WorldWideScience

Sample records for publicly supported hard

  1. Public support for Vigilantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Nicole Eveline

    2010-01-01

    Why can vigilantes count on public support? Why do citizens in certain cases oppose the formal prosecution and punishment of vigilantes? Are such reactions an indication of lacking confidence in the criminal justice system? Or do situational aspects perhaps also play a role? The goal of this disse

  2. Database Support for Research in Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James Cory

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which databases support student and faculty research in the area of public administration. A list of journals in public administration, public policy, political science, public budgeting and finance, and other related areas was compared to the journal content list of six business databases. These databases…

  3. Public opinion: Stunted policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, James N.

    2013-07-01

    Energy policy is widely debated, with regards to climate change, alternative energy use and responsibility for policy. Research now highlights the role of citizens in public debates about energy and how it can be swayed.

  4. Supporting the Public Benefits of Public Higher Education. Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Alice

    This policy statement from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities addresses the benefits of public higher education. Along with introductory and concluding sections, the statement addresses access, academic quality, research and public service, accountability, public financial support, and balanced governance. The statement…

  5. International public procurement: From scant facts to hard data

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat, Lucian; Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Public procurement is a negotiating area gaining in importance at multilateral and bilateral level, as evidenced by a brief review of procurement provisions in existing trade agreements. The size of procurement spending stands in most developed economies at double-digit percentage points of GDP. However, despite the size and importance of these markets, the factual information available to trade negotiators remains scarce. Although public procurement patterns (e.g. size of procurement markets...

  6. Design Competences to Support Participatory Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Fanny Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an early investigation of a PhD-study that started in February 2017. The paper identifies challenges emerging from a gap between citizens’ needs and public offering to address such needs. Citizens often organize themselves when public administrations are unable to provide valid...... answers to unsolved and shared everyday problems. In this context designers should support and facilitate bottom up approaches that could address these challenges by the creation of new public services that are informed by the real needs of their users (the citizens). How can designers support...... the spontaneous creations of services by citizens? How might designers build platforms that could support interactions between citizens and public organizations on a large scale? In this paper I will refer to the Open4Citizens (O4C) research project as an exemplary playground to build co-design tools...

  7. Radiation hard Monolithic SDRAM to support DDR2 and DDR3 architectures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is no rad hard SDRAM currently available to support DDR2 and DDR3 applications. Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) SDRAM...

  8. Executives learn (sometimes the hard way) how to handle public referendums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T

    1990-01-05

    The number of public referendums held on health care issues are increasing, And voters may have more to say about health care funding issues on a state and local level in the future, say experts. Health care executives are learning--sometimes the hard way--how to participate in campaigns and how to follow up with state legislatures to ensure that the vote is correctly interpreted in the rulemaking phase.

  9. Affect and Public Support for Military Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of affect on public opinion on foreign policy. It extends the existing studies which show a significant role that affect, as measured by feelings toward a country, plays in shaping public opinion on military action. According to the existing theory, the mass public, which does not have high levels of political information and knowledge, can rely on affect to make reasonable decisions and opinions. This is possible because affect works as an information shortcut or heuristic that can help those individuals who lack cognitive capacity to engage in a systematic search for information and a decision-making process. The research finding confirms this theory. More importantly, this study extends the existing studies by elaborating the conditions under which affect works in accounting for individuals’ support for military intervention. The effect of affect is conditioned by the level of political knowledge, which shows that knowledgeable individuals are more adept at using affect as a heuristic tool.

  10. [Integration of soft and hard classifications using linear spectral mixture model and support vector machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tan-Gao; Pan, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jin-Shui; Li, Ling-Ling; Le, Li

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a new soft and hard classification. By analyzing the target objects in the image distribution, and calculating the adaptive threshold automatically, the image is divided into three regions: pure regions, non-target objects regions and mixed regions. For pure regions and non-target objects regions, hard classification method (support vector machine) is used to quickly extract classified results; For mixed regions, soft classification method (selective endmember for linear spectral mixture model) is used to extract the abundance of target objects. Finally, it generates an integrated soft and hard classification map. In order to evaluate the accuracy of this new method, it is compared with SVM and LSMM using ALOS image. The RMSE value of new method is 0.203, and total accuracy is 95.48%. Both overall accuracies and RMSE show that integration of hard and soft classification has a higher accuracy than single hard or soft classification. Experimental results prove that the new method can effectively solve the problem of mixed pixels, and can obviously improve image classification accuracy.

  11. Impact Assessment of Public Innovation Support in European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is related to the public innovation support in Euro-pean Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. Main aim of the re-search presented in this paper is to propose new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, which could be relevant to the contempo-rary needs and would be based on new explored practice of public innova-tion support developments. The methods of comparative, regression, model-ling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Proposed original system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level.

  12. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements.

  13. EDRF supports Takakia Lake public inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzsch, K.

    1999-08-16

    The Queen Charlotte Power Corporation (QCPC) has applied for a water licence to drain Takakia Lake in British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands. Their plan is to build a tunnel into the side of the lake and draw water from it to supplement their power generating capabilities at their Moresby Lake hydro generating station. The BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks called for a public inquiry into the application to address public concerns about the project. Through the Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund (EDRF), the North West Habitat Foundation (NWHF) was able to participate in this public inquiry which took place in June, 1999, and represent the environmental concerns of the community. Other participants included QCPC, BC Hydro, the Skidegate Band Council and the Haida Nation. One of the arguments raised was the lack of public disclosure and consultation, particularly regarding First Nations in the area. Takakia Lake area has been referred to as an ecological gem which hosts a unique ecosystem and several rare plant species. The NWHF argued that the resulting draw-down of water from the lake would permanently damage the microclimate of the lake and would pose a major threat to the ecosystem. The Canadian Wildlife Service has also expressed concerns regarding the impacts on migratory birds. It was also noted that prior to their proposal, QCPC and BC Hydro did not fully consider the use of energy alternatives. As a result of this inquiry, QCPC has asked for more time to submit further documents regarding their proposal. In turn, the NWHF will be given a chance to respond to those materials and to submit their own additional information. 2 figs.

  14. Hard and Soft

    OpenAIRE

    Claes H. de Vreese; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Support for European integration is a function no longer only of `hard' economic and utilitarian predictors but also of `soft' predictors such as feelings of identity and attitudes towards immigrants. Focusing on the issue of the potential membership of Turkey in the European Union (EU), this study demonstrates that the importance of `soft' predictors outweighs the role of `hard' predictors in understanding public opinion about Turkish membership. The study draws on survey...

  15. Dynamic characteristics of hard disk drive spindles supported by hydrodynamic bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Most hard disk spindles currently used are supported by grease lubricated deep-groove ball bearings.However, in the trend of increasing spindle speed and reducing size and cost, the shortcomings of ball bearing spin-dles, such as high non-repeatable run out, high acoustic noise and short life time at high running speed, make themunsuitable for high performance hard disk drives (HDD). On the contrary, the dynamic characteristics of hydrody-namic bearing spindles are superior to that of ball bearing spindles. Therefore, they are considered to be the substi-tute of ball bearing spindles in HDD. In this paper, a simulative setup of HDD is build up. The dynamic characteristicsof liquid lubricated spiral groove bearing(SGB) spindles are studied. The effects of both operating condition andbearing clearance are investigated. It is found that running speed of the spindle has significant influence on its dy-namic performance, while the load has little influence. The effect of clearance is also evident.

  16. Supporting faculty proposal development and publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert L; Monsivais, Diane

    2006-01-01

    The Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center, a collaborative venture between the University of Texas at El Paso and the University of Texas at Houston Health Sciences Center, supports the research capabilities of junior faculty through a variety of programs. Novice researchers often need practical help in conducting literature reviews, extracting data, evaluating the evidence, and formulating a research question of significant importance to be funded yet narrow enough to fit within the scope of the proposal. The authors discuss a successful proposal development program that includes mentoring by more senior faculty and structured sessions with a medical writer and editor.

  17. Trends Impacting Public Policy Support for Caregiving Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, George H. S.; Biegel, David E.; Ethridge, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy aimed at supporting the caregiving capacity of families has risen to prominence on the public agenda in the United States. Initiatives at the state and federal levels have created some initial services. Three trends that are pushing the issue of family caregiving to the surface are discussed, including large-scale social,…

  18. 78 FR 25484 - Public Access to Federally Supported Research and Development Data and Publications: Two Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Public Access to Federally Supported Research and Development Data and Publications: Two Planning... digital scientific data, as part of the planning process called for in the Memorandum on Expanding Public...

  19. How do governments support the development of Public Private Partnerships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoest, Koen; Petersen, Ole Helby; Scherrer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Taking an institutional perspective, in this article we develop an index of the governmental support for public private partnership (PPP) — a ‘PPP Governmental Support Index’ (GSI) — which aims to measure the extent to which national governments provide an institutional framework that is either...

  20. Substitution Effect of Public Support Programs at Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria SZITÁSIOVÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the principle of addi-tionality in public support programs at local level. In the evaluation of public support policies a key question is whether the policy has made a differ-ence over what would have otherwise occurred. This could be measured by different ways as out-put, behavioral or input additionality. In this paper we analyze the impact of public support programs on input additionality as the extent to which the subsidy is refected in increased expenditures by supported subjects through the measurement of substitution effect. We studied public investment subsidies in the case of education support in Slo-vakia. We identifed the substitution effect in 10% of the analyzed municipalities. There are several differences in outcomes.An important factor is the size of the city as larger municipalities reduce their other activities when obtaining the support. We also showed that less developed regions have a lower tendency to misuse the support programs. The more de-veloped regions and cities reduce their own spending on a given priority when obtaining the support.

  1. Perceptions of Administrative and Supervisory Support in Public Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M. Westbrook

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI in a public child welfare agency, perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees with social work degrees (BSW and MSW were compared to perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees without social work degrees. Child welfare employees with social work degrees reported lower administrative and supervisory support than employees without social work degrees. Implications for social work educators, public child welfare administrators and supervisors, and future research are presented.

  2. Writing for publication: institutional support provides an enabling environment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the excessive service delivery loads in public hospitals supported by academic institutions in developing environments, researchers at these institutions have little time to develop scientific writing skills or to write up their research. It is imperative to expand the writing skills of researchers and train the next generation of health sciences academics in order to disseminate research findings. This study reports on the implementation of approaches for writing and public...

  3. In Public Education Expenditures We Trust: Does Trust Increase Support for Public Education Expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Nurullah; Boyaci, Israfil; Ozcan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one crucial prerequisite for the welfare state. However, very few empirical studies exist that help us understand the mechanisms through which trust affects the welfare state. Influencing public support for developing friendly public policies might be one of these mechanisms. In this study, we use unique micro data from 34 countries to…

  4. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle.

  5. Investigating public space exploration support in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve

    2010-10-01

    Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public. Studying audiences appears to be crucial to inform public engagement and communication strategies as well as policy debate. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the UK in 2008 at two science outreach events, the Royal Society Exhibition in London and the National Space Centre in Leicester, to investigate the motivations, beliefs, political preferences and attitudes towards space exploration of this audience. A sample of 744 respondents was collected. The analysis shows that the British public who come to outreach and engagement activities support space exploration but have some reservations about considering the advancement of UK space activities to be of national interest. Yet, when asked about means of exploring space, the majority agrees that space should be explored using both mankind and machines, ranking "generating new scientific knowledge and advancing human culture" as the most important reason for continuing investment in space research. Although the greater number of supporters says that more than the current government funding should be allocated to civil space activities, concerns about risk and value appear to influence this view.

  6. Unlocking the Potential of Public Libraries in Supporting Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabushawo, Harriet Mutambo; Aguti, Jessica Norah; Winterbottom, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the place of public libraries in supporting distance learners in Makerere University, exploring the factors which affect utilisation of their services. The study adopted a survey design with 300 B.Ed. students, collecting data through focus group discussions, structured questionnaires and individual interviews.

  7. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  8. Mobile Context-Aware Support for Public Transportation Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Buchwald, Esben; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Murray-Smith, Roderick

    2012-01-01

    compass bearing, in addition to a distance range chosen by a physical gesture. The main application tested in this paper is a system to support public transport users in Copenhagen. Users can point at any bus-stop or train station and be given timetables, next departure times, and buy a ticket via SMS...

  9. Mobile Context-Aware Support for Public Transportation Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Buchwald, Esben; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Murray-Smith, Roderick

    2012-01-01

    compass bearing, in addition to a distance range chosen by a physical gesture. The main application tested in this paper is a system to support public transport users in Copenhagen. Users can point at any bus-stop or train station and be given timetables, next departure times, and buy a ticket via SMS...

  10. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  11. Public support toward tobacco control: consumer responsiveness and policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptou, Elena; Galanopoulos, Konstantinos; Katrakilidis, Constantinos; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2012-09-01

    To explore individual differences in support toward antismoking policies by investigating psychosocial, socioeconomic, and demographic characteristics; smoking restrictions; smoking status; and individually perceived cigarette price. The empirical analysis uses data from a random sample of 680 consumers and employs a bivariate semiordered probit model. Consumer responsiveness shows strong association with optimistic bias, perceived positive and negative consequences of smoking, health status, and family smoking patterns. Smoking status, gender, age, and occupation also affect antismoking policy support. Public support toward tobacco control reflects potential smoking acceptance and social norms, confirming policy effectiveness and current needs for demarketing tobacco use.

  12. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. Methods: In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513, public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Results: Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. Conclusion: German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance.

  13. Supporting academic publication: evaluation of a writing course combined with writers' support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Claire M; McGrail, Matthew R; Jones, Rebecca; O'Meara, Peter; Robinson, Anske; Burley, Mollie; Ray-Barruel, Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Publication rates are a vital measure of individual and institutional performance, yet many nurse academics publish rarely or not at all. Despite widespread acceptance of the need to increase academic publication rates and the pressure university faculty may experience to fulfil this obligation, little is known about the effectiveness of practical strategies to support academic writing. In this small cohort study (n=8) comprising nurses and other professionals involved in university education, a questionnaire survey was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-week "Writing for Publication" course combined with a monthly writers support group to increase publication rates. Two year pre and post submissions increased from 9 to 33 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Publications (in print) per person increased from a baseline of 0.5-1.2 per year. Participants reported increased writing confidence and greater satisfaction with the publishing process. Peer support and receiving recognition and encouragement from line managers were also cited as incentives to publish. Writing for publication is a skill that can be learned. The evaluated model of a formal writing course, followed by informal monthly group support meetings, can effectively increase publication rates.

  14. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-02-09

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments.

