WorldWideScience

Sample records for publicly-funded incentive programs

  1. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  2. Income status and approval for bariatric surgery in a publicly funded regional obesity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Kieran; Padwal, Raj S; Johnson-Stoklossa, Carlene; Sharma, Arya M; Birch, Dan W

    2011-03-01

    Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and safe treatment for severe obesity and utilization rates have increased dramatically. In private health care settings, low socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced likelihood of undergoing a bariatric procedure. Whether this relationship is also present in a universally accessible, publicly funded health care system is not currently known. A retrospective analysis of the Edmonton Weight Wise obesity program clinical registry was conducted. Patients who were unemployed, on long-term disability or receiving social assistance were classified as "low income" status. The remaining patients were categorized as "regular income" status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between low income status and approval for surgery within 1 year of program entry. Thirty-three (7%) of 419 patients were ineligible for surgery or excluded because of missing income status data. Of the remaining 386 patients, 72 (19%) were of low income status and 89 (23%) were approved for surgery. Low income patients were older, heavier, and had greater comorbidity. Compared to patients of regular income status, those with low income status were less likely to be approved for surgery (15.3% versus 24.8%; adjusted OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.94). Within a publicly funded and universally accessible regional obesity program, lower income status patients were less likely to be approved for bariatric surgery. Further study is necessary to clarify this apparent disparity and to determine if program modifications are necessary to ensure equity across all socioeconomic strata.

  3. The transition to medication adoption in publicly funded substance use disorder treatment programs: organizational structure, culture, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Medications for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) are not widely available in publicly funded SUD treatment programs. Few studies have drawn on longitudinal data to examine the organizational characteristics associated with programs transitioning from not delivering any pharmacotherapy to adopting at least one SUD medication. Using two waves of panel longitudinal data collected over a 5-year period, we measured the transition to medication adoption in a cohort of 190 publicly funded treatment organizations that offered no SUD medications at baseline. Independent variables included organizational characteristics, medical resources, funding, treatment culture, and detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies. Of 190 programs not offering SUD pharmacotherapy at baseline, 22.6% transitioned to offering at least one SUD medication at follow-up approximately 5 years later. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that the employment of at least one physician at baseline, having a greater proportion of Medicaid clients, and pharmaceutical detailing were positively associated with medication adoption. Adoption of pharmacotherapy was more likely in programs that had greater medical resources, Medicaid funding, and contact with pharmaceutical companies. Given the potential expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, patients served by publicly funded programs may gain greater access to such treatments, but research is needed to document health reform's impact on this sector of the treatment system.

  4. The Tax-Credit Scholarship Audit: Do Publicly Funded Private School Choice Programs Save Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    This report follows up on previous work that examined the fiscal effects of private school voucher programs. It estimates the total fiscal effects of tax-credit scholarship programs--another type of private school choice program--on state governments, state and local taxpayers, and school districts combined. Based on a range of assumptions, these…

  5. Evaluation of the awareness and effectiveness of IT security programs in a large publicly funded health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Shelanne L; Tarraf, Rima C; Birney, Arden; Arain, Mubashir Aslam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records are becoming increasingly common in the health care industry. Although information technology (IT) poses many benefits to improving health care and ease of access to information, there are also security and privacy risks. Educating health care providers is necessary to ensure proper use of health information systems and IT and reduce undesirable outcomes. This study evaluated employees' awareness and perceptions of the effectiveness of two IT educational training modules within a large publicly funded health care system in Canada. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups included a variety of professional roles within the organisation. Participants also completed a brief demographic data sheet. With the consent of participants, all interviews and focus groups were audio recorded. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the IT security training modules. Five main themes emerged: (i) awareness of the IT training modules, (ii) the content of modules, (iii) staff perceptions about differences between IT security and privacy issues, (iv) common breaches of IT security and privacy, and (v) challenges and barriers to completing the training program. Overall, nonclinical staff were more likely to be aware of the training modules than were clinical staff. We found e-learning was a feasible way to educate a large number of employees. However, health care providers required a module on IT security and privacy that was relatable and applicable to their specific roles. Strategies to improve staff education and mitigate against IT security and privacy risks are discussed. Future research should focus on integrating health IT competencies into the educational programs for health care professionals.

  6. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-10-06

    In the U.S., the increasing financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems provided through publicly-funded incentive programs has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in addressing PV system performance. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address factors that affect performance, and describe key implementation details. Based on this review, we then offer recommendations for how PV incentive programs can be effectively designed to mitigate potential performance issues.

  7. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to add provisions for incentives to retired or... farmer or rancher for production. The Transition Incentives Program involves new and mandatory provisions...

  8. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  9. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ...: ``Wildlife means non-domesticated birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and mammals.'' Section... conservation programs like the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Response: Section 1244(h) of... documentation, payment scheduling, and documentation. Technical standards for certifying other services...

  10. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  11. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...... stay large since it receives large funds...

  12. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can......This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...

  13. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  14. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  15. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  16. 75 FR 81885 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program'' that appeared in the July 28, 2010 Federal Register. DATES... 44314) the final rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive...

  17. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  18. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: AReview of Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-11-12

    Some stakeholders continue to voice concerns about the performance of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, particularly because these systems typically receive financial support through ratepayer- or publicly-funded programs. Although much remains to be understood about the extent and specific causes of poor PV system performance, several studies of the larger programs and markets have shed some light on the issue. An evaluation of the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s Emerging Renewables Program, for example, found that 7% of systems, in a sample of 95, had lower-than-expected power output due to shading or soiling (KEMA 2005). About 3% of a larger sample of 140 systems were not operating at all or were operating well below expected output, due to failed equipment, faulty installation workmanship, and/or a lack of basic maintenance. In a recent evaluation of the other statewide PV incentive program in California, the Self-Generation Incentive Program, 9 of 52 projects sampled were found to have annual capacity factors less than 14.5%, although reasons for these low capacity factors generally were not identified (Itron 2005). Studies of PV systems in Germany and Japan, the two largest PV markets worldwide, have also revealed some performance problems associated with issues such as shading, equipment and installation defects, inverter failure, and deviations from module manufacturers' specifications (Otani et al. 2004, Jahn & Nasse 2004). Although owners of PV systems have an inherent incentive to ensure that their systems perform well, many homeowners and building operators may lack the necessary information and expertise to carry out this task effectively. Given this barrier, and the responsibility of PV incentive programs to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should (and often do) play a critical role in promoting PV system performance. Performance-based incentives (PBIs), which are based on actual energy production

  19. 77 FR 23193 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2; Corrections AGENCY... Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2'' which appeared in the March 7... ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2'' there were a number...

  20. Incentives: Getting and Keeping Workers Involved in Health Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, James F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)

  1. EHR Incentive Programs - Data and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...

  2. Public Funds and Local Biotechnology Firm Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolympiris, C.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Miller, D.

    2014-01-01

    A long stream of academic literature has established that public funding towards research and development matters for economic growth because it relates to increases in innovation, productivity and the like. The impact of public funding on the creation of new firms has received less attention in thi

  3. 75 FR 1843 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... Medicaid programs that adopt and meaningfully use certified electronic health record (EHR) technology. The...

  4. 77 FR 12041 - Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program AGENCY: Office...: Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program; Notice inviting applications for new... appropriate entities to improve the delivery of services to migrant children whose education is...

  5. 75 FR 44313 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    .... Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... RIN 0938-AP78 Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program AGENCY... meaningful use of certified electronic health record (EHR) technology. This final rule specifies--the initial...

  6. Effectiveness of Financial Incentives in a Worksite Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Pouran D; Li, Rui

    To evaluate the effect of financial incentive in a diabetes prevention weight loss program at worksites. Group-level randomized intervention study. Four long-term care facilities, randomly assigned to "incentive-IG" or "non incentive-NIG" groups. Ninety-nine employees, all overweight or obese (BMI= mean 34.8±7.4 kg/m(2)) and at risk for type 2 diabetes. A 16 week weight loss program (diabetes prevention program) with a 3 month follow up. IG could either choose a "standard incentive" to receive cash award when achieving the projected weight loss or to participate in a "standard plus deposit incentive" to get additional money matched with their deposit for projected weight loss. All of the participants received a one-hour consultation for a healthy weight loss at the beginning. Weight-loss, diabetes risk score (DRS), and cardiovascular risk outcomes. Linear and logistic regressions for completed cases with adjustments for clustering effect at group level. IG lost on average more pounds (p=0.027), reduced BMI (p=0.04), and reduced in DRS (p=0.011) compared to NIG at week 16. At the 12-week follow-up period, those in IG plus deposit subgroup had twice the odds (OR=2.2, p=0.042) and those in the standard IG had three times the odds of achieving weight loss goals than NIG; those in the IG plus deposit group reduced DRS by 0.4 (p=0.045). Monetary incentives appear to be effective in reducing weight and diabetes risk.

  7. 45 CFR 96.87 - Leveraging incentive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., budget counseling, case management, and energy conservation education; (19) Training; (20) Installation... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leveraging incentive program. 96.87 Section 96.87 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income...

  8. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF...

  9. 77 FR 13697 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... 42 CFR Parts 412, 413, and 495 Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive... CFR Parts 412, 413, and 495 RIN 0938-AQ84 Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record... Medicaid electronic health record (EHR) incentive payments. In addition, it would specify payment...

  10. The marginal cost of public funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the theory and measurement of the marginal cost of public funds (MCF) to account for labor force participation responses. Our work is motivated by the emerging consensus in the empirical literature that extensive (participation) responses are more important than intensive (hours...

  11. Protecting Pregnant Pennsylvanians: Public Funding of Crisis Pregnancy Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan McElroy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief overview of the history of CPCs in the United States and the “abortion alternatives” program in Pennsylvania, this Note examines possible legal claims in terms of legal standards and likelihood of success. The results of a Right to Know (“RTK” request directed toward the Pennsylvania DPW, including both what the DPW offered to produce and what it refused to produce, will supplement this evaluation of possible legal claims. This Note also proposes Public policy recommendations aimed at eliminating the DPW’s liability for these claims in the interest of preventing abusive tactics by CPCs and conserving public funds. Finally, this Note compares the relative benefits and disadvantages of legislative and regulatory reform to those of litigation. Either litigative or legislative action is necessary to prevent publically funded CPCs from inflicting further harm on pregnant Pennsylvanians.

  12. Maternal incentive scheme in Nepal – status of knowledge and financial benefits received by mothers on ANC incentive and safe delivery incentive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Subedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal (ANC and Safe Delivery Incentive Program (SDIP of Nepal is implemented with the view to increase institutional delivery, thereby improving maternal health. The program has been a public issue regarding its information cum. incentive received by the clients and reimbursement to the health facilities. The study aimed to identify and assess the knowledge with financial benefits received by mothers from 4ANC visits and institutional delivery. Methods: Descriptive study was conducted among six villages of Syangja district, Nepal in December 2013. Data was taken from mothers who had delivered during the last one year of study. Full concern was adapted to consent, anonymity, confidentiality and validity. Epi-data and SPSS were used for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: Among the total 414 mothers, 60.6% and 82.9% were aware on 4ANC incentive and SDIP respectively. Total, consulted, mothers who had delivered in health-facility (n=212 received delivery incentive. Comparing the delivery benefits with ANC (n=212, 65.4% of mothers were deprived from ANC incentive though they practiced scheduled ANC visit. As an interesting fact, some other cases of non-ANC visit (n=3 and less than four/non-scheduled visit (n=8 were benefited from the ANC incentive as opposed to the rule of scheme. Analysis has shown that mothers who were aware on ANC incentive scheme were 5.2 times more likely to receive incentive than those of unaware one. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC incentive is found to be the result of its level of awareness. Government and concerned authority should valuably focus on ANC incentive program to increase its utilization like SDIP.

  13. Dissemination of Technology to Evaluate Healthy Food Incentive Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Hunt, Alan R; Merritt, Katie; Shon, En-Jung; Pike, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    Federal policy supports increased implementation of monetary incentive interventions for chronic disease prevention among low-income populations. This study describes how a Prevention Research Center, working with a dissemination partner, developed and distributed technology to support nationwide implementation and evaluation of healthy food incentive programming focused on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipients. FM Tracks, an iOS-based application and website, was developed to standardize evaluation methods for healthy food incentive program implementation at direct-to-consumer markets. This evaluation examined diffusion and adoption of the technology over 9 months (July 2015-March 2016). Data were analyzed in 2016. FM Tracks was disseminated to 273 markets affiliated with 37 regional networks in 18 states and Washington, DC. All markets adopted the sales transaction data collection feature, with nearly all recording at least one Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (99.3%) and healthy food incentive (97.1%) transaction. A total of 43,493 sales transactions were recorded. By the ninth month of technology dissemination, markets were entering individual sales transactions using the application (34.5%) and website (29.9%) and aggregated transactions via website (35.6%) at similar rates. Use of optional evaluation features like recording a customer ID with individual transactions increased successively with a low of 22.2% during the first month to a high of 69.2% in the ninth month. Systematic and widely used evaluation technology creates possibilities for pragmatic research embedded within ongoing, real-world implementation of food access interventions. Technology dissemination requires supportive technical assistance and continuous refinement that can be advanced through academic-practitioner partnerships. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

  15. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  16. Observations From California's Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Kizer, Kenneth W

    2017-03-01

    California's Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) Program provided $3.3 billion over 5 years to support 21 public hospitals improve the quality of health care delivery and population health. The Institute for Population Health Improvement provided technical support and quality improvement mentorship to the California Department of Health Care Services in implementing the DSRIP Program. This report describes the following key observations on the implementation of the program: the need to reduce variability in data collection and management, memorialize decision-making processes, build broad quality improvement capacity, define and revisit improvement targets, anticipate evolution of clinical definitions and guidelines, provide frequent feedback to participating hospitals, engage frontline clinicians, balance short- and long-term improvement goals, acknowledge regulatory requirements and improvement efforts that may compete for resources, and build in shared learning and dissemination of interventions. The authors believe this experience with implementing California's DSRIP Program may assist other states as they implement similarly intended reform programs.

  17. OpenStudio: A Platform for Ex Ante Incentive Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Amir; Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Beitel, Annette

    2016-08-26

    Many utilities operate programs that provide ex ante (up front) incentives for building energy conservation measures (ECMs). A typical incentive program covers two kinds of ECMs. ECMs that deliver similar savings in different contexts are associated with pre-calculated 'deemed' savings values. ECMs that deliver different savings in different contexts are evaluated on a 'custom' per-project basis. Incentive programs often operate at less than peak efficiency because both deemed ECMs and custom projects have lengthy and effort-intensive review processes--deemed ECMs to gain confidence that they are sufficiently context insensitive, custom projects to ensure that savings are claimed appropriately. DOE's OpenStudio platform can be used to automate ex ante processes and help utilities operate programs more efficiently, consistently, and transparently, resulting in greater project throughput and energy savings. A key concept of the platform is the OpenStudio Measure, a script that queries and transforms building energy models. Measures can be simple or surgical, e.g., applying different transformations based on space-type, orientation, etc. Measures represent ECMs explicitly and are easier to review than ECMs that are represented implicitly as the difference between a with-ECM and without-ECM models. Measures can be automatically applied to large numbers of prototype models--and instantiated from uncertainty distributions--facilitating the large scale analysis required to develop deemed savings values. For custom projects, Measures can also be used to calibrate existing building models, to automatically create code baseline models, and to perform quality assurance screening.

  18. 78 FR 79613 - Final Requirement-Migrant Education Program Consortium Incentive Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grant (CIG) Program. This final requirement changes the maximum project period of grants awarded to State educational agencies (SEAs) under the MEP CIG program from two... established in their approved CIG program application. DATES: Effective Date: This requirement is effective...

  19. The Effect of Participation in an Incentive-based Wellness Program on Self-Reported Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Crespin, Daniel J.; Abraham, Jean M.; Rothman, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Employers are increasingly trying to promote healthy behaviors, including regular exercise, through wellness programs that offer financial incentives. However, there is limited evidence that these types of programs affect exercise habits within employee populations. In this study, we estimate the effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise. Since 2008, the University of Minnesota's Fitness Rewards Program has offered a $20 monthly incentive to enco...

  20. Characterization of a forest incentive program in Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The IEF-Asiflor forest incentive program is the result of a joint endeavor that channeled forest restoration funds to promote, according to effective legislation, silvicultural activity in Minas Gerais state. The above partnership was implemented in 2003. In this work we aimed to outline the incentive program per participating IEF administrative region, and to georeference and quantify implemented forest stands according to property size class. To that end, we searched data records of all producers benefiting from the program. We then compiled and processed the data, using ArcMap® application to georeference the rural properties making up the sample. The observations concerning number of assisted properties and area reforested in each property per administrative region was based on seven property size classes, according to the 1996 agricultural census classification of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The administrative unit showing the largest assisted area was Centro Norte regional office, with 3,872.25 ha, although Zona da Mata regional office had the largest number of benefiting producers, with 449 producers. Featured among the steel producing hubs concentrating the largest number of Asiflor member plants, Sete Lagoas had the largest reforested area, being closer to the actual plants. The most assisted property size class, both in quantity and in area reforested, was class B, except in Centro Norte regional office where Class E showed a larger area reforested.

  1. 78 FR 40084 - Proposed Requirement-Migrant Education Program Consortium Incentive Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grant (CIG) Program from two years to three years. We take this action... achieving the objectives and outcomes that were established in their approved CIG program application. DATES....gillette@ed.gov . You must include the term ``CIG- Duration'' in the subject line of your electronic...

  2. 77 FR 53967 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 412, 413, and 495 Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record... Certification Criteria for Electronic Health Record Technology, 2014 Edition; Revisions to the Permanent... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  3. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

  4. Understanding the Relationship Between Incentive Design and Participation in U.S. Workplace Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorsky, Benjamin; Taylor, Erin; Huang, Crystal; Liu, Hangsheng; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to understand how employer characteristics relate to the use of incentives to promote participation in wellness programs and to explore the relationship between incentive type and participation rates. A cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data combined with an administrative business database was employed. Random sampling of U.S. companies within strata based on industry and number of employees was used to determine a final sample of 3000 companies. Of these, 19% returned completed surveys. The survey asked about employee participation rate, incentive type, and gender composition of employees. Incentive types included any incentives, high-value rewards, and rewards plus penalties. Logistic regressions of incentive type on employer characteristics were used to determine what types of employers are more likely to offer which type of incentives. A generalized linear model of participation rate was used to determine the relationship between incentive type and participation. Employers located in the Northeast were 5 to 10 times more likely to offer incentives. Employers with a large number of employees, particularly female employees, were up to 1.25 times more likely to use penalties. Penalty and high-value incentives were associated with participation rates of 68% and 52%, respectively. Industry or regional characteristics are likely determinants of incentive use for wellness programs. Penalties appear to be effective, but attention should be paid to what types of employees they affect.

  5. The impact of including incentives and competition in a workplace smoking cessation program on quit rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, D M; Lee, J W; Hopp, J W; Emont, S L

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent smoking cessation program supplemented by incentives and team competition. A quasi-experimental design was employed to compare the effectiveness of three different smoking cessation programs, each assigned to separate worksite. The study was conducted from 1990 to 1991 at three aerospace industry worksites in California. All employees who were current, regular tobacco users were eligible to participate in the program offered at their site. The multicomponent program included a self-help package, telephone counseling, and other elements. The incentive-competition program included the multicomponent program plus cash incentives and team competition for the first 5 months of the program. The traditional program offered a standard smoking cessation program. Self-reported questionnaires and carbon monoxide tests of tobacco use or abstinence were used over a 12-month period. The incentive-competition program had an abstinence rate of 41% at 6 months (n = 68), which was significantly better than the multicomponent program (23%, n = 81) or the traditional program (8%, n = 36). At 12 months, the quit rates for the incentive and multicomponent-programs were statistically indistinguishable (37% vs. 30%), but remained higher than the traditional program (11%). Chi-square tests, t-tests, and logistic regression were used to compare smoking abstinence across the three programs. Offering a multicomponent program with telephone counseling may be just as effective for long-term smoking cessation as such a program plus incentives and competition, and more effective than a traditional program.

  6. 75 FR 49215 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS...) for Medicare outpatient end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis providers and facilities with payment... Erythropoiesis stimulating agent ESRD End stage renal disease FDA Food and Drug Administration Kt/V A measure...

  7. Results of a State Incentive Program on the Supply and Distribution of National Board Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfers, Ana M.; Plecki, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Investment in state incentive policies to support National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) prompt consideration of their distribution and retention. This study examines the results of a state's incentive program for NBCTs, including a targeted bonus for those working in high-poverty schools. A quantitative analysis was conducted of state data…

  8. Distributed Solar Incentive Programs: Recent Experience and Best Practices for Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Reger, A.; Heeter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Based on lessons from recent program experience, this report explores best practices for designing and implementing incentives for small and mid-sized residential and commercial distributed solar energy projects. The findings of this paper are relevant to both new incentive programs as well as those undergoing modifications. The report covers factors to consider in setting and modifying incentive levels over time, differentiating incentives to encourage various market segments, administrative issues such as providing equitable access to incentives and customer protection. It also explores how incentive programs can be designed to respond to changing market conditions while attempting to provide a longer-term and stable environment for the solar industry. The findings are based on interviews with program administrators, regulators, and industry representatives as well as data from numerous incentive programs nationally, particularly the largest and longest-running programs. These best practices consider the perspectives of various stakeholders and the broad objectives of reducing solar costs, encouraging long-term market viability, minimizing ratepayer costs, and protecting consumers.

  9. Incentive structure of and private landowner participation in an endangered species conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Haider, Wolfgang; Conner, J Richard; Ditton, Robert B

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, voluntary incentive programs that aid conservation of plant and wildlife species on private lands provide a structural solution to the problem of protecting endangered species by reducing costs and enhancing benefits to landowners. We explored the potential for incentives to encourage landowners to manage land cover for the benefit of endangered songbirds in central Texas (U.S.A.) by asking landowners to indicate their preferences for financial incentives, technical assistance, and regulatory assurances. We identified owners of potential songbird habitat and collected data in face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We used a latent-class stated-choice model to identify 3 classes of landowners whose choices varied on the basis of their attitudes and perceived social norms: (1) strong positive attitude, perceived social pressure to participate, and willing to participate with relatively few incentives, (2) weak positive attitude, perceived no social pressure to participate, and required strongest incentives, and (3) negative attitude, perceived social pressure not to enroll, and unwilling to participate regardless of incentive structure. Given this heterogeneity in preferences, conservation incentives may increase management of land cover to benefit endangered species on private lands to some degree; however, exclusive reliance on incentives may be insufficient. Promoting conservation on private lands may be enhanced by integrating incentives into an approach that incorporates other strategies for conservation, including social networks and collaborative processes that reinforce social norms.

  10. CMS Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Program, Electronic Health Record Products Used for Attestation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data set merges information about the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs attestations with the Office of the...

