Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gardiner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate fluctuations have been linked to an increased prevalence of disease in seaweeds, including the red alga Delisea pulchra, which is susceptible to a bleaching disease caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11 under elevated seawater temperatures. To further investigate the role of temperature in the induction of disease by N. italica R11, we assessed the effect of temperature on the expression of the extracellular proteome (exoproteome in this bacterium. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry was used to identify 207 proteins secreted into supernatant fraction, which is equivalent to 5% of the protein coding genes in the N. italica R11 genome. Comparative analysis demonstrated that expression of over 30% of the N. italica R11 exoproteome is affected by temperature. The temperature-dependent proteins include traits that could facilitate the ATP-dependent transport of amino acid and carbohydrate, as well as several uncharacterized proteins. Further, potential virulence determinants, including two RTX-like proteins, exhibited significantly higher expression in the exoproteome at the disease inducing temperature of 24°C relative to non-inducing temperature (16°C. This is the first study to demonstrate that temperature has an influence exoproteome expression in a macroalgal pathogen. The results have revealed several temperature regulated candidate virulence factors that may have a role in macroalgal colonization and invasion at elevated sea-surface temperatures, including novel RTX-like proteins.

  19. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  20. Notes on the nesting biology of five species of Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho-Filho

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. As abelhas-da-orquídea (Euglossini possuem tamanho médio a grande, corpo parcialmente ou completamente metálico e são relativamente comuns na região Neotropical. Apesar disso, a biologia de nidificação da maioria das espécies permanece desconhecida. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo e fornecer novas informações sobre a biologia de nidificação de cinco espécies de Euglossini encontradas em área urbana e florestada da Amazônia Brasileira. Os ninhos de Eufriesea pulchra (Smithe Euglossa chalybeata Frieseforam registrados pela primeira vez, encontrados dentro de ninho de formiga Azteca sp. e em uma árvore apodrecida caída, respectivamente. O ninho de Euglossa townsendiCockerell foi registrado pela primeira vez em uma folha da planta ornamental Cordyline sp. (Asparagaceae. Euglossa intersecta Latreillefoi registrada nidificando dentro de um ninho abandonado de cupim e Euglossa cordata (Linnaeusfoi encontrada nidificando em uma maçaneta tubular de metal de uma janela.

  1. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2015-01-01

    Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented.

  2. Community of male Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in a secondary forest, Alcântara, MA, Brazil

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    BRITO C. M. S. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From September, 92 to August, 93 bee sampling was done in a secondary forest near the Pepital River, in Alcântara, MA, in order to study the local Euglossini fauna. Five aromatic compounds were used: eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate, vanillin, and benzoate. Four hundred sixty-seven male Euglossini bees were captured, distributed in 4 genus and 19 species. Euglossa was the most abundant and with high diversity (302 specimens and 14 species, followed by Eulaema (121; 3, Eufriesea (41; 1, and Exaerete (3; 1. The species which more frequently visited the bait were Euglossa piliventris (141 specimens; 30.19%, Euglossa cingulata (113; 24.21%, Euglossa ignita (45; 9.64%, Eufriesea pulchra (41; 8.78%, and Euglossa gaianii (33; 7.07% corresponding to 79.88% of the sampling universe. The bees were active throught the year, however during the rainy season more activity and diversity were observed. The most attractive essence was eucaliptol (44.32% specimens and 84.21% species. In spite of this study having been done in a forest fragment, a secondary vegetation area smaller than other areas studied in Maranhão, it showed a significant diversity rate. This result reinforces the importance of fragments in the conservation of local bee communities.

  3. Paleomagnetic constraints on early collisional deformation along the eastern margin of the Qiantang terrane (Tibetan plateau) at 50 and 37 Ma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guillot, Stéphane; Goussin, Fanny; Huang, Wentao; Replumaz, Anne; Yang, Zhang; Guo, Zhaojie; Song, Bowen

    2017-04-01

    Ongoing controversies on the timing and latitude of the India-Asia collision with associated formation of the Tibetan plateau have major implications on geodynamic, climatic and biotic models. Rock paleomagnetic inclinations and declinations enable in principle to quantify respectively paleolatitudes and tectonic rotations. However, shallow paleomagnetic inclinations observed for most of the Cenozoic rocks across the active belts of Central Asia have been controversially interpreted as resulting from non dipolar geomagnetic fields, inclination flattening in the sedimentary data or large scale continental deformation. In addition tectonic rotations from the Eastern margin of Tibet may result from extrusion or dextral shear associated with implication on the early collision. We present new paleomagnetic results from two Cenozoic basins of the Eastern part of the Qiantang block characterized by two short-lived volcanic fields at 37-38Ma (Nangqian area) and 49-51Ma (Xialaxiu area). In the Xialaxiu area, we sampled the volcanic field near the town of Xialaxiu and red beds filling the Sangalaxiu basin 10 to 20km farther north. Results from the red beds after tilt correction (D=328.3°, I=34.3°, α95=7.6°) confirm the result (D=322.0°, I=32.3°, α95=9.5°) previously obtained by Cogne et al., (1999) but the age and nature of the characteristic magnetization are uncertain. The mean direction calculated from 21 sites in volcanic rocks provides a more reliable paleofield (D=11.9°, I=41.6°, α95=8.0°). Comparison with the expected direction for stable Eurasia suggest no rotation but significant post 50 Ma shortening north of the Qiantang block in agreement with results from the Lhasa terrane at the same age (56-47 Ma) (van Hinsbergen et al., 2012). In the Nangqian basin, paleomagnetic sites have been collected in red beds sediments, sills and dikes intruding the red bed sequence and in extrusive volcanic rocks mainly found on top of the sedimentary sequence. A well

  4. Studies in American orchids VII Studies in American orchids VII

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    Garay Leslie A.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827 / Epidendrum infaustum Rchb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz. 19: 13, 1863 / Epidendrum jejunum Rchb. f. in Otia Bot. Hamb, 12, 1878 / Epidendrum vernixium Rchb. f. & Warsc. in Bonpl. 2: 110, 1854 / Maxillaria ochracea (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov / Odontoglossum narthecioides (Krzl. Garay, comb. nov. / Sigmatostalix auriculata, Garay, sp. nov. / Sigmatostalix  Brownii Garay,· sp. nov / Rusbyella pusilla (C. Schweinf. Garay, comb. nov / Sphyrastylis ecuadorensis Garay, sp. nov / Pterostemma  calceolaris Garay, sp. nov.Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827

  5. Word learning mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Arunachalam, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms. We review some of these mechanisms to examine the relationship between the input that is available to learners and learners' intake of that input-that is, the organized, interpreted, and stored representations they form. We discuss how learners segment individual words from the speech stream and identify their grammatical categories, how they identify the concepts denoted by these words, and how they refine their initial representations of word meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1435. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1435 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Psychology > Language. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Movement dynamics reflect a functional role for weak coupling and role structure in dyadic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like. In the present study, dyads worked together to construct towers from uncooked spaghetti and marshmallows. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis, we found that dyads with loosely coupled gross body movements performed better, supporting recent work suggesting that simple synchrony may not be the key to effective performance (Riley et al. 2011). We also found evidence that leader-follower dynamics-when sensitive to the specific role structure of the interaction-impact task performance. We discuss our results with respect to the functional role of coordination in human interaction.

  7. Response probability and response time: a straight line, the Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory, an operational definition of meaningfulness and short term memory time decay and search time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2008-12-01

    The functional relationship between correct response probability and response time is investigated in data sets from Rubin, Hinton and Wenzel, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25:1161-1176, 1999 and Anderson, J Exp Psychol [Hum Learn] 7:326-343, 1981. The two measures are linearly related through stimulus presentation lags from 0 to 594 s in the former experiment and for repeated learning of words in the latter. The Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory is introduced to explain this linear relationship. At stimulus presentation the words are tagged. This tagging level drops slowly with time. When a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to increase for the word to be properly identified leading to a delay in response time. The tagging time is related to the meaningfulness of the words used-the more meaningful the word the longer the tagging time. After stimulus presentation the tagging level drops in a logarithmic fashion to 50% after 10 s and to 20% after 240 s. The incorrect recall and recognition times saturate in the Rubin et al. data set (they are not linear for large time lags), suggesting a limited time to search the short term memory structure: the search time for recall of unusual words is 1.7 s. For recognition of nonsense words the corresponding time is about 0.4 s, similar to the 0.243 s found in Cavanagh (1972).

  8. Cephalometric landmark variability among orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists: a comparative study

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    Durao, Ana Paula Reis; Ferreira, Afonso P. [Dept.of Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Morosolli, Aline [Dept.of Surgery, Dentistry School, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pittayapat, Pisha [Dept.of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Bolstad, Napat [Dept.of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso (Norway); Jacobs, Reinhilde [Dept.of Oral Imaging Center, OMFS-IMPATH Research Group, Dept. of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    The aim this study was to compare the accuracy of orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists in identifying 17 commonly used cephalometric landmarks, and to determine the extent of variability associated with each of those landmarks. Twenty digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated by two groups of dental specialists, and 17 cephalometric landmarks were identified. The x and y coordinates of each landmark were recorded. The mean value for each landmark was considered the best estimate and used as the standard. Variation in measurements of the distance between landmarks and measurements of the angles associated with certain landmarks was also assessed by a subset of two observers, and intraobserver and interobserver agreement were evaluated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for intraobserver agreement, but only good for interobserver agreement. The least reliable landmark for orthodontists was the gnathion (Gn) point (standard deviation [SD], 5.92 mm), while the orbitale (Or) was the least reliable landmark (SD, 4.41 mm) for dentomaxillofacial radiologists. Furthermore, the condylion (Co)-Gn plane was the least consistent (SD, 4.43 mm). We established that some landmarks were not as reproducible as others, both horizontally and vertically. The most consistently identified landmark in both groups was the lower incisor border, while the least reliable points were Co, Gn, Or, and the anterior nasal spine. Overall, a lower level of reproducibility in the identification of cephalometric landmarks was observed among orthodontists.

  9. The cognitive science of fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Fiction might be dismissed as observations that lack reliability and validity, but this would be a misunderstanding. Works of fiction are simulations that run on minds. They were the first kinds of simulation. All art has a metaphorical quality: a painting can be both pigments on canvas and a person. In literary art, this quality extends to readers who can be both themselves and, by empathetic processes within a simulation, also literary characters. On the basis of this hypothesis, it was found that the more fiction people read the better were their skills of empathy and theory-of-mind; the inference from several studies is that reading fiction improves social skills. In functional magnetic resonance imaging meta-analyses, brain areas concerned with understanding narrative stories were found to overlap with those concerned with theory-of-mind. In an orthogonal effect, reading artistic literature was found to enable people to change their personality by small increments, not by a writer's persuasion, but in their own way. This effect was due to artistic merit of a text, irrespective of whether it was fiction or non-fiction. An empirically based conception of literary art might be carefully constructed verbal material that enables self-directed personal change. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:425-430. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1185 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Short term memory may be the depletion of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles of a metastable long term memory trace pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2009-09-01

    The Tagging/Retagging model of short term memory was introduced earlier (Tarnow in Cogn Neurodyn 2(4):347-353, 2008) to explain the linear relationship between response time and correct response probability for word recall and recognition: At the initial stimulus presentation the words displayed tag the corresponding long term memory locations. The tagging process is linear in time and takes about one second to reach a tagging level of 100%. After stimulus presentation the tagging level decays logarithmically with time to 50% after 14 s and to 20% after 220 s. If a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to return to 100% for the word to be properly identified, which leads to a delay in response time. This delay is proportional to the tagging loss. The tagging level is directly related to the probability of correct word recall and recognition. Evidence presented suggests that the tagging level is the level of depletion of the Readily Releasable Pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter vesicles at presynaptic terminals. The evidence includes the initial linear relationship between tagging level and time as well as the subsequent logarithmic decay of the tagging level. The activation of a short term memory may thus be the depletion of RRP (exocytosis) and short term memory decay may be the ensuing recycling of the neurotransmitter vesicles (endocytosis). The pattern of depleted presynaptic terminals corresponds to the long term memory trace.

  11. The development of episodic future thinking in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, F; Chiera, A; Nicchiarelli, S; Adornetti, I; Magni, R; Vicari, S; Valeri, G; Marini, A

    2018-02-01

    The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.05.001, 2005) in order to avoid potential linguistic effects on children's performance. The results showed that this task can be used to assess the development of EFT at least until the age of 8. Furthermore, EFT scores correlated with measures of phonological short-term and verbal working memory. These results support the possibility that cognitive factors such as working memory play a key role in EFT.

  12. What sign language creation teaches us about language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie

    2013-03-01

    How do languages emerge? What are the necessary ingredients and circumstances that permit new languages to form? Various researchers within the disciplines of primatology, anthropology, psychology, and linguistics have offered different answers to this question depending on their perspective. Language acquisition, language evolution, primate communication, and the study of spoken varieties of pidgin and creoles address these issues, but in this article we describe a relatively new and important area that contributes to our understanding of language creation and emergence. Three types of communication systems that use the hands and body to communicate will be the focus of this article: gesture, homesign systems, and sign languages. The focus of this article is to explain why mapping the path from gesture to homesign to sign language has become an important research topic for understanding language emergence, not only for the field of sign languages, but also for language in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:201-211. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1212 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The role of sleep in cognitive processing: focusing on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep. Furthermore, aside from memory storage capabilities, memory consolidation also appears to reorganize and integrate memories with preexisting knowledge, which may facilitate the discovery of underlying rules and associations that benefit other cognitive functioning, including problem solving and creativity. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1433. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1433 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Why are we not flooded by involuntary autobiographical memories? Few cues are more effective than many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Pelagatti, Claudia; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Paccani, Claudia Rossi

    2015-11-01

    Recent research on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) has shown that these memories can be elicited and studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Employing a modified version of a vigilance task developed by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (Mem Cogn 36:920-932, 2008) to elicit IAMs, we investigated the effects of varying the frequency of external cues on the number of IAMs reported. During the vigilance task, participants had to detect an occasional target stimulus (vertical lines) in a constant stream of non-target stimuli (horizontal lines). Participants had to interrupt the task whenever they became aware of any task-unrelated mental contents and to report them. In addition to line patterns, participants were exposed to verbal cues and their frequency was experimentally manipulated in three conditions (frequent cues vs. infrequent cues vs. infrequent cues plus arithmetic operations). We found that, compared to infrequent cues, both conditions with frequent cues and infrequent cues plus arithmetic operations decreased the number of IAMs reported. The comparison between the three experimental conditions suggests that this reduction was due to the greater cognitive load in conditions of frequent cues and infrequent cue plus arithmetic operations. Possible mechanisms involved in this effect and their implications for research on IAMs are discussed.

  15. Cephalometric landmark variability among orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durao, Ana Paula Reis; Ferreira, Afonso P.; Morosolli, Aline; Pittayapat, Pisha; Bolstad, Napat; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    The aim this study was to compare the accuracy of orthodontists and dentomaxillofacial radiologists in identifying 17 commonly used cephalometric landmarks, and to determine the extent of variability associated with each of those landmarks. Twenty digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated by two groups of dental specialists, and 17 cephalometric landmarks were identified. The x and y coordinates of each landmark were recorded. The mean value for each landmark was considered the best estimate and used as the standard. Variation in measurements of the distance between landmarks and measurements of the angles associated with certain landmarks was also assessed by a subset of two observers, and intraobserver and interobserver agreement were evaluated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for intraobserver agreement, but only good for interobserver agreement. The least reliable landmark for orthodontists was the gnathion (Gn) point (standard deviation [SD], 5.92 mm), while the orbitale (Or) was the least reliable landmark (SD, 4.41 mm) for dentomaxillofacial radiologists. Furthermore, the condylion (Co)-Gn plane was the least consistent (SD, 4.43 mm). We established that some landmarks were not as reproducible as others, both horizontally and vertically. The most consistently identified landmark in both groups was the lower incisor border, while the least reliable points were Co, Gn, Or, and the anterior nasal spine. Overall, a lower level of reproducibility in the identification of cephalometric landmarks was observed among orthodontists

  16. Parallel and convergent processing in grid cell, head-direction cell, boundary cell, and place cell networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark P; Koenig, Julie; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The brain is able to construct internal representations that correspond to external spatial coordinates. Such brain maps of the external spatial topography may support a number of cognitive functions, including navigation and memory. The neuronal building block of brain maps are place cells, which are found throughout the hippocampus of rodents and, in a lower proportion, primates. Place cells typically fire in one or few restricted areas of space, and each area where a cell fires can range, along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus, from 30 cm to at least several meters. The sensory processing streams that give rise to hippocampal place cells are not fully understood, but substantial progress has been made in characterizing the entorhinal cortex, which is the gateway between neocortical areas and the hippocampus. Entorhinal neurons have diverse spatial firing characteristics, and the different entorhinal cell types converge in the hippocampus to give rise to a single, spatially modulated cell type-the place cell. We therefore suggest that parallel information processing in different classes of cells-as is typically observed at lower levels of sensory processing-continues up into higher level association cortices, including those that provide the inputs to hippocampus. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:207-219. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1272 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Bridging views in cinema: a review of the art and science of view integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Daniel T; Baker, Lewis J

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between film and cognitive science. This is reflected in a new science of cinema that can help us both to understand this art form, and to produce new insights about cognition and perception. In this review, we begin by describing how the initial development of cinema involved close observation of audience response. This allowed filmmakers to develop an informal theory of visual cognition that helped them to isolate and creatively recombine fundamental elements of visual experience. We review research exploring naturalistic forms of visual perception and cognition that have opened the door to a productive convergence between the dynamic visual art of cinema and science of visual cognition that can enrich both. In particular, we discuss how parallel understandings of view integration in cinema and in cognitive science have been converging to support a new understanding of meaningful visual experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1436. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1436 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The necessity of connection structures in neural models of variable binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank; de Kamps, Marc

    2015-08-01

    In his review of neural binding problems, Feldman (Cogn Neurodyn 7:1-11, 2013) addressed two types of models as solutions of (novel) variable binding. The one type uses labels such as phase synchrony of activation. The other ('connectivity based') type uses dedicated connections structures to achieve novel variable binding. Feldman argued that label (synchrony) based models are the only possible candidates to handle novel variable binding, whereas connectivity based models lack the flexibility required for that. We argue and illustrate that Feldman's analysis is incorrect. Contrary to his conclusion, connectivity based models are the only viable candidates for models of novel variable binding because they are the only type of models that can produce behavior. We will show that the label (synchrony) based models analyzed by Feldman are in fact examples of connectivity based models. Feldman's analysis that novel variable binding can be achieved without existing connection structures seems to result from analyzing the binding problem in a wrong frame of reference, in particular in an outside instead of the required inside frame of reference. Connectivity based models can be models of novel variable binding when they possess a connection structure that resembles a small-world network, as found in the brain. We will illustrate binding with this type of model with episode binding and the binding of words, including novel words, in sentence structures.