  15. Multimedia Storybooks: Supporting Vocabulary for Students Who Are Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, Vicki; Briley, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    A single case study examined the use of multimedia storybooks on the vocabulary acquisition of 7 preschool students who are deaf/hard of hearing in two classrooms at a school for the deaf in the U.S. Participants also included 3 speech-language pathologists. Students spent an average of 7.1 minutes daily working with the multimedia storybooks and…

  16. Concepts to Support HRP Integration Using Publications and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Initial efforts are underway to enhance the Human Research Program (HRP)'s identification and support of potential cross-disciplinary scientific collaborations. To increase the emphasis on integration in HRP's science portfolio management, concepts are being explored through the development of a set of tools. These tools are intended to enable modeling, analysis, and visualization of the state of the human system in the spaceflight environment; HRP's current understanding of that state with an indication of uncertainties; and how that state changes due to HRP programmatic progress and design reference mission definitions. In this talk, we will discuss proof-of-concept work performed using a subset of publications captured in the HRP publications database. The publications were tagged in the database with words representing factors influencing health and performance in spaceflight, as well as with words representing the risks HRP research is reducing. Analysis was performed on the publication tag data to identify relationships between factors and between risks. Network representations were then created as one type of visualization of these relationships. This enables future analyses of the structure of the networks based on results from network theory. Such analyses can provide insights into HRP's current human system knowledge state as informed by the publication data. The network structure analyses can also elucidate potential improvements by identifying network connections to establish or strengthen for maximized information flow. The relationships identified in the publication data were subsequently used as inputs to a model captured in the Systems Modeling Language (SysML), which functions as a repository for relationship information to be gleaned from multiple sources. Example network visualization outputs from a simple SysML model were then also created to compare to the visualizations based on the publication data only. We will also discuss ideas for

  17. Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

  18. A multicriteria prioritization model to support public safety planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Morais Gurgel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Setting out to solve operational problems is a frequent part of decision making on public safety. However, the pillars of tactics and strategy are normally disregarded. Thus, this paper focuses on a strategic issue, namely that of a city prioritizing areasin which there is a degree of occurrences for criminality to increase. A multiple criteria approach is taken. The reason for this is that such a situation is normally analyzed from the perspective of the degree of police occurrences. The proposed model is based on a SMARTS multicriteria method and was applied in a Brazilian City. It combines a multicriteria method and a Monte Carlo Simulation to support an analysis of robustness. As a result, we highlight some differences between the model developed and police occurrences model. It might support differentiated policies for zones, by indicating where there should be strong actions, infrastructure investments, monitoring procedures and others public safety policies.

  19. Oral health among residents of publicly supported housing in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Shah, Snehal; Dooley, Daniel; Henshaw, Michelle; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    Tooth loss in adults diminishes quality of daily life, affecting eating, speaking, appearance, and social interactions. Tooth loss is linked to severe periodontitis and caries; and to risk of stroke, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and dementia. At the national (USA) level, poverty and African-American race have been linked to lower utilization of dental services, suggesting that the 7.5 million residents of publicly supported housing may be at risk of tooth loss and poor overall oral health. We assessed whether residence in publicly supported housing in Boston was associated with four oral health-related indicators. Compared to residents of nonpublicly supported housing, after adjusting for covariates residents of both public housing developments (PHDs) and rental assistance units (RAUs) had significantly lower odds of having had a dental cleaning in the past year (PHD, OR = 0.64 (95 % CI, 0.44-0.93); RAU, OR = 0.67 (95 % CI, 0.45-0.99))-despite parity in having had a past year dental visit. Further, residents of RAUs had double the odds of having had six or more teeth removed (OR = 2.20 (95 % CI, 1.39-3.50)). Associations of race/ethnicity and housing type with dental insurance were interrelated. Unadjusted results document a deficit in oral health-related indicators among public housing residents, taken as a group, giving a clear picture of an oral health care gap and identifying a defined real-world population that could benefit from services. Existing public housing infrastructure could provide both a venue and a foundation for interventions to reduce oral health disparities on a broad scale.

  20. The Role of Public Institutions for Innovation Support in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Brito Silva Cirani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present a brief description of the main public instruments for innovation support in Brazil. We also show a preliminary assessment of the use of these instrument s in innovativ e companies. W e conducted a two - step analysis. In the first part we conducted a quantitative descriptive analysis of historical series about resources allocat ion available by FINEP. In the second part we performed a qualitative in - depth analy sis of six companies that used the financial benefits offered by FINEP and BNDES to support innovative projects. The responses of the interviews were used to identify the perception of the attractiveness of public instruments for innovation support and pos sible limitations to their use, while other information was used to present the main public instruments for innovation s timulus in Brazil. T he results showed that the investigated companies are interested in using the instruments; however, they face diffic ulties for their adoption, due to excessive bureaucracy, high costs of innovation, and legal i nsecurity.

  1. Towards harnessing theories through tool support for hard real-time Java programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Bøgholm, Thomas; Frost, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    We present a rationale for a selection of tools that assist developers of hard real-time applications to verify that programs conform to a Java real-time profile and that platform-specific resource constraints are satisfied. These tools are specialised instances of more generic static analysis...... and model checking frameworks. The concepts are illustrated by two case studies, and the strengths and the limitations of the tools are discussed....

  2. Towards harnessing theories through tool support for hard real-time Java programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Frost, Christian; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2013-01-01

    We present a rationale for a selection of tools that assist developers of hard real-time applications to verify that programs conform to a Java real-time profile and that platform-specific resource constraints are satisfied. These tools are specialised instances of more generic static analysis...... and model checking frameworks. The concepts are illustrated by two case studies, and the strengths and the limitations of the tools are discussed....

  3. Hard Disk/Solid State Drive Synergy in Support of Data-Intensive Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu,Ke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiang, Song [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Kei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    Data-intensive applications are becoming increasingly common in high-performance computing. Examples include combustion simulation, human genome analysis, and satellite image processing. Efficient access of data sets is critical to the performance of these applications. Because of the size of the data today's economically feasible approach is to store the data files on an array of hard disks or data servers equipped with hard disks and managed by a parallel file system such as PVFS or Lustre wherein the data is striped over a (large) number of disks for high aggregate I/O throughout. With file striping, a request for a segment of logically contiguous file space is decomposed into multiple sub-requests, each to a different server. While the data unit for this striping is usually reasonably large to benefit disk efficiency, the first and/or last sub-requests can be much smaller than the striping unit if the request does not align with the striping pattern, severely compromising hard disk efficiency and thus application performance. We propose to exploit solid state drives (SSD), whose efficiency is much less sensitive to small random accesses, to enable the alignment of requests to disk with the data striping pattern. In this scheme hard disks mainly serve large, aligned, sequential requests, with SSDs serving small or unaligned requests, thus respecting the relative cost, performance, and durability characteristics of the two media, and thereby achieving synergy in performance/cost. We will describe the design of the proposed scheme, its implementation on CCS-7's Darwin cluster, and performance results.

  4. Google Scholar makes it hard - the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Kreveld, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal profile pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are t

  5. Google Scholar makes it Hard - the complexity of organizing one's publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Kreveld, Marc

    2014-01-01

    With Google Scholar, scientists can maintain their publications on personal prole pages, while the citations to these works are automatically collected and counted. Maintenance of publications is done manually by the researcher herself, and involves deleting erroneous ones, merging ones that are the

  6. Family Supports and Resources for Parents of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood

    2011-01-01

    The study examined family supports after identification of children's hearing loss. On a questionnaire, 456 respondents rated the importance of different aspects of family support, the quality of supports they experienced, and their preferences about informational resources. They verified the importance of informational resources, social-emotional…

  7. Crowdfunding To Support University Research and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising (usually small) monetary contributions from a large number of people, often performed via the internet. Several universities have adopted this model to support small-dollar, high-profile projects and provide the seed money for research efforts. By contrast with traditional scientific funding, crowdfunding provides a novel way to engage the public in the scientific process and sometimes involves donor rewards in the form of acknowledgments in publications and direct involvement in the research itself.In addition to Kickstarter.com and Indiegogo.com that support a range of enterprises, there are several organizations tailored to scientific research and development, including Experiment.com and the now-defunct PetriDish.org. Private companies are also available to help universities establish their own crowd-funding platforms. At Boise State University, we recently engaged the services of ScaleFunder to launch the PonyUp platform (https://ponyup.boisestate.edu/), inaugurated in Fall 2015 with requests of support for projects ranging from the health effects of organic food during pregnancy to censuses of hummingbirds.In this presentation, I'll discuss my own crowdfunding project to support the rehabilitation of Boise State's on-campus observatory. As the first project launched on PonyUp, it was an enormous success -- we met our original donation goal of $8k just two weeks into the four-week campaign and so upped the goal to $10k, which we achieved two weeks later. In addition to the very gratifying monetary support of the broader Boise community, we received personal stories from many of our donors about their connections to Boise State and the observatory. I'll talk about our approach to social and traditional media platforms and discuss how we leveraged an unlikely cosmic syzygy to boost the campaign.

  8. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F; Nandi, Asoke K; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Investigating differences in public support for gay rights issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Public opinion surrounding two of the most well-known gay rights issues-same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians-varies widely: About 30% of the public favors same-sex marriage, while about 50% favors adoption. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the demographic variables that predict attitudes toward same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians. Political ideology and attendance at religious services emerged as the strongest predictors. However, a close examination of the two issues shows that there were important differences between them. These differences may aid gay rights advocates in crafting media campaigns designed to increase support for same-sex marriage.

  10. Unbalanced progress: The hard road from science popularisation to public engagement with science in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hepeng; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    This article critically traces the development of science communication in China in the past 30 years. While confirming the tremendous progress Chinese science communicators have achieved in popularising science, it argues that the deficit model-based popularisation effort cannot meet the diversifying demands on science in Chinese society. Citing both recent science and technology controversies and active public participation in science pilot initiatives in China, this article concludes that science communication efforts in the country must be focused on constructive dialogues and public engagement with science.

  11. Detection of Hard Exudates in Colour Fundus Images Using Fuzzy Support Vector Machine-Based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T; Dheeba, J; Singh, N Albert

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Currently, there is a need for making decisions using intelligent computer algorithms when screening a large volume of data. This paper presents an expert decision-making system designed using a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) classifier to detect hard exudates in fundus images. The optic discs in the colour fundus images are segmented to avoid false alarms using morphological operations and based on circular Hough transform. To discriminate between the exudates and the non-exudates pixels, colour and texture features are extracted from the images. These features are given as input to the FSVM classifier. The classifier analysed 200 retinal images collected from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The tests made on the retinal images show that the proposed detection system has better discriminating power than the conventional support vector machine. With the best combination of FSVM and features sets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.9606, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 94.1% with a specificity of 90.0%. The results suggest that detecting hard exudates using FSVM contribute to computer-assisted detection of diabetic retinopathy and as a decision support system for ophthalmologists.

  12. A sociological perspective on public support for capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C W; Foster, S C

    1975-07-01

    Conceptualizations of public support for the death penalty that suggest that punitiveness, desire for vengenance, authoritarianism, polital conservatism, or other characteristics generally held in low esteem by many in the academic and research communities are the primary or most significant predictors of citizen responses to this issue are challenged. It is proposed instead that fear of crime, perceptions of increasing crime rates, a belief in the efficacy of punishment as a means of deterrence, and a willingness to employ punishment as a response to criminality have a far more important causal role than has previously been recognized.

  13. A CUSP CATASTROPHE, PRECURSORS PATTERN ANDEVOLUTION PROCESS OF ROCKBUST OF COAL PILLARUNDER A HARD ROCK SUBJECT TO ELASTIC SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曾和; 徐小荷

    1996-01-01

    The rockburst of the coal pillar under a thick hard roof stratum is modelled as the instability failure problem of coal pillars under strata subject to elastic support. The instability mechanism of rockburst is studied by applying cusp catastrophic theory. The effects of the stiffness ratio of the system and loads imposed on the system on the rockburst are explicated.The factors affecting rockbursts are discussed. Based on them, the "evolution process, the forewarning regularity and forewarning sings of rockbursts are studied. It is indicated that the subsidence velocity of roof stratum, which increases quickly and tends to infinity, is the forewarning measurable signs of the rockbursts of coal pillar.

  14. A Case Study of Effective Support Working Resistance and Roof Support Technology in Thick Seam Fully-Mechanized Face Mining with Hard Roof Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bin Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the engineering geological properties and roof control tecnology for a thick coal seam fully-mechanized face mining with hard roof conditions (THC at the Jinhuagong Coal Mine (JCM, northwest China. The effective support working resistance and appropriate roof control technology are two critical factors for safe and productive mining in the THC. The load-estimate-method (LOEM is the effective method to determine the support working resistance for normal working conditions (the mining height less than 3.5 m. In order to prevent support crushing accidents from happening and to ensure the safety and high-efficiency in the THC, the LOEM was modified based on the structure of the overlying strata in the THC. The strata which can form the voussoir beam structure in normal working conditions and will break in the form of cantilever beam in the THC is defined as the key strata in the immediate roof. Therefore, the hanging length of the key strata in the immediate roof was considered in the LOEM. Furthermore, a method for calculating the hanging length of the key strata in the immediate roof and its influencing factors were proposed using cantilever beam theory analysis of the structure of the overlying strata. Moreover, in order to fully fill the goaf area with caving roof to reduce the energy accumulation of main roof movement, it was decided to apply destress blasting technique (DEBT at the JCM to control the large hanging length of the hard roof, so as to reduce the impact of the hard main roof movement on the working face. The key technique parameters of the roof caving borehole were also proposed. The obtained results demonstrated that the theoretical analysis is reasonable, and the chosen support type and the DEBT could meet the roof control requirements. The THC has achieved safety and high-efficiency mining.

  15. Hard rain's a-gonna fall. Nature the authorities and the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, L.

    1985-08-29

    This study penetrates the problems of participation of the general public in the legal decision-making process within the field of environmental protection. The theory employed in the analysis is the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, and the central issue is the concept of legitimation as developed by Jurgen Habermas. The study contains two major parts: 1. A description of the background to, and the process of developing, the Swedish Environmental Protection Act, with special emphasis on the idea contained in the law of the possibilities for the general public to participate in the legal process; and 2. A study of the law in action, which was carried out mainly by computer analysis of cases from the years 1976 and 1984. The main finding of the study is that the idea of participation by the general public has not been implemented into the decision-making process. This is shown in the analysis of the cases, and it means that the Environmental Protection Act has failed on the one point where it actually aimed at expanding the traditional boundaries of the legal process.

  16. Punish, but not too hard: How costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk; Perc, Matjaz; Szabo, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games where, besides the classical strategies of cooperation (C) and defection (D), we consider punishing cooperators (PC) or punishing defectors (PD) as an additional strategy. Using a minimalist modeling approach, our goal is to separately clarify and identify the consequences of the two punishing strategies. Since punishment is costly, punishing strategies loose the evolutionary competition in case of well-mixed interactions. When spatial interactions are taken into account, however, the outcome can be strikingly different, and cooperation may spread. The underlying mechanism depends on the character of the punishment strategy. In case of cooperating punishers, increasing the fine results in a rising cooperation level. In contrast, in the presence of the PD strategy, the phase diagram exhibits a reentrant transition as the fine is increased. Accordingly, the level of cooperation shows a non-monotonous dependence on the fine. Remarkably, punishin...