  11. Multiparous women's confidence to have a publicly-funded homebirth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling-Paull, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Homer, Caroline S E; Homer, Caroline C S E

    2011-09-01

    Hospital birth is commonly thought to be a safer option than homebirth, despite many studies showing similar rates of safety for low risk mothers and babies when cared for by qualified midwives with systems of back-up in place. Recently in Australia, demand has led to the introduction of a small number of publicly-funded homebirth programs. Women's confidence in having a homebirth through a publicly-funded homebirth program in Australia has not yet been explored. The aim of the study was to explore the reasons why multiparous women feel confident to have a homebirth within a publicly-funded model of care in Australia. Ten multiparous English-speaking women who chose to have a homebirth with the St George Hospital Homebirth Program were interviewed in the postnatal period using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed, then a thematic analysis was undertaken. Women, having already experienced a normal birth, demonstrated a strong confidence in their ability to give birth at home and described a confidence in their bodies, their midwives, and the health system. Women weighed up the risks of homebirth through information they gathered and integration with their previous experience of birth, their family support and self-confidence. Women choosing publicly-funded homebirth display strong confidence in both themselves to give birth at home, and their belief in the health system's ability to cope with any complications that may arise. Many women may benefit from access to publicly-funded homebirth models of care. This should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  12. Three essays on the incentive structure of energy conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwelum, Edson Ogochukwu

    This dissertation is comprised of three related essays examining the potential effectiveness of government energy efficiency programs from both the producer and consumer perspectives. The first chapter is based on a paper I coauthored with Corey Lang. In this manuscript, I address the question of whether strategic behavior by consumers could result in the erosion of energy savings in a demand response program. Understanding how the strategic behavior of consumers affects the net benefits from a demand response program has policy implications because of the increasing importance that demand response has come to play in utility load and reliability management during peak times. Using data from a large field experiment in California in 2007, we test the hypothesis that under a technology program, consumers' strategic behavior results in outcomes that are opposite what is obtainable under a program with price incentive or based of behavior. Chapter II is also an empirical study which explores how the preferences of consumers for large and heavy vehicles imposes costs on society in the form of external costs of accident. This chapter looks at how fleet changes in weight distribution due to corporate average fuel economy and consumer demand for heavier vehicles results in fatalities. It is important to understand how consumer behavior affects the accident rates so that one can obtain unbiased estimates of accident costs that go into benefit-cost analysis of the impact of regulations in automobiles. Chapter three addresses how unobserved heterogeneity and sorting affect the estimates of the consumer willingness to pay for reduction in future gasoline costs. This tradeoff is important to policy makers and manufactures because it could help explain why manufacturers fail to adopt technologies for which the fuel savings far outweigh the costs. The remainder of the abstract provides a more detailed outlines of the three essays. Chapter 1 explores strategic behavior by

  13. An Analysis of Medicare's Incentive Payment Program for Physicians in Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Ricketts III, Thomas C.; Beaver, Shelli K.

    2004-01-01

    Medicare's Incentive Payment (MIP) program provides a 10% bonus payment to providers who treat Medicare patients in rural and urban areas where there is a shortage of generalist physicians. Purpose: To examine the experience of Alaska, Idaho, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington with the MIP program. We determined the program's…

  14. Randomized Trial of Four Financial-Incentive Programs for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Scott D.; French, Benjamin; Small, Dylan S.; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Harhay, Michael O.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Loewenstein, George; Brennan, Troyen A.; Asch, David A.; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Financial incentives promote many health behaviors, but effective ways to deliver health incentives remain uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned CVS Caremark employees and their relatives and friends to one of four incentive programs or to usual care for smoking cessation. Two of the incentive programs targeted individuals, and two targeted groups of six participants. One of the individual-oriented programs and one of the group-oriented programs entailed rewards of approximately $800 for smoking cessation; the others entailed refundable deposits of $150 plus $650 in reward payments for successful participants. Usual care included informational resources and free smoking-cessation aids. RESULTS Overall, 2538 participants were enrolled. Of those assigned to reward-based programs, 90.0% accepted the assignment, as compared with 13.7% of those assigned to deposit-based programs (Pincentive programs (range, 9.4 to 16.0%) than with usual care (6.0%) (Preward-based programs was sustained through 12 months. Group-oriented and individual-oriented programs were associated with similar 6-month abstinence rates (13.7% and 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.29). Reward-based programs were associated with higher abstinence rates than deposit-based programs (15.7% vs. 10.2%, Preward-based programs among the estimated 13.7% of the participants who would accept participation in either type of program. CONCLUSIONS Reward-based programs were much more commonly accepted than deposit-based programs, leading to higher rates of sustained abstinence from smoking. Group-oriented incentive programs were no more effective than individual-oriented programs. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and CVS Caremark; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01526265.) PMID:25970009

  15. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relyea George

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  16. A Simulation Modeling Framework to Optimize Programs Using Financial Incentives to Motivate Health Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Kiernan, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    While increasingly popular among mid- to large-size employers, using financial incentives to induce health behavior change among employees has been controversial, in part due to poor quality and generalizability of studies to date. Thus, fundamental questions have been left unanswered: To generate positive economic returns on investment, what level of incentive should be offered for any given type of incentive program and among which employees? We constructed a novel modeling framework that systematically identifies how to optimize marginal return on investment from programs incentivizing behavior change by integrating commonly collected data on health behaviors and associated costs. We integrated "demand curves" capturing individual differences in response to any given incentive with employee demographic and risk factor data. We also estimated the degree of self-selection that could be tolerated: that is, the maximum percentage of already-healthy employees who could enroll in a wellness program while still maintaining positive absolute return on investment. In a demonstration analysis, the modeling framework was applied to data from 3000 worksite physical activity programs across the nation. For physical activity programs, the incentive levels that would optimize marginal return on investment ($367/employee/year) were higher than average incentive levels currently offered ($143/employee/year). Yet a high degree of self-selection could undermine the economic benefits of the program; if more than 17% of participants came from the top 10% of the physical activity distribution, the cost of the program would be expected to always be greater than its benefits. Our generalizable framework integrates individual differences in behavior and risk to systematically estimate the incentive level that optimizes marginal return on investment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Pay-for-Performance Incentives in Low- and Middle-Income Country Health Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Miller; Kimberly Singer Babiarz

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys experience with performance pay in developing country health programs. In doing so, it focuses on four key conceptual issues: (1) What to reward, (2) Who to reward, (3) How to reward, and (4) What unintended consequences might performance incentives create. We highlight that the use of performance pay has outpaced growth in corresponding empirical evidence. Moreover, very little research on performance incentives focuses on the underlying conceptual issues that we outline...

  18. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... are worth bearing even when these constitute a substantial proportion (70% or more) of the payments that would otherwise have been given to farmers....

  19. Teacher Incentive Pay Programs in the United States: Union Influence and District Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs in the United States. Using the 2007–08 SASS data set, it found an inverse relationship between union influence and districts’ incentive pay offerings. Large and ethnically diverse districts in urban areas that did not meet the requirements for Adequate Yearly Progress as defined under the No Child Left Behind Act are more likely to offer a larger number of economic incentives. Although rural districts are likely to reward teachers in hard-to-staff schools, they are not more likely to reward teachers who are certified by the National Board or who teach in the subject areas of shortage, nor are they more likely to offer multiple financial incentives.

  20. Physician practice responses to financial incentive programs: exploring the concept of implementation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie; Lemak, Christy Harris

    2012-01-01

    To develop a framework for studying financial incentive program implementation mechanisms, the means by which physician practices and physicians translate incentive program goals into their specific office setting. Understanding how new financial incentives fit with the structure of physician practices and individual providers' work may shed some insight on the variable effects of physician incentives documented in numerous reviews and meta-analyses. Reviewing select articles on pay-for-performance evaluations to identify and characterize the presence of implementation mechanisms for designing, communicating, implementing, and maintaining financial incentive programs as well as recognizing participants' success and effects on patient care. Although uncommonly included in evaluations, evidence from 26 articles reveals financial incentive program sponsors and participants utilized a variety of strategies to facilitate communication about program goals and intentions, to provide feedback about participants' progress, and to assist-practices in providing recommended services. Despite diversity in programs' geographic locations, clinical targets, scope, and market context, sponsors and participants deployed common strategies. While these methods largely pertained to communication between program sponsors and participants and the provision of information about performance through reports and registries, they also included other activities such as efforts to engage patients and ways to change staff roles. This review covers a limited body of research to develop a conceptual framework for future research; it did not exhaustively search for new articles and cannot definitively link particular implementation mechanisms to outcomes. Our results underscore the effects implementation mechanisms may have on how practices incorporate new programs into existing systems of care which implicates both the potential rewards from small changes as well as the resources which may be

  1. Financial incentive programs' influence in promoting sustainable forestry in the northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; Steven E. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Selected forestry officials in each of the 20 northern states were surveyed concerning their opinions on the public and private financial incentive programs available to nonindustrial private forest owners in their state. The officials were asked to name and describe the programs and to assess forest owners' awareness of each one, its appeal among the owners aware...

  2. 76 FR 14379 - Advanced Placement Incentive Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Advanced Placement Incentive Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information... Advanced Placement Programs is from section 1705(c) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965... Secondary Education may change the maximum amount through a notice published in the Federal...

  3. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  4. Examining incentive design strategies for worksite wellness program engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Heltemes, Kevin J; Drew, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to examine employee engagement in worksite wellness activities at 2 large US companies that differed in engagement strategy and incentive plan. Inclusion criteria were US employees aged 18 to 65 who were eligible to receive wellness benefits throughout 2012. Company B's incentive was twice the dollar value of Company A's and produced higher engagement rates for the health assessment (HA; 26.1% vs. 24.4%, Pemployees who completed the HA and the biometric screening, 44.6% (N=2,309) at Company A engaged in at least 1 coaching session compared to 8.9% (N=594) at Company B. Fewer employees at Company A with high-risk cholesterol engaged in coaching compared to Company B (44.6% vs. 54.9%, P=.009). However, more Company A employees with high-risk blood pressure engaged in coaching compared to Company B (41.3% vs. 34.8%, P=.053). Company A engaged more obese employees compared to Company B (43.7% vs. 13.9%, Pengagement engaged high-risk employees in coaching, and engaged a high proportion of employees not at high risk, but who can still be at risk for chronic diseases.

  5. The impact of the "Financial Incentive Program" on the employee performance: The HRC Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the impact of the Financial Incentive Program introduced at HRC Helsinki on the employee performance. The research is based on three theories of motivation: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adam’s Equity Theory and Locke’s & Latham’s Goal-Setting Theory. The research is implemented through analyzing the sales reports of 2 months before and after the introduction of the incentive program and, the HRC staff survey conducted by the author. The monetary ...

  6. The impact of the "Financial Incentive Program" on the employee performance: The HRC Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the impact of the Financial Incentive Program introduced at HRC Helsinki on the employee performance. The research is based on three theories of motivation: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Adam’s Equity Theory and Locke’s & Latham’s Goal-Setting Theory. The research is implemented through analyzing the sales reports of 2 months before and after the introduction of the incentive program and, the HRC staff survey conducted by the author. The monetary ...

  7. A human-centered framework for innovation in conservation incentive programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-12-01

    The promise of environmental conservation incentive programs that provide direct payments in exchange for conservation outcomes is that they enhance the value of engaging in stewardship behaviors. An insidious but important concern is that a narrow focus on optimizing payment levels can ultimately suppress program participation and subvert participants' internal motivation to engage in long-term conservation behaviors. Increasing participation and engendering stewardship can be achieved by recognizing that participation is not simply a function of the payment; it is a function of the overall structure and administration of the program. Key to creating innovative and more sustainable programs is fitting them within the existing needs and values of target participants. By focusing on empathy for participants, co-designing program approaches, and learning from the rapid prototyping of program concepts, a human-centered approach to conservation incentive program design enhances the propensity for discovery of novel and innovative solutions to pressing conservation issues.

  8. Legal aspects of open access to publicly funded research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Margoni, T.

    2015-01-01

    Internet growth, content digitisation, and expanding "big data" and data analytics capabilities have affected the ways in which publicly funded research results are accessed, disseminated and used. While these technological advances have made sharing and processing information easier, that does not

  9. The effects of different recruitment and incentive strategies for body acceptance programs on college women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Bruening, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study—getting individuals to participate in eating disorder prevention programs—is difficult yet crucial for dissemination efforts. Little research has investigated what incentive strategies can be particularly efficacious, and even less is published on their cost-effectiveness. The following study examined two types of email advertisements and six incentive strategies in an empirically supported body acceptance program disseminated at a large university. A total of 5,978 undergraduate women received email advertisements, of which 430 signed up to participate. An additional 588 who did not participate were assessed. Results suggest the most effective incentives were offering gift certificates for free manicure services and free personal fashion style training gift certificates from a student organization. Undergraduate women were least likely to attend due to lack of knowledge about the program, not having a friend to attend with them, or inconvenient times. Implications for future research are explored. PMID:27310136

  10. Monetary Incentives to Reinforce Engagement and Achievement in a Job-Skills Training Program for Homeless, Unemployed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Wong, Conrad J.; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether monetary incentives could increase engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for unemployed, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. Participants (n?=?124) were randomized to a no-reinforcement group (n?=?39), during which access to the training program was provided but no incentives were given; a…

  11. Monetary Incentives to Reinforce Engagement and Achievement in a Job-Skills Training Program for Homeless, Unemployed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Wong, Conrad J.; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether monetary incentives could increase engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for unemployed, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. Participants (n?=?124) were randomized to a no-reinforcement group (n?=?39), during which access to the training program was provided but no incentives were given; a…

  12. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 51 - Examples of Economic Incentive Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial boiler) rather than on actual emissions. Sources paying a fee on potential emissions could be... that are available to curtail low occupancy vehicle use, fund transportation system improvements and... plans, including incentives; (iv) Trip-reduction ordinances; (v) Traffic flow improvement programs...

  13. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers. Policy Issue Series No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott; McCarthy, Martha

    The first section of this policy paper provides an overview of the historical development of early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs), the legal status of ERIPs under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), cost/benefit analyses involving ERIPs, and consideration of ERIPs in Indiana. The second section contains a brief synopsis of…

  14. Determining Safety Inspection Thresholds for Employee Incentives Programs on Construction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Emily; Dennerlein, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate approaches of determining the numerical value of a safety inspection score that would activate a reward in an employee safety incentive program. Safety inspections are a reflection of the physical working conditions at a construction site and provide a safety score that can be used in incentive programs to reward workers. Yet it is unclear what level of safety should be used when implementing this kind of program. This study explored five ways of grouping safety inspection data collected during 19 months at Harvard University-owned construction projects. Each approach grouped the data by one of the following: owner, general contractor, project, trade, or subcontractor. The median value for each grouping provided the threshold score. These five approaches were then applied to data from a completed project in order to calculate the frequency and distribution of rewards in a monthly safety incentive program. The application of each approach was evaluated qualitatively for consistency, competitiveness, attainability, and fairness. The owner-specific approach resulted in a threshold score of 96.3% and met all of the qualitative evaluation goals. It had the most competitive reward distribution (only 1/3 of the project duration) yet it was also attainable. By treating all workers equally and maintaining the same value throughout the project duration, this approach was fair and consistent. The owner-based approach for threshold determination can be used by owners or general contractors when creating leading indicator incentives programs and by researchers in future studies on incentive program effectiveness.

  15. Engagement in health and wellness: An online incentive-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa B. Gibson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, corporate health promotion programs are implementing wellness programs integrating principles of behavioral economics. Employees of a large firm were provided a customized online incentive program to design their own commitments to meet health goals. This study examines patterns of program participation and engagement in health promotion activities. Subjects were US-based employees of a large, nondurable goods manufacturing firm who were enrolled in corporate health benefits in 2010 and 2011. We assessed measures of engagement with the workplace health promotion program (e.g., incentive points earned, weight loss. To further examine behaviors indicating engagement in health promotion activities, we constructed an aggregate, employee-level engagement index. Regression models were employed to assess the association between employee characteristics and the engagement index, and the engagement index and spending. 4220 employees utilized the online program and made 25,716 commitments. Male employees age 18–34 had the highest level of engagement, and male employees age 55–64 had the lowest level of engagement overall. Prior year health status and prior year spending did not show a significant association with the level of engagement with the program (p > 0.05. Flexible, incentive-based behavioral health and lifestyle programs may reach the broader workforce including those with chronic conditions and higher levels of health spending.

  16. Engagement in health and wellness: An online incentive-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Teresa B; Maclean, J Ross; Carls, Ginger S; Moore, Brian J; Ehrlich, Emily D; Fener, Victoria; Goldberg, Jordan; Mechanic, Elaine; Baigel, Colin

    2017-09-01

    Increasingly, corporate health promotion programs are implementing wellness programs integrating principles of behavioral economics. Employees of a large firm were provided a customized online incentive program to design their own commitments to meet health goals. This study examines patterns of program participation and engagement in health promotion activities. Subjects were US-based employees of a large, nondurable goods manufacturing firm who were enrolled in corporate health benefits in 2010 and 2011. We assessed measures of engagement with the workplace health promotion program (e.g., incentive points earned, weight loss). To further examine behaviors indicating engagement in health promotion activities, we constructed an aggregate, employee-level engagement index. Regression models were employed to assess the association between employee characteristics and the engagement index, and the engagement index and spending. 4220 employees utilized the online program and made 25,716 commitments. Male employees age 18-34 had the highest level of engagement, and male employees age 55-64 had the lowest level of engagement overall. Prior year health status and prior year spending did not show a significant association with the level of engagement with the program (p > 0.05). Flexible, incentive-based behavioral health and lifestyle programs may reach the broader workforce including those with chronic conditions and higher levels of health spending.

  17. Financial Incentives, Workplace Wellness Program Participation, and Utilization of Health Care Services and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Roebuck, M Christopher

    2015-08-01

    This paper analyzes data from a large employer that enhanced financial incentives to encourage participation in its workplace wellness programs. It examines, first, the effect of financial incentives on wellness program participation, and second, it estimates the impact of wellness program participation on utilization of health care services and spending. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) allows employers to provide financial incentives of as much as 30 percent of the total cost of coverage when tied to participation in a wellness program. Participation in health risk assessments (HRAs) increased by 50 percentage points among members of unions that bargained in the incentive, and increased 22 percentage points among non-union employees. Participation in the biometric screening program increased 55 percentage points when financial incentives were provided. Biometric screenings led to an average increase of 0.31 annual prescription drug fills, with related spending higher by $56 per member per year. Otherwise, no significant effects of participation in HRAs or biometric screenings on utilization of health care services and spending were found. The largest increase in medication utilization as a result of biometric screening was for statins, which are widely used to treat high cholesterol. This therapeutic class accounted for one-sixth of the overall increase in prescription drug utilization. Second were antidepressants, followed by ACE inhibitors (for hypertension), and thyroid hormones (for hypothyroidism). Biometric screening also led to significantly higher utilization of biologic response modifiers and immunosuppressants. These specialty medications are used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and are relatively expensive compared with non-specialty medications. The added spending associated with the combined increase in fills of 0.02 was $27 per member per year--about one-half of the

  18. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    , the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment......The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  19. School Competition and Efficiency with Publicly Funded Catholic Schools

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Martin Dooley; Abigail Payne

    2010-01-01

    The province of Ontario has two publicly funded school systems: secular schools (known as public schools) that are open to all students, and separate schools that are open to children with Catholic backgrounds. The systems are administered independently and receive equal funding per student. In this paper we use detailed school and student-level data to assess whether competition between the systems leads to improved efficiency. Building on a simple model of school choice, we argue that incen...

  20. Public funding of political parties when campaigns are informative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian

    ’s dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...

  1. The effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Daniel J; Abraham, Jean M; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Employers are increasingly trying to promote healthy behaviors, including regular exercise, through wellness programs that offer financial incentives. However, there is limited evidence that these types of programs affect exercise habits within employee populations. In this study, we estimate the effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise. Since 2008, the University of Minnesota's Fitness Rewards Program has offered a $20 monthly incentive to encourage fitness center utilization among its employees. Using 2006 to 2010 health risk assessments and university administrative files for 2972 employees, we conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing propensity score methods to estimate the effect of participation in the Fitness Rewards Program on self-reported exercise days per week from 2008 to 2010. On average, participation in the program led to an increase of 0.59 vigorous exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.42, 0.78) and 0.43 strength-building exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.31, 0.58) in 2008 for participants relative to non-participants. Increases in exercise persisted through 2010. Employees reporting less frequent exercise prior to the program were least likely to participate in the program, but when they participated they had the largest increases in exercise compared to non-participants. Offering an incentive for fitness center utilization encourages higher levels of exercise. Future policies may want to concentrate on how to motivate participation among individuals who are less frequently physically active. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Military Recruiting: Army National Guard Needs to Continue Monitoring, Collect Better Data, and Assess Incentives Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    financial incentives programs. Also, the House report included two additional provisions : (1) a provision for us to assess the extent to which...Programs Report to Congressional Committees November 2015 GAO-16-36 United States Government Accountability Office Report Documentation...Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for

  3. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  4. 77 FR 2497 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Anticosti Island. (40 CFR 1043.20). EPA believes that the goal of repowering the fleet of Great Lakes... program is 14.0 hours annually. This is based on two steamship owners repowering two steamships in each...

  5. 42 CFR 413.149 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. 413.149 Section 413.149 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE...

  6. EXPORT INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: A STUDY ABOUT BRAZILIAN SME’S FROM SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the Brazilian economy during the last decade has influenced many companies to get new markets to expand to other parameters of competition. The export incentive programs created by the government, is an example of this, and he has performed positively, strengthening the relationship of resources and capacity to develop sales strategies and relationships with the external market. With the use of financial incentive programs for export, companies can enjoy the competitiveness and advantages related to cost of goods or services, and thus help them achieve a satisfactory goal with the export activity. Careful to promote exports, the Brazilian government creates lines of financial incentives that can meet the needs of Brazilian companies. These floor plane are known as advances on exchange contracts (ACC, Advances on foreign exchange delivered (ACE, Program for Export – (Proex among others. Santa Catarina has been active in the export process of the country, accounting for significant numbers for the trade balance. The target of this study is to understand the reactions of the business of Santa Catarina in the use of financial incentives for export. The research method adopted, as to the purposes of research, the research was exploratory and the means of investigation was a qualitative field research through interviews. The results showed that the reasons these companies entering in the international market, have been opening new markets, new business opportunities and increase the export volume. Financial incentives are most commonly used by companies to Advance on Export Contracts (ACC and Advances on Foreign Exchange Delivered (ACE.

  7. WWC Quick Review of the Manuscript "Paying for A's: An Early Exploration of Student Reward and Incentive Programs in Charter Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This review examined a study designed to evaluate whether offering student reward and incentive programs in charter schools affects academic achievement. The study measured effects by comparing changes in average grade-level test scores in schools that had incentive programs to changes in schools that did not have incentive programs. The study…

  8. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  9. The inhibiting factors that principal investigators experience in leading publicly funded research projects

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, James; O'Reilly, Paul; O'Kane, Conor; Mangematin, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Securing public funding to conduct research and leading it by being a principal investigator (PI) is seen as significant career development step. Such a role brings professional prestige but also new responsibilities beyond research leadership to research management. If public funding brings financial and infrastructure support, little is understood about the inhibiting factors that publicly funded PIs face given the research autonomy offered by publicly funded researc...

  10. Motivation for Participating in a Weight Loss Program and Financial Incentives: An Analysis from a Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost. There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation.

  11. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  12. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  13. Report on inspection of the performance based incentive program at the Richland Operations Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-10

    The Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Performance Based Incentive (PBI) Program at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Richland Operations Office (Richland) was initiated by Richland as one part of the broader DOE Contract Reform Initiative being implemented at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. This program was identified as an area of concern by the Office of Inspections as a result of previous inspection work. Specifically, during a limited review of the construction of an Effluent Treatment Facility at the Hanford Site, we were unable to identify any written policies describing PBI program controls or implementation procedures. We were told that Richland Operations Office Program Management personnel were not directly involved in the selection of the Effluent Treatment Facility project for the PBI Program, or in the determination that this particular PBI would be established with a potential fee of $1 million.

  14. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  15. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  16. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Morean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8 attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1 intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race, smoking history, and trait impulsivity and/or (2 aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency. Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8% reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  17. Aligning incentive payments with outcomes: lessons from a Medicaid Section 1115 waiver program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matt; Gevorgyan, Anush; Hetterich, Charles

    2016-04-01

    By obtaining a Medicaid waiver under Section 1115 of the Social Security Act, many states have taken advantage of an opportunity to innovate and transform their Medicaid programs. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation has granted Section 1115 waivers to several states to develop Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) programs, which vary in their federal funding pools, structures, and goals, but share key characteristics, such as the withholding of payment until certain milestones and metrics are met. The DSRIP project in New York--as exemplified by Finger Lakes Performing Provider System--is being closely watched across the country as CMS and state Medicaid programs contemplate similar measures to transform Medicaid and bend its cost curve.