  19. Memory for past events: movement and action chains in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daprati, Elena; Nico, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we assessed whether individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show memory impairments for previously performed actions, as previously suggested for people suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (Ecker and Engelkamp in Behav Cogn Psychother 23:349-371, 1995; Merckelbach and Wessel in J Nerv Ment Dis 188(12):846-848, 2000). To test this possibility, we explored verbal memory for actions in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD, with and without co-morbidity for OCD, and in controls matched for age and gender. Participants observed or observed and enacted a number of actions while listening to the corresponding phrases being spoken. After a suitable delay, they were submitted to an old/new recognition task. Results showed that ASD individuals with OCD were less accurate and slower in responding compared to ASD individuals without OCD and controls, particularly when dealing with phrases describing simple movements. In contrast, ASD participants without OCD were more impaired when phrases described complex actions that involved pantomiming object use or coordinating movements of multiple body parts. These findings are discussed in terms of differential organization of the motor trace for simple versus complex actions in ASD individuals according to the concurrent presence of OCD.

  20. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  2. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A hard tissue cephalometric comparative study between hand tracing and computerized tracing

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    Ramachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze and compare the angular and linear hard tissue cephalometric measurements using hand-tracing and computerized tracings with Nemoceph and Dolphin software systems. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 cephalograms were randomly chosen for study with the following criteria, cephalograms of patients with good contrast, no distortion, and minimal radiographic artifacts were considered using the digital method (Kodak 8000 C with 12 angular and nine linear parameters selected for the study. Comparisons were determined by post-hoc test using Tukey HSD method. The N-Par tests were performed using Kruskal-Walli′s method. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post-hoc. Results: The results of this study show that there is no significant difference in the angular and linear measurements recorded. The P values were significant at 0.05 levels for two parameters, Co-A and Co-Gn with the hand-tracing method. This was significant in ANOVA and post-hoc test by Tukey HSD method. Conclusions: This study of comparison provides support for transition from digital hand to computerized tracing methodology. In fact, digital computerized tracings were easier and less time consuming, with the same reliability irrespective of each method of tracing.

  4. The role of the episodic buffer in working memory for language processing.

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    Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2008-03-01

    A body of work has accumulated to show that the cognitive process of binding information from different mnemonic and sensory sources as well as in different linguistic modalities can be fractionated from general executive functions in working memory both functionally and neurally. This process has been defined in terms of the episodic buffer (Baddeley in Trends Cogn Sci 4(11):417-423, 2000). This paper considers behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data that elucidate the role of the episodic buffer in language processing. We argue that the episodic buffer seems to be truly multimodal in function and that while formation of unitary multidimensional representations in the episodic buffer seems to engage posterior neural networks, maintenance of such representations is supported by frontal networks. Although, the episodic buffer is not necessarily supported by executive processes and seems to be supported by different neural networks, it may operate in tandem with the central executive during effortful language processing. There is also evidence to suggest engagement of the phonological loop during buffer processing. The hippocampus seems to play a role in formation but not maintenance of representations in the episodic buffer of working memory.

  5. Behavioral conflict, anterior cingulate cortex, and experiment duration: implications of diverging data.

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    Erickson, Kirk I; Milham, Michael P; Colcombe, Stanley J; Kramer, Arthur F; Banich, Marie T; Webb, Andrew; Cohen, Neal J

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between behavioral measures of conflict and the degree of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We reanalyzed an existing data set that employed the Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging [Milham et al., Brain Cogn 2002;49:277-296]. Although we found no changes in the behavioral measures of conflict from the first to the second half of task performance, we found a reliable reduction in the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex. This result suggests the lack of a strong relationship between behavioral measurements of conflict and anterior cingulate activity. A concomitant increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was also found, which may reflect a tradeoff in the neural substrates involved in supporting conflict resolution, detection, or monitoring processes. A second analysis of the data revealed that the duration of an experiment can dramatically affect interpretations of the results, including the roles in which particular regions are thought to play in cognition. These results are discussed in relation to current conceptions of ACC's role in attentional control. In addition, we discuss the implication of our results with current conceptions of conflict and of its instantiation in the brain. Hum. Brain Mapping 21:96-105, 2004. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

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    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processing and discusses how this evidence relates to two opposing theoretical accounts of older adults’ positivity effect. The aging-brain model [Cacioppo et al. in: Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind. New York, Oxford University Press, 2011] proposes that older adults’ positivity effect is a consequence of age-related decline in the amygdala, whereas the cognitive control hypothesis [Kryla-Lighthall and Mather in: Handbook of Theories of Aging, ed 2. New York, Springer, 2009; Mather and Carstensen: Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9:496–502; Mather and Knight: Psychol Aging 2005;20:554–570] argues that the positivity effect is a result of older adults’ greater focus on regulating emotion. Based on evidence for structural and functional preservation of the amygdala in older adults and findings that older adults show greater prefrontal cortex activity than younger adults while engaging in emotion-processing tasks, we argue that the cognitive control hypothesis is a more likely explanation for older adults’ positivity effect than the aging-brain model. PMID:21691052

  7. On the learning difficulty of visual and auditory modal concepts: Evidence for a single processing system.

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    Vigo, Ronaldo; Doan, Karina-Mikayla C; Doan, Charles A; Pinegar, Shannon

    2018-02-01

    The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli. We report results from two categorization experiments that suggest the acquisition of acoustic and visual modal concepts is achieved by the same general cognitive mechanism. Additionally, we attempt to account for these results with two models of concept learning difficulty: the generalized invariance structure theory model (Vigo in Cognition 129(1):138-162, 2013, Mathematical principles of human conceptual behavior, Routledge, New York, 2014) and the generalized context model (Nosofsky in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 10(1):104-114, 1984, J Exp Psychol 115(1):39-57, 1986).

  8. Cross-modal processing in auditory and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchan, Boris; Linnewerth, Britta; Köster, Odo; Daum, Irene; Schmid, Gebhard

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to further explore processing of auditory and visual stimuli in working memory. Smith and Jonides (1997) [Smith, E.E., Jonides, J., 1997. Working memory: A view from neuroimaging. Cogn. Psychol. 33, 5-42] described a modified working memory model in which visual input is automatically transformed into a phonological code. To study this process, auditory and the corresponding visual stimuli were presented in a variant of the 2-back task which involved changes from the auditory to the visual modality and vice versa. Brain activation patterns underlying visual and auditory processing as well as transformation mechanisms were analyzed. Results yielded a significant activation in the left primary auditory cortex associated with transformation of visual into auditory information which reflects the matching and recoding of a stored item and its modality. This finding yields empirical evidence for a transformation of visual input into a phonological code, with the auditory cortex as the neural correlate of the recoding process in working memory.

  9. Comparison of short-term effects between face mask and skeletal anchorage therapy with intermaxillary elastics in patients with maxillary retrognathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Esenlik, Elçin; Fındık, Yavuz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term dental and skeletal effects of a face mask (FM) with those of skeletal anchorage (SA) therapy with intermaxillary elastics in prepubertal patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Fifty patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency were divided into two groups. In the FM group, an FM was applied by a bite plate with a force of 400g for each side. In the SA group, mini-plates were placed between mandibular lateral incisors and canines, and mini-implants were inserted between maxillary second premolars and first molars. A bite plate was inserted into the upper arch, and Class III elastics were applied with a force of 200g between each mini-plate and mini-implant. Mean treatment durations were 0.52±0.09 years for FM and 0.76±0.09 years for SA. After the treatment, statistically significant increases in SNA°, ANB°, A-y, 1-NA, SnGoGn°, Co-A, Co-Gn, and A-Nperp, and reductions in SNB° and FH┴N-Pg were observed in both groups, and these changes were similar in both groups. In the FM group, 1-NB decreased significantly, and in the SA group, it increased significantly (P journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Wolf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi et al. on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5, 121 (1981COGSD50364-021310.1207/s15516709cog0502_2]. These studies frequently encompass “card-sorting” exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, but rather due to an independent characteristic that we named “stacker” versus “spreader.” The fact that the expert-novice distinction only accounts for a smaller amount of the variation may explain the frequent null results when conducting these experiments.

  11. Empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Wolf1,2,*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi et al. on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [ Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981]. These studies frequently encompass “card-sorting” exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, but rather due to an independent characteristic that we named “stacker” versus “spreader.” The fact that the expert-novice distinction only accounts for a smaller amount of the variation may explain the frequent null results when conducting these experiments.

  12. Are groups more rational than individuals? A review of interactive decision making in groups.

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    Kugler, Tamar; Kausel, Edgar E; Kocher, Martin G

    2012-07-01

    Many decisions are interactive; the outcome of one party depends not only on its decisions or on acts of nature but also on the decisions of others. Standard game theory assumes that individuals are rational, self-interested decision makers-that is, decision makers are selfish, perfect calculators, and flawless executors of their strategies. A myriad of studies shows that these assumptions are problematic, at least when examining decisions made by individuals. In this article, we review the literature of the last 25 years on decision making by groups. Researchers have compared the strategic behavior of groups and individuals in many games: prisoner's dilemma, dictator, ultimatum, trust, centipede and principal-agent games, among others. Our review suggests that results are quite consistent in revealing that group decisions are closer to the game-theoretic assumption of rationality than individual decisions. Given that many real-world decisions are made by groups, it is possible to argue that standard game theory is a better descriptive model than previously believed by experimental researchers. We conclude by discussing future research avenues in this area. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:471-482. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1184 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Theory of mind.

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    Carlson, Stephanie M; Koenig, Melissa A; Harms, Madeline B

    2013-07-01

    Theory of mind and its development has been a significantly important-and challenging-topic of research in cognitive science for three decades. This review summarizes our knowledge of when and how children come to understand their own and others' minds, including the developmental timetable, old and new measures, and foundational skills in infancy. We review recent research on theory-of-mind (ToM) and learning, that is, ways in which children's understanding of other minds informs how they learn about the world, as well as evidence for an important role of domain-general cognitive skills (executive function) in the development of ToM, and the neural networks that are most strongly implicated. Finally, we propose future directions for research in this vast and growing field. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:391-402. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1232 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Preparation of Bimetallic Pd-Co Nanoparticles on Graphene Support for Use as Methanol Tolerant Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts

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    R. N. Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-supported (40-x wt% Pd x wt% Co (0≤x≤13.33 alloys/composites have been prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol reduction method and been investigated for their structural and electrocatalytic properties for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in 0.5 M H2SO4 at 298 K. The study demonstrated that the bimetallic Pd-Co composite nanoparticles are, in fact, alloy nanoparticles with fcc crystalline structure. Partial substitution of Pd by Co (from 3.64 to 13.33 wt% in 40 wt% Pd/graphene decreases the lattice parameter as well as the crystallite size and increases the apparent catalytic activity, the latter, however, being the greatest with 8 wt% Co. The ORR activity of the active 32 wt% Pd 8wt% Co is found to be considerably low when it was deposited on the support multiwall carbon nanotubes under similar conditions. The rotating disk electrode study indicated that the ORR on 32 wt% Pd 8 wt% Co/GNS in 0.5 M H2SO4 follows approximately the four-electron pathway.

  15. Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving.

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    Schelhorn, Sven-Eric; Griego, Jacqueline; Schmid, Ute

    2007-03-01

    Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience with the source problem is used to guide the search for the target solution by applying the same solution technique rather than by transferring the complete solution. We report an empirical study using the path finding problems presented in Novick and Hmelo (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1296-1321, 1994) as material. We show that both transformational and derivational analogy are problem-solving strategies realized by human problem solvers. Which strategy is evoked in a given problem-solving context depends on the constraints guiding object-to-object mapping between source and target problem. Specifically, if constraints facilitating mapping are available, subjects are more likely to employ a transformational strategy, otherwise they are more likely to use a derivational strategy.

  16. The simplicity principle in perception and cognition.

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    Feldman, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    The simplicity principle, traditionally referred to as Occam's razor, is the idea that simpler explanations of observations should be preferred to more complex ones. In recent decades the principle has been clarified via the incorporation of modern notions of computation and probability, allowing a more precise understanding of how exactly complexity minimization facilitates inference. The simplicity principle has found many applications in modern cognitive science, in contexts as diverse as perception, categorization, reasoning, and neuroscience. In all these areas, the common idea is that the mind seeks the simplest available interpretation of observations- or, more precisely, that it balances a bias toward simplicity with a somewhat opposed constraint to choose models consistent with perceptual or cognitive observations. This brief tutorial surveys some of the uses of the simplicity principle across cognitive science, emphasizing how complexity minimization in a number of forms has been incorporated into probabilistic models of inference. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:330-340. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1406 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Similaridade entre Adultos e Regenerantes do Componente Arbóreo em Floresta com Araucária

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    Manoela Drews de Aguiar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo objetivou inventariar o componente arbóreo regenerante em uma floresta no Planalto Sul de Santa Catarina e compará-lo ao componente adulto da mesma área. Foram alocadas 25 parcelas, onde os regenerantes e adultos foram identificados e quantificados. Foi calculado o Índice de Regeneração Natural Total (RNT de cada espécie. Para verificar a similaridade entre os componentes, foi utilizada a Análise de Similaridade e o índice de Jaccard. Foram amostrados 503 regenerantes, pertencentes a 58 espécies e 29 famílias. Myrtaceae foi a família de maior riqueza (13. Leandra regnelli (Triana Cogn., Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. e Miconia cinerascens Miq. apresentaram os maiores valores de RNT. Houve elevada dissimilaridade entre regenerantes e adultos, sendo que 37,5% das espécies do componente adulto não tiveram representantes na regeneração natural. Conclui-se que existe uma baixa capacidade regenerativa da maior parte das espécies, o que pode estar associado à presença de gado na área.

  18. Latent semantic analysis.

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    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Long-term outcomes of Class III treatment with mandibular cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances.

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    Baccetti, Tiziano; Rey, Diego; Oberti, Giovanni; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the stability of the outcomes of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliance-treated Class III patients at a long-term posttreatment (5 years) observation, compared with well-matched untreated Class III controls, following a previous report on the short-term outcomes of this protocol. The treated group consisted of 20 patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusions treated with a two-phase protocol consisting of MCH and fixed appliances, while the control group comprised 18 untreated subjects with similar dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms of both patients and controls were analyzed at two time points: posttreatment (PT), after two-phase treatment; and long term (LT). All patients were at a postpubertal stage of skeletal maturity at PT, and they showed CS6 at LT, thus revealing completion of pubertal craniofacial growth. In the long term, the treatment group showed significantly smaller values for mandibular length (Co-Gn), SNB angle, maxillomandibular differential, and molar relation. When compared with the controls, the treated patients exhibited also greater values for ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and overjet at LT. No significant difference between the two groups was found for the changes occurring from PT to LT. Favorable dentoskeletal outcomes induced by MCH and fixed appliances remained stable in the long term; untreated Class III malocclusion did not show any tendency toward self-improvement during the postpubertal interval.