  17. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory[Information for the general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    A dress rehearsal is being held in preparation for the construction of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at SKB's underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) on Aespoe, outside Oskarshamn. Here we can test different technical solutions on a full scale and in a realistic environment. The Aespoe HRL is also used for field research. We are conducting a number of experiments here in collaboration with Swedish and international experts. In the Zedex experiment we have compared how the rock is affected around a drill-and-blast tunnel versus a bored tunnel. In a new experiment we will investigate how much the rock can take. A narrow pillar between two boreholes will be loaded to the point that the rock's ultimate strength is exceeded (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment). In the Demo Test we are demonstrating emplacement of the copper canisters and the surrounding bentonite in the deposition holes. In the Prototype Repository we study what long-term changes occur in the barriers under the conditions prevailing in a deep repository. Horizontal deposition: Is it possible to deposit the canisters horizontally without compromising safety? Backfill and Plug Test: The tunnels in the future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel will be filled with clay and crushed rock and then plugged. Canister Retrieval Test: If the deep repository should not perform satisfactorily for some reason, we want to be able to retrieve the spent fuel. The Lot test is intended to show how the bentonite behaves in an environment similar to that in the future deep repository. The purpose of the TBT test is to determine how the bentonite clay in the buffer is affected by high temperatures. Two-phase flow means that liberated gas in the groundwater flows separately in the fractures in the rock. This reduces the capacity of the rock to conduct water. Lasgit: By pressurizing a canister with helium, we can measure how the gas moves through the surrounding buffer. Colloid Project: Can very small

  18. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory[Information for the general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    A dress rehearsal is being held in preparation for the construction of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at SKB's underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) on Aespoe, outside Oskarshamn. Here we can test different technical solutions on a full scale and in a realistic environment. The Aespoe HRL is also used for field research. We are conducting a number of experiments here in collaboration with Swedish and international experts. In the Zedex experiment we have compared how the rock is affected around a drill-and-blast tunnel versus a bored tunnel. In a new experiment we will investigate how much the rock can take. A narrow pillar between two boreholes will be loaded to the point that the rock's ultimate strength is exceeded (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment). In the Demo Test we are demonstrating emplacement of the copper canisters and the surrounding bentonite in the deposition holes. In the Prototype Repository we study what long-term changes occur in the barriers under the conditions prevailing in a deep repository. Horizontal deposition: Is it possible to deposit the canisters horizontally without compromising safety? Backfill and Plug Test: The tunnels in the future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel will be filled with clay and crushed rock and then plugged. Canister Retrieval Test: If the deep repository should not perform satisfactorily for some reason, we want to be able to retrieve the spent fuel. The Lot test is intended to show how the bentonite behaves in an environment similar to that in the future deep repository. The purpose of the TBT test is to determine how the bentonite clay in the buffer is affected by high temperatures. Two-phase flow means that liberated gas in the groundwater flows separately in the fractures in the rock. This reduces the capacity of the rock to conduct water. Lasgit: By pressurizing a canister with helium, we can measure how the gas moves through the surrounding buffer. Colloid Project: Can very small

  19. Punish, but not too hard: how costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György

    2010-08-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games where, besides the classical strategies of cooperation (C) and defection (D), we consider punishing cooperators (PC) or punishing defectors (PD) as an additional strategy. Using a minimalist modeling approach, our goal is to separately clarify and identify the consequences of the two punishing strategies. Since punishment is costly, punishing strategies lose the evolutionary competition in case of well-mixed interactions. When spatial interactions are taken into account, however, the outcome can be strikingly different, and cooperation may spread. The underlying mechanism depends on the character of the punishment strategy. In the case of cooperating punishers, increasing the fine results in a rising cooperation level. In contrast, in the presence of the PD strategy, the phase diagram exhibits a reentrant transition as the fine is increased. Accordingly, the level of cooperation shows a non-monotonous dependence on the fine. Remarkably, punishing strategies can spread in both cases, but based on largely different mechanisms, which depend on the cooperativeness (or not) of punishers.

  20. Monitoring and analysis of nonlinear dynamic damage of transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials in Linglong Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study concentrates mainly on the development of failure process in composite rock mass. By use of acoustic emission(AE), convergence inspection, pressure monitoring, level measurement techniques and the modem signal analysis technology, as wellas scan electron microscopy (SEM) experiment, various aspects of nonlinear dynamic damage of composite rock mass surroundingthe transport roadway in Linglong gold mine are discussed. According to the monitoring results, the stability of the rock mass can besynthetically evaluated, and the intrinsic relation between the damage and the characteristic parameters of acoustic emission can bedetermined. The location of the damage of rock mass can also be detected based on the acoustic emission couple monitoring signals.Finally, the key factors which influence the stability of the transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials are foundout.

  1. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  2. Rheological properties of surrounding rock in deep hard rock tunnels and its reasonable support form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈卫忠; 王清标; 郑朋强

    2016-01-01

    Second lining stability, which is the last protection in tunnel engineering, is critically important. The rheological properties of the surrounding rock heavily affect second lining stability. In this work, we used laboratory triaxial compressive rheological limestone tests to study nonlinear creep damage characteristics of surrounding rock mass in construction projects. We established a nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for the rock mass, as well as a constitutive model numerical implementation made by programming. Second, we introduced a new foam concrete with higher compression performance and good ductility and studied its mechanical properties through uniaxial and triaxial tests. This concrete was used as the filling material for the reserved deformation layer between the primary support and second lining. Finally, we proposed a high efficiency and accuracy staged optimization method. The minimum reserved deformation layer thickness was established as the optimization goal, and the presence of plastic strain in the second lining after 100 years of surrounding rock creep was used as an evaluation index. Reserved deformation layer thickness optimization analysis reveals no plastic strain in the second lining when the reserved deformation minimum thickness layer is 28.50 cm. The results show that the new foam concrete used as a reserved deformation layer filling material can absorb creep deformation of surrounding rock mass, reduce second lining deformation that leads to plastic strain, and ensure long-term second lining stability.

  3. HARDNESS INDICES ESTIMATION OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURE ELEMENTS OF MOTOR BOGIES OF THE ELECTRIC TRAIN ED9M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of article is to develop the measures of hardness indices improvement of the supporting structures of motor cars of the electric trains ED9M. Methodology. In order to achieve the above stated aims the following measures had to be done: to develop a finite element model of the supporting structures of the motor bogie of the electric train ED9M, determine parameters of the developed model; perform the calculations to determine the stress-strain state during loads corresponding to different operating conditions with the search of geometric parameters reducing the highest stress levels. Findings. The obtained results of calculations (fields of stress distribution and strains in the elements of the motor bogie frame from the viewpoint of the strength and stiffness discovered the best geometric parameters of the bearings in the central suspension beams of the electric trains ED9M in the places of load transmission from the car body to the bogie frame. Originality. Based on the developed finite element models and the theoretical and experimental researches the scientifically grounded modernization measures of the construction elements of the central suspension beams for motor bogies of the electric trains ED9M were developed. Practical value. It was developed an engineering solution concerning the measures to improve the strength and stiffness characteristics of the central suspension beams for the motor cars of the electric trains ED9M. It was given to the Ukrzaliznytsya’s professionals to implement them during repairs.

  4. Public support for referendums: the role of the media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.T. Schuck; C.H. de Vreese

    2011-01-01

    Previous research is unclear about which citizens support the use of referendums and how a referendum campaign can affect support for direct democracy. This study investigates, first, the factors that determine support for referendums and, second, the role of the campaign in changing support. This i

  5. Public support for referendums: the role of the media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research is unclear about which citizens support the use of referendums and how a referendum campaign can affect support for direct democracy. This study investigates, first, the factors that determine support for referendums and, second, the role of the campaign in changing support. This

  6. Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L.; Reiniger Belinda M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine their level of support for school-based sexuality education, including homosexuality education. Overall, support for sexuality education (and many sexuality education topics) was strong, but homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. There was strong support for…

  7. LEGAL SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC CONTROL: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we reveal the basic problems of forming the legal basis of public control over the activities of public authorities. The relevance of this topic has been steadily increasing due to the increasing influence of civil society on the decisions made by public authorities. The authors analyze the provisions of the Federal Law "On the basis of public control in the Russian Federation", the regional laws, to fix the foundations of social control in some subjects of the federation, as well as other legal acts in this area. Special attention is paid to the formulation of the concept of social control and the conclusion of the need legislative consolidation of the concept of "individual public authority 'and a common list of agencies and organizations that operate them. Analyzing the law enshrined in the range of subjects of public control, the authors substantiate the feasibility of incorporating the Advisory Board at the government and public experts. On the basis of the provisions of the law, in this work we have determined the legal status of the subjects of social control, their powers and procedures of the in collaboration with the authorities, as well as the legal framework for the implementation of certain forms of social control. It is proposed to expand the interaction of subjects of public control with prosecutors by holding regular meetings to expand the powers of public monitoring commissions for visiting places of detention

  8. Fostering institutional practices in support of public engagement by scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly called on to communicate the findings of their research outside the scientific sphere, to members of the public, media, and/or policymakers eager for information about topics at the intersections of science and society. While all scientists share a desire for a more informed public, and for the development of evidence-based public policy, there are profound hurdles that prevent most scientists from meaningfully engaging the public. Here, I identify and discuss both internal (i.e. finite time, discomfort in public speaking and interview settings, etc) and external (metrics for promotion and tenure, scholarly reputation, etc) obstacles for public engagement. At the same time, I also discuss how recent trends in scientific practice provide clear, concrete, and compelling rewards for public engagement. Specifically, institutions of higher education have a vested interest in fostering and rewarding greater public engagement by scientists across all academic ranks. I review a variety of innovative mechanisms, both informal and formal, that institutions are employing to achieve this goal, and assess their potential impact on the engagement levels of scientists.

  9. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. A Blueprint for Public Engagement Appraisal: Supporting Research Careers

    CERN Document Server

    Borrow, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Time spent performing public engagement is severely undervalued by research institutions around the globe. In this article we present one possible system that could be implemented to provide researchers with career recognition for performing this vital work. The framework utilises the supervision system that is already in place at many research institutions, whereby senior researchers mentor their junior colleagues. This would encourage more researchers to engage with the public, as well as increasing the quality of this engagement.

  11. Examining the breastfeeding support resources of the public health nursing services in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Helen; Phelan, Agnes; Corcoran, Paul; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to review breastfeeding support provided by Public Health Nurses in Ireland. The objectives were to identify the availability of appropriate guiding policies, educational preparation, attitude of Public Health Nurses and the availability and use of other supportive services. Breastfeeding rates in Ireland are among the lowest in Europe. The main source of formal support for breastfeeding mothers in the community in Ireland is from Public Health Nurses who can make referral to other non-statutory resources. The nature of this support is determined by policies guiding clinical practice and education that increases breastfeeding confidence and competence of all personnel. Consequently, an assessment of breastfeeding resources requires an analysis of all these variables. A large quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted, involving Public Health Nurses and mothers. This paper represents the results from the perspective of Public Health Nurses. Directors of Public Health Nursing (n = 24) and Public Health Nurses (n = 204) completed self-report questionnaires by mail and online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. Public Health Nurses are well educated to support breastfeeding and have a positive attitude and a high degree of self-assessed confidence and competence. A wide variety of non-statutory support exists for breastfeeding but is not always used to their full potential. Standardising educational requirements for Public Health Nurses in supporting breastfeeding is an area that requires attention. Ultimately, service delivery in relation to supporting breastfeeding mothers would benefit from being more timely and responsive. Awareness of support resources is necessary for Public Health Nurses to make appropriate referrals for breastfeeding mothers. Furthermore, Directors of Public Health Nursing need to encourage the breastfeeding supportive

  12. Renewable energy policy design and framing influence public support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Warshaw, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The United States has often led the world in supporting renewable energy technologies at both the state and federal level. However, since 2011 several states have weakened their renewable energy policies. Public opinion will probably be crucial for determining whether states expand or contract their renewable energy policies in the future. Here we show that a majority of the public in most states supports renewable portfolio standards, which require a portion of the electricity mix to come from renewables. However, policy design and framing can strongly influence public support. Using a survey experiment, we show that effects of renewable portfolio standards bills on residential electricity costs, jobs and pollution, as well as bipartisan elite support, are all important drivers of public support. In many states, these bills' design and framing can push public opinion above or below majority support.

  13. A telepsychiatry model to support psychiatric outreach in the public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited available resources of both public and private ... Abstract. The access of rural Mental Health Care Users in South Africa to specialist ... (Integrated Services Digital Network) services. ... A systematic review of the effectiveness of videoconference-based tele-education for medical and nursing education was conducted.

  14. Providing Appropriate Evaluative Support for Valuing in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julnes, George; Bustelo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation is increasingly accepted as a tool for understanding and assessing the value of public programs and policies. Less understood, however, is how and why evaluation helps to inform judgments of value. This "American Journal of Evaluation" ("AJE") section on Professional Values and Ethics focuses on how values are to…

  15. Steering Capital: Optimizing Financial Support for Innovation in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kim; Petersen, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the central question of how to improve the provision of capital for entrepreneurial change in public education, but emphasizes the innovation ecosystem that surrounds the capital markets. The authors consider capital as one of the most important levers individuals need to align in this innovation ecosystem, but as a force that…

  16. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. The Effect of Economic Inflation on Local Public Library Support in Kentucky, 1967-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert C.

    This study was developed on the hypothesis that economic inflation reduced the purchasing power of local support for public libraries from 1967 through fiscal 1976. The total local support for public libraries in each county in each year of the study was adjusted from the reported nominal amount to the relative Consumer Price Index value of 1967…

  18. Public Support of Agricultural Risk Management – Situation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the development of risk management support in agriculture in the Czech Republic in the period 2001 – 2013. The article also tries to outline some possibilities for the future risk management scheme in the Czech Republic. Data provided by the Support and Guarantee Agricultural and Forestry Fund (PGRLF and the Czech Insurance Association (ČAP was described using descriptive statistical methods (mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation. The data sources for international comparison come from secondary sources made by the research centres for European Commission. Authors identify that risk management support in the Czech Republic after 2014 will not use EU funds from the Rural Development Programme. It will depend on national financial sources, either in the form of direct support (premium subsidies, ad hoc aids or indirect support of prevention (disease fund, recovery fund. In order to eliminate unexpected need for ad hoc aid, it is highly desirable to establish and continuously contribute a fund for covering catastrophic risks which cannot be managed by farmers or insurance companies. Such fund should be eligible only for those applicants who continuously take risk management measures.

  19. Wedding Imagery and Public Support for Gay Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion.

  20. Supported by science?: what canadian naturopaths advertise to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Rachul, Christen

    2011-09-15

    The increasing popularity of complementary and alternative medicines in Canada has led to regulatory reforms in Ontario and British Columbia. Yet the evidence for efficacy of these therapies is still a source of debate. Those who are supportive of naturopathic medicine often support the field by claiming that the naturopathic treatments are supported by science and scientific research. To compare provinces that are regulated and unregulated, we examined the websites of 53 naturopathic clinics in Alberta and British Columbia to gain a sense of the degree to which the services advertised by naturopaths are science based. There were very few differences between the provinces in terms of the types of services offered and conditions treated. Many of the most common treatments--such as homeopathy, chelation and colon cleanses--are viewed by the scientific community to be of questionable value and have no scientific evidence of efficacy beyond placebo. A review of the therapies advertised on the websites of clinics offering naturopathic treatments does not support the proposition that naturopathic medicine is a science and evidence-based practice.

  1. Supported by science?: what canadian naturopaths advertise to the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing popularity of complementary and alternative medicines in Canada has led to regulatory reforms in Ontario and British Columbia. Yet the evidence for efficacy of these therapies is still a source of debate. Those who are supportive of naturopathic medicine often support the field by claiming that the naturopathic treatments are supported by science and scientific research. Methods To compare provinces that are regulated and unregulated, we examined the websites of 53 naturopathic clinics in Alberta and British Columbia to gain a sense of the degree to which the services advertised by naturopaths are science based. Results There were very few differences between the provinces in terms of the types of services offered and conditions treated. Many of the most common treatments--such as homeopathy, chelation and colon cleanses--are viewed by the scientific community to be of questionable value and have no scientific evidence of efficacy beyond placebo. Conclusions A review of the therapies advertised on the websites of clinics offering naturopathic treatments does not support the proposition that naturopathic medicine is a science and evidence-based practice.