  18. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  19. Incentives for healthy behaviors: experience from Florida Medicaid's Enhanced Benefit Rewards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allyson G; Lemak, Christy Harris; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Duncan, R Paul

    2013-04-01

    Engaging individuals in their own health care proves challenging for policy makers, health plans, and providers. Florida Medicaid introduced the Enhanced Benefits Rewards (EBR) program in 2006, providing financial incentives as rewards to beneficiaries who engage in health care seeking and healthy behaviors. This study analyzed beneficiary survey data from 2009 to determine predictors associated with awareness of and participation in the EBR program. Non-English speakers, those in a racial and ethnic minority group, those with less than a high school education, and those with limited or no connection to a health care provider were associated with lower awareness of the program. Among those aware of the program, these factors were also associated with reduced likelihood of engaging in the program. Individuals in fair or poor health were also less likely to engage in an approved behavior. Individuals who speak Spanish at home and those without a high school diploma were more likely than other groups to spend their earned program credits. Findings underscore the fact that initial engagement in such a program can prove challenging as different groups are not equally likely to be aware of or participate in an approved activity or redeem a credit. Physicians may play important roles in encouraging participation in programs to incentivize healthy behaviors.

  20. Developing and Implementing an Early Retirement Incentive Program for Marin County School Districts. Vol. 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzy, Byron W.

    In creating an early retirement incentive program for the Marin County (California) schools, the author examined the early retirement ethic, other early retirement plans in the public and private sectors, the impact of early retirement on Social Security benefits, opposition to such programs, and the factors in the California school districts that…

  1. Public funding of innovation; Financiacion publica de la innovacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guisado Tato, M.; Vila, M.; Guisado Gonzalez, M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper contrasts how business cooperation at the level of RandD, the size and the membership in printing industry determine the participation of innovative manufacturing companies in the systems of public support for innovation. Material and methods. From the microdata of the survey on technological innovation 1998-2000, of the National Institute of Statistics (INE), a database is created by the manufacturing Spanish companies involved in innovation. Afterwards, by univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we contrast whether cooperation, size and membership in printing industry determine the participation of the manufacturing innovative companies in the systems of public support for innovation, as well as the direction of that conditioning. Results. The tests carried out indicate that more cooperation between companies at the level of a larger size have a positive influence on the degree of business involvement in the systems of public support for innovation.Discussion. Public administrations seek to foster the development of innovation among manufacturing companies facilitating by providing funds to the companies that cooperate in the area of IandD. Likewise, public support for innovation are targeting in larger firms, while the companies, belonging to the printing industry have less likely to obtain public funding for their innovative projects that the remaining companies of the Spanish manufacturing sector. (Author).

  2. 75 FR 42745 - Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of..., biofuels producers and other interested parties are invited to submit pre-auction eligibility information..., ``Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels; Reverse Auction Procedures and Standards,'' (74 FR...

  3. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Saji S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demand side financing (DSF is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the above aspects on India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program. Methods This study employed design and was conducted in three districts of Orissa, selected through a three-stage stratified sampling. The quantitative method was used to review the Health Management Information System (HMIS. The qualitative methods included focus groups discussions with beneficiaries (n = 19 and community intermediaries (n = 9, and interviews (n = 7 with Ministry of Health officials. HMIS data enabled to review maternal healthcare utilization. Group discussions and interviews explored the perceived impact of JSY on in-facility delivery, OOPS, healthcare costs, quality of care and performance motivation of community health workers. Results The number of institutional deliveries, ante-and post-natal care visits increased after the introduction of JSY with an annual net growth of 18.1%, 3.6% and 5% respectively. The financial incentive provided partial financial risk-protection as it could cover only 25.5% of the maternal healthcare cost of the beneficiaries in rural areas and 14.3% in urban areas. The incentive induced fresh out-of-pocket spending for some mothers and it could not address maternal care requirements comprehensively. An activity-based community worker model was encouraging to augment maternal healthcare consumption. However, the existing level of financial incentives and systemic support were inadequate to motivate the volunteers optimally on their

  4. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Saji S; Durairaj, Varatharajan

    2012-09-15

    Demand side financing (DSF) is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the above aspects on India's Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program. This study employed design and was conducted in three districts of Orissa, selected through a three-stage stratified sampling. The quantitative method was used to review the Health Management Information System (HMIS). The qualitative methods included focus groups discussions with beneficiaries (n = 19) and community intermediaries (n = 9), and interviews (n = 7) with Ministry of Health officials. HMIS data enabled to review maternal healthcare utilization. Group discussions and interviews explored the perceived impact of JSY on in-facility delivery, OOPS, healthcare costs, quality of care and performance motivation of community health workers. The number of institutional deliveries, ante-and post-natal care visits increased after the introduction of JSY with an annual net growth of 18.1%, 3.6% and 5% respectively. The financial incentive provided partial financial risk-protection as it could cover only 25.5% of the maternal healthcare cost of the beneficiaries in rural areas and 14.3% in urban areas. The incentive induced fresh out-of-pocket spending for some mothers and it could not address maternal care requirements comprehensively. An activity-based community worker model was encouraging to augment maternal healthcare consumption. However, the existing level of financial incentives and systemic support were inadequate to motivate the volunteers optimally on their performance. Demand side financial incentive could enhance financial

  5. The Edwards Aquifer Water Resource Conflict: USDA Farm Program resource-use incentives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Glenn D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarizes economic and hydrological analyses of the impacts of the 1990 and 1996 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm programs on irrigation water withdrawals from the Edwards Aquifer in south central Texas and on aquifer-dependent spring flows that support threatened and endangered species. Economic modeling, a regional producer behavioral survey, as well as institutional and farm characteristic analyses are used to examine likely irrigation water-use impacts. Hydrologie modeling is used to examine spring flow effects. Study results show that 1990 USDA commodity programs caused producers to require less irrigation water, in turn increasing rather than decreasing aquifer spring flows. Market economic factors are the dominant criteria influencing producer irrigation decisions. Farm-tenure arrangements and aquifer management responsibilities of the Edwards Aquifer Authority indicate that the 1996 Farm Act's PFC payment program will not cause an increase in irrigation withdrawals. Broader actions such as long-term water supply enhancement/conservation programs, dry-year water-use reduction incentives and water markets all provide tools for Edwards water-use conflict resolution. USDA farm programs do not apparently play a material part in the total debate.

  6. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  7. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Barnieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries, and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status, or with age (in 15 countries. Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. CONCLUSIONS: There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  8. 76 FR 31547 - Medicare Program; Proposed Changes to the Electronic Prescribing (eRx) Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Law 110-275, authorized the Secretary to establish a program to encourage the adoption and use of eRx... programs, and to encourage adoption of certified EHR technology. Accordingly, we are proposing changes to... hardship exemption requests using a Web-based tool or interface. However, our ability to receive...

  9. Characteristics of patient portals developed in the context of health information exchanges: Early policy effects of incentives in the meaningful use program in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Otte-Trojel (Eva Terese); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); J.J. van de Klundert (Joris); T.G. Rundall (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in the United States launched the second stage of its Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, providing financial incentives to providers to meaningfully use their electronic health records to engage patients onl

  10. Characteristics of patient portals developed in the context of health information exchanges: Early policy effects of incentives in the meaningful use program in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Otte-Trojel (Eva Terese); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); J.J. van de Klundert (Joris); T.G. Rundall (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ In 2014, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in the United States launched the second stage of its Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, providing financial incentives to providers to meaningfully use their electronic health records to engage

  11. Where does public funding for HIV prevention go to? The case of condoms versus microbicides and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharf Maja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses the priorities of public donors in funding HIV prevention by either integrated condom programming or HIV preventive microbicides and vaccines in the period between 2000 and 2008. It further compares the public funding investments of the USA government and European governments, including the EU, as we expect the two groups to invest differently in HIV prevention options, because their policies on sexual and reproductive health and rights are different. We use two existing officially UN endorsed databases to compare the public donor funding streams for HIV prevention of these two distinct contributors. In the period 2000-2008, the relative share of public funding for integrated condom programming dropped significantly, while that for research on vaccines and microbicides increased. The European public donors gave a larger share to condom programming than the United States, but exhibited a similar downward trend in favour of funding research on vaccines and microbicides. Both public donor parties invested progressively more in research on vaccines and microbicides rather than addressing the shortage of condoms and improving access to integrated condom programming in developing countries.

  12. Regulatory Risk under Optimal Incentive Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides a tractable, analytical framework to study regulatory risk under optimal incentive regulation. Regulatory risk is captured by uncertainty about the policy variables in the regulator’s objective function: weights attached to profits and costs of public funds. Results are as follows: 1) The regulator’s reaction to regulatory risk depends on the curvature of the aggregate demand function. 2) It yields a positive information rent effect exactly when demand is convex. 3) Firms b...

  13. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  14. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...... the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  15. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  16. Evaluating Safeguards in a Conservation Incentive Program: Participation, Consent, and Benefit Sharing in Indigenous Communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Krause

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in

  17. Financial Incentives: Only One Piece of the Workplace Wellness Puzzle; Comment on “Corporate Wellness Programs: Implementation Challenges in the Modern American Workplace”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Van Busum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, we argue that financial incentives are only one of many key components that employers should consider when designing and implementing a workplace wellness program. Strategies such as social encouragement and providing token rewards may also be effective in improving awareness and engagement. Should employers choose to utilize financial incentives, they should tailor them to the goals for the program as well as the targeted behaviors and health outcomes.

  18. Financial incentives: only one piece of the workplace wellness puzzle comment on "corporate wellness programs: implementation challenges in the modern american workplace".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busum, Kristin Van; Mattke, Soeren

    2013-11-01

    In this commentary, we argue that financial incentives are only one of many key components that employers should consider when designing and implementing a workplace wellness program. Strategies such as social encouragement and providing token rewards may also be effective in improving awareness and engagement. Should employers choose to utilize financial incentives, they should tailor them to the goals for the program as well as the targeted behaviors and health outcomes.

  19. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  20. Publically Funded Recreation Facilities: Obesogenic Environments for Children and Families?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti-Jean Naylor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed.

  1. An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, R.S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis.

  2. Overview of IPR Practices for Publicly-funded Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Holt, Elmer C.; De La Rue du Can, Stephane

    2005-10-31

    The term technology transfer refers to a broad set of processes that cover the flows of know-how, experience, and equipment for mitigating and adapting to climate change amongst different stakeholders, including governments, the private sector, and financial institutions, environmental organizations, and research/education institutions. (Metz et al. 2000). Transfer encompasses diffusion of technologies and technology cooperation across and within countries, and forms one element of the overarching goal of the Climate Convention (UNFCCC) to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Governments devote varying amounts toward sponsoring or in some manner supporting a broad array of research activities pursuing a diverse set of outcomes ranging from medicine to energy and the environment. These activities can take place within government-owned facilities, private companies, or universities or some combination thereof. Such pursuits may result in the identification of a patentable technology or process, as well as copyrightable computer programs or other publications worthy of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection. Although the precise arrangements vary from country to country, there is a high degree of commonality in the manner in which the property rights to these publicly-sponsored results are assigned. Except in the case of 'pure research' the property rights are assigned to one or more of the participants to the research process; government, university, private contractor, etc. For example, captured under the 'pure research' classification is genomic sequence data that is immediately shared with the public at large and to a significant extent climate data resulting from government-sponsored research is placed in the public domain. The results of this review are intended to inform the Expert Group on Technology Transfer as called for by 2005 program of work.

  3. Effects of incentive programs to stimulate safety belt use : a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P. Bijleveld, F.D. & Davidse, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of campaigns using tangible incentives (rewards) to promote safety belt usage have been evaluated by means of a meta-analytic approach. Two coders extracted a total number of 136 short-term and 114 long-term effect sizes and coded many other variables from 34 journal articles and

  4. Peer Evaluation of Teachers in Maricopa County's Teacher Incentive Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Finster, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This case study describes the peer evaluation system the Maricopa County Educational Services Agency (MCESA) is using in the districts participating in its Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) 3 and 4 grants. Maricopa County's TIF districts cover much of the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area. Including both TIF 3 and 4 cohorts, 12 districts with a total…

  5. European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Program for the integration of oncology and Palliative Care: a 5-year review of the Designated Centers' incentive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, N; Catane, R; Schrijvers, D; Kloke, M; Strasser, F

    2010-02-01

    In 1999, the National Representatives of European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) created a Palliative Care Working Group to improve the delivery of supportive and palliative care (S + PC) by oncologists, oncology departments and cancer centers. They have addressed this task through initiatives in policy, education, research and incentives. As an incentive program for oncology departments and centers, ESMO developed a program of Designated Centers (DCs) for programs meeting predetermined targets of service development and delivery of a high level of S + PC. The history, accreditation criteria and implementation of the DC incentive program is described. Since 2004, 75 centers have applied for designation and 48 have been accredited including 34 comprehensive cancer centers (CCCs) in general hospitals and seven freestanding CCCs. Perceived benefits accrued from the accreditation included the following: improved status and role identification of the center, positive impact on daily work, positive impact on business activity and positive impact on funding for projects. The accreditation of DCs has been a central to the ESMO initiative to improve the palliative care provided by oncologists and oncology centers. It is likely that many other oncology departments and cancer centers already meet the criteria and ESMO strongly encourages them to apply for accreditation.

  6. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Local Food Procurement in Publicly Funded Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Community-Based Social Marketing is presented as a technique to add to Extension's community economic development toolbox by examining perceived benefits and barriers to local food procurement at publicly funded institutions. Data were gathered through 86 in-person interviews with representatives across the supply chain. The findings revealed that…

  7. Financing Higher Education in South Africa: Public Funding, Non-Government Revenue and Tuition Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, G.; Cloete, N.

    2008-01-01

    The funding of public higher education is currently a moot issue in South Africa. Public funding has been declining and opportunities for winning non-government revenue remain limited. The frequent raising of tuition fees, which is one of the main strategies public universities have resorted to mitigate declining state funding is not without…

  8. 11 CFR 201.3 - Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... soon after the communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the... communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the communication, unless... REGULATIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS § 201.3 Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts...

  9. Prevalence, awareness, and management of CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Troyanov, S.; Mongeau, F.; Fradette, L.; Bouchard, J.; Awadalla, P.; Madore, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The CARTaGENE study evaluated B

  10. The Use and Misuse of Taxpayers' Money: Publicly-Funded Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Darrell P.; Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    How should educational research be contracted? And is there anything wrong with the way that public funding of educational research is currently administered? We endeavour to answer these questions by appeal to the work of two of the most prominent philosophers of science of the twentieth century, namely Popper and Kuhn. Although their normative…

  11. Private Schools and Public Funding: A Comparison of Recent Policies in England and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tony; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines government policies in England and Australia toward nongovernment schools, compares forms of direct and indirect support which such schools and their pupils receive from public funds, and looks at ways in which state aid for nonstate schools has been justified and condemned. (JHZ)

  12. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests...... how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...

  13. Expected Impact of Health Care Reform on the Organization and Service Delivery of Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs' strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities.

  14. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements....

  15. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  16. Interpersonal Communication and Smoking Cessation in the Context of an Incentive-Based Program: Survey Evidence From a Telehealth Intervention in a Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Nelson, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic disproportionately affects low-income populations, and telehealth is an evidence-based strategy for extending tobacco cessation services to underserved populations. A public health priority is to establish incentive-based interventions at the population level in order to promote long-term smoking cessation in low-income populations. Yet randomized clinical trials show that financial incentives tend to encourage only short-term steps of cessation, not continuous smoking abstinence. One potential mechanism for increasing long-term cessation is interpersonal communication (IPC) in response to population-level interventions. However, more research is needed on IPC and its influence on health behavior change, particularly in the context of incentive-based, population-level programs. This study used survey data gathered after a population-level telehealth intervention that offered $20 incentives to low-income smokers for being connected to Minnesota's free quitline in order to examine how perceived incentive importance and IPC about the incentive-based program relate to both short-term and long-term health behavior change. Results showed that IPC was strongly associated with initial quitline utilization and continuous smoking abstinence as measured by 30-day point prevalence rates at 7-month follow-up. Perceived incentive importance had weak associations with both measures of cessation, and all associations were nonsignificant in models adjusting for IPC. These results were found in descriptive analyses, logistic regression models, and Heckman probit models that adjusted for participant recruitment. In sum, a behavioral telehealth intervention targeting low-income smokers that offered a financial incentive inspired IPC, and this social response was strongly related to utilization of intervention services as well as continuous smoking abstinence.

  17. California Energy Incentive Programs: An Annual Update on Key Energy Issues and Financial Opportunities for Federal Sites in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    A spate of recently enacted energy legislation and associated program changes is providing numerous opportunities to help California federal energy managers cut costs and meet their renewables, energy efficiency and GHG emissions goals. In April 2011, Governor Jerry Brown approved the nation’s most ambitious renewable portfolio standard (RPS), which requires 33% of the state’s electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Policy changes that will support the RPS include expanded eligibility rules that fill previous gaps in incentives for certain sizes of on-site renewable energy systems. Program updates described in this document include: $200 million more in funding for California Solar Initiative rebates to commercial and industrial customers; an increase in the eligible system size for the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) from 1.5MW to 3MW; and pending changes that may allow customer-side systems to sell tradable renewable energy credits (TRECs) to entities with RPS compliance obligations in California.

  18. The impact of an m-Health financial incentives program on the physical activity and diet of Australian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Nicholas D; Pavey, Toby G; Wright, Olivia Rl; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Gomersall, Sjaan; Trost, Stewart G; Brown, Wendy J

    2017-05-18

    Chronic diseases are high in truck drivers and have been linked to work routines that promote inactivity and poor diets. This feasibility study examined the extent to which an m-Health financial incentives program facilitated physical activity and healthy dietary choices in Australian truck drivers. Nineteen men (mean [SD] age = 47.5 [9.8] years; BMI = 31.2 [4.6] kg/m(2)) completed the 20-week program, and used an activity tracker and smartphone application (Jawbone UP™) to regulate small positive changes in occupational physical activity, and fruit, vegetable, saturated fat and processed/refined sugar food/beverage choices. Measures (baseline, end-program, 2-months follow-up; April-December 2014) were accelerometer-determined proportions of work time spent physically active, and a workday dietary questionnaire. Statistical (repeated measures ANOVA) and thematic (interviews) analyses assessed program impact. Non-significant increases in the mean proportions of work time spent physically active were found at end-program and follow-up (+1%; 7 mins/day). Fruit (p = 0.023) and vegetable (p = 0.024) consumption significantly increased by one serve/day at end-program. Non-significant improvements in saturated fat (5%) and processed/refined sugar (1%) food/beverage choices were found at end-program and follow-up. Overall, 65% (n = 11) of drivers demonstrated positive changes in physical activity, and at least one dietary choice (e.g. saturated fat) at follow-up. Drivers found the financial incentives component of the program to be a less effective facilitator of change than the activity tracker and smartphone application, although this technology was easier to use for monitoring of physical activity than healthy dietary choices. Not all drivers benefitted from the program. However, positive changes for different health behaviours were observed in the majority of participants. Outcomes from this feasibility study inform future intervention development for

  19. ORGANIZATION AND RESULTS OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS REALIZING INVESTMENTS SUBSIDIZED WITH PUBLIC FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the organization of production and economic results of agricultural holdings that realized investments subsidized with public funds, from the perspective of good agricultural practice. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for crop structure, stock density, production intensity, the value and structure of capital, and profi tableness of land, capital, and labour. Analysis showed that holdings benefi ting from subsidization of investments with public funds were characterized by greater production intensity and also achieved better economic results. However, they exerted greater pressure on the environment and posed hazards that mainly resulted from high stock density.  

  20. Assesing the Impact of Local Incentives on Capital Cost: The Case of the Indiana Era Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban G. DALEHITE

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Public policy makers and administrators around the world recurrently face the question of whether to grant tax privileges to businesses in order to promote investment, jobs, or economic development in general. This article analyzes a very popular form of local incentive, the property tax abatement, and its ability to reduce capital cost. The research question is: By how much do property tax abatements reduce the capital cost of business and homes? Results show that abatements can account for quite a large range of possible percentage reductions in the price of investment for firms. The findings provide public administrators and policy makers with data and a tool to assess the benefits that firms derive from abatements. This in turn can contribute to more informed abatement decisions and to an overall assessment concerning the suitability of this tool to promote economic development.

  1. A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities. The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies.

  2. Incentive Pay Programs Do Not Affect Teacher Motivation or Reported Practices: Results from Three Randomized Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Marsh, Julie A.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    This study drew on teacher survey responses from randomized experiments exploring three different pay-for-performance programs to examine the extent to which these programs motivated teachers to improve student achievement and the impact of such programs on teachers' instruction, number of hours worked, job stress, and collegiality. Results showed…

  3. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace....

  4. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  5. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  6. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  7. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  8. Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs. 2008 Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "2008 Title V Report to Congress" marks a departure from the past. Before 2008, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) reported solely on the Community Prevention Grants program in its "Title V Report to Congress." This year, OJJDP is reporting on the four delinquency prevention programs that were…

  9. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  10. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  11. Federation of Canadian Municipalities -- Municipal Building Retrofit Program: Phase II: Strategic Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The FCM Municipal Building Retrofit Program is a three-year program designed to market the benefits of energy-efficient building retrofits to municipal governments. The plan is to develop this programs based on solid municipal market research and analysis. The initial survey revealed that of the 114 respondents the majority have no energy efficiency, energy management, or climate protection policies. The small group of 'early adopters' have developed energy management policies and set up energy management committees and staff developed efficiency purchasing criteria; undertaken retrofits, and plan retrofits in the future. Based on the initial survey results, FCM retained Global Change Strategies International Inc to conduct face-to-face and telephone interviews with chief administrative and chief financial officers in 10 of the 'early adopter' communities (these officers are usually responsible for energy efficiency management programs in municipalities). The survey confirmed the essential nature of explicit or conceptual support of Council; the key role played by Council committees; the long term nature of building the critical supporting institutional structure, and the incorporation of energy efficiency into business plans; the critical nature of comprehensive energy plans; a five-to-seven year payback period; the advisability of self financing and retrofit implementation since it is less costly then using outside sources; the critical need for Council and community champions. As the next step, the FCM Municipal Building Retrofit Program will identify policies in detail, as well as the operational structure and staffing which support the institutional programs of Early Adopter communities and implement programming to support development of these institutional infrastructures; explore options for establishing mentoring programs to support line and senior staff; target programs to meet the needs of small, medium, and large communities; develop

  12. Electronic Health Record Vendors Reported by Health Care Providers Participating in Federal EHR Incentive Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This public use file combines registration data compiled from two federal programs that are on-going since February 2009 – the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  13. Military Compensation: Additional Actions Are Needed to Better Manage Special and Incentive Pay Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    services largely applied key principles of effective human capital management in the design of their S&I pay programs for nuclear propulsion... capital management and used resources efficiently. DOD also has not established related measures to ensure efficient use of resources. Without such...reviews the extent to which S&I pay programs have incorporated human capital management principles and used resources efficiently—and develops

  14. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  15. Sense of place, organizational context and the strategic management of publicly funded hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, N T

    2001-11-01

    An era of managerialism in health care delivery systems is now well ensconced throughout the nations of the OECD. This development has occurred, in large part, as a response to funding pressures in institutionally based health care delivery imposed by principal third party insurers. In the case of publicly funded hospitals, the more traditional concerns for stewardship and appeasement of professional groups is being replaced by a greater emphasis on cost consciousness and corporate-style leadership as these organizations seek to reposition themselves in new funding and regulatory environments. While institutional theory and strategic management perspectives help illuminate these issues, this paper argues that a place-based perspective is also needed to understand the changes currently underway in health care delivery and publicly funded human services more generally. This is illustrated with reference to developments in the strategic management of public hospitals in the province of Ontario. Evidence from a survey of senior administrators of public hospitals, distributed at the height of these policy reform initiatives, is examined to shed light on local level management responses to changing policy and fiscal pressures. The data suggest that the latest policy directions in the province of Ontario will 'encourage' hospital executives in particular community settings to steer their organizations in very unfamiliar directions. The findings suggest a need for greater attention to context and setting in health services research and policy.

  16. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  17. 75 FR 70132 - New Incentive Programs and Other Changes for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service will revise Mailing Standards of the United States Postal... programs filed in November 2010 with the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC). This final rule also includes... July 9, 2010, the Federal Register published a Postal Service proposed rule, New Standards for Domestic...

  18. 78 FR 33157 - Incentives for Nondiscriminatory Wellness Programs in Group Health Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., or meeting targets for exercise). C. Amendments Made by the Affordable Care Act The Affordable Care... cost of membership in a fitness center; a diagnostic testing program that provides a reward for... normal or healthy range (or at low risk for certain medical conditions), while requiring employees...