  20. Prediction of individual mandibular changes induced by functional jaw orthopedics followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2006-11-01

    To identify pretreatment cephalometric variables for the prediction of individual mandibular outcomes of functional jaw orthopedics (FJO) followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients treated at the peak in mandibular growth. The study was performed on 51 subjects (24 females, 27 males) with Class II malocclusion. First-phase therapy was accomplished with a twin block in 16 subjects, a stainless steel crown Herbst in 15 subjects, and an acrylic splint Herbst in 20 subjects. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment with FJO and at the completion of fixed appliance therapy. All subjects received FJO at the peak in mandibular growth (CS 3 at T1). Individual responsiveness to Class II treatment including FJO was defined on the basis of the T2-T1 increment in total mandibular length (Co-Gn) when compared with untreated Class II subjects. Discriminant analysis identified a single predictive parameter (Co-Go-Me degrees) with a classification power of 80%. Pretreatment vertical and sagittal parameters were not able to improve the prediction based upon the mandibular angle. A Class II patient at the peak in skeletal maturation (CS 3) with a pretreatment Co-Go-Me degrees smaller than 125.5 degrees is expected to respond favorably to treatment including FJO. A Class II patient at CS 3 with a pretreatment value for Co-Go-Me degrees greater than 125.5 degrees is expected to respond poorly to treatment including FJO.

  1. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  2. Semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Louise

    2013-05-01

    The fields of semantics and pragmatics are devoted to the study of conventionalized and context- or use-dependent aspects of natural language meaning, respectively. The complexity of human language as a semiotic system has led to considerable debate about how the semantics/pragmatics distinction should be drawn, if at all. This debate largely reflects contrasting views of meaning as a property of linguistic expressions versus something that speakers do. The fact that both views of meaning are essential to a complete understanding of language has led to a variety of efforts over the last 40 years to develop better integrated and more comprehensive theories of language use and interpretation. The most important advances have included the adaptation of propositional analyses of declarative sentences to interrogative, imperative and exclamative forms; the emergence of dynamic, game theoretic, and multi-dimensional theories of meaning; and the development of various techniques for incorporating context-dependent aspects of content into representations of context-invariant content with the goal of handling phenomena such as vagueness resolution, metaphor, and metonymy. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:285-297. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1227 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Allocentric and egocentric manipulations of the sense of self-location in full-body illusions and their relation with the sense of body ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Self-location refers to the experience of occupying a given position in the environment. Recent research has addressed the sense of self-location as one of the key components of self-consciousness, together with the experience of owning the physical body (ownership) (Blanke and Metzinger, Trends Cogn Sci 13:7-13 in 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2008.10.003 ). Experimentally controlled full-body illusions proved to be valuable research tools to study these components and their interaction, and to explore their underlying neural underpinning. The focus of this manuscript is to provide a close look into the nuances of different illusory experiences affecting the sense of self-location and to examine their relation to the concurrent experienced sense of body ownership. On the basis of previous reviewed studies, it is proposed that the sense of self-location may be regarded as the blending of two paralllel representations: the abstract allocentric coding of the position occupied in the environment, mainly associated with visual-perspective, and the egocentric mapping of somatosensory sensations into the external space, mainly associated with peripersonal space. Open questions to be addressed by future research are further addressed.

  4. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Statistical learning: a powerful mechanism that operates by mere exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    How do infants learn so rapidly and with little apparent effort? In 1996, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport reported that 8-month-old human infants could learn the underlying temporal structure of a stream of speech syllables after only 2 min of passive listening. This demonstration of what was called statistical learning, involving no instruction, reinforcement, or feedback, led to dozens of confirmations of this powerful mechanism of implicit learning in a variety of modalities, domains, and species. These findings reveal that infants are not nearly as dependent on explicit forms of instruction as we might have assumed from studies of learning in which children or adults are taught facts such as math or problem solving skills. Instead, at least in some domains, infants soak up the information around them by mere exposure. Learning and development in these domains thus appear to occur automatically and with little active involvement by an instructor (parent or teacher). The details of this statistical learning mechanism are discussed, including how exposure to specific types of information can, under some circumstances, generalize to never-before-observed information, thereby enabling transfer of learning. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1373. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Right hand, left brain: genetic and evolutionary bases of cerebral asymmetries for language and manual action.

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    Corballis, Michael C; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Häberling, Isabelle S

    2012-01-01

    Most people are right-handed and left-cerebrally dominant for language. This pattern of asymmetry, as well as departures from it, have been reasonably accommodated in terms of a postulated gene with two alleles, one disposing to this common pattern and the other leaving the direction of handedness and language asymmetry to chance. There are some leads as to the location of the gene or genes concerned, but no clear resolution; one possibility is that the chance factor is achieved by epigenetic cancelling of the lateralizing gene rather than through a chance allele. Neurological evidence suggests that the neural basis of manual praxis, including pantomime and tool use, is more closely associated with cerebral asymmetry for language than with handedness, and is homologous with the so-called "mirror system" in the primate brain, which is specialized for manual grasping. The evidence reviewed supports the theory that language itself evolved within the praxic system, and became lateralized in humans, and perhaps to a lesser extent in our common ancestry with the great apes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:1-17. doi: 10.1002/wcs.158 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. People and things. CERN Courier, July-August 1980, v. 20(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The article reports on achievements of various people, staff changes and position opportunities within the CERN organization and contains news updates on upcoming or past events: In 1979, the USA Department of Energy set up a sub panel of HEPAP to review the overall quality and scope of the high energy accelerator research and development effort in the USA high energy physics programme; 'Open Days' at the Rutherford and App/eton Laboratories are scheduled for 8-12 July under the theme 'Quarks to Quasars'; The SPS Experimental Committee (SPSC) is to hold a meeting at Cogne, Val d'Aosta, from 8 to 12 September preceded by an open meeting at CERN on 5 September. The meeting will review the experimental programme at the CERN accelerator and establish guidelines for the programme after the long shutdown during which the SPS will be prepared for proton-antiproton physics; The first measurement of the production rate of omega minus antiparticles comes from a Bristol/ Geneva/Heidelberg/Orsay/Rutherford/ Strasbourg collaboration using the charged hyperon beam at the CERN SP; The annual Woods Hole meeting of the US HEPAP subpanel in early June, which surveys the US high energy physics scene, received a submission from Canadian physicists for the construction of an electron machine at Fermilab to make electron-proton colliding beam physics possible

  8. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The roles of consistency and exclusivity in perceiving body ownership and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Hommel, Bernhard; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-23

    Previous rubber/virtual hand illusion studies have established important constraints for the illusion that an artificial effector becomes part of one's own body (perceived ownership), and that its actions are being caused by oneself (perceived agency). We can take these observed constraints to establish two of three Wegner's (Trends Cogn Sci 7:65-69; Wegner, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:65-69, 2003) criteria for the perception of personal agency: priority and consistency, but not Wegner's third criterion-exclusivity. In this study we tested with virtual hand illusion, whether exclusivity (participant is certain who was controlling the virtual effector) can also be established. We manipulated two factors: exclusivity and consistency. Our results show that on both ownership and agency judgments, consistency and exclusivity produced main effects, and the two effects interacted in an underadditive fashion. Taken together, these findings provide support for our suggestion to extend Wegner's agency theory to explain perceived body ownership, which in turn provides an integrative framework for interpreting constraints on ownership and agency illusions.

  10. Cervical vertebral maturation method and mandibular growth peak: a longitudinal study of diagnostic reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Primozic, Jasmina; Sharma, Bhavna; Cioffi, Iacopo; Contardo, Luca

    2018-03-28

    The capability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method in the identification of the mandibular growth peak on an individual basis remains undetermined. The diagnostic reliability of the six-stage CVM method in the identification of the mandibular growth peak was thus investigated. From the files of the Oregon and Burlington Growth Studies (data obtained between early 1950s and middle 1970s), 50 subjects (26 females, 24 males) with at least seven annual lateral cephalograms taken from 9 to 16 years were identified. Cervical vertebral maturation was assessed according to the CVM code staging system, and mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Co-Gn distance. A diagnostic reliability analysis was carried out to establish the capability of the circumpubertal CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 in the identification of the imminent mandibular growth peak. Variable durations of each of the CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 were seen. The overall diagnostic accuracy values for the CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 were 0.70, 0.76, and 0.77, respectively. These low values appeared to be due to false positive cases. Secular trends in conjunction with the use of a discrete staging system. In most of the Burlington Growth Study sample, the lateral head film at age 15 was missing. None of the CVM stages 2, 3, and 4 reached a satisfactorily diagnostic reliability in the identification of imminent mandibular growth peak.

  11. Autobiographic memory: phenomenological aspects, personal semantic knowledge, generic events and characters (one case of pure retrograde memory recovery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Antérion, C; Mazzola, L; Laurent, B

    2008-06-01

    Tulving et al. [Brain Cogn 8 (1988) 3-20] proposed an operational distinction concerning memory between a semantic component consisting of general information about the individual's past and an episodic component, containing memories of specific events that can be situated in space and time. After a mild head trauma and in the context of professional troubles, patient FF displayed a pure retrograde amnesia concerning both his biographical identity and semantic memories. The patient could no longer access his memories. However, these did not seem completely lost since his answers to tests concerning historical events were better than random, his answers to a television quiz were automatic, he showed temporal transfer phenomena (ecmnesia) and since he retrieved the entirety of his memories within nine months. The patient FF illustrates the loss of retrograde autobiographic memory and the recovery of episodic memories, which requires three elements: a sense of subjective time, an autonoetic awareness (the ability to be aware of subjective time) and a "self" that can travel in subjective time.

  12. Word maturity indices with latent semantic analysis: why, when, and where is Procrustes rotation applied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Botana, Guillermo; Olmos, Ricardo; Luzón, José M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and explain one useful computational methodology to model the semantic development of word representation: Word maturity. In particular, the methodology is based on the longitudinal word monitoring created by Kirylev and Landauer using latent semantic analysis for the representation of lexical units. The paper is divided into two parts. First, the steps required to model the development of the meaning of words are explained in detail. We describe the technical and theoretical aspects of each step. Second, we provide a simple example of application of this methodology with some simple tools that can be used by applied researchers. This paper can serve as a user-friendly guide for researchers interested in modeling changes in the semantic representations of words. Some current aspects of the technique and future directions are also discussed. WIREs Cogn Sci 2018, 9:e1457. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1457 This article is categorized under: Computer Science > Natural Language Processing Linguistics > Language Acquisition Psychology > Development and Aging. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Nieves-Aldrey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera. The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba’s gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1269-1286. Epub 2008 September 30.El interés por el estudio de las agallas y los artrópodos que las inducen ha crecido en todo el mundo en los últimos veinte años. Sin embargo, los artrópodos que inducen agallas en la región Neotropical son probablemente los menos estudiados. Un estudio de la riqueza y composición de artrópodos que inducen agallas fue desarrollado en el Parque Nacional Coiba en la Republica de Panamá. Los datos provienen de

  14. Caracterização florística da vegetação sobre afloramento rochoso na Estação Experimental de Itapeva, SP, e comparação com áreas de campos rupestres e de altitude. Floristic characterization on rocky outcrop in the Itapeva Experimental Station, SP, and comparison with areas of rocky grasslands and high-altitude grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação de comunidades vegetais nem sempre é tarefa fácil, principalmente quando se trata de tipos de vegetação pouco estudados. Esse é o caso davegetação sobre afloramento rochoso da Estação Experimental de Itapeva – EEI, situada no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, região que abriga remanescentes de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica. Visando caracterizar e classificar essa vegetação, foram realizadas coletas mensais de material botânico no período de agosto de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010. A lista de espécies obtida foi comparada com a de campos rupestres e de altitude brasileiros. As comparações foram realizadas por meio de análise de agrupamento, “TWINSPAN” e “NMS”. Foram encontradas 135 espécies, 48 famílias e 108 gêneros. As famílias mais representativas foram Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae. A análise de agrupamento com os dados de distribuição de riqueza entre famílias sugeriu maior afinidade florística entre o afloramento rochoso estudado e os campos rupestres. Para os dados de composição de espécies, os diferentes métodos de ligação agruparam a área de estudo ora com campos de altitude ora com campos rupestres. A “NMS” evidenciou o caráter contínuo da variação florística, mas reiterou a maior similaridade entre a área de estudo e os campos rupestres. A “TWINSPAN” reforçou essa hipótese e apontou a família Fabaceae e as espécies Miconia albicans (Sw. Steud. e Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub como indicadoras de campos rupestres. O tipo de solo, formado a partir de rochas areníticas, constitui o fator determinante mais plausível para as relações florísticas encontradas.The classification of vegetation communities is not an easy task, especially regarding less studied vegetation types. This is the case for rocky outcrop vegetation in the Itapeva Experimental Station – EEI, located in the

  15. Composição florística do estrato arbóreo de floresta Atlântica Interiorana em Araponga - Minas Gerais Tree strtum floristc composition of an Inland Atlantic forest in Araponga - MG

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a composição florística de um fragmento de Floresta e analisar a sua similaridade com outras áreas de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, com o intuito de classificar a tipologia florestal da área de estudo. O levantamento foi realizado em uma trilha interpretativa na Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S e 42º29'47"W, 1.100 m de altitude, região de entorno do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Município de Araponga, MG. A listagem florística foi obtida a partir do levantamento fitossociológico, no qual foram demarcados 150 pontos quadrantes. Foram relacionadas 147 espécies, 98 gêneros e 50 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram: Melastomataceae (14, Leguminosae (11, Myrtaceae (10, Rubiaceae (8, Annonaceae (7, Flacourtiaceae (7, Lauraceae (7 e Meliaceae (6. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento revelaram que os aspectos de proximidade geográfica e altitude são os principais responsáveis pela similaridade florística de muitas áreas. A vegetação da área de estudo pode ser classificada como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, pelo fato de a sua composição florística mostrar alta similaridade com outras áreas dessa mesma tipologia.The objective of this work was to determine the floristic composition of a forest fragment and to analyze its similarity with other areas of the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and Dense Ombrophylous Forest, in order to classify the forest typology of this area. The survey was carried out in an interpretative trail at the Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S and 42º29'47"W, 1100 m altitude, in the region around the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (PESB, municipality of Araponga, MG. The floristic list was obtained from the phytosociological survey in which 150 quarter-centered-points were established. A total of 147 species, 98 genera and 50 families were found. The families with the greatest

  16. Análise da estrutura e do estoque de fitomassa de uma floresta secundária da região de Manaus AM, dez anos após corte raso seguido de fogo Biomass stock and structural analysis of a secondary forest in Manaus (AM region, ten years after clear cutting followed by fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano José Nogueira Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia, o fogo é ainda o principal trato cultural utilizado no preparo de solo para agricultura e pecuária, tanto pelos pequenos como pelos grandes fazendeiros. Combinando à baixa fertilidade do solo e ao baixo preço da terra, assim que as fontes naturais de nutrientes são exauridas, as áreas são abandonadas e novas florestas primárias são derrubadas e queimadas. Por conta disso, grandes extensões de área da Amazônia são cobertas por florestas secundárias originadas de áreas abandonadas pela agricultura ou pastagem. Este estudo foi conduzido em uma área experimental usada em uma pesquisa sobre eficiência de combustão e emissão de gás carbônico da floresta amazônica, localizada aproximadamente 50 km ao norte de Manaus. A vegetação da área experimental foi derrubada e queimada em 1991, simulando as condições em que o pequeno agricultor prepara o solo para plantios de subsistência. Dez anos após a queimada, a floresta secundária ainda é bastante diferente da floresta original. As espécies vegetais dominantes são, principalmente, das famílias botânicas Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Burseraceae, Cecropiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lecythidaceae, Melastomataceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae e Sterculiaceae. O estoque de biomassa recuperado, dez anos após a formação da capoeira estudada, é de aproximadamente 16%, ou seja, a capoeira apresenta um estoque médio de 56,2 t.ha-1 ± 12 (IC 95%, enquanto que o estoque da floresta primária é de 339,7 t.ha-1 ± 66,7 (IC 95 %.In Amazonia, fire is widely used for soil preparation in the agriculture and cattle ranching, either by small or big farmers. The combination of low fertility of the soil and low price of the land usually leads to typical shift cultivation as soon as the natural sources of nutrients are exhausted, when new primary forests are felled and burned. Due to that, secondary forests originated from abandoned agriculture or pasture activity projects cover huge

  17. Florística da vegetação arbustivo - arbórea colonizadora de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim, em Brás Pires, MG Floristic of shrub - tree vegetation colonizing an area degraded by kaolin mining, in Brás Pires, MG

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    Fernanda Squizzatto de Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos analisar a composição florística da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea colonizadora de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim, em Brás Pires, MG, compará-la com outros fragmentos florestais e caracterizar aspectos de auto-ecologia das espécies e o solo da área. O levantamento florístico abrangeu uma área de 0,5 ha, subdividida em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 m x 10 m. Foram incluídos todos os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. A composição florística é o resultado desse levantamento acrescida de coletas fora da área de amostragem, totalizando 64 espécies, distribuídas em 50 gêneros e 30 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae (11, Annonaceae (5, Lauraceae e Melastomataceae (4, enquanto o gênero mais rico foi Machaerium (3. A análise do substrato, nas condições em que se encontrava, revelou que este não impedia o estabelecimento da vegetação. A síndrome de dispersão preponderante era a zoocórica, destacando-se a importância de indivíduos remanescentes, fragmentos próximos e sua fauna associada. A maior similaridade florística ocorreu com o fragmento em Cruzeiro, SP, estando ambas as áreas em início de sucessão.This study aimed to analyze the floristic composition of shrub-tree vegetation colonizing an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, compare it with other forest fragments and characterize ecological aspects of species and soil of the area. The sampled area was 0.5 ha subdivided in 50 grid plots of 10x10 meters each. All individuals included had CAP equal or larger than 10cm. The floristic composition is the result of the sampled area plus species collected outside of it. A total of 64 species was obtained, distributed in 50 genera and 30 families. The families with the greater number of species were Leguminosae (11, Annonaceae (5, Lauraceae e Melastomataceae (4, while the richest genus was Machaerium (3. The soil