  2. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  3. Public policy in the sphere of business development support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurenok, Oksana Romanivna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work in the contemporary economy of Ukraine is extremely important task of effective state regulation, which should be founded on a comprehensive and systematic introduction of incentive means on enterprises based on the legal and regulatory framework policy. At present, the main areas of state business regulation in Ukraine, definitions and methods of their implementation are identified. Most researchers pay great attention to the formulation of the main tasks in the sphere of business support according to certain negative tendencies inherent in most businesses. The most complex stage in the planning and implementation of such projects is an objective consideration of all sorts of factors of internal and external environment. Taking into account above given, there is a significant problem concerning the ways of implementation of regulatory policy and specific definition . The main objectives of the research is solving the problem of ensuring accurate execution of an integrated system of state entrepreneurship support, through the formation of high-quality legal framework. Approaches of solving the problems of formation and maintenance of the state enterprise sector, the competitive environment in transition economies are defined. The theoretical interpretation of major factors hidden business development and ways of implementing state regulatory policy are the results of the carried out investigation.

  4. Public support for coercive diplomacy: Exploring public opinion data from ten European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderco (Michal)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract. Scholarship has increasingly acknowledged the importance of public attitudes for shaping the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. Economic sanctions emerged as one of CFSP’s central tools. Yet despite the emergence of sanctions as a popular instrument in

  5. Public support for coercive diplomacy: Exploring public opinion data from ten European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderco (Michal)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractScholarship has increasingly acknowledged the importance of public attitudes for shaping the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Economic sanctions emerged as one of CFSP's central tools. Yet despite the emergence of sanctions as a popular instrument in the EU foreign po

  6. The contribution of perceived parental support to the career self-efficacy of deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat; Most, Tova; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of different types of parental support to career self-efficacy among 11th and 12th grade students (N = 160): 66 students with hearing loss (23 hard of hearing and 43 deaf) and 94 hearing students. Participants completed the Career-Related Parent Support Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict questionnaire. Different aspects of parental support predicted different types of career self-efficacies across the 3 groups. Differences among groups were also found when levels of parental support were compared. The deaf group perceived lower levels of parental career-related modeling and verbal encouragement in comparison with the hard-of-hearing students and higher levels of parental emotional support compared with the hearing participants. No significant differences were found among the research groups in career decision-making self-efficacy and self-efficacy in managing work-family conflict. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  7. 77 FR 2576 - Order Approving Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Budget and Annual Accounting Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Release No. 34-66141/January 11, 2012] Order Approving Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Budget and Annual Accounting Support Fee for Calendar Year 2012 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the ``Sarbanes-Oxley Act''),\\1\\ established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board...

  8. 78 FR 11915 - Order Approving Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Budget and Annual Accounting Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ..., Release No. 68921/February 13, 2013] Order Approving Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Budget and Annual Accounting Support Fee for Calendar Year 2013 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the ``Sarbanes-Oxley Act''),\\1\\ established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (``PCAOB'') to...

  9. 75 FR 81684 - Order Approving Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Budget and Annual Accounting Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ...; Release No. 34-63596/December 22, 2010] Order Approving Public Company Accounting Oversight Board Budget and Annual Accounting Support Fee for Calendar Year 2011 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the ``Sarbanes-Oxley Act''), established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (``PCAOB'')...

  10. Public Key Encryption Supporting Plaintext Equality Test and User-Specified Authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a category of public key encryption schemes which supports plaintext equality test and user-specified authorization. With this new primitive, two users, who possess their own public/private key pairs, can issue token(s) to a proxy to authorize it to perform plaintext

  11. Public key encryption supporting plaintext equality test and user-specified authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a category of public key encryption schemes that supports plaintext equality test and userspecified authorization. With this new primitive, two users, who possess their own public/private key pairs, can issue token(s) to a proxy to authorize it to perform plaintext

  12. Public Support for Drunk-Driving Countermeasures: Social Policy for Saving Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Brandon K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a community survey, conducted to investigate the option of addressing drunk driving as a public health issue rooted in social institutions, that found that the public endorsed reducing drunk driving through legal deterrence and rehabilitation, but was also willing to support several socially based interventions. (LKS)

  13. 7 CFR 3015.200 - Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... audiovisuals. 3015.200 Section 3015.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Miscellaneous § 3015.200 Acknowledgement of support on publications and audiovisuals. (a) Definitions. Appendix A defines “audiovisual,” “production of an audiovisual,” and “publication.” (b)...

  14. Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Several options are advocated by policy experts to mitigate alcohol-related harms, although the most effective strategies often have the least public support. While knowledge of tobacco-related health risks predicts support for relevant public health measures, it is not known whether knowledge of alcohol health risks is similarly associated with the acceptability of policies intended to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. This study aims to gauge public support for a range of alcohol policies and to determine whether or not support is associated with knowledge of a long-term health risk of alcohol consumption, specifically cancer. 2482 adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, participated in an online survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between demographic data, alcohol consumption, smoking status, knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer and support for alcohol-related policies. Most participants were supportive of health warnings, restricting access to internet alcohol advertising to young people, and requiring information on national drinking guidelines on alcohol containers. Almost half of participants supported a ban on sport sponsorship, while less than 41% supported price increases, volumetric taxation, or reducing the number of retail outlets. Only 47% of participants identified drinking too much alcohol as a risk factor for cancer. Knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer was a significant predictor of support for all policies, while level of alcohol consumption had a significant inverse relationship with policy support. The finding that support for alcohol management policies is associated with awareness that drinking too much alcohol may contribute to cancer could assist in the planning of future public health interventions. Improving awareness of the long term health risks of alcohol consumption may be one avenue to increasing public support for effective alcohol harm-reduction policies

  15. Administrative Support and Its Mediating Effect on US Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Benjamin R.; Chang, Mido; Kim, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of administrative support on teachers' job satisfaction and intent to stay in teaching. The study employed a path analysis to the data of regular, full-time, public school teachers from the Schools and Staffing Survey teacher questionnaire. Administrative support was the most significant predictor of teachers' job…

  16. Students' Race and Teachers' Social Support Affect the Positive Feedback Bias in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Kent D.; Gorman, Jamie L.; Gengaro, Frank P.; Butisingh, Samantha; Tsang, William; Ouellette, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This research tested whether public school teachers display the positive feedback bias, wherein Whites give more praise and less criticism to minorities than to fellow Whites for equivalent work. It also tested whether teachers lacking in school-based social support (i.e., support from fellow teachers and school administrators) are more likely to…

  17. Public initiatives to support entrepreneurs: Credit guarantees versus co-funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.; Lóránth, G.; Morrison, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze financial support for the entrepreneurial sector. State support can raise welfare by relaxing financial constraints, but it can also reduce lending standards if entrepreneurs substitute public sources of collateral for their own assets, if it encourages excessive entrepreneurial entry, or

  18. A National Survey of Public Support for Restrictions on Youth Access to Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William J.; Crowe, James W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a national telephone survey that measured public support for seven proposals to restrict youth access to tobacco products. Nearly all respondents believed child and adolescent smoking was a serious problem. Most supported all proposed measures to restrict children's access to tobacco and to increase the cigarette excise tax. (Author/SM)

  19. Academic status of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools: student, home, and service facilitators and detractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susanne; Antia, Shirin D; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    We examined facilitators and detractors of academic success of 25 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) students selected from a pool of 187 students attending general education classes and enrolled in a study of academic progress. Interviews with their teachers of DHH, general education teachers, principals, parents, interpreters, and students themselves were analyzed for child, family, and school facilitators and detractors of academic status. Facilitators included student self-advocacy and motivation, high family and school expectations, families' ability to help with homework, and good communication between professionals. Detractors included additional disabilities and poor family-school communication. A comparison of above- and below-average students revealed no single distinguishing facilitator or detractor. Each above-average student had many facilitators, whereas each below-average student had several significant detractors.

  20. SOCIA: Linked Open Data of Context behind Local Concerns for Supporting Public Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Shiramatsu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To address public concerns that threat the sustain-ability of local societies, supporting public participation by shar-ing the background context behind these concerns is essentially important. We designed a SOCIA ontology, which was a linked data model, for sharing context behind local concerns with two approaches: (1 structuring Web news articles and microblogs about local concerns on the basis of geographical regions and events that were referred to by content, and (2 structuring public issues and their solutions as public goals. We moreover built a SOCIA dataset, which was a linked open dataset, on the basis of the SOCIA ontology. Web news articles and microblogs related to local concerns were semi-automatically gathered and structured. Public issues and goals were manually extracted from Web content related to revitalization from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Towards more accurate extraction of public concerns, we investigated feature expressions for extracting public concerns from microblogs written in Japanese. To address a technical issue about sample selection bias in our microblog corpus, we formulated a metric in mining feature expressions, i.e., bias-penalized information gain (BPIG. Furthermore, we developed a prototype of a public debate support system that utilized the SOCIA dataset and formulated the similarity between public goals for a goal matching service to facilitate collaboration.

  1. Public support

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    The second edition of this widely acclaimed and extensively cited collection of original contributions by specialist authors reflects changes in the field of cultural economics over the last eight years. Thoroughly revised chapters alongside new topics and contributors bring the Handbook up to date, taking into account new research, literature and the impact of new technologies in the creative industries.

  2. R&D IN FUNCTION OF DIRECT PUBLIC SUPPORTS TO SMEs: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Giray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The globalization has increased the importance of research and development (R&D activity and of technological advancements, especially in information and communication technologies. This case is valid for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs which have taken a crucial place in all economies. Since R&D activities have high costs and public features, these activities cannot be carried out by firm, especially SMEs’ fiscal sources. Direct supports play a key-role in most countries. In related literature, many researchers have stressed that direct public supports towards R&D activities are important for SMEs. Recently, the requirement of public support in R&D activities has been increased in Turkey, just as in most countries. The study investigated both the relationship between direct public supports and R&D in SMEs and the factors determining the using level of R&D supports with an empirical study for Turkey as a sample. A survey of 600 SMEs in Turkey was conducted by a research company on behalf of the authors. The survey data have been estimated by logistic regression analysis and allow us to indicate the factors which determine the using level of direct public supports of SMEs. According to the logistic regression model, the determiner factors are the information level of firms on R&D supports, available convenient support kind, the number of licenses and patents, supply of new product to market etc., in order to increase the possibility for benefit from supports. The most important factor is the fact that SMEs obtain licenses and patents. These results provide contribution to improving R&D activities in SMEs.

  3. Education and Public Outreach to Support the HESSI Mission: Raising Public Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Simmons, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; Newton, E. K.; Bero, E.

    1999-01-01

    The current upswing in solar activity bodies well for accomplishing the goals of the upcoming HESSI mission. The solar community is making good use of the increased activity through coordinated observations, both in space and on the ground. Ground-based measurements will provide crucial context observations and complementary measurements of the high-energy p,,ocesses which HESSI will observe; vector magnetographs will provide information on the morphology and strength of active region magnetic fields. At the time of the launch of HESSI, we will provide scientific data to the community with the MSFC vector magnetograph and will use the facilities to enhance the educational experience of the local community. In the meantime, to raise public consciousness about the solar cycle and to prepare for HESSI observations, we have prepared lesson plans and activities which are currently being distributed via the internet. Further, to inform the educational community about our activities, our teacher partners disseminate the information by attending teacher conferences. This poster will review what we have already accomplished and what we plan for the next, few pre-launch months.

  4. Preliminary design of a public transportation system to support a theme park

    OpenAIRE

    Malacane, Christine Ann

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the preliminary design of a public transportation system (PTS) that would support a theme park. Disney's America, a theme park originally planned for Northern Virginia, was used as the basis for this project. The problem was that the primary interstate that serves the park site was already overcrowded; this project was intended to expand the realm of possible transportation solutions to include public-transit solutions. The following report identi...

  5. National support to public health research: a survey of European ministries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Cláudia; Leandro, Alexandra; McCarthy, Mark

    2009-06-25

    Within SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe), a collaborative study funded by the European Commission, we have assessed the support for public health research at ministry level in European countries. We surveyed the health and science ministries in 25 EU countries and 3 EEA countries, using a broad definition of public-health research at population level. We made over 600 phone calls and emails to identify respondents and to gain answers. We gained formal replies from 42 out of 56 ministries (73% response) in 25 countries. There were 22 completed questionnaires (from 25 ministries), 6 short answers and 11 contacts declaring that their ministries were not responsible for public health research, while in 14 ministries (both ministries in three countries) no suitable ministry contact could be found. In most European countries, ministries of health, or their devolved agencies, were regarded as the leading organizations. Most ministries were able to specify thematic areas for public-health research (from three to thirty), and others ministries referred to policy documents, health plans or public-health plans to define research priorities. Ministries and their agencies led on decisions for financial support of public-health research, with less involvement of other external organisations compared with the process of identifying priorities. However, the actual funds available for public health were not easily identifiable. Most ministries relied on general academic means for dissemination of results of public-health research, while ministries get information on the use of public-health research usually through informal means. Ministries made suggestions for strengthening public-health research through initiatives of their own countries and of the European Union: as well as more resources, improving coordination was most frequently suggested. There is no common approach to support for public-health research across Europe, and significant gaps in

  6. Turning a Blind Eye: Public Support of Emergency Housing Policies for Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M; Dum, Christopher P; Rydberg, Jason

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the influences of citizen decision making in the context of four policy scenarios that would affect the living conditions of sex offenders (SOs) residing at an "emergency shelter" budget motel. We surveyed 773 citizens in an online survey about their support for four policy scenarios that would improve the living conditions of SOs: (a) at no cost to the respondent, (b) in exchange for a US$100 tax increase, and (c) by relocating SOs within the respondent's neighborhood (i.e., "in my backyard"/IMBY scenario). The fourth scenario involved moving nearby SOs into substandard housing located far away from the respondent (i.e., "not in my backyard"/NIMBY). While prior research finds that the public overwhelmingly supports punitive SO policies, we find that indifference is a mainstay of public opinion about improving SO housing conditions. That is, we find only modest levels of average support for any of the policy scenarios, and policy support decreased when increased taxes would be involved, compared with a "no cost" scenario. While no respondent characteristics significantly predicted policy support consistently across all four scenarios, some scenarios showed stark differences in support when considering specific respondent characteristics. Overall, these results suggest that what does affect support depends on the details of the policy being proposed, as well as who is considering the policy. We end by discussing the policy implications of our study for both policymakers and the public.

  7. Support of Publication Costs, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Special Issue of Deep Sea Research II Journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Honchar

    2012-11-12

    The contribution of funds from DOE supported publication costs of a special issue of Deep Sea Research arising from presentations at the First U.S. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) Meeting held 4-6 May, 2009 to review the US implementation plan and its coordination with other monitoring activities. The special issue includes a total of 16 papers, including publications from three DOE-supported investigators (ie Sevellec, F., and A.V. Fedorov; Hu et. al., and Wan et. al.,). The special issue addresses DOE interests in understanding and simulation/modeling of abrupt climate change.