  19. The Use of Nutrient Assimilation Services in Performance-based Water Quality Incentive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews water quality investments that can increase the environment’s capacity to remove nutrients. The nutrient removal effectiveness, uncertainty, and cost of removing nutrients directly from ambient waters is compared to agricultural nonpoint source reductions in the context of water quality credit trading and payment for environmental services programs.

  20. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  1. 24 CFR 901.130 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives. 901.130 Section 901.130... HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.130 Incentives. (a) A PHA that is designated high performer or... the applicable incentives unless it has been designated an overall high performer. (c) High-performing...

  2. Using Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  3. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China’s pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505

  4. Medicare program; end-stage renal disease prospective payment system, quality incentive program, and durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2014. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP), including for payment year (PY) 2016 and beyond. In addition, this rule clarifies the grandfathering provision related to the 3-year minimum lifetime requirement (MLR) for Durable Medical Equipment (DME), and provides clarification of the definition of routinely purchased DME. This rule also implements budget-neutral fee schedules for splints and casts, and intraocular lenses (IOLs) inserted in a physician's office. Finally, this rule makes a few technical amendments and corrections to existing regulations related to payment for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) items and services.

  5. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  6. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  7. Voluntary environmental agreements for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions: Incentives and characteristics of electric utility participants in the climate challenge program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanos, Panagiotis

    Voluntary Environmental Agreements (VEAs) are agreements among the corporate, government, and/or nonprofit sectors not required by legislation that aim to improve environmental quality or natural resource utilization. VEAs have experienced recent growth in many countries. The first objective of the dissertation is to clarify terminology and to develop a new VEA taxonomy. The second objective is to identify the characteristics and incentives that induce company participation in VEAs and link these two concepts to explain company behavior. The proposed definition and taxonomy identify the main characteristics of VEAs, incorporate all types of agreements, and introduce a standardized way for examining this policy approach. A categorization experiment of fifty VEAs provides the basis for the classification of the existing types of agreements. A strategic choice framework is the conceptual foundation for the study of company behavior. Literature review and synthesis, as well as empirical research are the methods used to study incentives and characteristics. The empirical study uses a Probit analysis and interviews to determine company behavior with respect to the Climate Challenge Program (CCP). The statistical analysis suggests that size, environmental quality of resource inputs, board of director's size, and environmental group membership and air quality in the state of operations affect the CCP participation decision. Literature review and interviews indicate that public recognition and better group relations, and economic savings are the two most prevalent incentives linked to the above characteristics. The dissertation provides a better understanding of how company characteristics and incentives shape a company's decision to participate in VEAs. The study also has policy implications. Information in the dissertation can help policy-makers target specific types of companies to maximize participation rates, provide the "appropriate" incentives to the most likely

  8. Economics and the evaluation of publicly funded energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.; Paik, I.K.

    1998-10-19

    There are three major areas in which economics can contribute to the evaluation of federal R and D: assessment of net benefits, ex ante expected as well as ex post realized; tailoring of R and D portfolios to policy goals; and guiding the contractual organization of R and D production. Additionally, evaluation of R and D and scientific activity tend to be distinctly retrospective, principally because of the long lags between the initial production activity and the observability of consequences. Extending the purview of economic evaluation of R and D, they find ample opportunity for evaluation that can inform current R and D management practice. The conduct of R and D is organized through a series of explicit and implicit contracts designed to elicit long-term commitments by some agents while attempting to limit the commitment by others. It is natural to consider the efficiency with which R and D is conducted as a subject for economic inquiry, although in practice such inquiries generally are restricted to accounting exercises. In evaluating the efficiency with which R and D is done, the current ordinary practice is to look at labor rates and equipment and materials prices while considering quantities of those items as the principal instrument variables in an optimization problem (the authors conceptualization, not that of the typical review of an R and D project). The authors recommend the contractual structure and other elements of the incentive structure (pay and promotion) of R and D production as prime focal points for managerially useful economic evaluation. Non-economic motivations for funding public R and D, including energy R and D, are well known. The US will consider spending several billion dollars on an international space station, partly if not largely, to fund the peaceful employment of scientists from the Former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, it will be useful to understand the economics of the R and D programs even if other considerations play important

  9. Development and evaluation of local communities incentive programs for improving the traditional forest management:A case study of North-ern Zagros forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Henareh Khalyani; Manouchehr Namiranian; S. M. Heshmatol Vaezin; Jahangir Feghhi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local community incentive programs to improve traditional forest management in three forested villages in Baneh city, Kurdistan province in the northern Zagros forests of western Iran. Zagros forests cover 6.07 million ha and support rich plant and animal diversity. Changes in local community social and economic sys-tems and the inefficiency of traditional forest management led to a criti-cal situation in the stability of forest regeneration in recent decades. Due to a shortage of productive and arable lands and resulting unemployment and poverty, people overexploited the Zagros forests. Outside interven-tion in traditional forest management creates conflicts between local peoples and forest management organizations. To achieve sustainable forest management, including forest resources conservation and im-provement of natural resource based livelihoods of communities, it is desirable to implement Forestry Incentive Programs (FIP) based on the important functions of forests. Detailed information on the so-cio-economics of communities, the effect of forests on local livelihoods, and lists of products extracted from the forest were obtained from a sur-vey of local communities though questionnaire, interview and observa-tion. We studied 276 households in three villages and completed 76 ques-tionnaires by householders in the quantitative analysis. Sampling was performed by simple random sampling (SRS). The needs of rural com-munities, such as livestock husbandry, mainly arise from the characteris-tics and environmental features of villages. We identified the driving forces, pressures, status, impacts and responses (DPSIR) to design incen-tive programs, by DPSIR analysis and interaction analysis. Evaluation of local community benefits from forests showed that in order to improve forest management, 319 dollars per year would be needed by each family as an incentive in 2010 to prevent lopping and firewood collecting, the main causes of forest degradation.

  10. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Psweight loss clustered within games (Pweight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced excellent 4-week weight loss results. Given its reach and potential public health

  11. 45 CFR 305.34 - Payment of incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of incentives. 305.34 Section 305.34... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.34 Payment of incentives. (a) Each State must report one-fourth of its estimated annual incentive payment on each of its...

  12. Medicare program; End-Stage Renal Disease prospective payment system, quality incentive program, and Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-06

    This final rule will update and make revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2015. This rule also finalizes requirements for the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP), including for payment years (PYs) 2017 and 2018. This rule will also make a technical correction to remove outdated terms and definitions. In addition, this final rule sets forth the methodology for adjusting Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) fee schedule payment amounts using information from the Medicare DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program (CBP); makes alternative payment rules for certain DME under the Medicare DMEPOS CBP; clarifies the statutory Medicare hearing aid coverage exclusion and specifies devices not subject to the hearing aid exclusion; will not update the definition of minimal self-adjustment; clarifies the Change of Ownership (CHOW) and provides for an exception to the current requirements; revises the appeal provisions for termination of a CBP contract, including the beneficiary notification requirement under the Medicare DMEPOS CBP, and makes a technical change to the regulation related to the conditions for awarding contracts for furnishing infusion drugs under the Medicare DMEPOS CBP.

  13. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  14. Drug, Sex and Age Differentials in the Use of Australian Publicly Funded Treatment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anne Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment

  15. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They

  16. Calculations of Financial Incentives for Providers in a Pay-for-Performance Program: Manual Review Versus Data From Structured Fields in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Tracy H; Woodard, LeChauncy D; Virani, Salim S; Dudley, R Adams; Lutschg, Meghan Z; Petersen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Hospital report cards and financial incentives linked to performance require clinical data that are reliable, appropriate, timely, and cost-effective to process. Pay-for-performance plans are transitioning to automated electronic health record (EHR) data as an efficient method to generate data needed for these programs. To determine how well data from automated processing of structured fields in the electronic health record (AP-EHR) reflect data from manual chart review and the impact of these data on performance rewards. Cross-sectional analysis of performance measures used in a cluster randomized trial assessing the impact of financial incentives on guideline-recommended care for hypertension. A total of 2840 patients with hypertension assigned to participating physicians at 12 Veterans Affairs hospital-based outpatient clinics. Fifty-two physicians and 33 primary care personnel received incentive payments. Overall, positive and negative agreement indices and Cohen's kappa were calculated for assessments of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medication use, blood pressure (BP) control, and appropriate response to uncontrolled BP. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess how similar participants' calculated earnings were between the data sources. By manual chart review data, 72.3% of patients were considered to have received guideline-recommended antihypertensive medications compared with 65.0% by AP-EHR review (κ=0.51). Manual review indicated 69.5% of patients had controlled BP compared with 66.8% by AP-EHR review (κ=0.87). Compared with 52.2% of patients per the manual review, 39.8% received an appropriate response by AP-EHR review (κ=0.28). Participants' incentive payments calculated using the 2 methods were highly correlated (r≥0.98). Using the AP-EHR data to calculate earnings, participants' payment changes ranged from a decrease of $91.00 (-30.3%) to an increase of $18.20 (+7.4%) for medication use (interquartile range, -14.4% to 0

  17. Understanding artistic performance in its context: A case study of the practice of evaluation in a publicly funded opera company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how the different groups of managers (administrative, artistic, and technical) of a publicly funded opera company evaluate the artistic performance of their organization. Performance information of varied nature is exchanged between the internal and external stakeholders of the orga

  18. Understanding artistic performance in its context: A case study of the practice of evaluation in a publicly funded opera company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how the different groups of managers (administrative, artistic, and technical) of a publicly funded opera company evaluate the artistic performance of their organization. Performance information of varied nature is exchanged between the internal and external stakeholders of the

  19. Enhancing Incentive Programs with Proximal Goals and Immediate Feedback: Engineered Labor Standards and Technology Enhancements in Stocker Replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Under baseline conditions warehouse stockers (n = 23) could earn incentives if their team performed above the team quota of 18 cases stocked per hour. They were also subject to disciplinary action if they failed to regularly meet individual stocking quotas. In spite of these contingencies the stockers failed to receive bonus payments most of the…

  20. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  1. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  2. Anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Indian public-funded research institutes and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2014-08-01

    This review discusses the various drug therapeutic targets and latest technologies of anticancer patents from 10 Indian public-funded research organizations covering more than 150 esteemed institutes. We have identified and reported the leading assignee and inventors along with their collaboration network and, thereby, have analyzed the various patent trends, geographical distributions, citation maps, Derwent World Patents Index, international patent classification analysis and the like. This article provides the insights of 1905 patent documents from 191 families and discusses in-depth anticancer technology through categorization studies at the level of drug discovery, drug development and treatment and diagnosis. In addition, various cancer targets were correlated with recent technologies so as to identify the white spaces for upcoming technologies. Over a period of 13 years (1990 - 2013) the main focus of Indian cancer research was in the field of synthetic chemistry and natural extracts followed by the pharmaceutical compositions and combinations, whereas, the white spaces for future cancer remedy were identified from research in the areas of cancer stem cell lines, vaccines, gene therapy, nano formulations with targeted drug delivery systems as core and latest technologies.

  3. Health status and health care costs for publicly funded patients with schizophrenia started on clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieden, N; Flinders, S; Hawkins, K; Reid, M; Alphs, L D; Arfken, C L

    1998-12-01

    The study examined the effect of clozapine treatment on the health care costs and health status of people with schizophrenia who are supported by public funds. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in a state facility were interviewed within one week of starting clozapine and six months later. Health status was assessed with four clinical rating scales measuring severity of psychopathology, negative symptoms, depression, and quality of life. Cost and health care utilization data were collected for the six months before and after initiation of clozapine. Only 52 percent of the subjects stayed on clozapine for six months. Subjects who continued on clozapine were more likely to be discharged within six months than those who did not continue. Six months after clozapine was started, health care costs showed a sayings of $11,464 per person, even after adjustment for pretreatment costs, and health status was improved. For subjects who continued on clozapine for six months, clozapine treatment was associated with reduced days of psychiatric hospital care, reduced overall costs despite increased outpatient treatment and residential costs, and improved health status.

  4. Estimating Acceptability of Financial Health Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Seitz, Holli H.; Halpern, Scott D.; Volpp, Kevin; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that financial incentives can influence health behavior change, but research on the public acceptability of these programs and factors that predict public support have been limited. A representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 526) were randomly assigned to receive an incentive program description in which the…

  5. Inequalities in institutional delivery uptake and maternal mortality reduction in the context of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: results from nine states in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randive, Bharat; San Sebastian, Miguel; De Costa, Ayesha; Lindholm, Lars

    2014-12-01

    Proportion of women giving birth in health institutions has increased sharply in India since the introduction of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in 2005. JSY was intended to benefit disadvantaged population who had poor access to institutional care for childbirth and who bore the brunt of maternal deaths. Increase in institutional deliveries following the implementation of JSY needs to be analysed from an equity perspective. We analysed data from nine Indian states to examine the change in socioeconomic inequality in institutional deliveries five years after the implementation of JSY using the concentration curve and concentration index (CI). The CI was then decomposed in order to understand pathways through which observed inequalities occurred. Disparities in access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and in maternal mortality reduction among different socioeconomic groups were also assessed. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to estimate absolute and relative inequalities in maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Results shows that although inequality in access to institutional delivery care persists, it has reduced since the introduction of JSY. Nearly 70% of the present inequality was explained by differences in male literacy, EmOC availability in public facilities and poverty. EmOC in public facilities was grossly unavailable. Compared to richest division in nine states, poorest division has 135 more maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2010. While MMR has decreased in all areas since JSY, it has declined four times faster in richest areas compared to the poorest, resulting in increased inequalities. These findings suggest that in order for the cash incentive to succeed in reducing the inequalities in maternal health outcomes, it needs to be supported by the provision of quality health care services including EmOC. Improved targeting of disadvantaged populations for the cash incentive program could be considered.

  6. Essays on Policy Incentives and Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Katherine Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation broadly examines how individuals respond to incentives imbedded in various policy designs. I study a variety of policies, including teacher retirement incentives, child care subsidies, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. The evidence presented here is of importance to policy analysis and design.In the first chapter, I examine what types of teachers respond to early retirement incentives (ERIs). In recent years, many education programs have been faced with steep budget cuts. ...

  7. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choic...

  8. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  9. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  10. Women's Experiences of Publicly Funded Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Ontario, Canada: Considerations for Health Technology Policy-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; Yacoub, Karima; Giacomini, Mita; Hulan, Danielle; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via fetal DNA in maternal blood has been publicly funded in Ontario, Canada, for high-risk women since 2014. We solicited women's experiences and values related to this new health technology to describe how this test is currently being used in Ontario and to provide information about patient priorities to inform future policy decisions about the use of NIPT. Guided by constructivist grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 38 women who had diverse personal experiences with NIPT. Participants' accounts of their values for decision making about NIPT heavily relied on three mutually modulating factors: timing, accuracy, and risk. The values expressed by women conflict with the way that publicly funded NIPT has typically been implemented in Ontario. We offer recommendations for how NIPT might be integrated into prenatal care pathways in a way more consistent with women's values.

  11. The drawbacks of legislative control in procurement of energy sources and municipal services for public funds in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halushchak, Mykhaylo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems caused by legislative gaps and contradictions in control of procurement of goods, works and natural monopolies` services for public funds is analyzed. It is also shown that efforts of several state structures to solve evident drawbacks within their commission are unsuccessful. In order to solve the problem a package approach is suggested. The first step of this approach is adoption of earlier foreknown special laws.

  12. Obstacles to innovation and use of incentives Grants or fiscal stimulus?; Obstaculos a la innovacion y uso de innovacion de incentivos: subvenciones o estimulos fiscales?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busom, I.; Martinez, E.; Corchuelo, B.

    2012-07-01

    We compare the use by firms of two tools of public support to business R and D and innovation: direct funding through grants and loans and fiscal incentives. Among other results, we find that these tools are not perfect substitutes. Firms that face financial constraints to undertake innovation projects are less likely to use R and D fiscal incentives. SMEs facing this type of constraint, however, are more likely to apply for and obtain direct public funding. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  14. Technology whitespaces India should focus: a comparative anti-cancer patent rational analysis of Indian and international public funded universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    The article reported an in-depth comparative technology analysis of 1708 Anti-cancer patents from top 20 international universities and leading 10 Indian public funded organization and research institutes. The study segregated pioneer universities vs. technologies used in the field of Anticancer research at a level of drug discovery, development, diagnosis and treatment, which are illustrated in the form of novel substantive patent landscape maps. The reported competitive intelligent maps identified genetics, composition and synthetic compounds as dominating technologies; followed by natural extracts, combination and drug delivery systems as upcoming technologies. The least number of patents were reported by surgical apparatus, targeted therapy and animal models. In addition, the study analysed the key technologies followed by Indian universities in comparison to the international universities, to identify the overlooked technologies by the Indian public funded institutes. In an ever changing competitive world, it is essential for every university to have their own research plan and thrust areas; but at the same time, it is equally important for any organisation to have an idea of their competitor's research plan as well. So, the article suggested Indian institutes to focus on the latest emerging Anti-cancer technology trends, which are in practice by the international universities. Concurrently, this study may be a landmark indication for Indian public funded universities and institutes, calling for a U-turn from their traditional approaches.

  15. Economies of scale and scope in publicly funded biomedical and health research: evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Sussex, Jon; Robin, Enora; Guthrie, Sue; Wooding, Steve

    2017-02-02

    Publicly funded biomedical and health research is expected to achieve the best return possible for taxpayers and for society generally. It is therefore important to know whether such research is more productive if concentrated into a small number of 'research groups' or dispersed across many. We undertook a systematic rapid evidence assessment focused on the research question: do economies of scale and scope exist in biomedical and health research? In other words, is that research more productive per unit of cost if more of it, or a wider variety of it, is done in one location? We reviewed English language literature without date restriction to the end of 2014. To help us to classify and understand that literature, we first undertook a review of econometric literature discussing models for analysing economies of scale and/or scope in research generally (not limited to biomedical and health research). We found a large and disparate literature. We reviewed 60 empirical studies of (dis-)economies of scale and/or scope in biomedical and health research, or in categories of research including or overlapping with biomedical and health research. This literature is varied in methods and findings. At the level of universities or research institutes, studies more often point to positive economies of scale than to diseconomies of scale or constant returns to scale in biomedical and health research. However, all three findings exist in the literature, along with inverse U-shaped relationships. At the level of individual research units, laboratories or projects, the numbers of studies are smaller and evidence is mixed. Concerning economies of scope, the literature more often suggests positive economies of scope than diseconomies, but the picture is again mixed. The effect of varying the scope of activities by a research group was less often reported than the effect of scale and the results were more mixed. The absence of predominant findings for or against the existence of

  16. 36 CFR 906.7 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 906.7 Section 906.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.7 Incentives. (a) At the request of the developer, the...

  17. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to...) for participation in the Congressionally mandated TIF national evaluation. DATES: These interim...

  18. When and how to use monetary incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Will money motivate your staff to perform better? While some practice managers prefer not to use bonus incentive programs, others use them fequently and report excellent results. This article explores the benefits and pitfalls of using monetary incentives with your staff. It explores the effectiveness of bonuses compared with raises. It also considers the four qualities of effective incentive bonus programs and gives examples of both percentage bonus programs and flat-dollar bonus programs. In particular, this article includes how-to advice for structuring a new patient incentive bonus program along with the potential problems of such programs as reported by two doctors who tried them. Finally, the article explores the benefits of using merchandise rewards rather than cash and includes innovative ideas for maximizing bonuses by implementing a "cookie jar" system and dividing annual bonuses into two installments.

  19. Nationwide expansion of a financial incentive program on fruit and vegetable purchases among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2015-12-01

    High prices remain a formidable barrier for many people, especially those of low socioeconomic status, to adopt a healthier diet. The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 mandated the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to conduct a pilot study to assess the impact of making fruits and vegetables more affordable for households in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Based on the USDA final report of the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP), a large-scale randomized trial in 2011-2012 that provided 30% rebate on targeted fruits and vegetables to 7500 study participants enrolled in the SNAP, we constructed a decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an expansion of the HIP to all SNAP households nationwide. The estimated life-time per capita costs of the HIP to the Federal government is $1323 in 2012 U.S. dollars, and the average gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy to a SNAP participant is 0.082 quality-adjusted life year (QALY), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $16,172 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations indicates a 94.4% and 99.6% probability that the estimated ICER would be lower than the cost-effective threshold of $50,000 and $100,000 per QALY gained, respectively. Moreover, the estimated ICER of the HIP expansion tends to be competitive in comparison to other interventions that aimed at promoting fruit/vegetable intake among adult population. Findings from this study suggest that a nationwide expansion of the HIP is likely to nudge SNAP households towards purchasing and consuming more targeted fruits and vegetables. However, diet behavior modification is proportional to price change. When people's actual eating behaviors and what dietary guidelines recommend differ by several folds, even a 30% rebate closes just a small fraction of that gap and has limited beneficial impact on participants' weight management, disease prevention, and health-related quality of life.

  20. The push to increase the use of EHR technology by hospitals and physicians in the United States through the HITECH Act and the Medicare incentive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipersburgh, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews key health care spending and electronic health records (EHR) statistics in the United States (Section II); highlights positive and negative aspects of EHR technology (Sections III and IV); briefly reviews the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) (Section V); discusses the rule passed by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) and to implement the goals of HITECH (Section VI); discusses the rule passed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to implement the goals of HITECH and focuses on significant requirements of the Medicare incentive program rule as it applies to hospitals and physicians (Section VII); and finally, concludes by highlighting certain issues that have been raised regarding the goals of HITECH (Section VIII).

  1. Universal health insurance through incentives reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R

    1991-05-15

    Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.

  2. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order to...

  3. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  4. The paradox of non-evidence based, publicly funded complementary alternative medicine in the English National Health Service: An explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Maria K

    2015-10-01

    Despite the unproven effectiveness of many practices that are under the umbrella term 'complementary alternative medicine' (CAM), there is provision of CAM within the English National Health Service (NHS). Moreover, although the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was established to promote scientifically validated medicine in the NHS, the paradox of publicly funded, non-evidence based CAM can be explained as linked with government policy of patient choice and specifically patient treatment choice. Patient choice is useful in the political and policy discourse as it is open to different interpretations and can be justified by policy-makers who rely on the traditional NHS values of equity and universality. Treatment choice finds expression in the policy of personalised healthcare linked with patient responsibilisation which finds resonance in the emphasis CAM places on self-care and self-management. More importantly, however, policy-makers also use patient choice and treatment choice as a policy initiative with the objective of encouraging destabilisation of the entrenched healthcare institutions and practices considered resistant to change. This political strategy of system reform has the unintended, paradoxical consequence of allowing for the emergence of non-evidence based, publicly funded CAM in the NHS. The political and policy discourse of patient choice thus trumps evidence based medicine, with patients that demand access to CAM becoming the unwitting beneficiaries.