  18. Caracterização florística de comunidades vegetais de restinga em Bertioga, SP, Brasil Floristic characterization of "restinga" plant communities at Bertioga, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Suzana Ehlin Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O município de Bertioga, no litoral central do Estado de São Paulo, apresenta grandes extensões de restingas ainda preservadas, com reduzido número de coletas de material botânico. A rápida devastação desse tipo de ambiente, por pressão de empreendedores do ramo imobiliário e outras intervenções antrópicas, torna urgente a compilação de dados que subsidiem estratégias conservacionistas. Nesse aspecto, é aqui apresentada a caracterização florística das comunidades vegetais da região que abrange as restingas de Itaguaré, São Lourenço e Guaratuba, situada entre 23º44'-23º46'S e 45º55'-46º02'W. A classificação das comunidades vegetais seguiu, sempre que possível, os critérios estabelecidos pela Resolução CONAMA n. 7/96, legislação ambiental federal, que aprova diretrizes para análise dos estágios de sucessão de vegetação de restinga para o Estado de São Paulo. Foram reconhecidas as comunidades vegetais de Praia e Dunas (33 espécies, Escrube (101, Floresta Alta de Restinga (301, Floresta Alta de Restinga Úmida (434 e Vegetação Entre Cordões (45. Foram registradas 611 espécies, representando 351 gêneros distribuídos em 106 famílias, das quais as de maior riqueza específica são: Orchidaceae (47 espécies, Myrtaceae (39, Bromeliaceae (36, Asteraceae (35, Rubiaceae (34, Fabaceae (32, Cyperaceae (23, Melastomataceae (19, Poaceae (19 e Solanaceae (15.The municipality of Bertioga, located on the central coast of São Paulo state, still has large areas of preserved 'restingas', where few botanical collections have been made. The rapidly growing devastation of this type of environment due to real-estate development and other human interventions makes urgent the need for data that support conservation strategies. For this reason, we characterize floristically the plant communities of the 'restingas' of Itaguaré, São Lourenço and Guaratuba (23º44'-23º46'S; 45º55'-46º02'W. Community classification

  19. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil

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    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned Durante la sucesión secundaria forestal, el flujo de nutrientes en la hojarasca se incrementa significativamente. Los altos ingresos de materia orgánica y nutrientes a través de la hojarasca afecta positivamente la fertilidad del suelo y la composición de especies, las cuales son componentes esenciales para programas de restauración forestal y de manejo. En el presente estudio, el ingreso de nutrientes a través de la hojarasca y sus componentes fueron estimados para dos sitios de una selva lluviosa atlántica aluvial en sucesión temprana. La cantidad anual de elementos que ingresan al suelo desde la vegetación más desarrollada (sitios con alta área basal y abundancia de árboles fueron (en kg/ha: 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu y 11.2 Al. Menos de la mitad de esas cantidades fueron aportadas por la vegetación menos desarrollada, excepto para el Al. La cantidad de Al aportada a este sitio fue similar a la contribución de la vegetación más desarrollada, debido a la contribución de: Tibouchina pulchra (82% de todo el Al aportado. La eficiencia en el uso de nutrientes de la hojarasca

  20. FITOSSOCIOLOGIA E GRUPOS ECOLÓGICOS DA REGENERAÇÃO ARBÓREA DE FLORESTA SECUNDÁRIA URBANA ÀS MARGENS DE UM RESERVATÓRIO HÍDRICO (JUIZ DE FORA, MG, BRASIL

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    Thaisa Thielmman Araujo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisou a estrutura fitossociológica e grupos ecológicos do estrato regenerante de um fragmento florestal urbano no Campus da UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG. Foram alocadas 25 parcelas aleatórias de 5 x 5 m, onde todos os indivíduos com altura ≥ 1 m e DAP < 5 cm (DAP: diâmetro a altura do peito a 1,30 m do solo foram amostrados e identificados. Foram amostrados 1053 indivíduos, pertencentes a 119 espécies e 27 famílias, sendo Melastomataceae (30 espécies, Fabaceae (13 e Myrtaceae (13, as famílias mais ricas, somando 47,1% das espécies. As espécies mais importantes em termos fitossociológicos foram Cupania ludowigii, Syzygium jambos, Alchornea triplinervia, Bauhinia forficata, Psychotria vellosiana, Miconia elegans e Allopylus edulis, que juntas somaram 50% do valor de importância (VI. O índice de Shannon (H’ = 3,68 nats.ind-1 e de equabilidade de Pielou (J = 0,77 demonstram a presença de dominância ecológica. A análise dos grupos ecológicos mostrou predominância de indivíduos pertencentes a espécies pioneiras (62% e com síndrome de dispersão zoocórica (81%. Os resultados mostram uma comunidade com dificuldades para avançar para estágios sucessionais mais avançados, porém com grande valor ecológico para a área urbana da região estudada.

  1. Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan-Rodrigues, M; Alves, T L S; Soares, G L G; Ritter, M R

    2012-01-06

    Plants are widely as antidiabetics. The study of these plants is essential because many of them may have undesirable effects, such as acute or chronic toxicity; or their use may even delay or discourage the adoption of the proper and effective treatment. The present study surveyed the plant species that are popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Sixteen ethnobotanical surveys performed in the state were consulted, and the species used to treat diabetes were listed. For species cited in at least two of the studies, scientific data related to antidiabetic activity were searched in the ISI Knowledge database. The scientific binomial of each species was used as keywords, and data found in review papers were also included. A total of 81 species in 42 families were mentioned; the most important families were Asteraceae and Myrtaceae. Twenty eight species were cited at least twice as being used to treat diabetes in the state. For 11 of these, no scientific data regarding antidiabetic activity could be located. The species most frequently mentioned for use with diabetes were Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) and Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), in 12 studies each, followed by Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae), in six studies; and Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), Cynara scolymus (Asteraceae), and Leandra australis (Melastomataceae) in four studies each. Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini have been studied in more detail for antidiabetic activity. A considerable number of plant species are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes melitus in the Rio Grande do Sul State. The majority of those plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results, mainly for Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini. However, for most of the plants mentioned, the studies are not sufficient to guarantee the efficacy and safety in the use of these plants in the treatment against

  2. Floral Preference of Melipona eburnea Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Colombian Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, D; Nates-Parra, G

    2014-02-01

    Melipona eburnea Friese is a stingless bee kept in some regions of Colombia, where it is reported to be vulnerable to extinction due to habitat disturbance. To contribute to raising conservation strategies, the aim of this study was to identify the floral preferences of this species using melissopalynological analysis. A total of 31 pollen pot samples and 37 honey samples were taken from March 2009 through March 2010 from four colonies in Fusagasuga, Colombia. We found 92 pollen types: 17 from pollen pot samples, 39 from honey samples (indicating the sources of nectar), and 36 in both types of samples. The most frequent pollen types in the pollen pot samples were Myrcia type (100%), Eucalyptus globulus (96.9%), and Fraxinus uhdei (96.9%). The most frequent pollen types in honey samples were E. globulus (97.4%) and Myrcia type (94.9%). The pollen types corresponded mainly to native plants (68%), trees (44.5%), plants whose sexual system is hermaphroditic (56.5%), and plants with inflorescences (76.2%). The most frequent shapes of the flowers were brush-like (type Myrtaceae) and dish-like (type Asteraceae), and the preferred flower colors were white or cream (52.2%). In general, we found that M. eburnea showed a strong preference for trees of the family Myrtaceae to obtain nectar and pollen, including native and introduced species. Some other families are contributing significantly, such as Melastomataceae for pollen collection and Asteraceae for nectar. These results highlight the key plant species for the diet of M. eburnea.

  3. Atlantic frugivory: a plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Montan, Denise; Pizo, Marco A; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Culot, Laurence; Bufalo, Felipe; Labecca, Fabio; Pedrosa, Felipe; Constantini, Rafaela; Emer, Carine; Silva, Wesley R; da Silva, Fernanda R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    The data set provided here includes 8,320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The data set includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, 5 fishes, 1 amphibian, and 3 reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive data set available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76, and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3,883) followed by mammals (1,315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates, and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our data set is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  5. Floristic affinities of the lowland savannahs of Belize and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Estrada, Idalia Arely; Ortiz-Díaz, Juan Javier; Tun-Garrido, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity of Belize and southern Mexico savannahs as well as their geographical location suggest that these plant communities share floristic elements, making them conducive to a phytogeographical analysis. The aim of this study was to analyse the floristic affinities of nine savannahs of Belize and southern Mexico and to explain the similarities and differences amongst them. A binary data matrix containing 915 species was built based on the authors' own collections and on nine floristic lists already published. A second data matrix, consisting of 113 species representing trees, was also used since most literature on neotropical savannahs has focused on this life form. In addition, the ten most species-rich families as well as the characteristic species present in more than five savannahs were analysed. Floristic similarities were calculated using the Jaccard index. Dendrograms obtained in both types of analysis showed clusters with low similarity values, corresponding to geographic locations formed by the savannahs of Belize-Tabasco and the Yucatan Peninsula. The floristic affinities of the savannahs may be explained in terms of heterogeneity in climate and physiography. The Yucatan Peninsula and Belize-Tabasco groups have differences in climate type and the amount of rainfall. In addition, the Yucatan Peninsula savannahs are established at the bottom of karstic valleys, while the Belize and Tabasco savannahs develop on extensive flatlands. The savannahs of Oaxaca have the same climate type and amount of rainfall as those of the Yucatan Peninsula but they are distributed along peaks and the slopes of shale hills. Fabaceae and Poaceae mainly dominated the local floras with 121 and 116 species each; remarkably, Melastomataceae was absent in the Yucatan Peninsula and Oaxaca. Nine species occurred in five to seven savannahs, confirming that they are widespread in both Belize and southern Mexico, and the Neotropics. Geographic location and floristic

  6. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera

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    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; S. schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae in Argentina, Misiones; S. costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and S. intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; S. molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species O. conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species N. gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877, comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but

  7. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n

  8. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ru; PENG Shao-lin; MO Jiang-ming; LIU Xin-wei; CHEN Zhuo-quan; ZHOU Kai; WU Jin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features-color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. Thisis the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.

  9. Structure and floristic composition of the sub-Andean coastal subbasin of Yumbillo, Yumbo (Valle del Cauca

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    Carlos Gustavo Chaves Campo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and floristic composition of riparian forest in the sub-Andean basin of the river Yumbillo in the municipality of Yumbo, Valle del Cauca, eastern slope of the western cordillera of the Andes, Colombia were analyzed. By 20 plots of 100 m2, in the altitude range between 1500 to 2235 m., Data was recorded in individuals with a diameter of a breast height (DBH > 10 cm, floristic composition and vertical and horizontal structure by calculation of abundance, frequency, dominance and importance value index (IVI. The floristic composition consisted of 825 individuals in 93 species, 71 genera and 50 botanical families, the dominant families were Myrtaceae,  Lauraceae,  Melastomataceae,  Moraceae,  Euphorbiaceae,  Fagaceae,  and  Tiliaceae  acanthaceae. The species were heavier ecological Truco (Hyeronima  sp and the most frequent were Truco (Hyeronima scabrida, Roble (Quercus humboldtii and the “Higueron de nacimiento” (Ficus  Apollinaris. The highest values corresponded to species of importance such as Truco (Hyeronima  scabrida Arrayan (Myrcia  sp, Nacedero (Trichanthera, Otobo (Dialyanthera  lehemannii and Naranjuelo (Lacistema  aggregatum. Vertical structure was categorized into three strata, 508 individuals in the I (3 and 16 m, 270 in the II (17 and 23 m and 47 in the Emerging (heights above 24 m. It was concluded that the riparian forest has high and typical pioneer species of forest recovery, highlighted the presence of Medio comino (Ocotea sp threatened timber species that can be part of ecological restoration actions and floristic enrichment in areas of riparian forest and watershed protection.

  10. Insect galls from Atlantic Forest areas of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil: characterization and occurrence

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Galhas de insetos de areas de Mata Atlântica de Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil: caracterização e ocorrência. Três áreas protegidas de Mata atlântica foram investigadas em  Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, de junho de 2007 a agosto de 2009: Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi e Parque Natural Municipal São Lourenço. A vegetação local foi examinada à procura de galhas de insetos. Foram encontrados 265 morfotipos de galhas em 141 espécies de plantas (104 gêneros e 49 famílias. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae e Rubiaceae foram as famílias de planta com maior riqueza de galhas. Os gêneros super-hospedeiros foram Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae, Myrcia DC. ex. Guill. (Myrtaceae e Inga Mill. (Fabaceae. A espécie super-hospedeira foi Guapira opposita (Vell. Reitz. (Nyctaginaceae. As galhas foram encontradas em folhas, caules, botões, raízes e gavinhas. As folhas foram o órgão vegetal mais galhado, seguidas pelos caules e botões. Os indutores pertencem a quatro ordens de insetos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera e Thysanoptera, sendo Cecidomyiidae (Diptera os mais frequentes e diversificados galhadores. Inquilinos foram obtidos de seis morfotipos de galhas, estando representados por Cecidomyiidae and Muscomorpha. Nove species galhadoras são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado do Espírito Santo, e Cordiamyia globosa Maia, 1996 é assinalada pela primeira vez para o município de Santa Teresa. O presente estudo indica Santa Teresa (ES como a área de Mata Atlântica com maior riqueza de galhas de insetos.

  11. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

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    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  12. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

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    Selma Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  13. Floristic and structural variations of a gully at Itumirim, Minas Gerais

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    Leandro Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at knowing and evaluating the florisitc composition, the strucuture and the diversity of the regenerating species in a gully at Itumirim, MG. The gully possesses an area of 0.9 ha and was subdivided into three sectors named as arms “A”; “B” and “C”. For the structural survey of the vegetation the needle method was employed, i. e. , 574 points distributed systematically across the three arms were sampled. Each spot was stratified on the terrain as related to a topographic gradient. The indicator species analysis (ISA was used to give statistical support to the standards found. A florisitic survey was also conducted with the purpose of recording all the species of shrub-tree life form ocorring in the gully. Through the strucutural survey, it was found that the species of the group of “grass-like” and “ferns” dominated widely all the sectors. The indicator species analysis performed for each of the arms pointed out that Ludwigia elegans (Cambess. H. Hara presents high fidelity, and, therefore, can be regarded as an indicator of the sector slack for arm “A” (p = 0.002.the group of species which make up the guild “ferns” was considered an indicator for the upper third of arm “C” (p = 0.038. In the floristic survey concerning the species of shrub-tree life form, 73 species were recorded in the three arms arms 73, distributed into 63 genera and 33 botanic families. The families with highest diversities of species were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Myrtaceae, standing for 46.6% of the total of recorded species.

  14. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

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    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis melisopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp.y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  15. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

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    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  16. The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Giraldo, Alejandra; Hawksworth, David L; Robert, Vincent; Kirk, Paul M; Guarro, Josep; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad L; Damm, Ulrike; Trakunyingcharoen, Thippawan; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2014-06-01

    To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the

  17. Protection from diclofenac-induced liver injury by Yulangsan polysaccharide in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianchun; Nguyen, Vanphuc; Tang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jinbin; Lin, Xing; Lai, Zefeng; Doan, Vanminh; Xie, Qiuqiao; Huang, Renbin

    2016-12-04

    Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z. Wei, a wild-growing plant of the family Fabaceae is known to possess multifarious medicinal properties. Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS) is a chief ingredient of its root, which has been used in Chinese traditional medicine with a long history for remedy of acute or chronic hepatitis and jaundice. To investigate the ability of the YLSPS to protect against diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were orally treated with YLSPS daily 1h after the injection of diclofenac for 2 weeks. Dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate was used as a reference drug. YLSPS effectively reduced the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced the reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver. Moreover, the content of malondialdehyde was reduced by treatment with YLSPS, and histological findings also confirmed the anti-hepatotoxic activity. In addition, YLSPS significantly inhibited proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta. YLSPS also enhanced mitochondrial antioxidants and inhibited cell death by preventing the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and the up-regulation and release of Bax along with caspase 9 and 3 activity; thus, these findings confirm the involvement of mitochondria in diclofenac-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that protective effects of YLSPS against diclofenac-induced acute hepatic injury may rely on its effect on reducing oxidative stress, suppressing inflammatory responses, and improving drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in the liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  19. Uniform shrub growth response to June temperature across the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Daniel E.; Griffin, Daniel; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Popham, Kelly; Jones, Erin; Finlay, Jacques C.