  8. Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing: A Report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing A RepoRt by the ApS pAnel on public AffAiRS TM Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing : A Report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs 5a...Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 3 Verifying Downsizing and Dismantlement 5 Sustaining Capability and Expertise 15 Ensuring Peaceful Uses of

  9. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  10. Elucidating the electronic structure of supported gold nanoparticles and its relevance to catalysis by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Benjamin N.; Kuhl, Kendra P.; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Li, Lin; Voss, Johannes; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Nilsson, Anders; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the electronic structure of Au (gold) nanoparticles supported onto TiO2 with a goal of elucidating the most important effects that contribute to their high catalytic activity. We synthesize and characterize with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) 3.4, 5.3, and 9.5 nm diameter TiO2-supported Au nanoparticles with nearly spherical shape and measure their valence band using Au 5d subshell sensitive hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) conducted at Spring-8. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various Au surface structures, we interpret the observed changes in the Au 5d valence band structure as a function of size in terms of an increasing percentage of Au atoms at corners/edges for decreasing particle size. This work elucidates how Au coordination number impacts the electronic structure of Au nanoparticles, ultimately giving rise to their well-known catalytic activity.

  11. Confined-plume chemical deposition: rapid synthesis of crystalline coatings of known hard or superhard materials on inorganic or organic supports by resonant IR decomposition of molecular precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Borislav L; Wellons, Matthew S; Lukehart, Charles M

    2009-08-26

    A one-step process for preparing microcrystalline coatings of known superhard, very hard, or ultraincompressible ceramic compositions on either inorganic or organic supports is reported. Midinfrared pulsed-laser irradiation of preceramic chemical precursors layered between IR-transmissive hard/soft supports under temporal and spatial confinement at a laser wavelength resonant with a precursor vibrational band gives one-step deposition of crystalline ceramic coatings without incurring noticeable collateral thermal damage to the support material. Reaction plume formation at the precursor/laser beam interface initiates confined-plume, chemical deposition (CPCD) of crystalline ceramic product. Continuous ceramic coatings are produced by rastering the laser beam over a sample specimen. CPCD processing of the Re-B single-source precursor, (B(3)H(8))Re(CO)(4), the dual-source mixtures, Ru(3)(CO)(12)/B(10)H(14) or W(CO)(6)/B(10)H(14), and the boron/carbon single-source precursor, o-B(10)C(2)H(12), confined between Si wafer or NaCl plates gives microcrystalline deposits of ReB(2), RuB(2), WB(4), or B(4)C, respectively. CPCD processing of Kevlar fabric wetted by (B(3)H(8))Re(CO)(4) produces an oriented, microcrystalline coating of ReB(2) on the Kevlar fabric without incurring noticeable thermal damage of the polymer support. Similarly, microcrystalline coatings of ReB(2) can be formed on IR-transmissive IR2, Teflon, or Ultralene polymer films.

  12. 'I reject your reality and substitute my own'. Why more knowledge about CO2 storage hardly improves public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.

  13. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  14. Decision support to the public space administrator for managing urban building sites nuisances

    OpenAIRE

    Hankach, Pierre; SADOUN, Isma; AMANZOUGARENE, Fatiha; CHACHOUA, Mohamed; Zeitouni, Karine; MARTIN, Jean Marc

    2011-01-01

    Effective planning of urban building sites is essential because they are often a source of various kinds of nuisances. In this paper, we present a decision support system for the public space administrator in order to manage building sites nuisances efficiently. The decision support offered through the system is a hybrid approach of two categories. In the first, the decision maker is assisted by supplying relevant information so he can choose the appropriate actions. The second involves activ...

  15. A study of incentives to support and promote public health accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Lee; Leff, Marilyn; Corso, Liza; Monteiro, Erinn; Fisher, Jessica Solomon; Pearsol, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Accreditation of public health agencies through the Public Health Accreditation Board is voluntary. Incentives that encourage agencies to apply for accreditation have been suggested as important factors in facilitating participation by state and local agencies. The project describes both current and potential incentives that are available at the federal, state, and local levels. Thirty-nine key informants from local, state, tribal, federal, and academic settings were interviewed from March through May 2012. Through open-ended interviews, respondents were asked about incentives that were currently in use in their settings and incentives they thought would help encourage participation in Public Health Accreditation Board accreditation. Incentives currently in use by public health agencies based on interviews include (1) financial support, (2) legal mandates, (3) technical assistance, (4) peer support workgroups, and (5) state agencies serving as role models by seeking accreditation themselves. Key informants noted that state agencies are playing valuable and diverse roles in providing incentives for accreditation within their own states. Key informants also identified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other players, such as private foundations, public health institutes, national and state associations, and academia as providing both technical and financial assistance to support accreditation efforts. State, tribal, local, and federal agencies, as well as related organizations can play an important role by providing incentives to move agencies toward accreditation.

  16. Supporting Teaching and Learning Via the Web: Transforming Hard-Copy Linear Mindsets into Web-Flexible Creative Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Ellen Yu; Henry, David; Larsen, Lida L.; Mateik, Deborah

    This paper describes a four-tiered approach to supporting University of Maryland faculty in the development of instructional materials to be delivered via the World Wide Web. The approach leverages existing equipment and staff by the design of Web posting, editing, and management tools for use on the campus-wide information server,…

  17. Beyond advertising: Large displays for supporting people’s needs and activities in public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Mettina; Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, Wouter; Slakhorst, Wout

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how displays can be used to support human needs and activities in public spaces rather than be employed for commercial purposes only. Based on our analysis of screen usage around the world, eight different categories of usage are described and motivated. For the purpose of illust

  18. Research data supporting "Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer"

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Complete data set for the manuscript "Crowdsourcing the general public for large scale molecular pathology studies in cancer". Published at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.05.009 This work was supported by the Cancer Research UK [C490/A10124, C490/A16561

  19. Arranging public support to unfold collaborative modes of governance in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellbrock, W.; Roep, D.; Mahon, M.; Kairyte, E.; Nienaber, B.; Domínguez García, D.M.; Kriszan, M.; Farrell, M.

    2013-01-01

    Raising collective agency is key to successful place-based development approaches. Existing policy arrangements have, however, been criticised, suggesting a need to effectuate more collaborative modes of governance. This paper shall contribute to a better understanding of how public support can best

  20. News framing and public support for a common foreign and security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kandyla, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A common EU foreign and security policy (CFSP) can be framed by elites and media as a risk or as an opportunity. This article examines the effects of framing in terms of ‘risk’ and ‘opportunity’ on public support. Moreover, we examine first whether the effect of framing CFSP as a ‘risk for

  1. American Public Support for US Military Operations from Mogadishu to Baghdad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    yield the 146 American Public Support for U.S. Military Operations desired result of Iraq decamping from Kuwait; as a result, ultimately eight in ten...University of Chicago, 1991. Jeffords, Susan, and Lauren Rabinovitz, Seeing Through the Media, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1994

  2. Combating Weight-Based Bullying in Schools: Is There Public Support for the Use of Litigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying litigation is an emerging area of law that has increased in response to serious cases of bullying at school. Weight-based bullying is prevalent at school, but no research has examined the use of litigation to address this problem. We assessed public support for litigation approaches to address weight-based bullying at school,…

  3. Public evaluation of open space in Illinois: citizen support for natural area acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Erik A; Stewart, William P; McDonald, Cary; Miller, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a broad-based support for open space preservation and protection. Research also has characterized the public values and rationale that underlie the widespread support for open space. In recognition of the widespread public support for open space, various levels of government have implemented programs to provide public access to open space. There are many different types of open space, ranging from golf courses, ball parks, wildlife areas, and prairies, to name a few. This paper addresses questions related to the types of open space that should be prioritized by planners and natural resource managers. The results of this study are based on a stratified random sample of 5000 households in Illinois that were sent a questionnaire related to their support for various types of open space. Through a comparatively simple action grid analysis, the open space types that should be prioritized for public access include forest areas, stream corridors, wildlife habitat, and lakes/ponds. These were the open space types rated of the highest importance, yet were also the open space types rated the lowest in respondent satisfaction. This kind of analysis does not require the technical expertise of other options for land-use prioritizations (e.g., conjoint analysis, contingent valuation), yet provides important policy directives for planners. Although open space funds often allow for purchase of developed sites such as golf courses, ball parks, and community parks, this study indicates that undeveloped (or nature-based) open space lands are most needed in Illinois.

  4. Ethical Tools to Support Systematic Public Deliberations about the Ethical Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics presents so-called ethical tools that are developed to support systematic public deliberations about the ethical aspects of agricultural biotechnologies. This paper firstly clarifies the intended connotations of the term ¿eth

  5. Promising Practices in Professional Growth & Support: "Case Study of Aspire Public Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…

  6. Ethical Tools to Support Systematic Public Deliberations about the Ethical Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics presents so-called ethical tools that are developed to support systematic public deliberations about the ethical aspects of agricultural biotechnologies. This paper firstly clarifies the intended connotations of the term ¿eth

  7. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  8. Population-based public health interventions: practice-based and evidence-supported. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty; Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing. The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/public health nursing practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based public health nursing practice and direction for improving population health.

  9. Publication of clinical trials supporting successful new drug applications: a literature analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approves new drugs based on sponsor-submitted clinical trials. The publication status of these trials in the medical literature and factors associated with publication have not been evaluated. We sought to determine the proportion of trials submitted to the FDA in support of newly approved drugs that are published in biomedical journals that a typical clinician, consumer, or policy maker living in the US would reasonably search. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study of trials supporting new drugs approved between 1998 and 2000, as described in FDA medical and statistical review documents and the FDA approved drug label. We determined publication status and time from approval to full publication in the medical literature at 2 and 5 y by searching PubMed and other databases through 01 August 2006. We then evaluated trial characteristics associated with publication. We identified 909 trials supporting 90 approved drugs in the FDA reviews, of which 43% (394/909 were published. Among the subset of trials described in the FDA-approved drug label and classified as "pivotal trials" for our analysis, 76% (257/340 were published. In multivariable logistic regression for all trials 5 y postapproval, likelihood of publication correlated with statistically significant results (odds ratio [OR] 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-5.17; larger sample sizes (OR 1.33 per 2-fold increase in sample size, 95% CI 1.17-1.52; and pivotal status (OR 5.31, 95% CI 3.30-8.55. In multivariable logistic regression for only the pivotal trials 5 y postapproval, likelihood of publication correlated with statistically significant results (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.24-7.06 and larger sample sizes (OR 1.47 per 2-fold increase in sample size, 95% CI 1.15-1.88. Statistically significant results and larger sample sizes were also predictive of publication at 2 y postapproval and in multivariable Cox

  10. THE EFFECT OF BOUNDARY SHAPE ON BOUNDARY LAYER OF P-MODEL PLATEPROBLEMS WITH HARD SIMPLY SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILIKANG; CHENJIUHUA

    1996-01-01

    The paper shows that: for a unit circular plate: Reissner-Mindlin plate model with hardsimply support does not capture the boundary, layer behaviour for the bending moment whenthe load is independent of θ, where (r,θ) is the polar coordinates in plane. In contrast p-modelshows this boundary layer, which is proved theoretically and numerically. But for the case whenthe boundary is a straight line, the boundary layer for p-model is weak and disappears as thePlate thickness tends to zero.

  11. Public and policy maker support for point-of-sale tobacco policies in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E

    2014-01-01

    To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.

  12. Beyond information access: Support for complex cognitive activities in public health informatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedig, Kamran; Parsons, Paul; Dittmer, Mark; Ola, Oluwakemi

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals work with a variety of information sources to carry out their everyday activities. In recent years, interactive computational tools have become deeply embedded in such activities. Unlike the early days of computational tool use, the potential of tools nowadays is not limited to simply providing access to information; rather, they can act as powerful mediators of human-information discourse, enabling rich interaction with public health information. If public health informatics tools are designed and used properly, they can facilitate, enhance, and support the performance of complex cognitive activities that are essential to public health informatics, such as problem solving, forecasting, sense-making, and planning. However, the effective design and evaluation of public health informatics tools requires an understanding of the cognitive and perceptual issues pertaining to how humans work and think with information to perform such activities. This paper draws on research that has examined some of the relevant issues, including interaction design, complex cognition, and visual representations, to offer some human-centered design and evaluation considerations for public health informatics tools.

  13. Utilizing partial least square and support vector machine for TBM penetration rate prediction in hard rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高栗; 李夕兵

    2015-01-01

    Rate of penetration (ROP) of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) in a rock environment is generally a key parameter for the successful accomplishment of a tunneling project. The objectives of this work are to compare the accuracy of prediction models employing partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machine (SVM) regression technique for modeling the penetration rate of TBM. To develop the proposed models, the database that is composed of intact rock properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), and peak slope index (PSI), and also rock mass properties including distance between planes of weakness (DPW) and the alpha angle (α) are input as dependent variables and the measured ROP is chosen as an independent variable. Two hundred sets of data are collected from Queens Water Tunnel and Karaj−Tehran water transfer tunnel TBM project. The accuracy of the prediction models is measured by the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean squares error (RMSE) between predicted and observed yield employing 10-fold cross-validation schemes. The R2 and RMSE of prediction are 0.8183 and 0.1807 for SVMR method, and 0.9999 and 0.0011 for PLS method, respectively. Comparison between the values of statistical parameters reveals the superiority of the PLSR model over SVMR one.

  14. Awareness and utilization of peer support programs in Singapore public general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelina O M; Kee, Jass P C; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2012-01-01

    To address the effects of acute, chronic and cumulative stress in the healthcare environment in Singapore, the Ministry of Health provided funding to develop a comprehensive crisis response management system (peer support programs/PSPs) that increases mental health awareness, provides emotional support to affected staff during work-related critical incidents and assists hospital management to better understand the emotional needs of the employees. This paper reports the awareness and utilization of PSPs in Singapore public general hospitals about one year after they were set up.

  15. Independence at risk: older Californians with disabilities struggle to remain at home as public supports shrink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Durazo, Eva M; Torres, Jacqueline M; Choi, Anne Soon; Wallace, Steven P

    2011-12-01

    This policy brief presents findings from a yearlong study that closely followed a small but typical set of older Californians with disabilities who depend on fragile arrangements of paid public programs and unpaid help to live safely and independently at home. Many of these older adults have physical and mental health needs that can rise or fall with little warning; most are struggling with increasing disability as they age. In spite of these challenges, most display resilience and fortitude, and all share a common determination to maintain their independence at almost any cost. Declines in health status and other personal circumstances among aging Californians have been exacerbated by recent reductions in public support, and will be made even worse by significant additional cuts that are pending. Policy recommendations include consolidating long-term care programs and enhancing support for caregivers.

  16. Understanding and Supporting a Culture of Public Outreach in Amateur Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, M.; Ames, Z.; Figueiredo, C.; Storksdieck, M.; Stein, J.

    2010-08-01

    What types of resources can best support amateur science-based organizations who share their enthusiasm with the public? For several years the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) and Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), have partnered to conduct research aimed at understanding the culture of public outreach conducted by astronomy clubs and their members. Through this research ILI has conducted studies that yielded three main conclusions: amateurs want educational tools, pedagogical skills, and club organizational support. With these ideas in mind the ASP began working on solutions to the amateurs needs in 2004. Since then the ASP has developed a number of solution approaches with extensive help from amateur astronomers around the country.

  17. How can a research library support the communication of science to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

    2008-06-01

    How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.

  18. Measuring Public Procurement for Innovation on the Country Level and the Role of ICT Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Detelj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using of public procurement as a tool for promoting innovations has captured interest of many researchers in recent years. However, most of the research is focused on the impact of public procurement on the company's innovativeness. The article discusses the findings of the literature on this topic and proposes a model on how to transfer the concept from the company level to the level of the whole country. One of the biggest problems is unavailability of appropriate measures of this phenomenon, so the authors suggest that the concept of Public procurement for innovation can be approximated by participation of criterion of the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT. Implementation of this criterion in choosing the best offer can be supported and facilitated by using of ICT which can improve the efficiency of procurement process and enable more innovations.