  5. Assessing the Economic and National Security Benefits from Publicly Funded Technology Investments: An IDA Round Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Narin, Francis; Olivastro, Dominic and Stevens, Kimberly A. " Bibliometrics / Theory , Practice, and Problems," Evaluation Review, vol. 18, no. 1...Partnerships (MEP) Program 46 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) 49 Technology Impact Measurement Issues 53 Session Three: Metrics For Multiple Policy...providing orderly information on the likely impact of proposed investments, based upon historical observation and experience. Metrics are also an

  6. Motivating communities through economic incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M; Weeden, D

    1986-12-01

    Thailand's pilot Community-based Incentives Program in the northeast illustrates the high level of contraceptive prevalence that can be achieved when entire communities profit from economic incentives. This particular community incentives program began in 1983 with funding from the Special Projects Fund of the Population Crisis Committee under the auspices of Thailand's largest nongovernmental organization, the Population and Community Development Association (PDA). PDA, with its long and impressive record as a grassroots family planning service network, had almost a decade of experience in creating demand for family planning by offering income generating incentives to individuals. Through the community incentives program, PDA used the grant from abroad to establish loan funds of about $2000 in each of 6 villages. The loan funds grew in size as the overall contraceptive prevalence rate in the villages increased. Loans between $80 and $200 were made available to villagers for income-generating activities, mostly to buy fertilizer, rent tractors, or hire workers for planting and harvesting the local crops. Elected villagers administered the funds and reviewed loan applications with assistance from PDA. By the end of 2 years, loans totaling $72,000 had been granted in the 6 villages, and 75% of all village households had received at least 1 loan. Repayment was nearly 100% on schedule with no defaults. The 6 loan funds are still operating in 1986 but without outside assistance. Contraceptive practice increased from 46% to 75% of all married women aged 15-44 in the 6 villages between 1983-85. In a comparative study of 3 villages in which no loan fund operated, contraceptive prevalence increased from 51% to only 57%. In the Thai experience, the private PDA appears to have several advantages over the central government in implementing a community incentives approach: because PDA works closely with community members, it is able to determine community needs, involve the

  7. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  8. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  9. Wellness Incentives, Equity, and the 5 Groups Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Wellness incentives are an increasingly popular means of encouraging participation in prevention programs, but they may not benefit all groups equally. To assist those planning, conducting, and evaluating incentive programs, I describe the impact of incentives on 5 groups: the “lucky ones,” the “yes-I-can” group, the “I'll-do-it-tomorrow” group, the “unlucky ones,” and the “leave-me-alone” group. The 5 groups problem concerns the question of when disparities in the capacity to use incentive programs constitute unfairness and how policymakers ought to respond. I outline 4 policy options: to continue to offer incentives universally, to offer them universally but with modifications, to offer targeted rather than universal programs, and to abandon incentive programs altogether. PMID:22095346

  10. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is it all about the money? A qualitative exploration of the effects of performance-based financial incentives on Zimbabwe's voluntary male medical circumcision program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldacker, Caryl; Bochner, Aaron F; Herman-Roloff, Amy; Holec, Marrianne; Murenje, Vernon; Stepaniak, Abby; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Tshimanga, Mufata; Chitimbire, Vuyelwa; Makaure, Shingirai; Hove, Joseph; Barnhart, Scott; Makunike, Batsirai

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, Zimbabwe's voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program adopted performance-based financing (PBF) to speed progress towards ambitious VMMC targets. The $25 USD PBF intended to encourage low-paid healthcare workers to remain in the public sector and to strengthen the public healthcare system. The majority of the incentive supports healthcare workers (HCWs) who perform VMMC alongside other routine services; a small portion supports province, district, and facility levels. This qualitative study assessed the effect of the PBF on HCW motivation, satisfaction, and professional relationships. The study objectives were to: 1) Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the HCW level; 2) Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the site level; and 3) Inform scale up, modification, or discontinuation of PBF for the national VMMC program. Sixteen focus groups were conducted: eight with HCWs who received PBF for VMMC and eight with HCWs in the same clinics who did not work in VMMC and, therefore, did not receive PBF. Fourteen key informant interviews ascertained administrator opinion. Findings suggest that PBF appreciably increased motivation among VMMC teams and helped improve facilities where VMMC services are provided. However, PBF appears to contribute to antagonism at the workplace, creating divisiveness that may reach beyond VMMC. PBF may also cause distortion in the healthcare system: HCWs prioritized incentivized VMMC services over other routine duties. To reduce workplace tension and improve the VMMC program, participants suggested increasing HCW training in VMMC to expand PBF beneficiaries and strengthening integration of VMMC services into routine care. In the low-resource, short-staffed context of Zimbabwe, PBF enabled rapid VMMC scale up and achievement of ambitious targets; however, side effects make PBF less advantageous and sustainable than envisioned. Careful consideration is warranted in choosing

  12. Ex-ante Evaluation of Publicly Funded R&D Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulathsinhala, Nadika Anuruddhi

    2015-01-01

    can contribute to the further development of explorative and existing energy technologies that meet climate challenges. The aim of this paper is to investigate the ex-ante evaluation process of a Danish energy program with regard to exploration. The paper applies a qualitative approach, combining in...

  13. Delegation and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between authority and incentives. It extends the standard principal--agent model by a project selection stage in which the principal can either delegate the choice of project to the agent or keep the authority. The agent's subsequent choice of effort depends both on monetary incentives and the selected project. We find that the consideration of effort incentives makes the principal less likely to delegate the authority over projects to the agent. In fact, if t...

  14. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    of key acquisition personnel including providing appropriate compensation and other forms of incentives • Inability to couple rewards to performance...against incentives • Gerald Ledford and Barry Gerhart in “Negative Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: More Smoke Than Fire” argue...May 13, 2015 Innovation in Workforce Incentives Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection

  15. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges To Providing Universal Access To Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-02-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend far less in US dollars per unit cost on primary education than do developed countries. Increasing the unit cost of education in order to enable a government to guarantee universal primary education would take away resources from other tiers of the education system in many countries in the region. The alternative is to universalise access, despite existing budget allocation constraints, and thereby further compound the problems of poor infrastructure and limited human resource capacity that continue to compromise education quality in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  17. A Laboratory-Based System for Managing and Distributing Publically Funded Geochemical Data in a Collaborative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, B.; Brown, A.; Liffers, M.

    2015-12-01

    Publically funded laboratories have a responsibility to generate, archive and disseminate analytical data to the research community. Laboratory managers know however, that a long tail of analytical effort never escapes researchers' thumb drives once they leave the lab. This work reports on a research data management project (Digital Mineralogy Library) where integrated hardware and software systems automatically archive and deliver analytical data and metadata to institutional and community data portals. The scientific objective of the DML project was to quantify the modal abundance of heavy minerals extracted from key lithological units in Western Australia. The selected analytical platform was a TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) that uses EDS-based mineral classification software to image and quantify mineral abundance and grain size at micron scale resolution. The analytical workflow used a bespoke laboratory information management system (LIMS) to orchestrate: (1) the preparation of grain mounts with embedded QR codes that serve as enduring links between physical samples and analytical data, (2) the assignment of an International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to each grain mount via the System for Earth Sample Registry (SESAR), (3) the assignment of a DOI to instrument metadata via Research Data Australia, (4) the delivery of TIMA analytical outputs, including spatially registered mineralogy images and mineral abundance data, to an institutionally-based data management server, and (5) the downstream delivery of a final data product via a Google Maps interface such as the AuScope Discovery Portal. The modular design of the system permits the networking of multiple instruments within a single site or multiple collaborating research institutions. Although sharing analytical data does provide new opportunities for the geochemistry community, the creation of an open data network requires: (1) adopting open data reporting

  18. The Link Between Reproductive Life Plan Assessment And Provision of Preconception Care At Publicly Funded Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Gavin, Loretta; Carter, Marion W; Moskosky, Susan B

    2017-09-01

    Federal and clinical guidelines recommend integrating reproductive life plan assessments into routine family planning encounters to increase provision of preconception care. Yet, the prevalence of clinical protocols and of relevant practices at publicly funded health centers is unknown. Administrators and providers at a nationally representative sample of publicly funded health centers that provide family planning services were surveyed in 2013-2014; data from 1,039 linked pairs were used to explore the reported prevalence of reproductive life plan protocols, frequent assessment of patients' reproductive life plan and frequent provision of preconception care. Chi-square tests and multivariable general linear models were used to examine differences in reports of protocols and related practices. Overall, 58% of centers reported having reproductive life plan assessment protocols, 87% reported frequently assessing reproductive life plans and 55% reported frequently providing preconception care. The proportions reporting protocols were lower in community health centers than in other center types (32% vs. 52-91%), in primary care centers than in those with another focus (33% vs. 77-80%) and in centers not receiving Title X funding than in those with such support (36% vs. 77%). Reported existence of a written protocol was positively associated with reported frequent assessment (prevalence ratio, 1.1), and the latter was positively associated with reported frequent preconception care (1.4). Further research is needed on associations between written protocols and clinical practice, and to elucidate the preconception care services that may be associated with reproductive life plan assessment. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  19. Public funds use: The case of Surigao del Sur State University Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo D. Malong Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the utilization of the fund use of Income Generating Projects of the Surigao del Sur State University Tandag Campus relating the fiscal governance in improvement of the quality of education. A survey was conducted to among the internal stakeholders to extract perception of the effectiveness of the utilization of the fund. Results of the study showed that the earning projects among the income generating projects of the University are in the areas of selling commercial rice, grocery store, supplies for ROTC/CWTS, and livelihood assistance program. The income from the enterprise is being used to instructional development. Further, a test in perceived utilization of IGP funds has no statistical difference among the administrators, faculty, staff and students indicating a general sense of acceptability of the fiscal governance of the income generating project of the institution.

  20. Who is willing to pay for science? On the relationship between public perception of science and the attitude to public funding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Carolina; Luján, José Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between the general public's understanding of science and the attitude towards public funding of scientific research. It applies a multivariate and discriminant analysis (Wilks' Lambda), in addition to a more commonly used bivariate analysis (Cramer's V), to data compiled from the Third National Survey on the Social Perception of Science and Technology in Spain (FECYT, 2006). The general conclusion is that the multivariate analysis produces information complementary to the bivariate analysis, and that the variables commonly applied in public perception studies have limited predictive value with respect to the attitude towards public funding of scientific research.

  1. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  2. Determining quantitative targets for public funding of tuberculosis research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, David R

    2013-03-08

    South Africa's expenditure on tuberculosis (TB) research and development (R&D) is insignificant relative to both its disease burden and the expenditure of some comparator countries with a minimal TB incidence. In 2010, the country had the second highest TB incidence rate in the world (796 per 100,000 population), and the third highest number of new TB cases (490,000 or 6% of the global total). Although it has a large TB treatment program (about $588 million per year), TB R&D funding is small both in absolute terms and relative to its total R&D expenditure. Given the risk and the high cost associated with drug discovery R&D, such neglect may make strategic sense. However in this analysis it is shown that TB R&D presents a unique opportunity to the national treasuries of all high-burden countries. Using two separate estimation methods (global justice and return on investment), it is concluded that most countries, including South Africa, are under-investing in TB R&D. Specific investment targets for a range of countries, particularly in areas of applied research, are developed. This work supports the outcome of the World Health Organization's Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development: Financing and Coordination, which has called for "a process leading to the negotiation of a binding agreement on R&D relevant to the health needs of developing countries".

  3. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  4. The Australian Research Quality Framework: A Live Experiment in Capturing the Social, Economic, Environmental, and Cultural Returns of Publicly Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    The author regards development of Australia's ill-fated Research Quality Framework (RQF) as a "live experiment" in determining the most appropriate approach to evaluating the extra-academic returns, or "impact," of a nation's publicly funded research. The RQF was at the forefront of an international movement toward richer qualitative,…

  5. Development of an evaluation framework for publicly funded R&D projects: The case of Korea's Next Generation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eungdo; Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Hongbum

    2017-02-28

    For decades, efforts have been made globally to measure the performance of large-scale public projects and to develop a framework to perform such measurements due to the complexity and dynamics of R&D and stakeholder interests. Still, limitations such as the use of a simply modified model and the lack of a comprehensive viewpoint are prevalent in existing approaches. In light of these research gaps, this study suggests a practical model to evaluate the performance of large-scale and publicly funded projects. The proposed model suggests a standard matrix framework of indices that evaluates the performance of particular elements in an industrial ecosystem in vertical categories and the economic and technological outcomes of those elements in horizontal categories. Based on the application of a balanced scorecard, this study uses mixed methodologies such as social network analysis, inter-industry analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process. Finally, the model evaluates the performance of Korea's Next Generation Network project as a case study.

  6. Exploring industry perspectives on implementation of a provincial policy for food and beverage sales in publicly funded recreation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wekken, Suzanne; Sørensen, Susanne; Meldrum, John; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2012-03-01

    To explore industry perspectives on the transition to healthier food and beverage sales in publicly funded recreation facilities and specifically (a) the awareness of the BC provincial Guidelines and implementation supports; (b) challenges encountered in the transition to healthier products; and (c) thoughts on future trends and opportunities in the snack and beverage business. We used a qualitative research design (semi-structured interviews) with thematic analysis to explore the data collected. Overall, the industry was aware of the BC Guidelines and philosophically supported the transition to healthier choices in public recreation facilities. Main challenges in implementing the Guidelines were the: (1) perceived limitations of the Guidelines; (2) issues stocking healthy products; (3) competition in food sales environments; and (4) negative impact on profits. Interviewees believed that consumer choice is increasingly influenced by environmental and health priorities and that adapting to these trends would be important for future business success. The food and beverage industry needs time, resources and expertise to adapt their business model and to find new palatable products that meet healthy Guidelines. Strategies that strengthen accountability, provide opportunities for economic development and enhance private-public sector communication will help industry partners support implementation of nutrition policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  8. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  9. Innumeracy and incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Dale

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ratio-Bias phenomenon, observed by psychologist Seymour Epstein and colleagues, is a systematic manifestation of irrationality. When offered a choice between two lotteries, individuals consistently choose the lottery with the greater number of potential successes, even when it offers a smaller probability of success. In the current study, we conduct experiments to confirm this phenomenon and test for the existence of Bias as distinct from general irrationality. Moreover, we examine the effect of introducing a monetary incentive of varying size (depending on the treatment on the extent of irrational choices within this framework. We confirm the existence of the Bias. Moreover, the existence of an incentive significantly reduces the extent of irrationality exhibited, and that this effect is roughly linear in response to changes in the size of the incentive within the magnitudes investigated.

  10. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  11. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong Ai Theng; Tong Seng Fah; Khoo Ee Ming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is no...

  12. The determinants of the propensity to receive publicly funded home care services for the elderly in Canada: a panel two-stage residual inclusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mery, Gustavo; Wodchis, Walter P; Laporte, Audrey

    2016-12-01

    The role of Home Care (HC) services for the elderly will be increasingly important in meeting populations' future needs for care. HC services include Home Health Care (HHC) and Homemaking/Personal Support (HMPS), distinction rarely seen in the literature. This paper argues that it is important to distinguish between these types of HC, since the factors that drive the likelihood of the receipt of each type of care may differ, and also to investigate the interrelationship between them. We explored the interrelationship between receipt of publicly funded HMPS and HHC, and the determinants of the receipt of each type of services. A Panel Two-Stage Residual Inclusion approach was applied to estimate the likelihood of the receipt of HC services using data for those aged 65 and over from 9 biannual waves of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994-95 to 2010-11). We found that there are in fact differences in the determinants of the likelihood of HHC and HMPS receipt. Moreover, receipt of publicly funded HMPS was found to be complementary with receipt of publicly funded HHC services after adjusting for functional and health status. Dependence on help with activities of daily living, health status, household arrangement, and income were found to be determinants of the propensity to receive both publicly funded HHC and HMPS services. This study aims to contribute to the existent literature by taking a step toward explicitly modelling the potential interaction between the determinants of the receipt of different types of HC services simultaneously, as a system. Our methodological approach, a Panel Two-Stage Residual Inclusion method, seems to effectively address problems that are known to be a source of bias in the literature.

  13. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  14. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers.......The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...

  15. Fundo público e políticas sociais na crise do capitalismo Public fund and social policies in the crisis of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evilasio Salvador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A característica comum a todas as crises financeiras dos últimos trinta anos é o comparecimento do fundo público para socorrer instituições financeiras falidas durante as crises bancárias, à custa dos impostos pagos pelos cidadãos. Com a financeirização da riqueza, os mercados financeiros passam a disputar cada vez mais recursos do fundo público, impedindo a expansão dos direitos sociais. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a crise do capital a partir do papel exercido pelo fundo público e seus rebatimentos no financiamento da seguridade social no Brasil.The characteristic that has been common to all financial crises in the last 30 years is the appearance of the public fund to bail out bankrupt financial institutions during the banking crises, at the expense of taxes paid by the citizens. Financing wealth, financial markets dispute resources from the public fund more and more, which impedes the expansion of social rights. This article aims to discuss the crisis of the capital from the role played by public funds and their impact on the financing of social security in Brazil.

  16. 76 FR 30539 - Historic Preservation Certifications for Federal Income Tax Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Tax Incentives AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The National Park... structures'' or ``certified rehabilitations'' for Federal income tax incentives. (3) This rule does not alter... rule are purely technical. Moreover, the tax incentives program involves purely domestic buildings and...

  17. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  18. Incentives for Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  19. Dynamic Incentives in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruckes, Martin; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to this inertial tendency is either to increase the financial incentives to encourage searching or to accept no searching. The former response increases search efforts and total profits; the latter response has the opposite results. Inertia can be removed by restructuring the firm in period 2, but this may create...

  20. Incentives for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  1. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  2. Opposing incentives for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Wien, Charlotte; Larsen, Asger Væring

    The Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BFI) is part of the performance-based model for the distribution of a special pool of baseline funding for universities and public research institutions in Denmark. BFI rewards the research publications published in the most recognized scientific journals...... collaboration is associated with a higher number of citations than single authorship which may present the author with two opposing incentives for research collaboration....

  3. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  4. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  5. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  6. Employee incentives: bonuses or penalties?

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Firms regularly use incentives to motivate their employees to be more productive. However, often little attention is paid to the language used in employment contracts to describe these incentives. It may be more effective to present incentives as entitlements that can be lost by failing to reach a performance target, rather than as additional rewards that can be gained by reaching that target. However, emphasizing the potential losses incurred as a result of failure may entail hidden costs fo...

  7. Do organizational incentives spur innovation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros, Henrique M; Lazzarini, Sergio G

    2012-01-01

    ... generate for the firm. In considering this perspective, this paper addresses whether organizational incentives affect innovation, and considers the conduits through which this link is established...

  8. 77 FR 60956 - State Graduated Driver Licensing Incentive Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... program under the amended Section 405 program. The statute sets forth minimum qualification criteria... provisions under 5 U.S.C. 553. Accordingly, this notice seeks public comment on the minimum qualification... qualification criteria for the State Graduated Driver Licensing Incentive Grant program authorized under...

  9. The law, policy, and ethics of employers' use of financial incentives to improve health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer-provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES: CAN INCENTIVES WORK FOR PRIVATE LANDOWNERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It has been argued that the traditional regulatory approach of the Endangered Species Act, based on land-use restrictions, has failed to protect endangered species on private land. In response, there has been a call for the use of incentives to complement this regulatory approach. This paper examines the potential of incentives programs to elicit conservation-oriented management choices from landowners. Data obtained from a survey of non-industrial private forest owners in Oregon and Washingt...

  11. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  12. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  13. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit.

  14. Separating Real Incentives and Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Vieider (Ferdinand)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn experimental investigations of the effect of real incentives, accountability—the implicit or explicit expectation of a decision maker that she may have to justify her decisions in front of somebody else—is often confounded with the incentives themselves. This confounding of accountabi

  15. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to

  16. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to p

  17. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  18. 41 CFR 302-14.102 - What factors should we consider in determining whether to establish a home marketing incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... historical percentage of employee-generated sales is below your benchmark, a home marketing incentive payment... consider in determining whether to establish a home marketing incentive payment program? 302-14.102 Section... ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 14-HOME MARKETING INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Agency...

  19. Legal and institutional implications of providing financial incentives to encourage the development of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, R. J.

    1979-07-01

    The legal basis to provide financial incentives is found in the enumerated powers of the Constitution for the exercise of federal authority, the police and tax powers for the exercise of state authority, and state delegated powers for the exercise of local authority. These powers are limited by the federal and state constitutions, and the scope of delegated authority. The major types of financial incentives are tax incentives, including income tax deductions and credits, accelerated depreciation allowances, tax-exempt bonds, and reduction in property and sales taxes; loan incentives, including low interest loans, government guaranteed and insured loans, and elimination of statutory and secondary market constraints; and government transfer incentives, including grants in aid from all levels of government. Other incentives that will indirectly affect the financing and availability of solar energy technologies include eliminating or reducing financial incentives benefiting competitive energy sources, government action to insure the operation of solar energy equipment, government-sponsored education, research, and development programs, government demonstration and procurement programs, and placing priority on rapid passage of solar energy legislation dealing with financial incentives. In most cases, a financial incentives program constituting one or more of these incentives will probably not confront any major, unique, legal or institutional impediments. The minor impediments that do exist can usually be eliminated by preventive legislation.

  20. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  1. Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Recent Experimental Evidence from Kenya. Working Paper 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glewwe, Paul; Ilias, Nauman; Kremer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent evidence on the impact of a teacher incentives program in Kenya. The results are based on a randomized trial, which removes many sources of bias that can arise in analyses of non-experimental data. One hundred schools in a rural area were randomly divided into 50 that participated in a teacher incentives program and 50…

  2. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  3. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  4. A Multi-Level Examination of Stakeholder Perspectives of Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Large Urban Publicly-Funded Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Stewart, Rebecca E; Adams, Danielle R; Fernandez, Tara; Lustbader, Susanna; Powell, Byron J; Aarons, Gregory A; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Rubin, Ronnie; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S; Barg, Frances K

    2016-11-01

    Our goal was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based practices from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in a large publicly funded mental health system. We completed 56 interviews with three stakeholder groups: treatment developers (n = 7), agency administrators (n = 33), and system leadership (n = 16). The three stakeholder groups converged on the importance of inner (e.g., agency competing resources and demands, therapist educational background) and outer context (e.g., funding) factors as barriers to implementation. Potential threats to implementation and sustainability included the fiscal landscape of community mental health clinics and an evolving workforce. Intervention characteristics were rarely endorsed as barriers. Inner context, outer context, and intervention characteristics were all seen as important facilitators. All stakeholders endorsed the importance of coordinated collaboration across stakeholder groups within the system to successfully implement evidence-based practices.

  5. A Prospective Examination of Clinician and Supervisor Turnover Within the Context of Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Publicly-Funded Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Marcus, Steven; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Powell, Byron; Aarons, Gregory A; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Hadley, Trevor; Adams, Danielle R; Walsh, Lucia M; Babbar, Shaili; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David S

    2016-09-01

    Staff turnover rates in publicly-funded mental health settings are high. We investigated staff and organizational predictors of turnover in a sample of individuals working in an urban public mental health system that has engaged in a system-level effort to implement evidence-based practices. Additionally, we interviewed staff to understand reasons for turnover. Greater staff burnout predicted increased turnover, more openness toward new practices predicted retention, and more professional recognition predicted increased turnover. Staff reported leaving their organizations because of personal, organizational, and financial reasons; just over half of staff that left their organization stayed in the public mental health sector. Implications include an imperative to focus on turnover, with a particular emphasis on ameliorating staff burnout.

  6. 论挪用公款罪实行行为%On the Implementation of the Crime of Misappropriation of Public Funds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪兵

    2015-01-01

    挪用公款罪是单行为犯,实行行为只有“挪”,“挪而未用”成立,其他活动型挪用公款罪既遂;“归个人使用”的本质是违背单位意志将公款非法置于自己的控制支配下,可根据是否体现单位意思、为单位打算、尽到善良管理人义务等进行判断;包括“挪新还旧”在内的多次挪用,无论案发时是否归还,均应根据各自的用途累计计算,然后按照“举轻以明重”原理计算挪用数额;挪用公款罪虽然也可谓片面对向犯,但使用者既不是被害人,亦不缺乏期待可能性,故要求、提议挪用公款的成立共犯,挪出之后仅参与使用公款的成立赃物犯罪;挪用公款罪不是继续犯而是状态犯,追诉期限均应从挪用行为完成之日起计算。%The crime of embezzlement is a single crime,act only"moved","moved without using"the establishment of other activity type embezzlement crime;the essence of"personal use"is against the will of unit of public funds under their control of illegal disposal,according to whether the unit of meaning,as a unit intend to do to good management duty to judge;including"move the new old", misappropriation,regardless of whether the return time of the incident,according to their respective purposes shall be cumulative,and then according to" give light to clear heavy"principle to calculate the amount of misappropriation;crime of misappropriating public funds is to make the face piece though however,the user is not the victim,nor the lack of anticipated possibility,therefore,proposed the establishment of embezzlement accomplice,moving out only after the use of public funds to the establishment of the crime in the crime of misappropriating public funds;and is not to make state crime,we should calculate the prosecution period from the date of completion of embezzlement.