    2018-04-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs in arctic tundra alters many aspects of high-latitude ecosystems, including carbon cycling and wildlife habitat. Dendroecology, the study of annual growth increments in woody plants, has shown promise in revealing how climate and environmental conditions interact with shrub growth to affect these key ecosystem properties. However, a predictive understanding of how shrub growth response to climate varies across the heterogeneous landscape remains elusive. Here we use individual-based mixed effects modeling to analyze 19 624 annual growth ring measurements in the stems of Salix pulchra (Cham.), a rapidly expanding deciduous shrub. Stem samples were collected at six sites throughout the North Slope of Alaska. Sites spanned four landscapes that varied in time since glaciation and hence in soil properties, such as nutrient availability, that we expected would modulate shrub growth response to climate. Ring growth was remarkably coherent among sites and responded positively to mean June temperature. The strength of this climate response varied slightly among glacial landscapes, but in contrast to expectations, this variability was not systematically correlated with landscape age. Additionally, shrubs at all sites exhibited diminishing marginal growth gains in response to increasing temperatures, indicative of alternative growth limiting mechanisms in particularly warm years, such as temperature-induced moisture limitation. Our results reveal a regionally-coherent and robust shrub growth response to early season growing temperature, with local soil properties contributing only a minor influence on shrub growth. Our conclusions strengthen predictions of changes to wildlife habitat and improve the representation of tundra vegetation dynamics in earth systems models in response to future arctic warming.

  20. Aspectos ecológicos de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares da mata tropical úmida da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal vesicular-arbuscular fungi of the tropical humid forest of Cardoso Island, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. B Trufem

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto/1984 a maio/1987, em nove ocasiões, foram coletadas 300 amostras de solo da rizosfera de 35 espécies de plantas nativas da mata tropical úmida do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil, para a investigação da ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA ea obtenção de dados sobre aspectos ecológicos desses microrganismos. Foram verificados 35 taxa de fungos MV A, sete dos quais espécies novas. Os esporos qué ocorreram em maior quantidade foram os de Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.. Glomus geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. e Glomus microcarpum Tul. & Tul. As plantas cujas rizosferas apresentaram maior número de esporos de fungos MV A foram as de Blechnum serrulatum L.C. Rich., Euterpe edulis Mart, Neomarica caerulia Sprague, Geonoma elegans Mart, e Piper aduncum L. A maior diversidade de espécies de fugnos MV A ocorreu nas rizosferas de Aphettandra sp., Geonoma elegans Mart e Leandra barbinervis Cogn. Verificouse que houve predominancia de espécies de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares clamidospóricas sobre as azigospóricas, bem como que a quantidade de esporos em urna dada rizosfera está diretamente relacionada com a diversidade. Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe e as espécies de Sclerocystis podem ser apontadas como características do ecossistema estudado, que apresentou a média de 50,04 esporos/ 100g de solo.From August/1984 to May/1987, 300 soil samples were collected from the rhizospheres of 35 species of native plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brazil, in a wet tropical forest, to investigate the occurrence and some ecological aspects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungi. Thirty five taxa of VA M fungi were reported, seven of them as new species. The most numerous VA M fungal spores belong to Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora

  1. Banco de sementes como indicador de restauração de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG Seed bank as indicator of restoration of a kaolin mining - degraded area in Brás Pires, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o banco de sementes sob vegetação secundária em uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de solo de 0,5 x 0,5 m até a profundidade de 5,0 cm. As amostras foram mantidas em viveiro por quatro meses, sendo metade em sombreamento de 11,5% (luz e metade em sombreamento de 60% (sombra. A germinação das sementes foi comparada nas duas condições de sombra (11,5% e 60%, utilizando-se o teste t para amostras independentes. Foram amostradas 36 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias com maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae, com nove espécies, Rubiaceae com cinco e Poaceae com quatro. A maioria das espécies (66,7% e dos indivíduos (82,2% amostrados no banco foi de herbácea. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos germinados do banco foram as herbáceas Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D. Webster, Cenchrus sp. e Eragrostis sp. e a arbustiva Leandra niangaeformis Cogn. Entre as arbóreas, destacaram-se em número de indivíduos Luehea grandiflora Mart. e Trema micranta (L. Blume. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas oriundas de áreas antropizadas do entorno indicou baixa resiliência da vegetação presente na área degradada em caso de ocorrer alguma perturbação severa.This study aimed to characterize the soil seed bank under secondary vegetation in an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, Brazil. Forty soil samples of 0.5 x 0.5 m were collected to the depth of 5.0 cm. The soil samples were maintained in nursery for four months, half in shading of 11.5% (light, and half in shading of 60% (shade. Seed germination was compared under the two shade conditions (11.5% and 60%, utilizing the t test for independent samples. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 botanical families were sampled. The families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae with 9, Rubiaceae with 5, and Poaceae with 4. Most of the

  2. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  3. Association of grey matter changes with stability and flexibility of prediction in akinetic-rigid Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trempler, Ima; Binder, Ellen; El-Sourani, Nadiya; Schiffler, Patrick; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Fink, Gereon R; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2018-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, results in a heterogeneous clinical picture including cognitive decline. Since the phasic signal of dopamine neurons is proposed to guide learning by signifying mismatches between subjects' expectations and external events, we here investigated whether akinetic-rigid PD patients without mild cognitive impairment exhibit difficulties in dealing with either relevant (requiring flexibility) or irrelevant (requiring stability) prediction errors. Following our previous study on flexibility and stability in prediction (Trempler et al. J Cogn Neurosci 29(2):298-309, 2017), we then assessed whether deficits would correspond with specific structural alterations in dopaminergic regions as well as in inferior frontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Twenty-one healthy controls and twenty-one akinetic-rigid PD patients on and off medication performed a task which required to serially predict upcoming items. Switches between predictable sequences had to be indicated via button press, whereas sequence omissions had to be ignored. Independent of the disease, midbrain volume was related to a general response bias to unexpected events, whereas right putamen volume correlated with the ability to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant prediction errors. However, patients compared with healthy participants showed deficits in stabilisation against irrelevant prediction errors, associated with thickness of right inferior frontal gyrus and left medial prefrontal cortex. Flexible updating due to relevant prediction errors was also affected in patients compared with controls and associated with right hippocampus volume. Dopaminergic medication influenced behavioural performance across, but not within the patients. Our exploratory study warrants further research on deficient prediction error processing and its structural correlates as a core of cognitive symptoms

  4. Avaliação da simetria craniana através de imagens de TC cone beam = Cranial symmetry assessment through cone-beam CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os lados direito e esquerdo de indivíduos que apresentavam simetria craniana através de 2 imagens geradas pela tomografia computadorizada cone beam (TCCB. Métodos: A amostra consistiu de 35 imagens obtidas pelo tomógrafo 3D-i-CAT (Imaging Sciences International Inc. , Hatfield, USA, sendo 13 de indivíduos do gênero masculino e 22 do gênero feminino, com idades variando de 8 a 64 anos, que apresentavam simetria facial aceitável. As imagens foram manipuladas com a ajuda do programa invivodental 5. 0 (Anatomage, San Jose, USA e posicionadas de forma análoga à postura da cabeça para a obtenção da radiografia cefalométrica de perfil. As distâncias lineares Go-Me, Go-Cd, S-Cd, Co-Gn e Co-A (mm; os ângulos mego. Cd, FMA e gogn. SN (graus, e cinco distâncias lineares côndilo-fossa glenóide foram as variáveis analisadas. Resultados: Uma diferença estatística significante entre os lados foi encontrada apenas para a variável S-Cd (mm. Conclusão: Portanto, não há necessidade de se obter valores bilaterais para essas variáveis (exceto S-Cd para avaliar o crânio de indivíduos sem assimetrias evidentes. Com relação à variável S-Cd, a dificuldade para se marcar o ponto S (sela nu

  5. Where are we in the study of animal emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Amber J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2016-09-01

    The study of emotion is rife with debate over issues as fundamental as how to define emotion, and such disputes are particularly common in the nonhuman animal emotion literature. Here, we seek to address some of these issues, especially in terms of how they relate to animal research. Definitional issues are prevalent; clear definitions are often not given of crucial terms, including 'emotion,' and even where provided, such terms may be used inconsistently throughout a single paper. Further disagreement over the structure of emotions, and the nature of conscious experiences involved, leads to consistent differences in authors' criteria for emotions. We concur with those who believe that animals experience emotions and believe that animal emotions should be studied in their own right, not only as they compare to those of humans. We also propose several avenues for future research that we believe will further our understanding of animal emotions. First, the use of multiple measurement methods to assess emotional responses is most likely to provide the information necessary to distinguish between various states and opens the field to more research in harder-to-study species, such as marine mammals. Second, researchers should also endeavor to increase the range of emotions studied, particularly positive ones, in order to move toward a more balanced range of studied states. Finally, we believe that several aspects of personality research would prove beneficial to the study of animal emotions, particularly the distinction between trait and state emotion and the use of the rating method. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:354-362. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1399 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

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    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

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    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  8. Increased cognitive control after task conflict? Investigating the N-3 effect in task switching.

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    Schuch, Stefanie; Grange, James A

    2018-05-25

    Task inhibition is considered to facilitate switching to a new task and is assumed to decay slowly over time. Hence, more persisting inhibition needs to be overcome when returning to a task after one intermediary trial (ABA task sequence) than when returning after two or more intermediary trials (CBA task sequence). Schuch and Grange (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 41:760-767, 2015) put forward the hypothesis that there is higher task conflict in ABA than CBA sequences, leading to increased cognitive control in the subsequent trial. They provided evidence that performance is better in trials following ABA than following CBA task sequences. Here, this effect of the previous task sequence ("N-3 effect") is further investigated by varying the cue-stimulus interval (CSI), allowing for short (100 ms) or long (900 ms) preparation time for the upcoming task. If increased cognitive control after ABA involves a better preparation for the upcoming task, the N-3 effect should be larger with long than short CSI. The results clearly show that this is not the case. In Experiment 1, the N-3 effect was smaller with long than short CSI; in Experiment 2, the N-3 effect was not affected by CSI. Diffusion model analysis confirmed previous results in the literature (regarding the effect of CSI and of the ABA-CBA difference); however, the N-3 effect was not unequivocally associated with any of the diffusion model parameters. In exploratory analysis, we also tested the alternative hypothesis that the N-3 effect involves more effective task shielding, which would be reflected in reduced congruency effects in trials following ABA, relative to trials following CBA; congruency effects did not differ between these conditions. Taken together, we can rule out two potential explanations of the N-3 effect: Neither is this effect due to enhanced task preparation, nor to more effective task shielding.

  9. Disjunctivism, hallucinations, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Dokic; Jean-Rémy, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Perceptual experiences have been construed either as representational mental states-Representationalism-or as direct mental relations to the external world-Disjunctivism. Both conceptions are critical reactions to the so-called 'Argument from Hallucination', according to which perceptions cannot be about the external world, since they are subjectively indiscriminable from other, hallucinatory experiences, which are about sense-data or mind-dependent entities. Representationalism agrees that perceptions and hallucinations share their most specific mental kind, but accounts for hallucinations as misrepresentations of the external world. According to Disjunctivism, the phenomenal character of perceptions is exhausted by worldly objects and features, and thus must be different from the phenomenal character of hallucinations. Disjunctivism claims that subjective indiscriminability is not the result of a common experiential ground, but is because of our inability to discriminate, from the inside, hallucinations from perceptions. At first sight, Representationalism is more congenial to the way cognitive science deals with perception. However, empirically oriented revisions of Disjunctivism could be developed and tested by giving a metacognitive account of hallucinations. Two versions of this account can be formulated, depending on whether metacognition is understood as explicit metarepresentation or as implicit monitoring of first-order informational states. The first version faces serious objections, but the second is more promising, as it embodies a more realistic view of perceptual phenomenology as having both sensory and affective aspects. Affect-based phenomenology is constituted by various metacognitive feelings, such as the feeling of being perceptually confronted with the world itself, rather than with pictures or mere representations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1190 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright

  10. Primate empathy: three factors and their combinations for empathy-related phenomena.

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    Yamamoto, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Empathy as a research topic is receiving increasing attention, although there seems some confusion on the definition of empathy across different fields. Frans de Waal (de Waal FBM. Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annu Rev Psychol 2008, 59:279-300. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625) used empathy as an umbrella term and proposed a comprehensive model for the evolution of empathy with some of its basic elements in nonhuman animals. In de Waal's model, empathy consists of several layers distinguished by required cognitive levels; the perception-action mechanism plays the core role for connecting ourself and others. Then, human-like empathy such as perspective-taking develops in outer layers according to cognitive sophistication, leading to prosocial acts such as targeted helping. I agree that animals demonstrate many empathy-related phenomena; however, the species differences and the level of cognitive sophistication of the phenomena might be interpreted in another way than this simple linearly developing model. Our recent studies with chimpanzees showed that their perspective-taking ability does not necessarily lead to proactive helping behavior. Herein, as a springboard for further studies, I reorganize the empathy-related phenomena by proposing a combination model instead of the linear development model. This combination model is composed of three organizing factors: matching with others, understanding of others, and prosociality. With these three factors and their combinations, most empathy-related matters can be categorized and mapped to appropriate context; this may be a good first step to discuss the evolution of empathy in relation to the neural connections in human and nonhuman animal brains. I would like to propose further comparative studies, especially from the viewpoint of Homo-Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) comparison. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1431. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1431 For further resources related to this article

  11. Differences in gorilla nettle-feeding between captivity and the wild: local traditions, species typical behaviors or merely the result of nutritional deficiencies?

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    Masi, Shelly

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral and cognitive studies on captive apes often pay little attention to the specific environmental conditions of their study subjects. A recent report form Byrne et al. (Anim Cogn doi: 10.1007/s10071-011-0403-8, 2011), comparing nettle-feeding techniques between captive and wild gorillas, claimed to document "the strongest evidence yet to come from any great ape that observational learning of a skilled conspecific" can allow social learning and culture in gorillas. An earlier study with similar findings placed emphasis instead on the many similarities and claims for species typical behavior, thus a genetic hypothesis instead of a cultural hypothesis. This commentary aims at formulating a third environmental hypothesis based on path-dependent behavioral differences owing to different diet and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas. Captive diet provides gorillas with a much lower concentration of fibers. Gorillas are hindgut fermenters, and this deficit of natural fermentation of fibers may impact their health and their behavior in zoos. Results of Byrne et al.'s study will be discussed comparing feeding choice and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas, showing that in captivity gorilla, motivation to consume certain food or certain plant parts may differ drastically from that of wild gorillas. This view does not intend to deny that social learning and culture may exist in gorillas, but to guide and encourage future works investigating social learning in great apes to take more accurately into account the living conditions and, when comparing populations, the possible environmental differences. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  12. Dissociable contributions of amygdala and hippocampus to emotion and memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Warren, David E; Feinstein, Justin S; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The amygdala and the hippocampus are associated with emotional processing and declarative memory, respectively. Studies have shown that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage caused by anoxia/ischemia, and patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), can experience emotions for prolonged periods of time, even when they cannot remember what caused the emotion in the first place (Feinstein et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:7674-7679; Guzmán-Vélez et al. (2014) Cogn Behav Neurol 27:117-129). This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the roles of the amygdala and hippocampus in the dissociation between feelings of emotion and declarative memory for emotion-inducing events in patients with AD. Individuals with probable AD (N = 12) and age-matched healthy comparisons participants (HCP; N = 12) completed a high-resolution (0.44 × 0.44 × 0.80 mm) T2-weighted structural MR scan of the medial temporal lobe. Each of these individuals also completed two separate emotion induction procedures (sadness and happiness) using film clips. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and multiple times postinduction, and administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. Consistent with previous research, hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in patients with AD compared with HCP, and was positively correlated with memory for the film clips. Sustained feelings of emotion and amygdala volume did not significantly differ between patients with AD and HCP. Follow-up analyses showed a significant negative correlation between amygdala volume and sustained sadness, and a significant positive correlation between amygdala volume and sustained happiness. Our findings suggest that the amygdala is important for regulating and sustaining an emotion independent of hippocampal function and declarative memory for the emotion-inducing event. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Base of the skull morphology and Class III malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maciel Tinano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the morphological differences in the base of the skull of individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion in comparison to control groups with Class I and Class III malocclusion. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals (males and females aged between 5 and 27 years old (Class I, n = 32; Class III, n = 29; and Class III individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, n = 28 attending PUC-MG Dental Center and Cleft Lip/Palate Care Center of Baleia Hospital and PUC-MG (CENTRARE were selected. Linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull, maxilla and mandible were performed and assessed by a single calibrated examiner by means of cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis involved ANCOVA and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: No significant differences with regard to the base of the skull were found between the control group (Class I and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P > 0.017. The cleft lip/palate group differed from the Class III group only with regard to CI.Sp.Ba (P = 0.015. Individuals with cleft lip and palate had a significantly shorter maxillary length (Co-A in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001. No significant differences were found in the mandible (Co-Gn of the control group and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P = 1.000. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that there are no significant differences in the base of the skull of individuals Class I or Class III and individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion.