  19. Supporting Digital Literacy Public Policies and Stakeholders' Initiatives. Country report. Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report is a part of the study "Supporting Digital Literacy Public Policies and Stakeholders' Initiatives", which involves data collection and analysis in a large number of countries, with a view to achieving several interlinked objectives, and in order to facilitate the realisation of one overall objective: To contribute to the enhancement of digital literacy in Europe by stimulating new and improved initiatives and tools at all levels. Thus, in the context of the EU's social incl...

  20. Interests, Norms, and Support for the Provision of Global Public Goods: The Case of Climate Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtel, Michael; Genovese, Federica; Kenneth F. Scheve

    2016-01-01

    Mitigating climate change requires countries to provide a global public good. This means that the domestic cleavages underlying mass attitudes toward international climate policy are a central determinant of its provision. We argue that the industry-specific costs of emission abatement and internalized social norms help explain support for climate policy. To evaluate our predictions we develop novel measures of industry-specific interests by cross-referencing individuals’ sectors of employmen...

  1. Implementing smart growth strategies in rural America: development patterns that support public health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbey, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on obesity rates show alarming increases across the entire population. Some of these studies indicate higher rates of obesity in rural populations than urban and suburban populations. Obesity in children in rural places also outpaces their suburban and urban counterparts. Although a number of factors account for these differences, public health professionals and researchers have begun to recognize that conventional development patterns and land use policies in rural areas are playing an important role in the trend. Smart growth alternatives to current rural development patterns also support broad public health goals. Rural communities across America face a number of challenges, yet many are using smart growth development strategies to turn the challenges into opportunities. These strategies are structured in a way that builds on broadly held values in rural communities, ones that build upon the traditional development pattern and support multiple community goals. Public health professionals, managers, and academics will benefit from this discussion because it will explain the strategies that rural decision makers, planners, and citizens are adopting to create places that support multiple community goals including a built environment that sustains and promotes active living.

  2. The relationship between narrative classification of obesity and support for public policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Perko, Victoria L; Flusberg, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, the American Medical Association made the controversial decision to classify obesity as a "disease" in the hopes of encouraging research, reducing stigma, and ultimately lowering the prevalence of the condition. Critics argued that the disease label would reduce feelings of personal responsibility among the obese and therefore discourage healthy self-regulation, a possibility that has received some recent support in the psychological literature. However, public health issues such as obesity are complex and depend not only on personal action, but also on wider societal trends such as social policy interventions. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between four narrative classifications of obesity ("sin", "addiction", "disorder" and "environment") and support for a variety of policy interventions designed to address the issue. An initial norming study revealed that the obesity narratives differed reliably in how much they attributed blame for the condition to the individual versus the environment. A correlational study showed that participants who agreed with narratives that blamed the individual were more likely to support policy interventions that penalized people for being overweight while participants who agreed with narratives that blamed the environment were more likely to support policy interventions designed to protect people suffering from obesity. A follow-up experiment revealed that these narratives had causal power as well: participants exposed to just one of the narratives were more likely to support policy interventions consistent with the blame attribution of the narrative for both obesity as well as anorexia. Individual differences in political ideology and personal experience with weight issues also influenced agreement with the narratives and support for particular policy interventions across these studies. These findings suggest that public messaging campaigns that utilize extended narratives may be a

  3. NASA's SMD Cross-Forum Resources for Supporting Scientist Engagement in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Sharma, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Schwerin, T. G.; Shipp, S. S.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    Sharing the excitement of ongoing scientific discoveries is an important aspect of scientific activity for researchers. Directly engaging scientists in education and public outreach (E/PO) activities has the benefit of directly connecting the public to those who engage in scientific activities. A shortage of training in education methods, public speaking, and working with various public audiences increases barriers to engaging scientists in these types in E/PO activities. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public forums (astrophysics, earth science, heliophysics, and planetary science) support scientists currently involved in E/PO and who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO through a variety of avenues. Over the past three years, the forums have developed a variety of resources to help engage scientists in education and public outreach. We will showcase the following resources developed through the SMD E/PO cross-forum efforts: Professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), ongoing professional development at scientific conferences to increase scientist engagement in E/PO activities, toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), toolkits to inform scientists of science education resources developed within each scientific thematic community, EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/), thematic resources for teaching about SMD science topics, and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  4. Responsive partisanship: public support for the clinton and obama health care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriner, Douglas L; Reeves, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    We examine the contours of support for the Clinton and Obama health care plans during the 1990s and 2000s based on our own compilation of 120,000 individual-level survey responses from throughout the debates. Despite the rise of the Tea Party, and the racialization of health care politics, opinion dynamics are remarkably similar in both periods. Party ID is the single most powerful predictor of support for reform and the president's handling of it. Contrary to prominent claims, after controlling for partisanship, demographic characteristics are at best weak predictors of support for reform. We also show that Clinton and Obama did not "lose" blacks, seniors, or wealthy voters over the course of the debate. The small and often nonexistent relationship between these characteristics and support for the plan are constant over time. Instead, the modest fluctuations in support for reform appear to follow the ebb and flow of elite rhetoric. Both mean levels of support and its volatility over time covary with elite partisan discourse. These findings suggest that presidents courting public opinion should seek consensus among their own party's elites before appealing to other narrower interests. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  5. Participatory design of an integrated information system design to support public health nurses and nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Hills, Rebecca A; Turner, Anne M; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to use persona-driven and scenario-based design methods to create a conceptual information system design to support public health nursing. We enrolled 19 participants from two local health departments to conduct an information needs assessment, create a conceptual design, and conduct a preliminary design validation. Interviews and thematic analysis were used to characterize information needs and solicit design recommendations from participants. Personas were constructed from participant background information, and scenario-based design was used to create a conceptual information system design. Two focus groups were conducted as a first iteration validation of information needs, personas, and scenarios. Eighty-nine information needs were identified. Two personas and 89 scenarios were created. Public health nurses and nurse managers confirmed the accuracy of information needs, personas, scenarios, and the perceived usefulness of proposed features of the conceptual design. Design artifacts were modified based on focus group results. Persona-driven design and scenario-based design are feasible methods to design for common work activities in different local health departments. Public health nurses and nurse managers should be engaged in the design of systems that support their work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Concerning Support for SME’s as Suppliers of Public Health Tech Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Purpose The purpose of the article is to examine the role of public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s). Design/methodology/approach The paper combines a narrative literature review with a multiple case study of six innovation projects....... Findings The literature provides ambiguous support for the general claim that SME’s should be more innovative than larger firms. Even if SME’s can be innovative, this does not mean that all SME’s are. The case study findings suggest that few of the challenges innovating SME’s are facing would...

  7. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayers Peter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1 To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2 To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1 To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1 in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2 To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1 to determine care received. 3 To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2. 4 To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2. 5 To undertake document

  8. Gender and support for expert advisers and elected officials in the US public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2016-04-25

    This article uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine the relationship between gender and support for different forms of cultural authority. An analysis of public attitudes about expert advisers and elected officials involved in policy decisions related to science reveals that women assign more influence than men to experts in decisions about global warming and stem cell research but not genetically modified food. In contrast, men assign more influence than women to elected leaders across policy domains. Importantly, gender differences in support for expert advisers and elected leaders are independent of variation in more general attitudes about science and politics. Overall, this article suggests that there are underlying differences in men's and women's attitudes about cultural authority and it highlights the importance of gender in understanding the political legitimacy of scientists in the United States. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice, unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding remains elusive in the industrialised world. Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry since the end of the Second World War is well known. A key objective of the International Breastfeeding Journal is to promote breastfeeding through addressing issues that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration and effective management. Informing this aim is the recognition of artificial feeding as a harmful practice that places infant health at risk. From this perspective it would be unethical for this journal to accept for publication any manuscript that has received funding, sponsorship or any other means of support from infant formula manufacturers. This stance is consistent with the journal's aim of supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. It will also contribute to the promotion of a breastfeeding culture.

  10. Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Annette; Amir, Lisa H

    2007-01-01

    Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice, unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding remains elusive in the industrialised world. Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry since the end of the Second World War is well known. A key objective of the International Breastfeeding Journal is to promote breastfeeding through addressing issues that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration and effective management. Informing this aim is the recognition of artificial feeding as a harmful practice that places infant health at risk. From this perspective it would be unethical for this journal to accept for publication any manuscript that has received funding, sponsorship or any other means of support from infant formula manufacturers. This stance is consistent with the journal's aim of supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. It will also contribute to the promotion of a breastfeeding culture. PMID:17341315

  11. Using findings from a public opinion poll to build political support for tobacco control policy in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, William K; Kitonyo, Rachael; Ogwell, Ahmed E O

    2013-11-01

    To assess the level of public support for tobacco control policies and to discuss how these findings could be used to influence the legislative process in the passing of tobacco control law in the country. A cross-sectional study conducted in Kenya between March and May 2007 on a random sample of 2021 (991 men and 1030 women) respondents aged 18 years and above. Interviews were done using a structured questionnaire by a research consultancy firm with long-standing experience in public polling. The majority of respondents supported tobacco control policies as proposed by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. For example, 95% of the respondents supported smoking restrictions in all enclosed public places and workplaces, 94% supported visible health warnings on tobacco product packages, 83% supported a ban on advertisements of cigarettes and tobacco products and 69% supported a ban on sponsorship of events by tobacco companies. However, 60% perceived that there was very little commitment by legislators to tobacco control. There was overwhelming public support for tobacco control policies and a general view that government was not doing enough in implementing policies to protect the public from tobacco harm. This public opinion poll was used as an advocacy tool to generate support among legislators for national tobacco control law.

  12. Should We Trust in Values? Explaining Public Support for Pro-Environmental Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are concerned with what explains public acceptance and support of environmental taxes. We examine findings in environmental psychology emphasizing that people’s (environmental value-orientation is the dominant driver determining individuals’ support for pro-environmental policy instruments. We introduce a complementary model, mainly drawing upon findings in political science, suggesting that people’s support for policy instruments is dependent on their level of political trust and their trust in other citizens. More specifically, we analyze whether political trust and inter-personal trust affect individuals’ support for an increased carbon dioxide tax in Sweden, while checking their value orientation, self-interest, and various socio-economic values. We make use of survey data obtained from a mail questionnaire sent out to a random sample of 3,000 individuals in 2009. We find that apart from people’s values, beliefs, and norms, both political trust and interpersonal trust have significant effects on people's attitudes toward an increased tax on carbon dioxide.

  13. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  14. Public support for ecosystem restoration in the Hudson River Valley, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; Knuth, Barbara A; Kay, David L

    2002-04-01

    We applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to help understand the relationships between environmental beliefs, support for ecosystem restoration actions, and willingness to pay (WTP) for restoration and protection goals in the Hudson River estuary, New York State, USA. We conducted a mail survey with 3,000 randomly-chosen local residents of the Hudson River estuary in the fall of 1999. As hypothesized, the broad ecosystem restoration goals of the Hudson River Estuary Action Plan were more strongly supported than the corresponding specific implementation actions. We found that beliefs and past behavior were better explanatory variables than sociodemographic characteristics for explaining people's support for ecosystem restoration actions and WTP for restoration and protection goals. Because ecosystem restoration goals appear to be more generally acceptable than specific restoration actions, proponents of restoration programs should not become complacent about the need for active public outreach and involvement even if initial restoration program discussions have been low in controversy. Efforts to assess and foster support for ecosystem restoration should be targeted toward audiences identified on the basis of beliefs and past behaviors rather than on sociodemographic characteristics.

  15. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  16. The ProteomeXchange consortium in 2017: supporting the cultural change in proteomics public data deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W; Csordas, Attila; Sun, Zhi; Jarnuczak, Andrew; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Ternent, Tobias; Campbell, David S; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Okuda, Shujiro; Kawano, Shin; Moritz, Robert L; Carver, Jeremy J; Wang, Mingxun; Ishihama, Yasushi; Bandeira, Nuno; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-04

    The ProteomeXchange (PX) Consortium of proteomics resources (http://www.proteomexchange.org) was formally started in 2011 to standardize data submission and dissemination of mass spectrometry proteomics data worldwide. We give an overview of the current consortium activities and describe the advances of the past few years. Augmenting the PX founding members (PRIDE and PeptideAtlas, including the PASSEL resource), two new members have joined the consortium: MassIVE and jPOST. ProteomeCentral remains as the common data access portal, providing the ability to search for data sets in all participating PX resources, now with enhanced data visualization components.We describe the updated submission guidelines, now expanded to include four members instead of two. As demonstrated by data submission statistics, PX is supporting a change in culture of the proteomics field: public data sharing is now an accepted standard, supported by requirements for journal submissions resulting in public data release becoming the norm. More than 4500 data sets have been submitted to the various PX resources since 2012. Human is the most represented species with approximately half of the data sets, followed by some of the main model organisms and a growing list of more than 900 diverse species. Data reprocessing activities are becoming more prominent, with both MassIVE and PeptideAtlas releasing the results of reprocessed data sets. Finally, we outline the upcoming advances for ProteomeXchange.

  17. Explaining public support for space exploration funding in America: A multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, François

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have identified the need to understand what shapes public attitudes toward space policy. I address this gap in the literature by developing a multivariate regression model explaining why many Americans support government spending on space exploration. Using pooled data from the 2006 and 2008 General Social Surveys, the study reveals that spending preferences on space exploration are largely apolitical and associated instead with knowledge and opinions about science. In particular, the odds of wanting to increase funding for space exploration are significantly higher for white, male Babyboomers with a higher socio-economic status, a fondness for organized science, and a post-secondary science education. As such, I argue that public support for NASA's spending epitomizes what Launius termed "Apollo Nostalgia" in American culture. That is, Americans benefitting most from the old social order of the 1960s developed a greater fondness for science that makes them more likely to lament the glory days of space exploration. The article concludes with suggestions for how to elaborate on these findings in future studies.

  18. The ProteomeXchange consortium in 2017: supporting the cultural change in proteomics public data deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Csordas, Attila; Sun, Zhi; Jarnuczak, Andrew; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Ternent, Tobias; Campbell, David S.; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Okuda, Shujiro; Kawano, Shin; Moritz, Robert L.; Carver, Jeremy J.; Wang, Mingxun; Ishihama, Yasushi; Bandeira, Nuno; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The ProteomeXchange (PX) Consortium of proteomics resources (http://www.proteomexchange.org) was formally started in 2011 to standardize data submission and dissemination of mass spectrometry proteomics data worldwide. We give an overview of the current consortium activities and describe the advances of the past few years. Augmenting the PX founding members (PRIDE and PeptideAtlas, including the PASSEL resource), two new members have joined the consortium: MassIVE and jPOST. ProteomeCentral remains as the common data access portal, providing the ability to search for data sets in all participating PX resources, now with enhanced data visualization components. We describe the updated submission guidelines, now expanded to include four members instead of two. As demonstrated by data submission statistics, PX is supporting a change in culture of the proteomics field: public data sharing is now an accepted standard, supported by requirements for journal submissions resulting in public data release becoming the norm. More than 4500 data sets have been submitted to the various PX resources since 2012. Human is the most represented species with approximately half of the data sets, followed by some of the main model organisms and a growing list of more than 900 diverse species. Data reprocessing activities are becoming more prominent, with both MassIVE and PeptideAtlas releasing the results of reprocessed data sets. Finally, we outline the upcoming advances for ProteomeXchange. PMID:27924013

  19. A Map-Based Service Supporting Different Types of Geographic Knowledge for the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjie; Wang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Ye, Ning; Mai, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    The internet enables the rapid and easy creation, storage, and transfer of knowledge; however, services that transfer geographic knowledge and facilitate the public understanding of geographic knowledge are still underdeveloped to date. Existing online maps (or atlases) can support limited types of geographic knowledge. In this study, we propose a framework for map-based services to represent and transfer different types of geographic knowledge to the public. A map-based service provides tools to ensure the effective transfer of geographic knowledge. We discuss the types of geographic knowledge that should be represented and transferred to the public, and we propose guidelines and a method to represent various types of knowledge through a map-based service. To facilitate the effective transfer of geographic knowledge, tools such as auxiliary background knowledge and auxiliary map-reading tools are provided through interactions with maps. An experiment conducted to illustrate our idea and to evaluate the usefulness of the map-based service is described; the results demonstrate that the map-based service is useful for transferring different types of geographic knowledge.