  7. A prospective examination of clinician and supervisor turnover within the context of implementation of evidence-based practices in a publicly-funded mental health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Steven; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Powell, Byron; Aarons, Gregory A.; Evans, Arthur C.; Hurford, Matthew O.; Hadley, Trevor; Adams, Danielle R.; Walsh, Lucia M.; Babbar, Shaili; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Staff turnover rates in publicly-funded mental health settings are high. We investigated staff and organizational predictors of turnover in a sample of individuals working in an urban public mental health system that has engaged in a system-level effort to implement evidence-based practices. Additionally, we interviewed staff to understand reasons for turnover. Greater staff burnout predicted increased turnover, more openness toward new practices predicted retention, and more professional recognition predicted increased turnover. Staff reported leaving their organizations because of personal, organizational, and financial reasons; just over half of staff that left their organization stayed in the public mental health sector. Implications include an imperative to focus on turnover, with a particular emphasis on ameliorating staff burnout. PMID:26179469

  8. Analysis of the results of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1980-06-01

    The research program analyzed the Federal incentives used to stimulate nuclear, hydro, coal, gas, oil, and electricity production in order to supply what was learned to the selection of an incentives strategy to induce new energy production from renewable resources. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 examines the problem of estimating effects from a theoretical perspective. Methods of quantifying and identifying the many interactive effects of government actions are discussed. Chapter 3 presents a generic analysis of the result of Federal incentives. Chapters 4 through 9 deal with incentives to energy forms - nuclear, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and electricity. Chapter 10 summarizes the estimated results of the incentives, which are presented in terms of their quantity and price impacts. The incentive costs per million Btu of induced energy production is also discussed. Chapter 11 discusses the parity issue, that is an equivalence between Federal incentives to renewable resources and to traditional energy resources. Any analysis of incentives for solar needs will profit from an analysis of the costs of solar incentives per million Btu compared with those for traditional energy forms. Chapter 12 concludes the analysis, discussing the history of traditional energy incentives as a guide to solar-energy incentives. 216 references, 38 figures, 91 tables.

  9. Introduction of Renal Key Performance Indicators Associated with Increased Uptake of Peritoneal Dialysis in a Publicly Funded Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Nigel D; McMahon, Lawrence P; Dowling, Gregory; Holt, Stephen G; Smith, Gillian; Safe, Maria; Knight, Richard; Fair, Kathleen; Linehan, Leanne; Walker, Rowan G; Power, David A

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Increased demand for treatment of end-stage kidney disease has largely been accommodated by a costly increase in satellite hemodialysis (SHD) in most jurisdictions. In the Australian State of Victoria, a marked regional variation in the uptake of home-based dialysis suggests that use of home therapies could be increased as an alternative to SHD. An earlier strategy based solely on increased remuneration had failed to increase uptake of home therapies. Therefore, the public dialysis funder adopted the incidence and prevalence of home-based dialysis therapies as a key performance indicator (KPI) for its health services to encourage greater uptake of home therapies. ♦ METHODS: A KPI data collection and bench-marking program was established in 2012 by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, with data provided monthly by all renal units in Victoria using a purpose-designed website portal. A KPI Working Group was responsible for analyzing data each quarter and ensuring indicators remained accurate and relevant and each KPI had clear definitions and targets. We present a prospective, observational study of all dialysis patients in Victoria over a 4-year period following the introduction of the renal KPI program, with descriptive analyses to evaluate the proportion of patients using home therapies as well as home dialysis modality survival. ♦ RESULTS: Following the introduction of the KPI program, the net growth of dialysis patient numbers in Victoria remained stable over 4 years, at 75 - 80 per year (approximately 4%). However, unlike the previous decade, about 40% of this growth was through an increase in home dialysis, which was almost exclusively peritoneal dialysis (PD). The increase was identified particularly in the young (20 - 49) and the elderly (> 80). Disappointingly, however, 67% of these incident patients ceased PD within 2 years of commencement, 46% of whom transferred to SHD. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a KPI program

  10. Challenges and opportunities for developing and implementing incentives to improve health-related behaviors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eran; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-09-01

    There is growing interest in using patient-directed incentives to change health-related behaviors. Advocates of incentive programs have proposed an ambitious research agenda for moving patient incentive programs forward. The unique cognitive and psychological features of older adults, however, present a challenge to this agenda. In particular, age-related changes in emotional regulation, executive function, and cognitive capacities, and a preference for collaborative decision-making raise questions about the suitability of these programs, particularly the structure of current financial incentives, for older adults. Differences in decision-making in older adults need to be accounted for in the design and implementation of financial incentive programs. Financial incentive programs adjusted to characteristics of older adult populations may be more likely to improve the lives of older persons and the economic success of programs that serve them.

  11. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  12. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  13. Using reporting requirements to improve employer wellness incentives and their regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin; Schmidt, Harald; Volpp, Kevin G

    2014-10-01

    Employer interest in offering financial incentives for healthy behaviors has been increasing. Some employers have begun to tie health plan-based rewards or penalties to standards involving tobacco use or biometric measures such as body mass index. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to strike a balance between the potential benefits and risks of wellness incentive programs by permitting these incentives but simultaneously limiting their use. Evidence about the implications of the newest generation of incentive programs for health, health costs, and burdens on individual employees will be critical for informing both private and public decision makers. After describing the many pieces of information that would be valuable for assessing these programs, this article proposes more narrowly targeted reporting requirements that could facilitate incentive program development, evaluation, and oversight. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  14. Stock Repurchases and Incentive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    1998-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in corporate finance is the rise of stock repurchases as a means of distributing earnings to shareholders. While most attempts to explain repurchase behavior focus on the incentives of firms, this paper focuses on the incentives of the agents who run firms, as determined by those agents' compensation packages. The increased use of repurchases coincided with an increasing reliance on stock options to compensate top managers, and stock options encourage managers to choose ...

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FAQs Features of the SSR CMS Merit-Based Incentive Payment System MOC Part 4 and Recertification SSR ... Regulatory Issues How to Avoid Medicare Penalties EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Medicare Inpatient & ...

  16. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (PSpirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  17. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  18. 英国政府直接公共资金支持对企业创新活动的影响%The Impact of Direct Public Funds from UK Government on Innovative Activities of Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀云

    2015-01-01

    创新一直是英国经济政策关注的焦点,直接公共资金支持是英国支持创新的政策之一.直接公共资金支持的使用涉及到公共/ 私人部门,需要仔细分析相关政策措施的合理性、作用和效果.本研究系统介绍了对英国政府利用公共资金直接支持企业创新活动的影响评估情况,为国内创新政策的效果评价和决策提供参考.%Innovation has always been the focus of UK's economic policy, thus the support to innovation from direct public funds is part of the UK's innovation policy. The use of direct public funds covers both public and private sectors, so it is necessary to analyze the rationality, function and effects of relevant policies on the use of public funds. t. This paper highlights the practice of UK government on using direct public funds to support innovation of enterprises and its achievements, trying to provide a reference for China's decision-making and effects evaluation on innovation policies.

  19. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  20. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through...

  1. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  2. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  3. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  4. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  5. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  6. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  7. The Impacts of Seed Grants as Incentives for Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiches, James J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an assessment of North Carolina State University's Extension, Engagement, and Economic Development Seed Grant Program (2004-2009). The research questions addressed the extent to which the grants (1) stimulated faculty interest in the engagement and outreach mission of the university; (2) served as incentives for faculty…

  8. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  9. 78 FR 18954 - Incentives To Adopt Improved Cybersecurity Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... challenges encountered by small businesses and/or multinational companies, respectively? If so, what are the... adapted for multinational companies in various jurisdictions? What incentives are there to ensure that... infrastructure companies to join the Program? In answering these questions, commenters should not limit their...

  10. Do not trash the incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel

  11. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  12. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...

  13. Social Relations and Relational Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); J. Tichem (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how social relationships between managers and employees affect relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The contract may contain two types

  14. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges i

  15. To Duncan, Incentives a Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. "With this fund, we really have a chance to drive dramatic changes, to take to scale what works, invest…

  16. 42 CFR 495.370 - Appeals process for a Medicaid provider receiving electronic health record incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic health record incentive payments. 495.370 Section 495.370 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.370 Appeals process for a Medicaid provider receiving electronic health record...

  17. The Effects of Workforce-Shaping Incentives on Civil Service Retirement: Evidence from the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    probability of retirement. These policies are the special voluntary separation incentive program (VSIP) or "buyout," the voluntary early retirement authority...VERA) or early retirement option, and the retention allowance. The first two programs are intended to increase the financial incentive to leave

  18. Internal Financial Incentives in Systems Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    34On the Design of Managerial Incentive Structures in a Decentralized Planning Environment," The American Economic Review , September, 1976. (3] Canes...Michael E., "The Simple Economics of Incentive Contracting: Note" The American Economic Review , June, 1975. [4] Cummins, Michael T., "Incentive...Harris, Milton; Raiv, Artur, "Optimal Incentive Contracts with Imperfect Information," The American Economic Review , March, 1978. (9] Jennergren

  19. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...

  20. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  1. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Okada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards and negative incentives (punishments with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1 second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2 a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3 a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4 a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  2. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with...

  3. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  4. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  5. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a....653(d), incentives to agree to the restrictive-use period in § 3560.662 if the following conditions...

  7. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.12 Voting incentives. If a converting credit union offers an incentive to encourage members to participate in the vote, including a prize raffle, every...

  8. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  9. The Effect of Performance-Based Financial Incentives on Improving Patient Care Experiences: A Statewide Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Hector P; von Glahn, Ted; Elliott, Marc N; Rogers, William H; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2009-01-01

    Patient experience measures are central to many pay-for-performance (P4P) programs nationally, but the effect of performance-based financial incentives on improving patient care experiences has not been...

  10. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  11. Multi-Hazard Shelter Incentive Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    electric operation, freight and tax (to resist 1.000 psi dynamic, to - 0.4 Assc.). A WES report 9 states that "Izisting comercially available doors...Stato Maggiore Disfesa Civile Almannavarnir Skirfstofa Centro Studi Difeoa Civile Reykjavik Rome ICELAND ITALY Civil Emergency Planning Directorate

  12. Manufacturing Technology and Industrial Modernization Incentive Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    production 15. Pulsed Power Solid-state and gas discharge svkwits $ 160 Inductive storage devices Capadiors Batteries Homopolar generators Compensated...project. Inspection systems for rocket Tucson is the prime contractor for this motors will support a number of DoD Air Force funded Industrial Moderniza

  13. 75 FR 8854 - Teacher Incentive Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... the knowledge and skills to effectively accelerate the learning of English language learners and... President's ambitious goal of providing a high-quality education for all children is that too few students... evidence of student achievement and of effective teacher practice to continuously improve teaching...

  14. ESRD Quality Incentive Program Public Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) of 2008 requires that CMS and facilities inform beneficiaries about facility performance under the...

  15. Contractual incentives in EPC contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Oil Industry has through the years utilized several different Contract models for offshore projects. In the recent years, the big oil companies are using EPC Contracts to regulate deliveries in the industry. The main focus in the master thesis was the EPC Contract for offshore deliveries and the contractual incentives built into these Contract models. The first section presents the basics to the EPC contract format. Subjects are why the EPC Contract format is used...

  16. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  17. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  18. Sustainability of quality improvement following removal of pay-for-performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Justin K; Young, Gary J; Burgess, James F; Baker, Errol; Mohr, David C; Charns, Martin P; Kaboli, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Although pay-for-performance (P4P) has become a central strategy for improving quality in US healthcare, questions persist about the effectiveness of these programs. A key question is whether quality improvement that occurs as a result of P4P programs is sustainable, particularly if incentives are removed. To investigate sustainability of performance levels following removal of performance-based incentives. Observational cohort study that capitalized on a P4P program within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) that included adoption and subsequent removal of performance-based incentives for selected inpatient quality measures. The study sample comprised 128 acute care VA hospitals where performance was assessed between 2004 and 2010. VA system managers set annual performance goals in consultation with clinical leaders, and report performance scores to medical centers on a quarterly basis. These scores inform performance-based incentives for facilities and their managers. Bonuses are distributed based on the attainment of these performance goals. Seven quality of care measures for acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and pneumonia linked to performance-based incentives. Significant improvements in performance were observed for six of seven quality of care measures following adoption of performance-based incentives and were maintained up to the removal of the incentive; subsequently, the observed performance levels were sustained. This is a quasi-experimental study without a comparison group; causal conclusions are limited. The maintenance of performance levels after removal of a performance-based incentive has implications for the implementation of Medicare's value-based purchasing initiative and other P4P programs. Additional research is needed to better understand human and system-level factors that mediate sustainability of performance-based incentives.

  19. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Okada; Hitoshi Yamamoto; Fujio Toriumi; Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (re...

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Trauma Education Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Trauma Systems Conference ... Incentive Program Medicare Inpatient & Outpatient Rules Physician ...

  1. Introductory small cash incentives to promote child spacing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J R; Stevens, C M

    1992-01-01

    The Ammanpettai Family Welfare Program began in 1985 as a pilot program to determine whether offering small monthly cash incentives for a limited period would be a cost-effective way to increase the use of modern temporary methods of contraception among rural Indian women who do not want to become pregnant but are not ready to adopt sterilization. The program has demonstrated that a modest cash incentive for 3-5 months attracts very large numbers of women to a clinic where they learn about and are provided with the pill, condoms, or the IUD. In catchment areas where official government reports showed temporary-methods prevalence rates of 3-5 percent at best, the Ammanpettai incentive program has attracted up to 70 percent of eligible women to join the program and try the method of their choice. By requiring that participants bring their youngest child to the clinic, the program provides for mother and child health surveillance, including immunizations. The great majority of rural women who join the program work as field laborers, have little or no schooling, and have little knowledge of or experience with modern contraceptive methods. Continuation rates are 25-50 percent at one year if follow-up is maintained by village resident women distributors. The program has been extended to several rural primary health centers in Thanjavur District, to 14 government health posts in the city of Madras, and to a semiurban area and several rural areas in Bihar. The cost-effectiveness of this program compares favorably with that of the current government family welfare program.

  2. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  3. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  4. Incentive Stackelberg Mean-payoff Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anshul; Deepak, M. S. Krishna; Padarthi, Bharath Kumar; Schewe, Sven; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study incentive equilibria for multi-player meanpayoff games. Incentive equilibria generalise well-studied solution concepts such as Nash equilibria and leader equilibria (also known as Stackelberg equilibria). Recall that a strategy profile is a Nash equilibrium if no player can improve his payoff by changing his strategy unilaterally. In the setting of incentive and leader equilibria, there is a distinguished player called the leader who can assign strategies to all other p...

  5. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhang; Berridge, Kent C; Amy J Tindell; Kyle S Smith; J Wayne Aldridge

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire ca...

  6. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  7. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...

  8. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  9. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming......The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  10. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...... research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... the effectiveness of the incentive system in the individual organisational setting is determined by these relationships....

  11. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  12. Optimal Incentives for Public Sector Workers: The Case of Teacher-Designed Incentive Pay in Texas. Working Paper 2009-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lori L.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Pay for performance is a popular public education reform, and millions of dollars are currently being targeted for pay for performance programs. These reforms are popular because economic and management theories suggest that well-designed incentive pay programs could improve teacher effectiveness. There is little evidence about the characteristics…

  13. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of recruitment incentives. 575... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.109 Payment of recruitment incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  14. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and are...

  15. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of retention incentives. 575.309... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.309 Payment of retention incentives. (a) An authorized agency official...

  16. 5 CFR 575.209 - Payment of relocation incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of relocation incentives. 575.209... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.209 Payment of relocation incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  17. Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.; Al-Aulaqi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper options for changing the incentive structure to reduce unsustainable groundwater consumption in Yemen are evaluated. Special attention is paid to incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and subsidies on improved irrigation technology. Although the literature

  18. The Incentive System in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

  19. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied...

  20. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  1. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentives... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.402-2 Performance incentives. ...

  2. 论挪用公款罪的犯罪主体和客观方面%An Research on the Crime Subject and Objective Manifestations of Misappropriating Public Funds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天虹; 李慧群

    2001-01-01

    挪用公款罪是贪污贿赂类罪中的一个重要罪名,实践中发案率较高。但由于法律规定相对模糊,使得人们对这一危害行为在认识和处理上存在一定的分歧。文章就挪用公款罪的犯罪主体、犯罪客观表现中的有关问题进行较为深入的探讨。%According to law, misappropriating public funds is an important crime type of corruption and bribery.The rate of committing such a crime is relatively high in practive.But because of the ambiguity of legal provisions,people have different ideas on how to treat and deal with such a detrimental offense.This article will do some further researches concerning some problems on Crime Subject and the Objective mani festations of the misappropriating of public funds.

  3. 42 CFR 495.316 - State monitoring and reporting regarding activities required to receive an incentive payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Provider adoption, implementation, or upgrade of certified EHR technology activities and payments; and (2... upgraded certified EHR technology. (ii) Aggregated data tables representing the provider adoption... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to...

  4. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C.; Tindell, Amy J.; Smith, Kyle S.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered ‘wanting’ only by

  5. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  6. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues, incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (relearning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization. Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by

  7. SMART Money: Do Financial Incentives Encourage College Students to Study Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the short term success of a postsecondary federal financial aid program, the SMART Grant, designed to increase this stock of scientific human capital. An exploration of the success of this program provides the opportunity to address two critically important research questions. Do financial incentives encourage students to…

  8. 48 CFR 719.273-3 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The U.S. Agency for International...) Under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 637(d)(4)(E), USAID is authorized to provide appropriate incentives to encourage subcontracting opportunities for small business consistent with the efficient...

  9. Incentive Pay: A Plan to Recognize Major Contributions by Individuals, Teams, or Departmental Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An incentive program that rewards and encourages desirable work traits can improve college or university effectiveness, customer satisfaction, and employee morale without excessive cost. Processes needed, benefits to the institution, costs, program design, challenges to successful implementation, and organizational communication needs are…

  10. Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Round Rock Pilot Project on Team Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pane, John F.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Burns, Susan Freeman; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Education policymakers have shown increased interest in incentive programs for teachers based on the outcomes of their students. This article examines a program in which bonuses were awarded to teams of middle school teachers based on their collective contribution to student test score gains. The study employs a randomized controlled trial to…

  11. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  12. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  13. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  14. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakola H; Zyga S; Panoutsopoulos G; Alikari V

    2016-01-01

    ... and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method...

  15. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.71 Incentives for high performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be...

  16. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics (e.g...

  17. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is a...

  18. 48 CFR 1516.401-70 - Award term incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Award term incentives. 1516... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1516.401-70 Award term incentives. (a) Award term incentives enable a contractor to become eligible for additional periods of...

  19. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a retention incentive; (2) Determine when a group or category of employees has unusually high or... in the absence of a retention incentive; (3) Approve a retention incentive for an employee (or group... the limitation on the maximum amount of a retention incentive for an employee (or group or category of...

  20. Do Physicians Change Prescription Practice in Response to Financial Incentives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sylvia; Han, Euna

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the impact on physician prescription behaviors of an outpatient prescription incentive program providing financial rewards to primary care physicians for saving prescription costs in South Korea. A 10% sample of clinics (N = 1,625) was randomly selected from all clinics in the National Health Insurance claims database for the years 2009-2012, and all claims with the primary diagnosis of peptic ulcer or gastro-esophageal reflux diseases were extracted from those clinics' data. A clinic-level random-effects model was used. After the program, clinics in general medicine showed a lower prescription rate (by 0.8 percentage points), lower number of medicines prescribed (by 0.02), lower prescription duration (by 0.15 days), and lower drug expenditure per claim (by 740 won). Small clinics on the <25th percentile of a regional sum of monthly drug expenditure had shorter prescription duration (by 0.76 days), while large clinics on the ≥75th percentile and clinics in group practice had a higher prescription rate (by 1.5 and 2.5 percentage points, respectively) and a higher number of medicines prescribed (by 0.03 for group practice only) after the program. The outpatient prescription incentive program worked as intended only in certain subgroup clinics for the target medicines.

  1. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    analytic review of 45 studies on the effects of incentives on workplace performance and documented the impact of several factors that influenced...as a driver of individual performance. Kohn suggests that rewards and punishments are two sides of the same coin attempting to manipulate behavior...H. D. (2003). The effects of incentives on workplace performance: A meta-analytic review of research studies. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16

  2. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ......The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector...

  3. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  4. Cross-Border Higher Education for Labor Market Needs: Mobility of Public-Funded Malaysian Students to Japan over Years. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako; Hong, Yeeyoung

    2011-01-01

    As globalization and the knowledge economy spreads, the demand for highly skilled workers has increased and developing countries are engaged in cross-border higher education to develop high level human resources for their nations. Using data on a cross-border higher education program between Malaysia and Japan, namely the Higher Education Loan…

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Safety Conference Registry Login SCR Training and Testing Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs Overview of Cancer ... and FAQs Features of the SSR CMS Merit-Based Incentive Payment System MOC Part 4 and Recertification ...

  6. Tax Incentives Culture: An Analysis of Corporate Disclosures in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gomes dos Reis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of tax incentives Culture is essential for external users to make full analysis of the benefits generated by them. In this sense, the aim of this study was to verify the consistency and form of disclosure of the information disclosed by the Corporation Publicly Traded in southern Brazil, from the perspective of reducing the tax burden and the amount allocated to the Culture. The sample consisted of 27 Corporate Capital Open in southern Brazil and analyzed its financial statements, accompanying notes and supplementary reports through pre-established keywords, characterizing the research as descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The results showed the importance of the Notes, the Management Report and additional reports as Social and Sustainability Report. These reports had relevant information and helpful research. However, many of them did not have clear information about the tax incentives for culture. Some companies released the tax incentive culture along with other incentives, such as the Workers Food Program - PAT, which did not allow detailed analysis of the data. We found cases of disagreement between the Ministry of Culture and information disclosed statements. In some cases, were observed lack of information about the tax incentives in the statements and supplementary reports. It was concluded that the disclosure is lower than necessary, because only four out of a total of twenty seven companies analyzed, reported consistent, complete and appropriate on tax incentives for culture.

  7. Incentive-based Intervention to Maintain Breastfeeding Among Low-income Puerto Rican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Yukiko; Humphreys, Mara; Colchado, Elisa; Sierra-Ortiz, Maria; Zhang, Zugui; Collins, Bradley N; Kilby, Linda M; Chapman, Donna J; Higgins, Stephan T; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2017-03-01

    Despite maternal and child health benefits, breastfeeding rates are relatively low among low-income Puerto Rican mothers. This study examined the hypothesis that monthly financial incentives would significantly increase the proportion of breastfeeding mothers at 6 months postpartum compared with Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services only among Puerto Rican mothers. A randomized, 2-arm parallel-group design, from February 2015 through February 2016. Half of the randomized participants received monthly financial incentives contingent on observed breastfeeding for 6 months (Incentive), and the other half received usual WIC services only (Control). Thirty-six self-identified Puerto Rican women who initiated breastfeeding were enrolled. Monthly cash incentives were contingent on observed breastfeeding increasing the amount given at each month from $20 to $70 for a total possible of $270. The intent-to-treat analysis showed significantly higher percentages of breastfeeding mothers in the incentive group at each time point compared with those in the control group (89% vs 44%, P = .01 at 1 month; 89% vs 17%, P rate and infant outcomes (ie, weight, emergency department visits). Contingent cash incentives significantly increased breastfeeding through 6-month postpartum among WIC-enrolled Puerto Rican mothers; however, no significant differences between the study groups were observed on exclusive breastfeeding rate and infant outcomes. Larger-scale studies are warranted to examine efficacy, implementation potential, and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  9. Patient attitudes about financial incentives for diabetesself-management: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the acceptability of incentives for behaviorchanges in individuals with diabetes, comparing financialincentives to self-rewards and non-financial incentives.METHODS: A national online survey of United Statesadults with diabetes was conducted in March 2013 (n= 153). This survey was designed for this study, withiterative testing and modifications in a pilot population.We measured the demographics of individuals, theirinterest in incentives, as well as the perceived challengeof diabetes self-management tasks, and expectationsof incentives to improve diabetes self-management(financial, non-financial and self-rewards). Using anordered logistic regression model, we assessed theassociation between a 32-point score of the perceivedchallenge of the self-management tasks and the threetypes of rewards.RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of individuals wereinterested in financial incentives, 60% in non-financialincentives and 72% in self-rewards. Patients were lesslikely to use financial incentives when they perceivedthe behavior to be more challenging (odds ratio of usingfinancial incentives of 0.82 (95%CI: 0.72-0.93) for eachpoint of the behavior score). While the effectiveness ofincentives may vary according to the perceived level ofchallenge of each behavior, participants did not expectto need large amounts to motivate them to modifytheir behavior. The expected average amounts neededto motivate a 5 lb weight loss in our population andto maintain this weight change for a year was $258(interquartile range of $10-100) and $713 (interquartilerange of $25-250) for a 15 lb weight loss. The differencein mean amount estimates for 5 lb and 15 lb weight losswas significant (p 〈 0.001).CONCLUSION: Individuals with diabetes are willing toconsider financial incentives to improve diabetes selfmanagement.Future studies are needed to exploreincentive programs and their effectiveness for diabetes.