  14. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153-160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493-1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289-2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989-994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400-404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526-2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769-771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Voluntary eye movements direct attention on the mental number space.

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    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lisi, Matteo; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that orienting visual attention in space can influence the processing of numerical magnitude, with leftward orienting speeding up the processing of small numbers relative to larger ones and the converse for rightward orienting. The manipulation of eye movements is a convenient way to direct visuospatial attention, but several aspects of the complex relationship between eye movements, attention orienting and number processing remain unexplored. In a previous study, we observed that inducing involuntary, reflexive eye movements by means of optokinetic stimulation affected number processing only when numerical magnitude was task relevant (i.e., during magnitude comparison, but not during parity judgment; Ranzini et al., in J Cogn Psychol 27, 459-470, (2015). Here, we investigated whether processing of task-irrelevant numerical magnitude can be modulated by voluntary eye movements, and whether the type of eye movements (smooth pursuit vs. saccades) would influence this interaction. Participants tracked with their gaze a dot while listening to a digit. The numerical task was to indicate whether the digit was odd or even through non-spatial, verbal responses. The dot could move leftward or rightward either continuously, allowing tracking by smooth pursuit eye movements, or in discrete steps across a series of adjacent locations, triggering a sequence of saccades. Both smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements similarly affected number processing and modulated response times for large numbers as a function of direction of motion. These findings suggest that voluntary eye movements redirect attention in mental number space and highlight that eye movements should play a key factor in the investigation of number-space interactions.

  16. Amnesia and future thinking: Exploring the role of memory in the quantity and quality of episodic future thoughts.

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    Cole, Scott N; Morrison, Catriona M; Barak, Ohr; Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Conway, Martin A

    2016-06-01

    To examine the impact of memory accessibility on episodic future thinking. Single-case study of neurological patient HCM and an age-matched comparison group of neurologically Healthy Controls. We administered a full battery of tests assessing general intelligence, memory, and executive functioning. To assess autobiographical memory, the Autobiographical Memory Interview (Kopelman, Wilson, & Baddeley, 1990. The Autobiographical Memory Interview. Bury St. Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company) was administered. The Past Episodic and Future Episodic sections of Dalla Barba's Confabulation Battery (Dalla Barba, 1993, Cogn. Neuropsychol., 1, 1) and a specifically tailored Mental Time Travel Questionnaire were administered to assess future thinking in HCM and age-matched controls. HCM presented with a deficit in forming new memories (anterograde amnesia) and recalling events from before the onset of neurological impairment (retrograde amnesia). HCM's autobiographical memory impairments are characterized by a paucity of memories from Recent Life. In comparison with controls, two features of his future thoughts are apparent: Reduced episodic future thinking and outdated content of his episodic future thoughts. This article suggests neuropsychologists should look beyond popular conceptualizations of the past-future relation in amnesia via focussing on reduced future thinking. Investigating both the quantity and quality of future thoughts produced by amnesic patients may lead to developments in understanding the complex nature of future thinking disorders resulting from memory impairments. We highlight the clinical importance of examining the content of future thoughts in amnesic patients, rather than only its quantitative reduction. We propose an explanation of how quantitative and qualitative aspects of future thinking could be affected by amnesia. This could provide a useful approach to understand clinical cases of impaired prospection. Systematic group investigations

  17. Hippocampus, delay discounting, and vicarious trial-and-error.

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    Bett, David; Murdoch, Lauren H; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    In decision-making, an immediate reward is usually preferred to a delayed reward, even if the latter is larger. We tested whether the hippocampus is necessary for this form of temporal discounting, and for vicarious trial-and-error at the decision point. Rats were trained on a recently developed, adjustable delay-discounting task (Papale et al. (2012) Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:513-526), which featured a choice between a small, nearly immediate reward, and a larger, delayed reward. Rats then received either hippocampus or sham lesions. Animals with hippocampus lesions adjusted the delay for the larger reward to a level similar to that of sham-lesioned animals, suggesting a similar valuation capacity. However, the hippocampus lesion group spent significantly longer investigating the small and large rewards in the first part of the sessions, and were less sensitive to changes in the amount of reward in the large reward maze arm. Both sham- and hippocampus-lesioned rats showed a greater amount of vicarious trial-and-error on trials in which the delay was adjusted. In a nonadjusting version of the delay discounting task, animals with hippocampus lesions showed more variability in their preference for a larger reward that was delayed by 10 s compared with sham-lesioned animals. To verify the lesion behaviorally, rat were subsequently trained on a water maze task, and rats with hippocampus lesions were significantly impaired compared with sham-lesioned animals. The findings on the delay discounting tasks suggest that damage to the hippocampus may impair the detection of reward magnitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Music perception and cognition: development, neural basis, and rehabilitative use of music.

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    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-07-01

    Music is a highly versatile form of art and communication that has been an essential part of human society since its early days. Neuroimaging studies indicate that music is a powerful stimulus also for the human brain, engaging not just the auditory cortex but also a vast, bilateral network of temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and limbic brain areas that govern auditory perception, syntactic and semantic processing, attention and memory, emotion and mood control, and motor skills. Studies of amusia, a severe form of musical impairment, highlight the right temporal and frontal cortices as the core neural substrates for adequate perception and production of music. Many of the basic auditory and musical skills, such as pitch and timbre perception, start developing already in utero, and babies are born with a natural preference for music and singing. Music has many important roles and functions throughout life, ranging from emotional self-regulation, mood enhancement, and identity formation to promoting the development of verbal, motor, cognitive, and social skills and maintaining their healthy functioning in old age. Music is also used clinically as a part of treatment in many illnesses, which involve affective, attention, memory, communication, or motor deficits. Although more research is still needed, current evidence suggests that music-based rehabilitation can be effective in many developmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders, such as autism, depression, schizophrenia, and stroke, as well as in many chronic somatic illnesses that cause pain and anxiety. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:441-451. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1237 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Educating executive function.

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    Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children's everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1403. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1403 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The evolution of stories: from mimesis to language, from fact to fiction.

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    Boyd, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Why a species as successful as Homo sapiens should spend so much time in fiction, in telling one another stories that neither side believes, at first seems an evolutionary riddle. Because of the advantages of tracking and recombining true information, capacities for event comprehension, memory, imagination, and communication evolved in a range of animal species-yet even chimpanzees cannot communicate beyond the here and now. By Homo erectus, our forebears had reached an increasing dependence on one another, not least in sharing information in mimetic, prelinguistic ways. As Daniel Dor shows, the pressure to pool ever more information, even beyond currently shared experience, led to the invention of language. Language in turn swiftly unlocked efficient forms of narrative, allowing early humans to learn much more about their kind than they could experience at first hand, so that they could cooperate and compete better through understanding one another more fully. This changed the payoff of sociality for individuals and groups. But true narrative was still limited to what had already happened. Once the strong existing predisposition to play combined with existing capacities for event comprehension, memory, imagination, language, and narrative, we could begin to invent fiction, and to explore the full range of human possibilities in concentrated, engaging, memorable forms. First language, then narrative, then fiction, created niches that altered selection pressures, and made us ever more deeply dependent on knowing more about our kind and our risks and opportunities than we could discover through direct experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2018, 9:e1444. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1444 This article is categorized under: Cognitive Biology > Evolutionary Roots of Cognition Linguistics > Evolution of Language Neuroscience > Cognition. © 2017 The Author. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The background is remapped across saccades.

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    Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2014-02-01

    Physiological studies have found that neurons prepare for impending eye movements, showing anticipatory responses to stimuli presented at the location of the post-saccadic receptive fields (RFs) (Wurtz in Vis Res 48:2070-2089, 2008). These studies proposed that visual neurons with shifting RFs prepared for the stimuli they would process after an impending saccade. Additionally, psychophysical studies have shown behavioral consequences of those anticipatory responses, including the transfer of aftereffects (Melcher in Nat Neurosci 10:903-907, 2007) and the remapping of attention (Rolfs et al. in Nat Neurosci 14:252-258, 2011). As the physiological studies proposed, the shifting RF mechanism explains the transfer of aftereffects. Recently, a new mechanism based on activation transfer via a saliency map was proposed, which accounted for the remapping of attention (Cavanagh et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 14:147-153, 2010). We hypothesized that there would be different aspects of the remapping corresponding to these different neural mechanisms. This study found that the information in the background was remapped to a similar extent as the figure, provided that the visual context remained stable. We manipulated the status of the figure and the ground in the saliency map and showed that the manipulation modulated the remapping of the figure and the ground in different ways. These results suggest that the visual system has an ability to remap the background as well as the figure, but lacks the ability to modulate the remapping of the background based on the visual context, and that different neural mechanisms might work together to maintain visual stability across saccades.

  2. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153–160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493–1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289–2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989–994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400–404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526–2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769–771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. PMID:25995349

  3. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Monteiro Bichara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments, to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2. Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345 and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596 are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.

  4. Punishment.

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    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Gromet, Dena M

    2014-09-01

    Retributivism is a deontological theory of punishment that calls for the deserved punishment of a guilty offender in proportion with his moral blameworthiness for a past offense. It is often referred to as punishment based on 'just deserts', and it contrasts with consequentialist theories that ground punishment in its potentially beneficial future consequences. Rich philosophical debate surrounds the appropriateness of retributivism. From a psychological perspective, the key question concerns whether retributivism underlies ordinary individuals' desire for the legal punishment of wrongdoers. Past research in social psychology has answered this question in the affirmative. However, much of this existing evidence requires a new look, because it is premised on a fundamental ambiguity. We review alternative evidence for the existence of retributive motives from lesser-known correlational studies, and from studies of the punishment of companies and animals. We also explore the links between retributivism and restorative justice-an alternative justice approach that focuses on repairing the harms caused by an offense. Although often cast as diametrically opposed to one another, retributive and restorative justice in fact share more in common than is often supposed. Both are premised on notions of deservingness, and their goals can be achieved by the same action (i.e., retributive punishment can restore victims). In all areas of the research we review, more work is needed to better understand: retributivism directed at human offenders, the commonalities and discontinuities between retributive and restorative justice, and how the notion of desert structures moral life and thought more generally. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:561-572. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1301 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Imprinting.

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    McCabe, Brian J

    2013-07-01

    Imprinting is a type of learning by which an animal restricts its social preferences to an object after exposure to that object. Filial imprinting occurs shortly after birth or hatching and sexual imprinting, around the onset of sexual maturity; both have sensitive periods. This review is concerned mainly with filial imprinting. Filial imprinting in the domestic chick is an effective experimental system for investigating mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Extensive evidence implicates a restricted part of the chick forebrain, the intermediate and medial mesopallium (IMM), as a memory store for visual imprinting. After imprinting to a visual stimulus, neuronal responsiveness in IMM is specifically biased toward the imprinting stimulus. Both this bias and the strength of imprinting measured behaviorally depend on uninterrupted sleep shortly after training. When learning-related changes in IMM are lateralized they occur predominantly or completely on the left side. Ablation experiments indicate that the left IMM is responsible for long-term storage of information about the imprinting stimulus; the right side is also a store but additionally is necessary for extra storage outside IMM, in a region necessary for flexible use of information acquired through imprinting. Auditory imprinting gives rise to biochemical, neuroanatomical, and electrophysiological changes in the medio-rostral nidopallium/mesopallium, anterior to IMM. Auditory imprinting has not been shown to produce learning-related changes in IMM. Imprinting may be facilitated by predispositions. Similar predispositions for faces and biological motion occur in domestic chicks and human infants. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:375-390. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1231 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Reward and motivation systems: a brain mapping study of early-stage intense romantic love in Chinese participants.

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    Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-02-01

    Early-stage romantic love has been studied previously in the United States and United Kingdom (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337; Bartels and Zeki [2000]: Neuroreport 11:3829–3834; Ortigue et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1218–1230), revealing activation in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. In this study, we asked what systems are activated for early-stage romantic love in Easterners, specifically Chinese participants? Are these activations affected by individual differences within a cultural context of Traditionality and Modernity? Also, are these brain activations correlated with later satisfaction in the relationship? In Beijing, we used the same procedure used by Aron et al. (Aron et al. [2005]: J Neurophysiol 94:327–337). The stimuli for 18 Chinese participants were a picture of the face of their beloved, the face of a familiar acquaintance, and a countback task. We found significant activations specific to the beloved in the reward and motivation systems, particularly, the ventral tegmental area and the caudate. The mid-orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum were also activated, whereas amygdala, medial orbitofrontal, and medial accumbens activity were decreased relative to the familiar acquaintance. Self-reported Traditionality and Modernity scores were each positively correlated with activity in the nucleus accumbens, although in different regions and sides of the brain. Activity in the subgenual area and the superior frontal gyrus was associated with higher relationship happiness at 18-month follow-up. Our results show that midbrain dopamine-rich reward/motivation systems were activated by early-stage romantic love in Chinese participants, as found by other studies. Neural activity was associated with Traditionality and Modernity attitudes as well as with later relationship happiness for Chinese participants.

  7. Temporal integration: intentional sound discrimination does not modulate stimulus-driven processes in auditory event synthesis.

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    Sussman, Elyse; Winkler, István; Kreuzer, Judith; Saher, Marieke; Näätänen, Risto; Ritter, Walter

    2002-12-01

    Our previous study showed that the auditory context could influence whether two successive acoustic changes occurring within the temporal integration window (approximately 200ms) were pre-attentively encoded as a single auditory event or as two discrete events (Cogn Brain Res 12 (2001) 431). The aim of the current study was to assess whether top-down processes could influence the stimulus-driven processes in determining what constitutes an auditory event. Electroencepholagram (EEG) was recorded from 11 scalp electrodes to frequently occurring standard and infrequently occurring deviant sounds. Within the stimulus blocks, deviants either occurred only in pairs (successive feature changes) or both singly and in pairs. Event-related potential indices of change and target detection, the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the N2b component, respectively, were compared with the simultaneously measured performance in discriminating the deviants. Even though subjects could voluntarily distinguish the two successive auditory feature changes from each other, which was also indicated by the elicitation of the N2b target-detection response, top-down processes did not modify the event organization reflected by the MMN response. Top-down processes can extract elemental auditory information from a single integrated acoustic event, but the extraction occurs at a later processing stage than the one whose outcome is indexed by MMN. Initial processes of auditory event-formation are fully governed by the context within which the sounds occur. Perception of the deviants as two separate sound events (the top-down effects) did not change the initial neural representation of the same deviants as one event (indexed by the MMN), without a corresponding change in the stimulus-driven sound organization.

  8. Functional asymmetry and interhemispheric cooperation in the perception of emotions from facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamietto, Marco; Latini Corazzini, Luca; de Gelder, Beatrice; Geminiani, Giuliano

    2006-05-01

    The present study used the redundant target paradigm on healthy subjects to investigate functional hemispheric asymmetries and interhemispheric cooperation in the perception of emotions from faces. In Experiment 1 participants responded to checkerboards presented either unilaterally to the left (LVF) or right visual half field (RVF), or simultaneously to both hemifields (BVF), while performing a pointing task for the control of eye movements. As previously reported (Miniussi et al. in J Cogn Neurosci 10:216-230, 1998), redundant stimulation led to shorter latencies for stimulus detection (bilateral gain or redundant target effect, RTE) that exceeded the limit for a probabilistic interpretation, thereby validating the pointing procedure and supporting interhemispheric cooperation. In Experiment 2 the same pointing procedure was used in a go/no-go task requiring subjects to respond when seeing a target emotional expression (happy or fearful, counterbalanced between blocks). Faster reaction times to unilateral LVF than RVF emotions, regardless of valence, indicate that the perception of positive and negative emotional faces is lateralized toward the right hemisphere. Simultaneous presentation of two congruent emotional faces, either happy or fearful, produced an RTE that cannot be explained by probability summation and suggests interhemispheric cooperation and neural summation. No such effect was present with BVF incongruent facial expressions. In Experiment 3 we studied whether the RTE for emotional faces depends on the physical identity between BVF stimuli, and we set a second BVF congruent condition in which there was only emotional but not physical or gender identity between stimuli (i.e. two different faces expressing the same emotion). The RTE and interhemispheric cooperation were present also in this second BVF congruent condition. This shows that emotional congruency is the sufficient condition for the RTE to take place in the intact brain and that the

  9. Long-term skeletal and dental effects and treatment timing for functional appliances in Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Faltin, Kurt; McNamara, James A; Cozza, Paola

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the long-term skeletal and dentoalveolar effects and to evaluate treatment timing of Class II treatment with functional appliances followed by fixed appliances. A group of 40 patients (22 females and 18 males) with Class II malocclusion consecutively treated either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a control group of 20 subjects (9 females and 11 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment (mean age 10 years), end of treatment with functional appliances (mean age 12 years), and long-term observation (mean age 18.6 years). The treated sample also was divided into two groups according to skeletal maturity. The early-treatment group was composed of 20 subjects (12 females and 8 males) treated before puberty, while the late-treatment group included 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) treated at puberty. Statistical comparisons were performed with analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc tests. Significant long-term mandibular changes (Co-Gn) in the treated group (3.6 mm over the controls) were associated with improvements in the skeletal sagittal intermaxillary relationship, overjet, and molar relationship (∼3.0-3.5 mm). Treatment during the pubertal peak was able to produce significantly greater increases in total mandibular length (4.3 mm) and mandibular ramus height (3.1 mm) associated with a significant advancement of the bony chin (3.9 mm) when compared with treatment before puberty. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with functional appliances appears to be more effective at puberty.