  20. Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

  1. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  2. Public support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease, a broad-phenotype condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinreich Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal screening for Pompe disease has been introduced in Taiwan and a few U.S. states, while other jurisdictions including some European countries are piloting or considering this screening. First-tier screening flags both classic infantile and late-onset Pompe disease, which challenges current screening criteria. Previously, advocacy groups have sometimes supported expanded neonatal screening more than professional experts, while neutral citizens' views were unknown. This study aimed to measure support for neonatal screening for Pompe disease in the general public and to compare it to support among (parents of patients with this condition. The study was done in the Netherlands, where newborns are not currently screened for Pompe disease. Newborn screening is not mandatory in the Netherlands but current uptake is almost universal. Methods A consumer panel (neutral group and (parents of patients with Pompe disease (Pompe group were sent information and a questionnaire. Responses were analyzed of 555 neutral and 58 Pompe-experienced informants who had demonstrated sufficient understanding. Results 87% of the neutral group and 88% of the Pompe group supported the introduction of screening (95% CI of difference -10 to 7%. The groups were similar in their moral reasoning about screening and acceptance of false positives, but the Pompe-experienced group expected greater benefit from neonatal detection of late-onset disease. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for demographics confirmed that approval of the introduction of screening was independent of having (a child with Pompe disease. Furthermore, respondents with university education, regardless of whether they have (a child with Pompe disease, were more likely to be reluctant about the introduction of screening than those with less education, OR for approval 0.29 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.49, p Conclusions This survey suggests a rather high level of support for newborn

  3. [Social support and physical activity in adolescents from public schools: the importance of family and friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Crisley Vanessa; Lima, Alex Vieira; Fermino, Rogério César; Añez, Ciro Romelio Rodriguez; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the association between different types and sources of social support and physical activity among adolescents from Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A school-based survey was conducted with a representative sample of adolescents from public schools (n = 1,469). Multiple regression models were used to test the association between weekly frequency and sources of social support from family and friends and weekly frequency of physical activity. Among boys, frequent company of family (PR: 2.88; 95%CI: 2.00-4.13) and friends (PR: 5.46; 95%CI: 2.33-12.78) and positive reinforcement from friends (PR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.18-2.77) were positively associated with physical activity. Sporadic invitation by the family was negatively associated with physical activity (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.46-1.14). For girls, frequent company of family (PR: 3.39; 95%CI: 1.49-7.69) and friends (PR: 4.06; 95%CI: 2.22-7.45) increased the likelihood of physical activity. Company of friends was the most important type of social support for physical activity among these adolescents.

  4. Supporting the Social Media Needs of Emergency Public Information Officers with Human-Centered Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda Lee

    2012-01-01

    Emergency response agencies, which operate as command-and-control organizations, push information to members of the public with too few mechanisms to support communication flowing back. Recently, information communication technologies (ICTs) such as social media have challenged this one-way model by allowing the public to participate in emergency…

  5. Social Stigma Toward Persons With Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: Associations With Public Support for Punitive and Public Health-Oriented Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Chisolm, Margaret S; McGinty, Emma E

    2017-05-01

    Prescription opioid use disorder and overdose have emerged as significant public health challenges in the past 15 years. Little is known about public attitudes toward individuals who have developed a prescription opioid use disorder and whether these attitudes affect support for policy interventions. This study examined social stigma toward individuals with prescription opioid use disorder and tested whether stigma was associated with support for various policy interventions. A nationally representative Web-based survey was conducted from January 31 to February 28, 2014. The 1,071 respondents reported on their beliefs about and attitudes toward persons affected by prescription opioid use disorder and rated their support for various policy interventions. Ordered logistic regression models estimated the association between stigma and public support for punitive and public health-oriented policies. Most respondents viewed this disorder as affecting all groups-racial and ethnic, income, and geographic area of residence groups-fairly equally, despite epidemiological data demonstrating that certain populations have been disproportionately burdened. Respondents expressed high levels of stigma toward individuals with prescription opioid use disorder. Levels of stigma were generally similar among those with and without experience with prescription opioid use disorder, either one's own or that of a relative or close friend. Higher levels of stigma were associated with greater support for punitive policies and lower support for public health-oriented policies. Reframing the issue to emphasize the structural factors contributing to prescription opioid use disorder and the barriers to accessing evidence-based treatment might improve support for policies that benefit affected individuals.

  6. Taking Race Off the Table: Agenda Setting and Support for Color-Blind Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Rosalind M; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    Whites are theorized to support color-blind policies as an act of racial agenda setting-an attempt to defend the existing hierarchy by excluding race from public and institutional discourse. The present analysis leverages work distinguishing between two forms of social dominance orientation (SDO): passive opposition to equality (SDO-E) and active desire for dominance (SDO-D). We hypothesized that agenda setting, as a subtle hierarchy-maintenance strategy, would be uniquely tied to high levels of SDO-E. When made to believe that the hierarchy was under threat, Whites high in SDO-E increased their endorsement of color-blind policy (Study 1), particularly when the racial hierarchy was framed as ingroup advantage (Study 2), and became less willing to include race as a topic in a hypothetical presidential debate (Study 3). Across studies, Whites high in SDO-D showed no affinity for agenda setting as a hierarchy-maintenance strategy.

  7. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward.

  8. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defecti...

  9. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

    2003-12-01

    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  10. Social representation of intermittency and the shaping of public support for wind energy in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine-Wright, P.; Devine-Wright, H. [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    The practicality of UK renewable energy policy, given the potential impacts of intermittency, has been contested by expert institutions. At the same time, wind energy developments have engendered local controversy and civic campaign groups have emerged at local, regional and national levels. This research integrates these strands in exploring how intermittency is communicated to the public by campaign groups as part of their arguments against or in favour, of wind energy, using social representations theory. Qualitative analysis was conducted on the web material from ten groups operating at different levels across the UK. The results indicated that sceptics made intermittency familiar using concepts of unpredictability and uncontrollability, as well as notions of work over idleness; while supporters referred to variability and fluctuation. Specific themata suggest, despite polarised views, a common underlying structure to social representations of intermittency, centring on compatibility with the grid, views of the weather, the distinctiveness of wind energy and the virtue of facts over myths. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the shaping of public perceptions and the legitimacy of UK energy policy. (author)

  11. Teaching basic life support to students of public and private high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, José Maria Gonçalves; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; Auto, Bruna de Sá Duarte; Lima, José Elson Gama de; Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde

    2014-06-01

    Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS) has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries. To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training. Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED). They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later. The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18), p private school students.

  12. Transforming Farming Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Caloosahatchee River Citizens Association (Riverwatch), LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Ed A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States)

    2010-01-08

    The public purchase of farmlands in the EAA provides an opportunity for transforming farming systems into truly sustainable systems and these can support the Everglades restoration efforts. The concept proposed in this presentation is that by reducing the yield intensity of farms and adding ecosystem services, public farm lands can serve both restoration and the economy more effectively and more efficiently. This working hypothesis will be evaluated by applying systems analysis approaches including life cycle analysis and embodied energy analysis. The rationale for pursuing new approaches ranges from the fact that climate change threats are global, not local, to the fact that eliminating Florida farms and moving production elsewhere yields no net ecological benefit. Historic water flow from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades is shown and the current concept of moving water explained. Southern Flow Way Plan 6 is explained and sustainable farming system in this newly acquired land presented. To determine if an EAA pulse-way strategy would work and meet the sustainability criteria requires integrated analysis of several systems - water budget, soil & water nutrient dynamics, prospects for new sugarcane varieties, soil subsidence and overall energy and carbon budget.

  13. Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Distribution A. Cleared for public release; unlimited distribution. USAFA-CN-2013-457 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART...457 This report, "Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)" is presented as a competent treatment of the subj ect, worthy of publication. The...Technical 20120810-20121215 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART MICHAEL WINSTEAD MARTIN CARLISLE RODNEY LYKINS MICHAEL

  14. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  15. Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population.

  16. Lessons Learned from a Student-Led Breastfeeding Support Initiative at a US Urban Public University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Lauren M; Beharie, Nisha

    2015-08-01

    Despite US laws requiring most workplaces to provide "reasonable" unpaid break time and a private space for female employees to express breast milk, much of the statutory language is vague and open to interpretation, potentially leading to suboptimal implementation. College and university campuses in the US represent a particular concern, as students are typically not employed by their school and thus not protected by state and federal labor laws. This article describes the work of 2 graduate students to successfully establish a dedicated space at their US urban public university for the purpose of expressing breast milk. A 3-pronged strategy was implemented to create a dedicated lactation space: (1) collecting data to support the establishment of the room, (2) raising awareness of legislation related to protection of breastfeeding, and (3) community organizing and advocacy. After nearly 18 months of advocacy and planning, the campus' dedicated lactation room was opened for use in March 2012. Two years later, the room remains a valuable resource and is used, on average, 8.4 times per weekday during a typical school week. Several lessons learned are described, and the strategies employed can be tested and applied in other US academic settings to assist in advocating for more supports for breastfeeding mothers. However, it is also imperative that US legislation be amended to include language that explicitly protects students so that women do not need to make the choice between continuing their education and continuing to breastfeed.

  17. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  18. Teaching Basic Life Support to Students of Public and Private High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Gonçalves Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries.Objectives:To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training.Methods:Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED. They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later.Results:The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p < 0.001; and 65% ± 12.4% vs. 45.6% ± 16%, p < 0.001, respectively. The total odds ratio of the questions showed that the private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18, p < 0.001; 3.56 (CI95% 2.57-4.93, p < 0.001; and 2.21 (CI95% 1.69-2.89, p < 0.001.Conclusions:Before training, most students had insufficient knowledge about CPR and AED; after BLS training a significant immediate and delayed improvement in learning was observed in students, especially in private school students.

  19. The HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse: A Public Data Model to Support Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tyler R; Ng, Daniel; Brown, Jeffrey S; Pardee, Roy; Hornbrook, Mark C; Hart, Gene; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) is a public, non-proprietary, research-focused data model implemented at 17 health care systems across the United States. The HMORN has created a governance structure and specified policies concerning the VDW's content, development, implementation, and quality assurance. Data extracted from the VDW have been used by thousands of studies published in peer-reviewed journal articles. Advances in software supporting care delivery and claims processing and the availability of new data sources have greatly expanded the data available for research, but substantially increased the complexity of data management. The VDW data model incorporates software and data advances to ensure that comprehensive, up-to-date data of known quality are available for research. VDW governance works to accommodate new data and system complexities. This article highlights the HMORN VDW data model, its governance principles, data content, and quality assurance procedures. Our goal is to share the VDW data model and its operations to those wishing to implement a distributed interoperable health care data system.

  20. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-06

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  1. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player’s individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player’s wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  2. A Modeling Methodology to Support Evaluation Public Health Impacts on Air Pollution Reduction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental public health protection requires a good understanding of types and locations of pollutant emissions of health concern and their relationship to environmental public health indicators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the methodologies, data sources, and tools...

  3. The DPSEEA model: one way to support the 'multiple narratives' of ecological Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Corincigh, GR

    2009-01-01

    This poster was presented at the UK Public Health Association Conference (UKPHA) in March 2009. Ecological Public Health highlights the impact of globalization & capitalism on our physical & human landscapes. A shift in the Public Health paradigm, is argued, to move from an ideological-laden "single narrative" of unsustainable "risk assessment" to "multiple narratives" of sustainability, considering ecological breakdown and climate change. Public Health, globally is a more blended commu...

  4. Utilizing scale-free networks to support the search for scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauff, C.; Nürnberger, A.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.

    2006-01-01

    When searching for scientific publications, users today often rely on search engines such as Yahoo.com. Whereas searching for publications whose titles are known is considered to be an easy task, users who are looking for important publications in research fields they are unfamiliar with face greater

  5. The role of public health inspectors in maintaining housing in northern and rural communities: recommendations to support public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stephanie; Montgomery, Phyllis; Michel, Isabelle; Warren, Claire; Larose, Tricia; Kauppi, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Although there is much evidence about the effects of particular housing conditions on health, less is known about the practices of public health inspectors (PHIs) in relation to minimizing or eliminating potential housing health risks. The purpose of this qualitative study was to illuminate the practices of PHIs in relation to types of biological and physical housing risks. This study used photo vignettes to focus on PHIs' perceptions, options, and resultant interventions with regards to typical housing risks encountered by PHIs in northeastern Ontario. The vignettes represented two general categories of potential housing risks: biological exposures, and physical characteristics of housing. During a semi-structured interview, 34 PHI participants viewed the vignettes, assessed the housing hazard depicted in each, and described the most appropriate intervention. Traditional content analysis methods were used. The assessment of the physical housing hazards was fairly consistent among the PHIs. There seemed to be more variation in their assessment of risk associated with biological factors. Variation in responses was often explained by their different interpretations of the scope of the provincial legislation as well as local public health unit policies and practices. This study demonstrated that PHIs' assessment and responses to potential physical housing hazards were influenced by an interplay between variables related to residents, local service partners, organizational culture, and policy. The recommendations for action also range from specific public health unit protocol to broader research and policy advocacy initiatives. Collectively, the recommendations focus on strategies for optimizing the role of PHIs in reducing housing health risks in mid-size urban or rural areas.

  6. PUBLIC SECTOR SUPPORT AND TECHNOLOGY-BASED SMES IN PERIPHERAL AREAS — THE CASE OF NORTH WALES

    OpenAIRE

    SO-JIN YOO; NIALL G. MACKENZIE; DYLAN JONES-EVANS

    2012-01-01

    Public sector support is important for SMEs due to the finance and stability it offers, the measures are often designed specifically to answer the problems SMEs face and they can help fill gaps in the existing capacities of the firms through the network of expertise the measures allow them to access. There has been an ongoing debate over what effect support services have on the development of assisted firms, and the initial high expectations about the effectiveness of these services now seem ...

  7. Servant leadership and affective commitment in the Chinese public sector: the mediating role of perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Miao, Qing

    2014-10-01

    This study examined a possible mediating mechanism between servant leadership and the affective commitment in Chinese employees. Servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and affective commitment was assessed among 239 full-time employees in the Chinese public sector in three rounds of surveys. Servant leadership influenced affective commitment through perceived organizational support. The effect of servant leadership exists in Chinese culture as well as Western cultures.