  10. Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? A Benefit/Cost Analysis of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick J.; McShane, Michael

    2013-01-01

    School voucher programs have become a prominent aspect of the education policy landscape in the United States. The DC Opportunity Scholarship Program is the only federally funded voucher program in the United States. Since 2004 it has offered publicly funded private school vouchers to nearly four thousand students to attend any of seventy-three…

  11. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  12. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  13. The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Eric M.; William G. Gale; John Karl Scholz

    1996-01-01

    The authors evaluate research on how tax-based saving incentives (IRAs and 401(k)s) affect saving. Previous research overstates the impact of the incentives on saving by failing to account for several issues: households with saving incentives have stronger tastes for saving than others; saving incentives have interacted with debt, nonfinancial assets, financial markets, and pensions; and saving incentives represent pretax balances, whereas taxable accounts represent posttax balances. Accounti...

  14. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E.; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  15. Impacts of a Prekindergarten Program on Children's Mathematics, Language, Literacy, Executive Function, and Emotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness,…

  16. Incentives to promote breastfeeding: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Victoria Hall; Morgan, Heather; Rothnie, Kieran; MacLennan, Graeme; Stewart, Fiona; Thomson, Gillian; Crossland, Nicola; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Few women in industrialized countries achieve the World Health Organization's recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Governments are increasingly seeking new interventions to address this problem, including the use of incentives. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive interventions, delivered within or outside of health care settings, to individuals and/or their families seeking to increase and sustain breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. Searches of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature were conducted to identify relevant reports of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. All study designs published in English, which met our definition of incentives and that were from a developed country, were eligible for inclusion. Abstract and full-text article review with sequential data extraction were conducted by 2 independent authors. Sixteen full reports were included in the review. The majority evaluated multicomponent interventions of varying frequency, intensity, and duration. Incentives involved providing access to breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, money, food packages, and help with household tasks, but little consensus in findings was revealed. The lack of high-quality, randomized controlled trials identified by this review and the multicomponent nature of the interventions prohibited meta-analysis. This review found that the overall effect of providing incentives for breastfeeding compared with no incentives is unclear due to study heterogeneity and the variation in study quality. Further evidence on breastfeeding incentives offered to women is required to understand the possible effects of these interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Making solar laws work: a study of state solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a research investigation of solar financial and research, demonstration, and development (RD and D) incentive programs in 18 states are summarized. The investigation focuses upon implementation - the organization and administrative processes required to convert a law into a viable program. Eleven financial and 12 RD and D programs were investigated. Results indicate that four conditions are common to successful implementation of both types of incentive programs: the opportunity to use solar energy as a heating source; characteristics of the agency selected to complement the law; involvement of outside groups in program implementation; and the specificity of guidance given to those responsible for implementation. Other conditions specific to the implementation of each type of program are discussed as well as the implications of these findings for state and federal policy makers.

  18. Making solar laws work. A study of state solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a research investigation of solar financial and research, demonstration, and development R D and D) incentive programs in 18 states are summarized. The investigation focuses upon implementation - the organization and administrative processes required to convert a law into a viable program. Eleven financial and 12 RD and D programs were investigated. Results indicate that four conditions are common to successful implementation of both types of incentive programs: the opportunity to use solar energy as a heating source; characteristics of the agency selected to complement the law; involvement of outside groups in program implementation; and the specificity of guidance given to those responsible for implementation. Other conditions specific to the implementation of each type of program are discussed as well as the implications of these findings for state and federal policy makers.

  19. Can an incentive-based intervention increase physical activity and reduce sitting among adults? the ACHIEVE (Active Choices IncEntiVE) feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Hunter, Ruth F; Maple, Jaimie-Lee; Moodie, Marj; Salmon, Jo; Ong, Kok-Leong; Stephens, Lena D; Jackson, Michelle; Crawford, David

    2017-03-21

    Despite recent interest in the potential of incentivisation as a strategy for motivating healthier behaviors, little remains known about the effectiveness of incentives in promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior, and improving associated health outcomes. This pre-post-test design study investigated the feasibility, appeal and effects of providing non-financial incentives for promoting increased physical activity, reduced sedentary time, and reduced body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure among inactive middle-aged adults. Inactive men (n = 36) and women (n = 46) aged 40-65 years were recruited via a not-for-profit insurance fund and participated in a 4 month pre-post design intervention. Baseline and post-intervention data were collected on self-reported physical activity and sitting time (IPAQ-Long), BMI and blood pressure. Participants were encouraged to increase physical activity to 150 mins/week and reduce sedentary behavior by 150 mins/week in progressive increments. Incentives included clothing, recipe books, store gift vouchers, and a chance to win one of four Apple iPad Mini devices. The incentive component of the intervention was supported by an initial motivational interview and text messaging to encourage participants and provide strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors. Only two participants withdrew during the program, demonstrating the feasibility of recruiting and retaining inactive middle-aged participants. While two-thirds of the sample qualified for the easiest physical activity incentive (by demonstrating 100 mins physical activity/week or 100 mins reduced sitting time/week), only one third qualified for the most challenging incentive. Goals to reduce sitting appeared more challenging, with 43% of participants qualifying for the first incentive, but only 20% for the last incentive. More men than women qualified for most incentives. Mean leisure-time physical activity increased by 252

  20. Employee Use of a Wireless Physical Activity Tracker Within Two Incentive Designs at One Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Heltemes, Kevin J; Heck, Debi; Osmick, Mary Jane

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity provides numerous health benefits, including reducing risk factors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Many employers offer incentives to employees to motivate engagement in wellness program activities. Two incentive designs to reward employees for achieving step goals were evaluated. This study used a retrospective design and the study population consisted of benefit-eligible employees at American Specialty Health ages 18 to 65 years who completed a health assessment and biometric screening during 2011 (N=396) or 2012 (N=500). A total of 320 employees participated in both years. During 2011, the incentive goal was 500,000 steps per quarter. By comparison, a 3-tier step goal plan was implemented in 2012 (ie, 400,000; 650,000; or 900,000 steps/quarter). The prevalence of participants in the step program was 64.7% in 2011 and 72.8% in 2012. The percentage of employees who reached at least 1 quarterly incentive increased from 36.3% in 2011 to 51.4% in 2012. Average steps/day was higher in 2012 (mean [M]=3573, standard deviation [SD]=3010) compared to the same employees in 2011 (M=2817, SD=2654) (Pactivity. A multitier incentive design offers participants choices for goal setting and may help shape behavior toward what may be perceived as a difficult goal to achieve. (Population Health Management 2016;19:88-94).

  1. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  2. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  3. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  5. Splitting motivation: unilateral effects of subliminal incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Palminteri, Stefano; Lafargue, Gilles; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    Motivation is generally understood to denote the strength of a person's desire to attain a goal. Here we challenge this view of motivation as a person-level concept, in a study that targeted subliminal incentives to only one half of the human brain. Participants in the study squeezed a handgrip to win the greatest fraction possible of each subliminal incentive, which materialized as a coin image flashed in one visual hemifield. Motivation effects (i.e., more force exerted when the incentive was higher) were observed only for the hand controlled by the stimulated brain hemisphere. These results show that in the absence of conscious control, one brain hemisphere, and hence one side of the body, can be motivated independently of the other.

  6. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reading Incentives that Work: No-Cost Strategies to Motivate Kids to Read and Love It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ruth V.

    2009-01-01

    In education, it is possible to find dozens of examples of "forced" reading incentive programs that categorize student reading levels, provide limited reading lists coordinated with those reading levels, assess student reading through computer-based tests, and award tangible prizes when they pass the test. Those who perform best get the most…

  8. Reading Incentives that Work: No-Cost Strategies to Motivate Kids to Read and Love It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ruth V.

    2009-01-01

    In education, it is possible to find dozens of examples of "forced" reading incentive programs that categorize student reading levels, provide limited reading lists coordinated with those reading levels, assess student reading through computer-based tests, and award tangible prizes when they pass the test. Those who perform best get the most…

  9. 77 FR 69933 - Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... analogous to the process of packing boxes into a trunk when these boxes have different sizes and values. 15... programming ``algorithm'' (a mathematical recipe for solving a problem). The second uses a simpler mathematical recipe that the Incentive Auction NPRM refers to as a ``sequential'' algorithm. Each involves the...

  10. The Power and Pitfalls of Education Incentives. Discussion Paper 2011-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Bradley M.; Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that America's school system is in desperate need of reform, but many educational interventions are ineffective, expensive, or difficult to implement. Recent incentive programs, however, demonstrate that well-designed rewards to students can improve achievement at relatively low costs. Fryer and Allan draw on…

  11. 42 CFR 414.67 - Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage Areas. 414.67 Section 414.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners...

  12. Team Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from Round Rock's Project on Incentives in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Pane, John F.; Springer, Matthew G.; Burns, Susan F.; Haas, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice. This study, conducted by the National Center on Performance Incentives, examines a pay-for-performance program in Round Rock (Texas) which distributed performance awards to teachers based on a…

  13. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable.

  14. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  15. Incentive Contracts for Venture Capital Syndication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-li; YANG De-li

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the incentive problems of venture capital syndication at the second and later stages, an game model is set up by principal agent and incentive theory, given that the lead venture capitalist has already some knowledge of the project quality from his initial funding of the project. Under symmetric and asymmetric information, the model analyzes how the optimal syndication contracts induce venture capitalists to truthfully reveal their information to each other, and vary with the level of venture capitalists' expertise and information in evaluating projects.

  16. Incentive pricing and cost recovery at the basin scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Incentive pricing programs have potential to promote economically efficient water use patterns and provide a revenue source to compensate for environmental damages. However, incentive pricing may impose disproportionate costs and aggravate poverty where high prices are levied for basic human needs. This paper presents an analysis of a two-tiered water pricing system that sets a low price for subsistence needs, while charging a price equal to marginal cost, including environmental cost, for discretionary uses. This pricing arrangement can promote efficient and sustainable water use patterns, goals set by the European Water Framework Directive, while meeting subsistence needs of poor households. Using data from the Rio Grande Basin of North America, a dynamic nonlinear program, maximizes the basin's total net economic and environmental benefits subject to several hydrological and institutional constraints. Supply costs, environmental costs, and resource costs are integrated in a model of a river basin's hydrology, economics, and institutions. Three programs are compared: (1) Law of the River, in which water allocations and prices are determined by rules governing water transfers; (2) marginal cost pricing, in which households pay the full marginal cost of supplying treated water; (3) two-tiered pricing, in which households' subsistence water needs are priced cheaply, while discretionary uses are priced at efficient levels. Compared to the Law of the River and marginal cost pricing, two-tiered pricing performs well for efficiency and adequately for sustainability and equity. Findings provide a general framework for formulating water pricing programs that promote economically and environmentally efficient water use programs while also addressing other policy goals.

  17. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  18. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  19. Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, B Kelsey; Kousky, Carolyn; Sims, Katharine R E

    2008-07-15

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) policies compensate individuals or communities for undertaking actions that increase the provision of ecosystem services such as water purification, flood mitigation, or carbon sequestration. PES schemes rely on incentives to induce behavioral change and can thus be considered part of the broader class of incentive- or market-based mechanisms for environmental policy. By recognizing that PES programs are incentive-based, policymakers can draw on insights from the substantial body of accumulated knowledge about this class of instruments. In particular, this article offers a set of lessons about how the environmental, socioeconomic, political, and dynamic context of a PES policy is likely to interact with policy design to produce policy outcomes, including environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and poverty alleviation.

  20. Incentives, population policy, and reproductive rights: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, S L

    1995-01-01

    The governments of most Asian countries have used incentives or disincentives as a population policy strategy. In the 1960s the Indian government offered money or gifts to acceptors at mass sterilization campaigns. In the late 1960s through the 1970s Singapore enacted legislation penalizing large families, including delivery fees for the third and subsequent children, denying them government housing and a choice of schools. There were also rewards to small families. During the late 1970s China started its own 1-child policy with the objective of limiting the population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000. Incentives included monthly welfare or nutritional allowances; priorities in housing, education, and medical care; and expanded maternity benefits. Disincentives included fines, deductions from salaries, withdrawal of maternity leave, health coverage, and allowances. There have also been charges of forced sterilization and abortion, which led to the US termination of funding to UNFPA because of its support of China's program. Incentives and disincentives raise the ethical issue of how to balance governmental actions attempting to control population growth against individual reproductive rights. In practice abuse has been rampant, therefore voluntary choice in childbearing should not be infringed upon no matter how strong the government interest is. To this effect some standards are proposed: 1) Governments restricting reproductive choice have the burden of demonstrating that continued population growth threatens the survival of society. 2) The people who are subject to the policy must agree that it is valid. 3) Measures that are less restrictive of voluntary reproductive choice should be tried and proved ineffective before more restrictive measures are employed. 4) The burdens of restrictive measures should be distributed equitably. 5) Penalties that directly punish children for being a high order child should not be used at all.

  1. Quality-based financial incentives in health care: can we improve quality by paying for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A; Perry, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This article asks whether financial incentives can improve the quality of health care. A conceptual framework drawn from microeconomics, agency theory, behavioral economics, and cognitive psychology motivates a set of propositions about incentive effects on clinical quality. These propositions are evaluated through a synthesis of extant peer-reviewed empirical evidence. Comprehensive financial incentives--balancing rewards and penalties; blending structure, process, and outcome measures; emphasizing continuous, absolute performance standards; tailoring the size of incremental rewards to increasing marginal costs of quality improvement; and assuring certainty, frequency, and sustainability of incentive payoffs--offer the prospect of significantly enhancing quality beyond the modest impacts of prevailing pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Such organizational innovations as the primary care medical home and accountable health care organizations are expected to catalyze more powerful quality incentive models: risk- and quality-adjusted capitation, episode of care payments, and enhanced fee-for-service payments for quality dimensions (e.g., prevention) most amenable to piece-rate delivery.

  2. An Evaluation of Incentive Experiments in a Two-Phase Address-Based Sample Mail Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifeng Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Address-based sampling (ABS with a two-phase data collection approach has emerged as a promising alternative to random digit dial (RDD surveys for studying specific subpopulations in the United States. In 2011, the National Household Education Surveys Program Field Test used a two-phase ABS design with a postal or mail screener to identify households with eligible children and a mail topical questionnaire administered to parents of sampled children to collect measures of interest. Experiments with prepaid cash incentives and special mail delivery methods were applied in both phases. For the screener, sampled addresses were randomly designated to receive either $2 or $5 in the initial mailing. During the topical phase, incentives (ranging from $0 to $20 and delivery methods (First Class Mail or Priority Mail were assigned randomly but depended on how quickly the household had responded to the screener. The paper first evaluates the effects of incentives on response rates, and then examines incentive levels for attracting the hard-to-reach groups and improving sample composition. The impact of incentive on data collection cost is also examined.

  3. Glossary – dCHPP (CHP Policies and incentives database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This glossary provides descriptions of the policy and incentive types included in the CHP Partnership's CHP Policies and incentives database (dCHPP), as well as the frequency with which the EPA updates each type.

  4. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...

  5. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  6. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in 64 adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds) and 42 young adults (18- to 29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade…

  7. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128 stores.

  8. Incentives for Cheating Given Imperfect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-10-01

    The incentives for cheating given imperfect detection can be discussed within the context of first strike stability. The cost reduction due to is balanced against the sanctions that would be imposed if cheating was detected. For small political sanctions, the optimum level is at high levels of cheating. For large sanctions, the optimum is at quite low levels, which discourages cheating.

  9. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  10. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  11. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  12. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  13. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128

  14. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  15. 75 FR 30007 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... FY 2010 (NIA) for the Teacher Incentive Fund. This notice makes a correction to the May 21 NIA. FOR...: Correction On page 28745 of the May 21 NIA, we requested that applicants submit a short e-mail as a notice of... applicant intends to address.'' We are correcting the May 21 NIA to provide applicants with the correct...

  16. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  17. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  18. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted by... of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. Today, OTS is.... Description: The guidance is based on three key principles that are designed to ensure that incentive...

  19. The Effects of Incentives on Recruiter Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    recruiter. (after Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, Moskowitz, 2006, p. 13). ...................................................................................3...sailors to volunteer for recruiting duty. However, these incentives lack the endurance to successively motivate recruiters. Samuelson et al.’s (2006...productivity between 12 and 18 months ( Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, & Moskowitz, 2006). The drop-off in productivity after their peak (with usually more than half

  20. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  1. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  2. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  3. Incentives for increasing prenatal care use by women in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Sara R; Everetts, David; Haas, David M

    2015-12-15

    participants. Blinding of outcome assessors was adequate in one study, but was limited or not described in the remaining four studies. Risk of attrition was deemed to be low in all studies that contributed data to the review. Two of the studies reported or analyzed data in a manner that was not consistent with the predetermined protocol and thus were deemed to be at high risk. The other three studies were low risk for reporting bias. The largest two of the five studies comprising the majority of participants took place in rural, low-income, homogenously Hispanic communities in Central America. This setting introduces a number of confounding factors that may affect generalizability of these findings to ethnically and economically diverse urban communities in developed countries.The five included studies of incentive programs did not report any of this review's primary outcomes: preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, or perinatal death.In terms of this review's secondary outcomes, pregnant women receiving incentives were no more likely to initiate prenatal care (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.38, one study, 104 pregnancies). Pregnant women receiving incentives were more likely to attend prenatal visits on a frequent basis (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38, one study, 606 pregnancies) and obtain adequate prenatal care defined by number of "procedures" such as testing blood sugar or blood pressure, vaccinations and counseling about breastfeeding and birth control (mean difference (MD) 5.84, 95% CI 1.88 to 9.80, one study, 892 pregnancies). In contrast, women who received incentives were more likely to deliver by cesarean section (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.30, one study, 979 pregnancies) compared to those women who did not receive incentives.Women who received incentives were no more likely to return for postpartum care based on results of meta-analysis (average RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.21 to 2.64, two studies, 833 pregnancies, Tau² = 0.81, I² = 98

  4. 5 CFR 575.311 - Continuation, reduction, and termination of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of retention incentives. 575.311 Section 575.311 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.311 Continuation, reduction, and...

  5. Innovative business approaches for incenting health promotion in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and persisting challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak N; Nossel, Craig; Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases related to behaviors such as tobacco use, overeating, excess alcohol intake and physical inactivity account for increasing morbidity and mortality in South Africa. Over the last 15 years, Discovery Health, the largest private health plan in South Africa, has developed a voluntary health promotion program called Vitality with over 1.5 million members. Vitality was designed with many applications drawn from the growing field of behavioral economics, including the use of incentives and rewards. Incentives offered on the program are aimed at lowering the financial barriers to activities such as visiting the gym, buying healthy food or receiving preventive screening. Members accrue points for engagement which translate into discounts on a range of goods and services. Although the full impact of the program cannot yet be quantified, engagement with the program is continually increasing and there is compelling evidence that this translates into better health and cost outcomes.

  6. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  7. The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION by Sheryl Jardine September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors: Susan Hocevar Gail Thomas THIS PAGE...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration 6. AUTHOR(S) Sheryl Jardine 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...OF INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION Sheryl Jardine Mitigation & Recovery Section Manager, Washington State Emergency

  8. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  9. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a grant...

  10. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  11. 48 CFR 819.7105 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives for prime... Incentives for prime contractor participation. (a) Under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 637(d)(4)(e), VA is authorized to provide appropriate incentives to encourage subcontracting opportunities for small...

  12. Faculty Incentives for Online Course Design, Delivery, and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the types and frequency of incentives for online instruction at non-profit institutions of higher education with an established teaching and learning development unit. While up to 70% of institutions offer incentives, this support is not universal and varies by incentive type and purpose.

  13. 48 CFR 216.402-2 - Technical performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 216.402-2 Section 216.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 216.402-2 Technical performance incentives. See PGI 216.402-2 for guidance on establishing...

  14. Incentive issues in the South African construction industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey by completing the structured questionnaire. The questionnaire survey is .... Alliance contracting is reinforced by incentive design, ... Many researchers have advocated the use of incentives as ... aims to evaluate the current practices of incentive mechanisms in the ..... The analysis shows lack of consistency in the.

  15. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles...

  16. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section on the date of grant. An incentive stock option is also subject to the $100,000 limitation described in § 1.422-4. An incentive stock option may contain a...

  17. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4... § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or incentive... do not exceed the greater of: (a) Five percent of the recipient's annual salary; or (b) Five...

  18. Financial incentives and coverage of child health interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G; Arora, Paul; Wazny, Kerri; Gaffey, Michelle F; Lenters, Lindsey; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used strategies to alleviate poverty, foster development, and improve health. Cash transfer programs, microcredit, user fee removal policies and voucher schemes that provide direct or indirect monetary incentives to households have been used for decades in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and more recently in Southeast Asia. Until now, no systematic review of the impact of financial incentives on coverage and uptake of health interventions targeting children under 5 years of age has been conducted. The objective of this review is to provide estimates on the effect of six types of financial incentive programs: (i) Unconditional cash transfers (CT), (ii) Conditional cash transfers (CCT), (iii) Microcredit (MC), (iv) Conditional Microcredit (CMC), (v) Voucher schemes (VS) and (vi) User fee removal (UFR) on the uptake and coverage of health interventions targeting children under the age of five years. We conducted systematic searches of a series of databases until September 1st, 2012, to identify relevant studies reporting on the impact of financial incentives on coverage of health interventions and behaviors targeting children under 5 years of age. The quality of the studies was assessed using the CHERG criteria. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the effect when multiple studies meeting our inclusion criteria were available. Our searches resulted in 1671 titles identified 25 studies reporting on the impact of financial incentive programs on 5 groups of coverage indicators: breastfeeding practices (breastfeeding incidence, proportion of children receiving colostrum and early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for six months and duration of breastfeeding); vaccination (coverage of full immunization, partial immunization and specific antigens); health care use (seeking healthcare when child was ill, visits to health facilities for preventive reasons, visits to health facilities for any reason, visits for health

  19. Do incentives matter? Providing benefits to families of organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, C L; Siminoff, L A; Ubel, P A; Nathan, H; Caplan, A; Arnold, R M

    2005-12-01

    Whether the number of organs available for transplant would be positively or negatively affected by providing benefits to families of organ donors has been debated by policymakers, ethicists and the transplant community at large. We designed a telephone survey to measure public opinion regarding the use of benefits in general and of five types in particular: funeral benefits, charitable contributions, travel/lodging expenses, direct payments and medical expenses. Of the 971 adults who completed the survey (response rate = 69%), all were from Pennsylvania households, 45.6% were registered organ donors, and 51.7% were nonwhite. Although 59% of respondents favored the general idea of incentives, support for specific incentives ranged from 53% (direct payment) to 84% (medical expenses). Among those registered as donors, more nonwhites than whites supported funeral benefits (88% vs. 81%; p = 0.038), direct payment (63% vs. 41%; p benefits would not influence their own behavior concerning donation but would influence the behavior of others. While benefits appear to be favored, their true impact can only be assessed through pilot programs.