  10. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

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    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  11. LA VEGETACIÓN TERRESTRE DEL BOSQUE MONTANO DE LANCHURÁN (PIURA, PERÚ

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    Rasal Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de febrero y marzo de 2008 se realizaron inventarios que permitieronconocer el estado actual de la composición florística y la estructura de la vegetacióndel bosque montano neotropical de Lanchurán (4o38'S, 79o42'W, provinciade Ayabaca, región Piura, Perú. Se siguió el método propuesto por Gentry paramuestreo de plantas leñosas en dos sitios, Los Molinos y La Antena, para un totalde 0.5 ha; éstos fueron escogidos por sus características fisiográficas y florísticas.En ambos sitios el análisis de suelo reveló niveles bajos de materia orgánica,nitrógeno y potasio y niveles medios de fósforo asimilable. Se registraron, en elsitio Los Molinos, 399 individuos/0.25 ha con diámetro a la altura del pecho ≥ 2.5cm, correspondientes a 41 especies, 33 géneros y 25 familias, a lo que se suma unavegetación herbácea conformada por 82 especies, 75 géneros y 48 familias; y enel sitio La Antena, 86 especies, 67 géneros y 41 familias. Las familias presentescon mayor valor ecológico son comunes a la mayoría de los bosques montanos delnorte y noroeste del Perú, entre ellas Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae,Rubiaceae y Solanaceae. Para el sitio Los Molinos el Área Basal fue 89.23 m2,destacando la Lauraceae con la mayores valores de cobertura relativa, Índice deValor de Importancia y Valor de Importancia para la Familia con 38.9, 73.1 y 70.8,respectivamente. Se destaca la acción antrópica sobre la diversidad florística enambos sitios de estudio.

  12. REMOCIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE CHILCO (Henriette/la fissanthera EN EL PARQUE TINIGUA: FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN EN EL TIEMPO DE VISITA

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    Marta SofíaAgudelo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El tiempo de visita de animales frugívoros a las plantas en las que se alimentan puede tener implicaciones en la eficiencia de la dispersión de semillas. En este trabajo se cuantificaron la remoción de semillas y tiempos de permanencia de frugívoros en tres árboles de Henriettellafissanthera (Melastomataceae, con el fin de describir tasas de remoción por difere.ntes vectores y probar tres características de los dispersores que pueden afectar los tiempos de visita: nivel críptico, tipo de dieta y capacidad intestinal. En un total de 85 horas se observaron 3 especies de primates y 24 de aves consumiendo frutos. Como era de esperarse, dado que los frutos de H. fissanthera corresponden al síndrome de dispersión por aves, éstas fueron las que removieron la mayoría de las semillas, sin embargo los mamíferos removieron una proporción considerable (40%. Se encontró que el árbol más grande fue más visitado que los más pequeños. Los resultados indicaron que ni el nivel críptico, ni el tipo de dieta están asociados con el tiempo promedio de visita, posiblemente porque los animales no están especialmente expuestos a predación cuando consumen frutos de esta especie y porque las preferencias alimenticias por diferentes tipos de frutos por parte de los dispersores determinan de mayor forma la duración del tiempo de visita. No se encontró una correlación significativa entre peso corporal (como variable aproximada del tamaño intestinal, y tiempo promedio de visita, aunque existe una asociación positiva entre estas dos variables. Esto sugiere que otros factores deben ser tenidos en cuenta para explicar el tiempo de visita a estos árboles por diferentes especies dispersoras (ej. cantidad de frutos, distribución espacial de los árboles y agresiones interespecíficas.

  13. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  14. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ausín

    2018-01-01

    environmental conditions, of particular importance for Paleoceanography. Both E. huxleyi and the small Gephyrocapsa group are proposed as proxies for the upwelling regime with a distinct affinity for different stages of the upwelling event: E. huxleyi was associated with warmer, nutrient-poor and more stable water column (i.e. upwelling relaxation stage while the small Gephyrocapsa group was linked to colder waters and higher nutrient availability (i.e. early stages of the upwelling event, similarly to G. oceanica. Conversely, F. profunda is suggested as a proxy for the downwelling regime and low-productivity conditions. The assemblage composed by Syracosphaera pulchra, Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Rhabdosphaera clavigera may be a useful indicator of the presence of subtropical waters conveyed northward by the Iberian Poleward Current. Finally, C. leptoporus is proposed as an indicator of warmer, saltier, and oligotrophic waters during the downwelling/winter regime.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Blanca; Zúñiga, Diana; Flores, Jose A.; Cavaleiro, Catarina; Froján, María; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Arbones, Belén; Santos, Celia; de la Granda, Francisco; Castro, Carmen G.; Abrantes, Fátima; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Salgueiro, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    particular importance for Paleoceanography. Both E. huxleyi and the small Gephyrocapsa group are proposed as proxies for the upwelling regime with a distinct affinity for different stages of the upwelling event: E. huxleyi was associated with warmer, nutrient-poor and more stable water column (i.e. upwelling relaxation stage) while the small Gephyrocapsa group was linked to colder waters and higher nutrient availability (i.e. early stages of the upwelling event), similarly to G. oceanica. Conversely, F. profunda is suggested as a proxy for the downwelling regime and low-productivity conditions. The assemblage composed by Syracosphaera pulchra, Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Rhabdosphaera clavigera may be a useful indicator of the presence of subtropical waters conveyed northward by the Iberian Poleward Current. Finally, C. leptoporus is proposed as an indicator of warmer, saltier, and oligotrophic waters during the downwelling/winter regime.

  16. The spatial distribution of silicoflagellates in the region of the Gulf Stream warm-core ring 82B: application to water mass tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Blackwelder, Patricia L.

    1992-03-01

    To delineate potential water mass affinities, we investigated silicoflagellates from the region of Gulf Stream warm-core ring (WCR) 82B in the northwestern Atlantic. Silicoflagellates from 202 samples from N-S and an E-W transects across WCR 82B during late April were analysed. Shelf to Sargasso Sea transects, one completed in early May and the other in June 1982 were also examined. Eight to 11 vertical profiles to 200 m comprised each of the transects. Six taxa of silicoflagellates were found in the samples studied and a total of more than 8000 specimens were encountered. Three major taxa dominated standing stocks: Distephanus speculum, Dictyocha messanensis (intermediate-sized form) and D. mandrai. D. speculum, considered a cold-water taxon in the literature, showed a higher standing stock in the cooler high-velocity region (HVR) of the warm-core ring, continental shelf (SH) and slope (SL) waters. Fewer were present in the wanner ring center (RC), Gulf Stream (GS) and Sargasso Sea (SS). D. mandrai showed a similar distribution to that of D. speculum, but its preference for slightly warmer waters (>~10°C) was noted. In contrast, Dictyocha messanensis (intermediate-sized) and Distephanus pulchra, known to be warm-water taxa, were relatively abundant in the warm ring center. In contrast to standing stock data, ratios between cold- and warm-water taxa correlate well with temperature and salinity in the warm-core ring. Since these ratios are not effected by convective loss, they are excellent water mass tracers in this system. Distribution of the silicoflagellate taxa suggests that WCR82B April had a higher affinity with the Gulf Stream than the Sargasso Sea. Scores derived from factor analysis indicate that silicoflagellate species distributions are highly correlative with water masses. This was evident from correlations with temperature, salinity and with distance from ring center. Nutrients were generally not correlated with species data. This may be due to deep

  17. Variações na composição e estrutura da vegetação permitem detectar agrupamentos florísticos em uma Floresta Subtropical Atlântica no Sul do Brasil?

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    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n4p43 As variações da vegetação em função da posição topográfica têm despertado o interesse dos pesquisadores. Entretanto, poucos estudos verificaram as associações florísticas formadas pela posição topográfica de uma encosta. Neste trabalho, analisamos se as variações na vegetação permitem detectar agrupamentos florísticos em uma Floresta Pluvial Subtropical. A vegetação foi amostrada em 25 parcelas de 400 m² distribuídas sistematicamente, onde foram medidos os indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5,0 cm. Amostramos 1.727 indivíduos e 144 espécies. A ordenação NMDS segregou três grupos em função da posição topográfica da encosta (Monte Carlo, P ≥ 0,05; ANOSIM, P < 0,001. Euterpe edulis e Sloanea guianensis se destacaram nos terços inferior e médio da encosta, enquanto Ocotea aciphylla e Alchornea triplinervia se destacaram no terço superior. Algumas espécies se mostraram indicadoras dos setores analisados, como é o caso de Actinostemon concolor e Alsophila setosa no terço inferior, Cyathea corcovadensis e Rudgea recurva no terço médio e Myrcia pulchra e Podocarpus sellowii no terço superior. Nossos resultados indicaram que as variações florísticas e estruturais observadas por Veloso e Klein (1959 e Klein (1980; 1984 para o Vale do Itajaí em Santa Catarina apresentam validade estatística nos dias atuais, pois verificamos a formação de diferentes grupos de acordo com a posição topográfica da encosta.

  18. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal

  19. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  20. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska’s Arctic National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David K.

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  1. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

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    Chinaputi, A.

    2001-10-01

    scanning electron microscope.Using the ELISA technique, all medicinal plants sampled showed aflatoxin B1. , with the highest contamination being found in Cassia garrettiana at 1,101.8 ppb, Caesalpinia sappan 655.9 ppb, Cassia siamea 583.0 ppb and Smilax ferox 572.5 ppb. Only 16 kinds ofmedicinal plant had levels of aflatoxin B1. lower than WHO guidelines (20 ppb specifically Smilax japonica, Derris scandens, Myristica fragrans, Piper spp., Curcuma zedoaria, Zingiber purpureum, Piper retrofractum, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, Imperata cyhindrica, Rhinacathus nasutus, Kaempferia pulchra, Foeniculum vulgare, Diospyros decandra, Boesenbergia pandurata and Alyxia reinwardtiiplease contact auther via e-mail: ssiripor@ratree.psu.ac.th or rdo-sjst@group.psu.ac.th

  2. Summer warming and changes in snow depth is reflected in the growth rings of Alaskan tundra shrubs (Toolik Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwal, A.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic change is being manifested by shifts in the vegetation composition and abundance throughout many regions of the Arctic. These changes are primarily reflected by increases in shrub growth and density, but the extent to which shrub growth is expressed in greater shrub ring width and the degree to which natural and experimental warming correspond and or whether the secondary effect of deeper snow in winter acts to alter shrub ring growh and or shrub biomass is yet to be determined for Arctic Alaska. In order to explore growth response of arctic shrubs to on-going and predicted temperature and snow depth increase we investigated shrubs' annual growth rings using dendrochronological methods applied to plants growing under control and experimental treatments in Toolik Lake, Northern Alaska. Specifically we evaluated the effects of a 20-year experimental warming (due to open top chambers, OTC's) and snow depth increases on the growth rings pattern of two common shrub species of Northern Alaska, i.e. Betula nana and Salix pulchra. By applying a serial sectioning method patterns of annual growth were investigated across the entire plant including below-ground parts. Moreover this procedure allowed for a complete cross-dating and a detection of irregular radial growth, including common missing and partially missing rings. We found that the natural warming in Alaska occurring over the past 20 years is stimulating shrub ring growth, more so for Betula than for Salix. Experimental warming (simulating conditions in approximately 2030) stimulated the secondary growth ratio; however the allocation pattern between below-ground and above-ground is quite variable between individual shrubs. In addition, annual growth rings analyses were supplemented by quantitative wood anatomy properties, such as vessel size and density. Our findings indicate that there can be differential growth ring responses of deciduous shrubs to natural climate warming, that growth ring increases reflect

  3. Patterns of forest composition and their long term environmental drivers in the tropical dry forest transition zone of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera De Cauwer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Tropical dry forests cover less than 13 % of the world’s tropical forests and their area and biodiversity are declining. In southern Africa, the major threat is increasing population pressure, while drought caused by climate change is a potential threat in the drier transition zones to shrub land. Monitoring climate change impacts in these transition zones is difficult as there is inadequate information on forest composition to allow disentanglement from other environmental drivers. Methods This study combined historical and modern forest inventories covering an area of 21,000 km2 in a transition zone in Namibia and Angola to distinguish late succession tree communities, to understand their dependence on site factors, and to detect trends in the forest composition over the last 40 years. Results The woodlands were dominated by six tree species that represented 84 % of the total basal area and can be referred to as Baikiaea - Pterocarpus woodlands. A boosted regression tree analysis revealed that late succession tree communities are primarily determined by climate and topography. The Schinziophyton rautanenii and Baikiaea plurijuga communities are common on slightly inclined dune or valley slopes and had the highest basal area (5.5 – 6.2 m2 ha−1. The Burkea africana - Guibourtia coleosperma and Pterocarpus angolensis – Dialium englerianum communities are typical for the sandy plateaux and have a higher proportion of smaller stems caused by a higher fire frequency. A decrease in overall basal area or a trend of increasing domination by the more drought and cold resilient B. africana community was not confirmed by the historical data, but there were significant decreases in basal area for Ochna pulchra and the valuable fruit tree D. englerianum. Conclusions The slope communities are more sheltered from fire, frost and drought but are more susceptible to human expansion. The community with the important timber tree P

  4. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Swanson

    Full Text Available We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7 with deep summer thaw (>80 cm and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large

  5. Caracterização florística de uma área de contato entre Cerrado e Mata Atlântica na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole da Silva PINTO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanescentes de vegetação nativa em áreas de contato florístico e fitogeográfico têm especial importância na conservação da biodiversidade. A EstaçãoExperimental de Itapeva – EExI apresenta os referidos atributos, pois, abriga remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e de Cerrado. A EExI está localizada na BaciaHidrográfica do Alto Paranapanema – BHAP, na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, considerada altamente degradada e prioritária para estudos de flora e fauna. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: inventariar e caracterizar a vegetação e a flora vascular da EExI; ampliar o conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade da BHAP e subsidiar propostas de manejo. Realizou-se a caracterização fisionômica e florística considerando todos os hábitos, com coletas mensais de material botânico, de maio de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Nas duas formações presentes na EExI, Mata Atlântica (Floresta Estacional Semidecidual – FES e Cerrado (campo rupestre, campo sujo úmido, campo sujo, cerrado ralo e cerrado denso, foram registradas 605 espécies. As famílias mais ricasna FES foram: Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae e Lauraceae, e no Cerrado:Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae e Bignoniaceae. Na FES predominaramas espécies arbóreas com 54,1% do total, ao contrário do Cerrado, onde predominaram as espécies não arbóreas (67,5%. Entre as espécies levantadas, 14 estão ameaçadas de extinção, mas apenas Araucaria angustifolia é citada nas listas estadual, nacional e mundial. Considerando o mosaico de FES e fisionomias de Cerrado, a alta diversidade de espécies e a presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção, os remanescentes de vegetação da EExI são de extrema importância para a conservação e o estudo da biodiversidade regional.Remnants of native vegetation in areas of floristic and phytogeographical contact have special importance in biodiversity conservation. The Itapeva Experimental

  6. Campo Sujo Úmido: fisionomia de Cerrado ameaçada pela contaminação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. na Estação Ecológica de Itapeva, Estado de São Paulo. Campo Sujo Úmido: Cerrado physiognomy threatened by the contamination of Pinus elliottii Engelm. in the Itapeva Ecological Station, São Paulo state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Soares de ALMEIDA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ameaça de perda da biodiversidade da fisionomia Campo Sujo Úmido, localizada na Estação Ecológica de Itapeva, devido à contaminação biológica causada pela invasão de Pinus elliottii Engelm., motivou a elaboração deste trabalho. Os objetivos foram caracterizar floristicamente essa fisionomia e quantificar a existência de Pinus elliottii na área, de modo a subsidiar propostas de manejo. Realizou-se o mapeamento da área ocupadapor Campo Sujo Úmido na Estação através da interpretação de fotografias aéreas. O estudoflorístico foi realizado através de coletas mensais de material botânico, no período de junhode 2008 a maio de 2009, posteriormente processado e depositado no herbário SPSF. Para a quantificação de Pinus elliottii, adotou-se o método de parcelas, utilizando-se 12 parcelas de 3 m x 15 m. Os indivíduos a partir de 15 cm de altura foram medidos e contados para o cálculo da densidade e frequência. A área de Campo Sujo Úmido representou 2,3% da área total da Estação. Foram encontradas 106 espécies. As famílias mais ricas foram Melastomataceae (11 espécies, Asteraceae (8, Cyperaceae e Poaceae (7, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae (5, Fabaceae, Lauraceae e Myrsinaceae (4. A densidade absoluta de Pinus elliottii foi de 1.704 indivíduos.ha e a frequência absoluta, 92%. Portanto, Pinus elliottii apresentou duas propriedades que caracterizam espécies dominantes: grande número de indivíduos e ampla disseminação na área. A área relativamente pequena ocupada por Campo Sujo Úmido na Estação Ecológica, a elevada riqueza de espécies observada e o grau de contaminação biológica constatado nessa fisionomia, indicam a possibilidade de perda iminente de considerável parcela da biodiversidade da Unidade de Conservação. São propostas medidas de manejo para combater o problema.The risk of biodiversity loss of the Campo Sujo Úmido physiognomy, at the Itapeva Ecological Station due to the biological contamination

  7. Métodos de superação de dormência em sementes de croada (Mouriri elliptica Mart Dormancy breaking methods in croada (Mouriri elliptica Mart seeds

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    Jaqueline Martins Vasconcelos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de croada (Mouriri elliptica Mart. Melastomataceae, espécie frutífera nativa do cerrado, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos, visando a superação de dormência: pré-resfriamento a 5° C por 7 dias; pré-aquecimento em estufa com circulação de ar a 40º C por 7 dias; escarificação química em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 5 e 15 minutos; imersão em água fervente por 5 e 15 minutos; imersão em ácido giberélico a 100 e 200 mg L-1 por 48 horas; imersão em água destilada por 24 e 48 horas; escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 80 na parte superior e oposta ao eixo embrionário e testemunha (sementes sem tratamento prévio. Quatro repetições de quinze sementes foram colocadas para germinar sobre papel umedecido com água destilada ou nitrato de potássio a 0,2%, em temperatura de 30º C em presença de luz. Foram realizadas contagens diárias do 2º dia após a implantação do experimento até a estabilização da porcentagem de germinação, que acorreu no 60º dia. A germinação foi mais rápida em sementes pré-embebidas em ácido giberélico (em substrato umedecido com água ou com solução de nitrato de potássio 0,2%, pré-embebidas em água por 24 horas, em substrato umedecido com água, e pré-embebidas em água por 48 horas ou escarificadas mecanicamente e colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água. Taxas de germinação mais elevadas ocorreram em sementes pré-embebidas em ácido giberélico a 100 ou 200 mg L-1, em substrato umedecido com solução de nitrato de potássio 0,2%.Croada seeds (Mouriri elliptica Mart. Melastomataceae, a fruit-bearing species native of the cerrado (savannah-like vegetation, were submitted to the following dormancy breaking methods: pre-cooling at 5° C for 7 days; pre-heating in a oven air circualtion at 40º C for 7 days; chemical escarification in concentrated sulfuric acid for 5 and 15 min; soaking in boiling water for 5 and 15 min; soaking in gibbereli

  8. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  9. Cephalometric evaluation of the effects of the Twin Block appliance in subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion amongst different cervical vertebral maturation stages

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    Aisha Khoja

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric changes in skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue variables induced by Clark's Twin Block (CTB in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and to compare these changes in different cervical vertebral maturation stages. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment/observation lateral cephalograms of 53 Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patients and 60 controls were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes. Skeletal maturity was assessed according to cervical vertebral maturation stages. Pre- and post-treatment/observation mean changes and differences (T2-T1 were compared by means of Wilcoxon sign rank and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Intergroup comparisons between different cervical stages were performed by means of Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test (p ≤ 0.05 . Results: When compared with controls, there was a significant reduction in ANB angle (p < 0.001, which was due to a change in SNB angle in CS-2 and CS-3 (p < 0.001, and in SNA (p < 0.001 and SNB (p = 0.016 angles in the CS-4 group. There was significant increase in the GoGn-SN angle in CS-2 (p = 0.007 and CS-4 (p = 0.024, and increase in Co-Gn and Go-Gn amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05. There was significant decrease in U1-SN and increase in IMPA amongst all cervical stages (p < 0.05. There was significant retraction of the upper lip in CS-3 (p = 0.001, protrusion of the lower lip in CS-2 (p = 0.005, increase in nasolabial angle in CS-4 (p = 0.006 and Z-angle in CS-3 (p = 0.016, reduction in H-angle in CS-2 (p = 0.013 and CS-3 (p = 0.002 groups. When pre- and post-treatment mean differences were compared between different cervical stages, significant differences were found for SNA, SNB and UI-SN angles and overjet. . Conclusions: The Twin-Block along with the normal craniofacial growth improves facial esthetics in Class II, Division 1 malocclusion by changes in underlying skeletal and

  10. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    studies of child language that have been conducted with the goal of helping to adjudicate between the alternative approaches to language development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:185-203. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1158 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparison of 2 comprehensive Class II treatment protocols including the bonded Herbst and headgear appliances: a double-blind study of consecutively treated patients at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Stahl, Franka

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the effects of 2 protocols for single-phase comprehensive treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion (bonded Herbst followed by fixed appliances [BH + FA] vs headgear followed by fixed appliances and Class II elastics [HG + FA]) at the pubertal growth spurt. Fifty-six Class II patients were enrolled in the trial and allocated by personal choice to 2 practices, where they underwent 1 of 2 treatment protocols (28 patients were treated consecutively with BH + FA, and 28 patients were treated consecutively with HG + FA). All patients started treatment at puberty (cervical stage [CS] 3 or CS 4) and completed treatment after puberty (CS 5 or CS 6). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and 6 months after the end of comprehensive therapy, with an average interval of 28 months. Longitudinal observations of a matched group of 28 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the 2 treated groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc tests was used for statistical comparisons. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify preferential candidates for the BH + FA protocol on the basis of profile changes (advancement of the soft tissues of the chin). The success rate (full occlusal correction of the malocclusion after treatment) was 92.8% in both treatment groups. The BH + FA group showed a significant increase in mandibular protrusion. The increase in effective mandibular length (Co-Gn) was significantly greater in both treatment groups when compared with natural growth changes in the Class II controls. Significantly greater improvement in sagittal maxillomandibular relationships was found in the BH + FA group. Retrusion of maxillary incisors and mesial movement of mandibular molars were significant in the HG + FA group. The BH + FA group showed significantly greater forward movements of soft-tissue B-point and pogonion compared with both the HG + FA and the control groups. Two pretreatment

  12. Variações espaço-temporais no estoque de sementes do solo na floresta amazônica Space-time variations in soil seed stock in an amazon rainforest

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    Niwton Leal Filho

    2013-09-01

    density of seeds presents in the soil in June (early dry season compared to February (middle of the rainy season. There was also a significant difference (H: 188.7245, p <0.05 in the mean density of soil seeds present in the different samples areas. Similar to other tropical forest areas, the permanent seed bank in the forest was dominated by pioneer species, mainly from the family Melastomataceae, while typical tropical forest species were rare in the forest soil.

  13. LA RIQUEZA DE LAS PLANTAS CON FLORES DE COLOMBIA

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    J. ORLANDO RANGEL-CH.

    2015-01-01

    úmero de especies; especialmente Compositae (1965, Fabaceae (2694, Poacaeae (1401, Myrtaceae (927, Melastomataceae (1312 y Bromeliaceae (1207. En Colombia 15 familias tienen el mayor número de especies; Araceae (800, Piperaceae (604 y Gesneriaceae (520. En Ecuador hay cuatro familias con mayor expresión de la riqueza, especialmente Orchidaceae (3630 y Ericaceae (224. En Ecuador se encontraron los valores más altos en los índices de riqueza a nivel de familia (8.2 x 10-4 y de especie (5.5X10-2.

  14. CATÁLOGO DE LA FAMILIA POACEAE EN COLOMBIA

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    Diego Giraldo-Cañas

    2011-01-01

    distribución asociada con la altura sobre el nivel del mar y/o con la precipitación; así tenemos que las Panicoideae son más diversas en las tierras bajas y húmedas y en áreas abiertas de zonas subandinas, las Pooideae en las tierras alto-andinas (páramos, las Chloridoideae en las áreas secas, los bambúes herbáceos en la Región Amazónica y los bambúes leñosos en la Región Andina. Las Poaceae constituyen la sexta familia más rica en la flora de Colombia, después de las Orchidaceae, las Asteraceae, las Rubiaceae, las Fabaceae y las Melastomataceae.

  15. Estructura y composición florística de tres robledales en la región norte de la cordillera central de Colombia

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    Juan D León

    2009-12-01

    whether these forests showed similarities in their structure and floristic composition. In each site, a permanent plot of 5000 m2 (0.5 ha was established. All trees with D ≥ 10 cm were sampled and identified to species. The Importance Value Index (IVI was calculated as the sum of relative density (DeR, dominance (DoR and frequency (FR of a species. Trees with 5 ≤ D < 10 cm and 2 ≤ D < 5 cm were registered in sub-plots of 0.05 and 0.0144 ha, respectively. Finally, we used Jaccard’s Index to quantify the floristic similarity among oak forest. When we considered all trees with D ≥ 10 cm in the three forests, the number of species ranged from 18 to 54, whilst the number of individuals ranged from 326 to 680. The Guarne oak forest showed the highest species richness. In all sites, Q. humboldtii (Fagaceae was the most important species in relation to the IVI, while Clusia sp. (Clusiaceae and Myrsine coriaceae (Myrsinaceae were the most important species in San Andrés de Cuerquia, Clethra fagifolia (Clethraceae was important only in Belmira and Myrcia popayanensis (Myrtaceae was important in Guarne. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae. Floristic similarity among places was low. The size distribution of trees had an inverse J- shape curve for all sites with changes in the abundance for size class. The three oak forests differed in their structure and floristic composition probably because of different disturbance degrees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1165-1182. Epub 2009 December 01.

  16. Banco de sementes do solo de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais.

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    Juvenal Pinheiro Batista Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se quantitativa e qualitativamente a florística do banco de sementes do solo de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, no município de Viçosa, MG. No final da estação chuvosa (março/2004, foram coletadas duas amostras de solo de 20 x 15 cm, com 5 cm de profundidade, no centro de seis subparcelas contíguas de 10 x 20 m, em dez parcelas permanentes de 20 x 60 m, em dez locais, totalizando 120 amostras (3,6 m2. As amostras de solo foram colocadas em estruturas de sombreamento de 11,5 % e 60 %, e as sementes germinadas foram identificadas em graminóides, herbáceo-cipós, arbustivas e arbóreas. Foram registradas 3.416 sementes germinadas, sendo 30,2 % graminóides, 29,2 % herbáceo-cipós, 17,5 % arbustivas e 23,1 % arbóreas, estas duas últimas distribuídas em 17 famílias, 25 gêneros e 31 espécies. Melastomataceae, Cecropiaceae e Piperaceae contribuíram com 31,8 %, 10,0 % e 8,8 % do total de espécies, respectivamente, sendo que Miconia cinnamomifolia e Leandra purpurascens foram responsáveis por 59,3 % das sementes arbustivo-arbóreas germinadas. As pioneiras se destacaram com 61,3 % das espécies e 88,5 % das sementes germinadas. Não foram registradas espécies secundárias tardias. A densidade média de sementes germinadas para todos os hábitos e locais foi de 949 sementes/m2. O número de espécies e de sementes germinadas do grupo arbustivo-arbóreo diferiu significativamente pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis (P ≤ 0,05 entre os locais estudados. Esses resultados indicam que, no banco de sementes do solo, há predomínio de espécies pioneiras que são importantes para a sucessão em clareiras ou após o corte da floresta. Porém, esse estoque de sementes não é suficiente para a continuidade do processo de sucessão, que inclui o estabelecimento de maior proporção de espécies secundárias iniciais e tardias. Isso indica que há necessidade de um manejo adequado do banco de pl

  17. Main neuroendocrine features and therapy in primary sleep troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Mungiu, O C

    2012-01-01

    approximately a quarter of the adult population. Secondary insomnia is associated with chronic heart and/or lung diseases, medication which interfere with onset or duration of sleep, constant change of the sleep habits, restless leg syndrome, etc. Besides lifestyle changes and cogn itive-behavioral therapy, in the treatment of insomnia are used hypnotic medicines, advised to be prescribed on short-term cures of one or two weeks. Benzodiazepines are inducing and maintaining sleep. Longer use is responsible for severe side effects--dependency and withdrawal syndrome, daytime drowsiness and dizziness, low blood pressure, memory troubles and change in the melatonin secretion during night-time period. For these reasons were created non-benzodiazepines hypnotics--zolpidem, zaleplon, which are as effective as benzodiazepines, but have fewer side effects. Nevertheless the use of these hypnotics is also restricted to 7-10 days. Zopiclone (Imovane) another short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic has a different chemical structure, but a pharmacologic profile similar to that of the benzod iazepines; the treatment should be of maximum four weeks. Besides generally known concerns related to the use of hypnotics (residual sedative effects, memory impairment, rebound insomnia, abuse, dose escalation, dependency and withdrawal problems) it was signaled a risk of death associated with the use of current hypnotic medications.

  18. MEMORIAS III Encuentro Científico de Estudiantes de Biología

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    Biológica Colombiana Acta

    2003-07-01

    experiencia como estudiante de práctica académica / Caracterización del llamado de advertencia de colostethus bocagei(amphibia: dendrobatidae en el municipio de Ibagué, Colombia / Caracterización del llamado de advertencia de colostethus bocagei(amphibia: dendrobatidae en el municipio de Ibagué, Colombia / Uso etnomédico de algunas especies vegetales del departamento del Chocó, Colombia / Morfología y herbivoría en las especies del género tococa(melastomataceae con mirmecomacios / Fauna Asociada a la Medicina Tradicional del Departamento Del Chocó, Colombia / Hongos alucinógenos: el desconocimiento cultural de su consumo / Relación insecto-hongo: desarrollo de dípteros en panaeolus foenisecii (basidiomycotina-agariclaes / Estudio preliminar de algunos aspectos biológicos de hoplias malabaricusbloch 1794 (Quicharo en la microcuenca de Cabí, Chocó, Colomba / Composición y estructura de la vegetación terrestre aledaña al Río Gaira (Departamento Del Magdalena, Colombia / Relaciones de herbivoría por insectos sobre Lantana sp. (Verbenacea, Piper sp.(Piperaceae y Miconia sp.(Asteraceae en Moniquirá (Boyacá, Colombia.

  19. Deformation in the hanging wall of Cretaceous HP rocks (Austroalpine Ötztal-Stubai Complex, European Eastern Alps): constraints on timing, conditions and kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Gerlinde; Thöni, Martin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Sölva, Helmuth; Cotza, Gianluca

    2010-05-01

    öss D, Speckbacher R (2009) In Alpine Workshop Cogne. Schmid SM, Haas R (1989) Tectonics 8: 697-718. Sölva H, Grasemann B, Thöni M, Thiede RC, Habler G (2005) Tectonophysics 401: 143-166. Thöni M, Hoinkes G (1987) In Geodynamics of the Eastern Alps, pp. 200-213. Edited by Flügel HW and Faupl P. Vienna: Deuticke.

  20. Epimeria of the Southern Ocean with notes on their relatives (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Eusiroidea

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    Cédric d'Udekem d'Acoz

    2017-10-01

    . et sp. nov., E. (D. pandora subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. pyrodrakon subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. robertiana subgen. et sp. nov., Epimeria (Epimeriella atalanta sp. nov., Epimeria (Hoplepimeria cyphorachis subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. gargantua subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. linseae subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. quasimodo subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. xesta subgen. et sp. nov., Epimeria (Laevepimeria anodon subgen. et sp. nov., E. (L. cinderella subgen. et sp. nov., Epimeria (Pseudepimeria amoenitas sp. nov., E. (P. callista sp. nov., E. (P. debroyeri sp. nov., E. (P. kharieis sp. nov., Epimeria (Subepimeria adeliae sp. nov., E. (S. iota sp. nov., E. (S. teres sp. nov. and E. (S. urvillei sp. nov. The type specimens of E. (D. macrodonta Walker, 1906, E. (D. similis Chevreux, 1912, E. (H. georgiana Schellenberg, 1931 and E. (H. inermis Walker, 1903 are re-described and illustrated. Besides the monographic treatment of Epimeriidae from the Southern Ocean, a brief overview and identification keys are given for their putative and potential relatives from the same ocean, i.e., the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic members of the following eusiroid families: Acanthonotozomellidae Coleman & J.L. Barnard, 1991, Dikwidae Coleman & J.L. Barnard, 1991, Stilipedidae Holmes, 1908 and Vicmusiidae Just, 1990. This overview revealed the existence of a new large and characteristic species of Alexandrella Chevreux, 1911, A. chione sp. nov. but also shows that the taxonomy of that genus remains poorly known and that several ‘variable widespread eurybathic species’ probably are species complexes. Furthermore, the genera Bathypanoploea Schellenberg, 1939 and Astyroides Birstein & Vinogradova, 1960 are considered to be junior synonyms of Alexandrella. Alexandrella mixta Nicholls, 1938 and A. pulchra Ren in Ren & Huang, 1991 are re-established herein, as valid species. It is pointed out that this insufficient taxonomic knowledge of Antarctic amphipods impedes ecological and biogeographical studies