  20. International Microgrid Assessment. Governance, INcentives, and Experience (IMAGINE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Microgrids can provide an avenue for increasing the amount of distributed generation and delivery of electricity, where control is more dispersed and quality of service is locally tailored to end-use requirements. Much of this functionality is very different from the predominant utility model to date of centralized power production which is then transmitted and distributed across long distances with a uniform quality of service. This different functionality holds much promise for positive change, in terms of increasing reliability, energy efficiency, and renewable energy while decreasing and carbon emissions. All of these functions should provide direct cost savings for customers and utilities as well as positive externalities for society. As we have seen from the international experience, allowing microgrids to function in parallel with the grid requires some changes in electricity governance and incentives to capture cost savings and actively price in positive externalities. If China can manage to implement these governance changes and create those incentive policies, it will go beyond the establishment of a successful microgrid demonstration program and become an international leader in microgrid deployment.

  1. Aligning financial incentives with quality of care in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, John T; Chung, Richard S; Ryskina, Kira L; Walsh, Jim; Legorreta, Antonio P

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the structure, implementation, and early results of a performance-based hospital incentive program designed by a large nonprofit health plan. The Hospital Quality Service and Recognition program, developed by the Hawaii Medical Service Association, was launched in 2001 to reward high-quality medical care at the hospital level. This pay-for-performance program used administrative claims data, survey data, and hospital-reported information to assess hospital performance in risk-adjusted complications and risk-adjusted length of stay (LOS), patient satisfaction, and hospital processes of care measures. Financial incentives were provided to participating hospitals based on their performance on these measures. Preliminary outcomes of the program evaluated over a 4-year period after implementation revealed improvements in aggregated rates of risk-adjusted surgical complications and efficiency of care as evidenced by a substantial decrease in risk-adjusted average LOS for several surgical procedures. Quality improvement was demonstrated in several other program components including emergency department satisfaction. This quality incentive program offers an innovative approach for encouraging delivery of high-quality and service-oriented care in a statewide network of participating hospitals.

  2. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislation Tracked by the College Quality Quality Quality Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Quality Reporting ... Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed for ...

  3. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Inpatient & Outpatient Rules Physician Quality Reporting System Value-Based Payment Modifier DEA, FDA, and Medicare Part ... Records (EHR) Incentive Program Physician Quality Reporting System Value-Based Payment Modifier Quality and Resource Use Reports ...

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Avoid Medicare Penalties EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Medicare Inpatient & Outpatient Rules ... Legislative Action Center Leadership & Advocacy Summit Webinars Practice Management Practice Management Practice Management CPT Coding Bulletin Articles ...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Avoid Medicare Penalties EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection New Medicare Card Project ... Legislative Action Center Leadership & Advocacy Summit Webinars Practice Management Practice Management Practice Management CPT Coding Bulletin Articles ...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Avoid Medicare Penalties EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Medicare Inpatient & Outpatient Rules ... Liability Surgeons as Advocates Surgeons and Bundled Payment Models Surgeons as Institutional Employees Our Changing Health Care ...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Avoid Medicare Penalties EHR Incentive Program Global Codes and Data Collection Medicare Inpatient & Outpatient Rules ... ACS Catalog About the ACS Catalog Find a Product Contribute Education Journal of the American College of ...

  8. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  9. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  10. High-Stakes Choice: Achievement and Accountability in the Nation's Oldest Urban Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Carlson, Deven E.; Fleming, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a high-stakes testing and reporting requirement on students using publicly funded vouchers to attend private schools. We describe how such a policy was implemented during the course of a previously authorized multi-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which provided us with data on voucher…

  11. Military Base Closures: Redevelopment Assistance Programs. CRS Report for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Programs DOD has the authority to provide a number of incentives and transition benefits to departing military personnel. These include early retirement incentives...qualified displaced DOD employees, financial incentives to encourage early retirement of eligible employees, and continued health insurance coverage

  12. A computational substrate for incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Montague, P Read

    2003-08-01

    Theories of dopamine function are at a crossroads. Computational models derived from single-unit recordings capture changes in dopaminergic neuron firing rate as a prediction error signal. These models employ the prediction error signal in two roles: learning to predict future rewarding events and biasing action choice. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition or lesion of dopaminergic neuron function diminishes the ability of an animal to motivate behaviors directed at acquiring rewards. These lesion experiments have raised the possibility that dopamine release encodes a measure of the incentive value of a contemplated behavioral act. The most complete psychological idea that captures this notion frames the dopamine signal as carrying 'incentive salience'. On the surface, these two competing accounts of dopamine function seem incommensurate. To the contrary, we demonstrate that both of these functions can be captured in a single computational model of the involvement of dopamine in reward prediction for the purpose of reward seeking.

  13. Incentives for better performance in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljawad, Asaad; Al-Assaf, Assaf F

    2011-05-01

    Incentives for better performance in health care have several modes and methods. They are designed to motivate and encourage people to perform well and improve their outcomes. They may include monetary or non-monetary incentives and may be applied to consumers, individual providers or institutions. One such model is the Pay-for-Performance system. In this system, beneficiaries are compared with one another based on a set of performance indicators and those that achieve a high level of performance are rewarded financially. This system is meant to recognise and primarily to reward high performers. Its goal is to encourage beneficiaries to strive for better performance. This system has been applied in several countries and for several recipients and settings. Early indications show that this system has had mixed effects on performance.

  14. Integrating Faith-Based Organizations into State-Funded Pre-K Programs: Resolving Constitutional Conflict. Pre-K Policy Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dan; Boylan, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief addresses federal and state constitutional issues that arise when faith-based organizations participate in state prekindergarten (pre-k) programs and recommends safeguards to ensure that public funding of those programs complies with constitutional principles respecting the separation of church and state and freedom of religion.…

  15. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  16. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  17. Job assignments, intrinsic motivation and explicit incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  18. Bank Solvency, Market Structure, and Monitoring Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Caminal, Ramon; Matutes, Carmen

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the impact of market structure on the probability of banking failure when banks’ loan portfolios are subject to aggregate uncertainty. In our model borrowers are subject to a moral hazard problem, which induces banks to choose between two second-best alternative devices: costly monitoring and credit rationing. We show that investment depends on both the lending rate and the information structure. Since monitoring incentives increase with interest rate margins, the relationship betw...

  19. Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD cotton grown in Australia. The key findings are that legitimate adoption of a GM crop by a farmer depends on their attitude ...

  20. Evaluating incentive mechanisms for conserving habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Jason F. Shogren

    2005-01-01

    Private lands have an important role in the success of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The current command-andcontrol approach to protecting species on private land has resulted in disincentives to the landowner, which have decreased the ability of the ESA to protect many of our endangered and threatened species. Herein we define and evaluate, from an economic perspective, eight incentive mechanisms, including the status quo, for protecting species on private land. We highlight the strength...

  1. Economic Incentives and Global Fisheries Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Costello; John Lynham; Sarah E. Lester; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread global collapses of fisheries corroborate decades-old predictions by economists, made long before large-scale industrialization of the world's fisheries, that open access would have deleterious ecological and economic effects on fishery resources. Incentive-based alternatives (collectively called catch shares) have been shown to generate pecuniary benefits, but little empirical evidence exists for, or against, a link to global fisheries sustainability. We report and expand on an an...

  2. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  3. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakola H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the health sector which is characterized much more as a "labor intensive" rather than as "capital intensive" human capital is the core for improving efficiency, enhancing productivity and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method: Literature review was carried out based on research and review articles from international (PubMed, Medline and Greek (Iatrotek databases. Results: The high performance of nursing staff depends on factors such as working environment conditions, financial rewards, job stress, etc. The international literature review highlighted as the main motivation factors for health care workers, the assessment by managers and colleagues, the personal achievements, the economic stability as well as training and job characteristics. The framework of incentives should include measures to improve work conditions and environment, measures for developing a working framework, incentives for moral compensation and self-realization. The role of nursing leadership should be based on the theory of path-goal for the improving of nursing practice, patient satisfaction and reduction of hospitalization costs. Conclusions: In order to apply a proper motivation of nursing staff, in addition to effective implementation of existing provisions, further changes to the legal framework without "personal" criteria focused more on punishment other than a reward , should be required.

  4. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  5. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  6. Incentives Research for Enterprises to Participate in VEP in the Multitask Principal-Agent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Sha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a comprehensive environmental management system with a higher statutory environmental standard, Voluntary Environmental Program has become a trend of international environmental policy and the essence of it is a multi-agency task, in which government (principal entrust enterprise (proxy develop eco- nomic in the context of protecting the environment. Moreover, government is in a dominant position in the ef- fective implementation of voluntary environmental program, and their incentive to set different targets, under the voluntary environmental program, play a key role for the effective implementation of voluntary environ- mental program.

  7. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Organ Procurement Organization Reporting and Communication; Transplant Outcome Measures and Documentation Requirements; Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs; Payment to Nonexcepted Off-Campus Provider-Based Department of a Hospital; Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program; Establishment of Payment Rates Under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule for Nonexcepted Items and Services Furnished by an Off-Campus Provider-Based Department of a Hospital. Final rule with comment period and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2017 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, in this final rule with comment period, we are making changes to tolerance thresholds for clinical outcomes for solid organ transplant programs; to Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) definitions, outcome measures, and organ transport documentation; and to the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record Incentive Programs. We also are removing the HCAHPS Pain Management dimension from the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. In addition, we are implementing section 603 of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 relating to payment for certain items and services furnished by certain off-campus provider-based departments of a provider. In this document, we also are issuing an interim final rule with comment period to establish the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule payment rates for the nonexcepted items and services billed by a nonexcepted off-campus provider-based department of a hospital in accordance with the provisions of section 603.

  8. Water scarcity, market-based incentives, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, K.; Chermak, J. M.; Brookshire, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the future viability of many regions will depend in large part on how efficiently resources are utilized. A key factor to this success will be a thorough understanding of consumers and the characteristics that drive their water use. In this research test and find support for the hypothesis that residential water consumers are heterogeneous. We combine experimental and survey responses to test for statistically significant consumer characteristics that are observable factors of demand for water. Significant factors include "stage of life" (i.e., student versus workforce versus retired), as well as various social and cultural factors including age, ethnicity, political affiliation and religious affiliation. Identification of these characteristics allows us to econometrically estimate disaggregated water demand for a sample of urban water consumers in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The results provide unique parameter estimates for different consumer types. Using these results we design an incentive compatible, non-linear pricing program that allows individual consumers to choose a fixed fee/commodity charge from a menu that not only allows the individual to maximize his or her utility, while meeting the conservation goals of the program. We show that this program, with the attention to consumer differences is more efficient than the traditional "one size fits all" programs commonly employed by many water utilities.

  9. Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenemark, Marika; Vernby, Asa; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-04-01

    Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A stratified random sample of 450 parents were randomized into three incentive groups: (a) no incentive; (b) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply; (c) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply and an additional lottery ticket upon reply within 1 week. The overall response rate across the three groups was 65.3%. The response rate was highest in the no incentive group (69.3%) and lowest in the one plus one lottery ticket group (62.0%). In a survival analysis, the difference between the two response curves was significant by the log-rank test (P = 0.04), with the no incentive group having a shorter time to response than the incentive group. Our findings suggest that the use of lottery tickets as incentives to increase participation in a mail questionnaire among parents may be less valuable or even harmful. Incentives may undermine motivation in studies in which the intrinsic motivation of the respondents is already high.

  10. The Mixed Nature of Incentives of Community Health Workers: Lessons from a Qualitative Study in Two Districts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enisha eSarin

    2016-03-01

    incentives and responsibilities; and ensure timely and complete payment of incentives to ASHAs. The findings from this study contribute to the existing literature on incentivized CHW programs and help throw added light on the role incentives play in family dynamics which affects performance of CHW.

  11. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  12. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic......The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  14. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Yu; Tongdan Jin; Chunjie Zhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO) and multiple power generating companies (GenCos). Further, a Q...

  15. Do incentives exert undue influence on survey participation? Experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Eleanor; Couper, Mick P

    2008-09-01

    MONETARY INCENTIVES ARE INCREASINGLY used to help motivate survey participation. Research Ethics Committees have begun to ask whether, and under what conditions, the use of monetary incentives to induce participation might be coercive. The article reports research from an online vignette-based study bearing on this question, concluding that at present the evidence suggests that larger incentives do not induce research participants to accept higher risks than they would be unwilling to accept with smaller ones.

  16. Incentives to participate in clinical trials: practical and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Feldman, James

    2015-09-01

    Clinical trials often offer incentives to encourage individuals to enroll and to enhance follow-up. The scope and nature of incentives used in emergency department (ED)-based trials are unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the quantity and quality of incentives and other forms of compensation used in clinical trials of human subjects recruited in US EDs. A secondary goal is to provide an historical and ethical analysis of the use of incentives in clinical trials. We reviewed English-language randomized clinical trials conducted in US EDs from 2009 to 2013. Full text of the studies was reviewed to identify whether incentives were used, their value, and timing. Funding source was noted as well. Data are presented with descriptive statistics. Of 1151 articles identified, 76 (6.6%) fit criteria for review. Of these, 7 (9.2%) provided incentive payments. A recently published eighth trial was included as well. The total cash value of incentives offered ranged from $10 to $195. Four studies offered payment at enrollment only. Incentives included cash, debit cards, and gift cards. The use of financial incentives in ED-based trials is uncommon. Studies that use incentives are generally extramurally funded, usually by a federal agency, and include waves of follow-up that continue after discharge from the ED. Payment size is modest. Incentives may improve recruitment and retention in ED-based trials, but authoritative data are lacking. Investigators need to take care to avoid incentives that may be coercive or unduly influence research participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stock-based compensation plans and employee incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabojnik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Standard principal-agent theory predicts that large firms should not use employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to provide incentives to non-executive employees. Yet, business practitioners appear to believe that stock-based compensation improves incentives, and mounting empirical evidence points to the same conclusion. This paper provides an explanation for why stock-based incentives can be effective. In the model of this paper, employee stock options complement individual...

  18. [Financial incentives in improving healthcare quality. SESPAS Report 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirea Eiras, Carlos; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2012-03-01

    We address the contribution of financial incentives linked to pay for performance (P4P) to improving the quality of care. The situation of P4P is analyzed internationally and in the distinct health services in Spain. The participation of P4P in wage compensation and the effects of the current economic crisis on these incentives is discussed. We review the results of recent studies to clarify the role of these incentive models and assess possible orientations and new proposals.

  19. When incentives backfire: Spillover effects in food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, Manuela; Prina, Silvia; Royer, Heather; Samek, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how peers influence the impact of incentives. We investigate two mechanisms by which these effects can occur: through peers' actions and peers' incentives. In a field experiment on snack choice in the school lunchroom (choice of grapes versus cookies), we randomize who receives incentives, the fraction of peers incentivized, and whether or not it can be observed that peers' choices are incentivized. We show that, while peers' actions - picking grapes - have a positive sp...

  20. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement of di...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  1. Proposals of a regulatory mark for public policies of renewable energy incentives in Brazil; Propostas de um marco regulatorio para politicas publicas de incentivo a energias renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Marcelo; Soliano, Oswaldo; Baitelo, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    This article presents some proposals of a regulatory mark for public politics of incentive to renewable energies, and also some fundamental requirements for the effective structure of renewable energy market, from adaptation to the Brazilian reality of the mechanisms which are been successfully applied in other countries taking into consideration the main deficiencies of the PROINFA (Program of Incentive to Electric Power Alternative Sources)

  2. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many fields. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with field data: typically little is known about...... the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects' average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  3. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  4. Relational incentives in Chinese family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Jiancai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”. Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and that under other conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the share-based incentive contract.

  5. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without e......, incentive compatibility, allocative efficiency, robustness, and flexible to accommodate changing user behavior on the platform.......Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  6. Incentives and Insurance in International Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    77 ---- 4 S -- 175 p I or~ -C7s t~z 4_ O&r h%.0~4j\\- Si A RAND NOTE * . INCENTIVES AND INSURANCE IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS Daniel F . Kohler...Markets 6. PE04RPOwnGa ORG. REPOr owtA86ER AUTHOR(O 6. CONTRACT OR1 GRANT 11UM411Ctej Daniel F . Kohler MDA9O3-83-C-0148 %’ 9. P90FoAMN* OR1GANSRATION...Insurance and Loan Guarantee, by Daniel F . Kohler and Kip T. Fisher, N-1951-USDP, January 1983. * The Effects of Export Credit Subsidies on Western

  7. Heterogeneity in the Effects of Reward- and Deposit-based Financial Incentives on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Scott D; French, Benjamin; Small, Dylan S; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Harhay, Michael O; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-10-15

    Targeting different smoking cessation programs to smokers most likely to quit when using them could reduce the burden of lung disease. To identify smokers most likely to quit using pure reward-based financial incentives or incentive programs requiring refundable deposits to become eligible for rewards. We conducted prespecified secondary analyses of a randomized trial in which 2,538 smokers were assigned to an $800 reward contingent on sustained abstinence from smoking, a refundable $150 deposit plus a $650 reward, or usual care. Using logistic regression, we identified characteristics of smokers that were most strongly associated with accepting their assigned intervention and ceasing smoking for 6 months. We assessed modification of the acceptance, efficacy, and effectiveness of reward and deposit programs by 11 prospectively selected demographic, smoking-related, and psychological factors. Predictors of sustained smoking abstinence differed among participants assigned to reward- versus deposit-based incentives. However, greater readiness to quit and less steep discounting of future rewards were consistently among the most important predictors. Deposit-based programs were uniquely effective relative to usual care among men, higher-income participants, and participants who more commonly failed to pay their bills (all interaction P values rewards, deposits were more effective among black persons (P = 0.022) and those who more commonly failed to pay their bills (P = 0.082). Relative to rewards, deposits were more commonly accepted by higher-income participants, men, white persons, and those who less commonly failed to pay their bills (all P incentives suggests potential benefits of targeting behavior-change interventions based on patient characteristics. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01526265).

  8. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  9. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    .... Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital...

  10. Safety, economic incentives and insurance in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: Petter.Osmundsen@uis.no; Aven, Terje [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: Terje.Aven@uis.no; Erik Vinnem, Jan [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: jev@preventor.no

    2008-01-15

    There is an increased use of key performance indicators and incentive schemes in the petroleum industry. Applying modern incentive theory, we explore what implications this management trend has for injury and major accident prevention efforts and safety. Can economic incentives be designed for accident prevention activities? In cases where this is not possible, what are the challenges for the safety efforts? In particular, how are safety efforts affected by enhanced economic incentives for other performance dimensions like production and rate of return? Can safety be neglected? What remedies are available?.

  11. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  12. R&D tax incentives for innovation and managerial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries tax incentives are a popular means of realizing political, economic and social objectives. The main motive of their application is often to achieve and accelerate the selected activities in the public interest and also stimulate development of industry, and induce growth in research and investment. The key element that helps a company achieve a competitive advantage is innovation. Global competition forces the production of unique products and services. Tax incentives in science, research and development are important in stimulating innovation. The purpose of this article is to show the level of managerial awareness about R&D tax incentives, the level of R&D tax incentive usage by companies in Poland, and main obstacles that managers meet with R&D tax incentives in practice. We explore R&D tax incentives as a government instrument on R&D management and aim to find the reasons why Polish companies do not take advantage of them. We examine 275 companies using a semi-structured questi onnaire. Our findings suggest that many firms report lack of knowledge about such incentives, and firms find many obstacles to reach all of the requirements which are necessary to use the incentive. Due to our analysis we find that large firms, especially those that implement innovation, are more likely to use the tax incentives, but small and medium sized companies find more obstacle. The effect of this tax policy is significant mainly in large, high-tech sector firms.

  13. Teaching incentive plan for teachers——Basic Medicine Faculty of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After several trial reforms of the integrated curriculum(1958,1972,1987,and 1997),we have implemented new trial reforms for different programs(seven-year,four-year,eight-year,and five-year programs)in 2002,2003,2008,and 2012.In order to comprehensively promote the integrated curriculum reform at the Basic Medicine Faculty,form an integrated curriculum system that aims at features of medical and science programs,and improve the teaching quality and training level of excellent doctors and outstanding talents,we started the teaching incentive plan for key teachers in

  14. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  15. The Impact of Changing Financial Work Incentives on the Earnings of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert R., II; Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    SSDI beneficiaries lose their entire cash benefit if they perform work that is substantial gainful activity (SGA) after using Social Security work incentive programs. The complete loss of benefits might be a work disincentive for beneficiaries. We report results from a pilot project that replaces the complete loss of benefits with a gradual…

  16. The Impact of Changing Financial Work Incentives on the Earnings of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Robert R., II; Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    SSDI beneficiaries lose their entire cash benefit if they perform work that is substantial gainful activity (SGA) after using Social Security work incentive programs. The complete loss of benefits might be a work disincentive for beneficiaries. We report results from a pilot project that replaces the complete loss of benefits with a gradual…

  17. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2018 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals, Critical Access Hospitals, and Eligible Professionals; Provider-Based Status of Indian Health Service and Tribal Facilities and Organizations; Costs Reporting and Provider Requirements; Agreement Termination Notices. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2018. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, the 21st Century Cures Act, and other legislation. We also are making changes relating to the provider-based status of Indian Health Service (IHS) and Tribal facilities and organizations and to the low-volume hospital payment adjustment for hospitals operated by the IHS or a Tribe. In addition, we are providing the market basket update that will apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2018. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2018. In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities). We also are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. We also are making changes relating to transparency of accrediting organization survey

  18. Carrot or stick? Modelling how landowner behavioural responses can cause incentive-based forest governance to backfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A Henderson

    Full Text Available Mitigating the negative impacts of declining worldwide forest cover remains a significant socio-ecological challenge, due to the dominant role of human decision-making. Here we use a Markov chain model of land-use dynamics to examine the impact of governance on forest cover in a region. Each land parcel can be either forested or barren (deforested, and landowners decide whether to deforest their parcel according to perceived value (utility. We focus on three governance strategies: yearly incentive for conservation, one-time penalty for deforestation and one-time incentive for reforestation. The incentive and penalty are incorporated into the expected utility of forested land, which decreases the net gain of deforestation. By analyzing the equilibrium and stability of the landscape dynamics, we observe four possible outcomes: a stationary-forested landscape, a stationary-deforested landscape, an unstable landscape fluctuating near the equilibrium, and a cyclic-forested landscape induced by synchronized deforestation. We find that the two incentive-based strategies often result in highly fluctuating forest cover over decadal time scales or longer, and in a few cases, reforestation incentives actually decrease the average forest cover. In contrast, a penalty for deforestation results in the stable persistence of forest cover (generally >30%. The idea that larger conservation incentives will always yield higher and more stable forest cover is not supported in our findings. The decision to deforest is influenced by more than a simple, "rational" cost-benefit analysis: social learning and myopic, stochastic decision-making also have important effects. We conclude that design of incentive programs may need to account for potential counter-productive long-term effects due to behavioural feedbacks.

  19. Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. Methods We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives. In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations. We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction, program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas, and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes

  20. Institutional Incentives for Mentoring at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Universities: Associations With Mentors' Perceptions and Time Spent Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Natalya C; Halvorson, Max A; Finney, John W; Bi, Xiaoyu; Hayashi, Ko P; Blonigen, Daniel M; Weitlauf, Julie C; Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C

    2017-04-01

    Limited empirical attention to date has focused on best practices in advanced research mentoring in the health services research domain. The authors investigated whether institutional incentives for mentoring (e.g., consideration of mentoring in promotion criteria) were associated with mentors' perceptions of mentoring benefits and costs and with time spent mentoring. The authors conducted an online survey in 2014 of a national sample of mentors of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D) mentored career development award recipients who received an award during 2000-2012. Regression analyses were used to examine institutional incentives as predictors of perceptions of benefits and costs of mentoring and time spent mentoring. Of the 145 mentors invited, 119 (82%) responded and 110 (76%) provided complete data for the study items. Overall, mentors who reported more institutional incentives also reported greater perceived benefits of mentoring (P = .03); however, more incentives were not significantly associated with perceived costs of mentoring. Mentors who reported more institutional incentives also reported spending a greater percentage of time mentoring (P = .02). University incentives were associated with perceived benefits of mentoring (P = .02), whereas VA incentives were associated with time spent mentoring (P = .003). Institutional policies that promote and support mentorship of junior investigators, specifically by recognizing and rewarding the efforts of mentors, are integral to fostering mentorship programs that contribute to the development of early-career health services researchers into independent investigators.