  8. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  9. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; Hudspeth, W.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Myers, O. B.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Crimmins, T. M.; Menache, M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  10. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  11. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D Olden

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006 in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA. After accounting for structural (e.g., house size, locational (e.g., boat launch, and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price, corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue, justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management.

  12. Solving the second-order free rider problem in a public goods game: An experiment using a leader support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Hiroki; Jin, Nobuhito; Watabe, Motoki; Shimizu, Kazumi

    2016-12-09

    Punishment of non-cooperators-free riders-can lead to high cooperation in public goods games (PGG). However, second-order free riders, who do not pay punishment costs, reduce the effectiveness of punishment. Here we introduce a "leader support system," in which one group leader can freely punish group followers using capital pooled through the support of group followers. In our experiment, participants engage in three stages repeatedly: a PGG stage in which followers decide to cooperate for their group; a support stage in which followers decide whether to support the leader; and a punishment stage in which the leader can punish any follower. We compare a support-present condition with a no-support condition, in which there is an external source for the leader's punishment. The results show that punishment occurs more frequently in the support-present condition than the no-support condition. Within the former, both higher cooperation and higher support for a leader are achieved under linkage-type leaders-who punish both non-cooperators and non-supporters. In addition, linkage-type leaders themselves earn higher profits than other leader types because they withdraw more support. This means that leaders who effectively punish followers could increase their own benefits and the second-order free rider problem would be solved.

  13. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Transfer of Training and Service Quality in the Malaysian Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), transfer of training outcomes to the workplace and service quality in the context of public sector organizations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this study have been collected from three sources, the employees of public…

  15. 75 FR 55586 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Cancer Trials Support Unit (CTSU) Public Use Forms and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Support Unit (CTSU) Public Use Forms and Customer Satisfaction Surveys (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions... Forms 2 CTSU Web Site Customer 250 10-15 0.2500 1.00 63 Satisfaction Survey. 3 CTSU Helpdesk Customer... of customer satisfaction for clinical site staff using the CTSU Help Desk and the CTSU Web site. An...

  16. Increasing Frequency and Appropriateness of High School Teachers' Referrals for Speech Language Support Services by Implementing a Public Relations Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Linda E.

    This practicum addressed the problem of high school students with speech and language impairments not receiving available support services because of under-identification of this population. A 3-month multiple channel public relations campaign was designed and implemented to train high school teachers in the identification and referral process.…

  17. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Transfer of Training and Service Quality in the Malaysian Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), transfer of training outcomes to the workplace and service quality in the context of public sector organizations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this study have been collected from three sources, the employees of public…

  19. Ethnic Heterogeneity and Public Support for Welfare: Is the American Experience Replicated in Britain, Sweden and Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2011-01-01

    The link between ethnic heterogeneity and public support for welfare policy is debated. The thesis of a negative relationship is supported by much American research.Historically the race issue has blocked a number of American welfare schemes; across the United States ethnically heterogeneous states......-group/out-group mechanisms found in the United States are being replicated in Europe....... politicised. Empirically the article is based on survey data from the United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark, in which a number of American items were directly replicated. Despite indications of American uniqueness and welfare-regime effects, the findings support the position that the in...

  20. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Methods Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). Results 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. Conclusions These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. PMID:28087545

  1. Healthy Libraries Develop Healthy Communities: Public Libraries and their Tremendous Efforts to Support the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lydia N

    This article is about the dedication of public library staff and my role as the Consumer Health Coordinator for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR) to support outreach efforts for health insurance enrollment under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). ACA was created in order to ensure that all Americans have access to affordable health care. What we didn't know is that public libraries across the nation would play such an integral role in the health insurance enrollment process. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) worked closely with public libraries in order to assist with this new role. As we approach the second enrollment and re-enrollment periods, public libraries are gearing up once again to assist with ACA.

  2. Public support for referendums in Europe: a cross-national comparison in 21 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research is unclear about who supports the use of referendums and why. One line of research suggests that people with greater cognitive resources are more supportive of referendums. Another line claims that referendums are supported by citizens who feel disconnected from the political

  3. Practical Considerations in Creating School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marcie W.; Rey, Jannette; Connell, James; Thier, Kimberly; Feinberg, Adam; Putnam, Robert

    2007-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic…

  4. Social support and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A response in women to stress of making a public speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Hideki

    2004-06-01

    Acute experimental stressors transiently increase volume of secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) in saliva. The present study examined buffering effects of social support on response of s-IgA to a brief psychological stress (giving a public speech). 24 women were divided at random into three groups, an emotional support group, an informational support group and a no-support group (control). For each group, s-IgA measures were obtained from each person under baseline conditions, during preparation of a speech when social support or no support was given, immediately after the speech and during a 'recovery' period. Level of s-IgA in the control group significantly elevated during preparation for the speech and just after the speech compared to baseline, suggesting that the speech task stimulated secretory immune function. On the other hand, the subjects in the emotional support group showed increased s-IgA during the preparation period but secretion of s-IgA rapidly returned to the baseline after the speech task. Secretion of s-IgA in the informational social support group was unchanged at any measurement point. These results suggest that social support attenuates the affect of a stressor on somatic state.

  5. Data publication with the structural biology data grid supports live analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Peter A.; Socias, Stephanie; Key, Jason; Ransey, Elizabeth; Tjon, Emily C.; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Lei, Ming; Botka, Chris; Withrow, James; Neau, David; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Anderson, Karen S.; Baxter, Richard H.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Boggon, Titus J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Borek, Dominika; Brett, Tom J.; Caflisch, Amedeo; Chang, Chung I.; Chazin, Walter J.; Corbett, Kevin D.; Cosgrove, Michael S.; Crosson, Sean; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Di Cera, Enrico; Drennan, Catherine L.; Eck, Michael J.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Fan, Qing R.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Fromme, J. Christopher; Garcia, K. Christopher; Gaudet, Rachelle; Gong, Peng; Harrison, Stephen C.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Jia, Zongchao; Keenan, Robert J.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kvansakul, Marc; McLellan, Jason S.; Modis, Yorgo; Nam, Yunsun; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Pai, Emil F.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Petosa, Carlo; Raman, C. S.; Rapoport, Tom A.; Roll-Mecak, Antonina; Rosen, Michael K.; Rudenko, Gabby; Schlessinger, Joseph; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Shamoo, Yousif; Sondermann, Holger; Tao, Yizhi J.; Tolia, Niraj H.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Westover, Kenneth D.; Wu, Hao; Foster, Ian; Fraser, James S.; Maia, Filipe R N C; Gonen, Tamir; Kirchhausen, Tom; Diederichs, Kay; Crosas, Mercé; Sliz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Dat

  6. IDENTIFYING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO SELECT SUITABLE DECISION MODELS FOR A PUBLIC SECTOR EPROCUREMENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.

  7. Virtual communities of practice: can they support the prevention agenda in public health?

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jennifer; Korjonen, Helena; Keswani, Asha; Hughes, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Background Virtual Communities of Practice (CoPs) are flexible communication and knowledge management tools enabling collaboration, sharing of best practice and professional development. There have been few studies that have looked at the use and usefulness of virtual CoPs in public health. Methods This project sought to gather the evidence and develop recommendations for the value of virtual CoPs in public health through a literature review, and through piloting two CoPs in obesity. The rese...

  8. Hard coal subsidies: a never-ending story?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel Frondel; Rainer Kambeck; Christoph M. Schmidt [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI Essen), Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, hard coal has been subsidized for almost half a century. Despite the declining significance of hard coal production for the domestic labor market, the subsidies have continued to increase until the mid-1990s, reaching a peak at 6.7 billion in 1996. While these subsidies have been continually shrinking since then, settling at 2.7 billion euro in 2005, it is very likely that hard coal support will be extended in Germany well into the next decade and even beyond. This article questions the main arguments raised by the proponents of hard coal subsidization in Germany and other EU countries. Most importantly, in addition to the drain these subsidies impose on public budgets, substantial opportunity costs are implied, leading funds away from alternative, more beneficial public investments. From a social welfare perspective, the rapid abolition of these subsidies is recommended, not only in Germany, where in real terms the accumulated amount of subsidies has now far exceeded 165 billion euro, but also all across Europe. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Hard coal subsidies: A never-ending story?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung RWI Essen, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: frondel@rwi-essen.de; Kambeck, Rainer [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung RWI Essen, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Schmidt, Christoph M. [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung RWI Essen, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, hard coal has been subsidized for almost half a century. Despite the declining significance of hard coal production for the domestic labor market, the subsidies have continued to increase until the middle of the last decade, reaching a peak at Euro 6.7 billion in 1996. While these subsidies have been continually shrinking since then, settling at Euro 2.7 billion in 2005, it is very likely that hard coal support will be extended in Germany well into the next decade and even beyond. This article questions the main arguments raised by the proponents of hard coal subsidization in Germany and other EU countries. Most importantly, in addition to the drain these subsidies impose on public budgets, substantial opportunity costs are implied, leading funds away from alternative, more beneficial public investments. From a social welfare perspective, we, therefore, recommend the rapid abolition of these subsidies not only in Germany, where in real terms the accumulated amount of subsidies has now far exceeded Euro 165 billion, but also all across Europe.

  10. Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public health decision support systems through GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different

  11. A Decision Support System for Land Allocation under Multiple Objectives in Public Production Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco W. Lentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. In 2006, a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,284/2006 established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple uses. To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. We demonstrate the model's use for Faro State Forest, a 636,000 ha forest embedded within a large mosaic of conservation units recently established in the state of Pará. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region.

  12. Denotation and connotation in public representation: Semantic network analysis of Hwang supporters' internet dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo

    2013-04-01

    This article analyzes the internet discourses of Korean people who supported Hwang Woo Suk despite the disclosure of his scientific misconduct. During the controversial period, those who supported Hwang constructed a narrative of a fallen hero trapped by jealous rivals and an "unjust" society. The supporters' dramatized discourses compete with expert opinions of Seoul National University's Audit Board and prosecutors that investigated the scientific fraud. By introducing and applying an innovative method of semantic network analysis, this study explores how the supporters represent their personal concerns in daily life and latent social problems in South Korea, as well as the failure of science communication. In short, the supporters' internet representations connote concerns in daily life that motivated their sympathy and activism for Hwang.

  13. Social support and suicide in Japanese men and women - the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Matsushita, Yumi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-12-01

    Although the important role of social support in mental health is acknowledged, no prospective study has yet examined the relation of social support to suicide. Here, we investigated the association between social support and suicide in a cohort of Japanese men and women. A total of 26,672 men and 29,865 women aged 40-69 years enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study in 1993-1994 completed a self-administered questionnaire which included four items of social support, and were followed for death through December 2005. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of suicidal death by social support index were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 180 suicidal deaths were recorded during an average of 12 years' follow-up. Men and women with the highest level of social support had a significantly decreased risk of suicide, with HRs (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest social support group of 0.56 (0.33-0.94) and 0.38 (0.16-0.89) in men and women, respectively. Esteem support and having four or more friends were associated with a lower risk of suicide in women [0.32 (0.13-0.77)] and in both sexes [men: 0.56 (0.36-0.88); women: 0.65 (0.32-1.30)], respectively, whereas confident support was not. These findings suggest that social support may be important for suicide prevention. Avoiding social isolation may decrease the incidence of suicide in men and women, and esteem support can provide additional benefit for women.

  14. 75 FR 66767 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cancer Trials Support Unit (CTSU) Public Use Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Support Unit (CTSU) Public Use Forms and Customer Satisfaction Surveys (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions....00 1000.00 Form. Surveys/Web Forms 2 CTSU Web Site Customer 250 10-15 0.2500 1.00 63 Satisfaction Survey. 3 CTSU Helpdesk Customer 300 10-15 0.2500 1.00 75 Satisfaction Survey. 4 CTSU OPEN Survey 120 10...

  15. Support and services provided by public health regional surveillance teams to Local Health Departments in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; Meyer, Anne Marie; Macdonald, Pia D M

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, many states have created regional structures in an effort to better coordinate/public health preparedness and response efforts, consolidate services, and supplement local government capacity. While several studies have identified specific benefits to regionalization, including enhanced networking, coordination, and communication, little research has examined the effect of regionalization on specific preparedness and response activities. To better understand the impact of regionalizing public health workforce assets in North Carolina, a survey aimed at documenting specific support and services that Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams(PHRSTs) provide to local health departments (LHDs) was developed and administered by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center, located at the North Carolina Institute for Public Health. Of80 potential types of assistance, 26 (33%) were received by 75% or more LHDs, including 9 related to communication and 7 related to exercises. There was significant variation by PHRST region in both the quantity and quality of support and services reported by LHDs. This variation could not be explained by county- or LHD-level variables. PHRST assistance to LHDs is largely focused on communication and liaison activities, regional exercises, and planning. On the basis of these findings, regionalization may provide North Carolina with benefits consistent with those found in other studies such as improved networking and coordination. However, further research is needed to identify whether regional variation is the result of varying capacity or priorities of the PHRSTs or LHDs and to determine how much variation is acceptable.

  16. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in section 501(c)(3). O was created by A in 1971 for the purpose of carrying on economic studies primarily through persons receiving grants from O and engaging in the sale of economic publications. O's... societies, or civic affairs in the case of parent-teacher associations. (vii) In the case of an organization...

  18. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  19. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  20. 75 FR 39950 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cancer Trials Support Unit (CTSU) Public Use Forms and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Unit (CTSU) Public Use Forms and Customer Satisfaction Surveys (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the... and Use of Information Collection: CTSU collects annual surveys of customer satisfaction for clinical...: 2 CTSU Web Site Customer 250 10-15 0.2500 1.00 63 Satisfaction Survey. 3 CTSU Helpdesk Customer 300...

  1. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3T - Broadly, publicly supported organizations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... public charity described in 509(a)(2). N's five-member governing body consists of A, A's sons, B and C... having special knowledge in the particular field or discipline in which the organization is operating, of... section 509(a)(2) are to be computed on the basis of the nature of the organization's normal sources...

  2. Participatory Research in Support of Quality Public Education in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Burel, Deirdre; Drame, Elizabeth; Frattura, Elise

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, two years after Hurricane Katrina, several education and child advocacy groups began discussing the depleted conditions of the New Orleans public school district. These groups came together to discuss how to create a sustainable education reform movement post Katrina. New Orleans-based community groups and outside university researchers…

  3. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  4. Public Law 480: Declining Prospects for the Continued Support of Area Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, James Joseph

    Public Law 480, whose original intent was to sell surplus foodstuffs to famine-stricken nations, evolved into a program of obtaining foreign language materials for libraries with the large quantities of soft currencies obtained through the food sales. The acquisition effort developed ambitious goals for systematic improvement of the quality of…

  5. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  6. Public outreach supports the entire life-cycle of the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sonja; Kollersberger, Tanja; Möller, Fabian; Liebscher, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Interdisciplinary research at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany contributes to the understanding of the geological CO2 storage since 2004. In addition to the research activities, public outreach has been a key element through the entire life-cycle of the project including site assessment, characterization, development as well as operation (2008-2013) and post-closure. From the very beginning of the project, the research activities were accompanied by an open dialogue with the general public including locals and interested people from all over Germany and the world. The visitor centre at the Ketzin site is run by GFZ and the most important contact point to inform about first-hand experiences from the project. Up to now, about 3,000 visitors came to the Ketzin site for guided tours and the annual open house days. In addition, project status and progress are disseminated in brochures and on the public website www.co2ketzin.de. The Ketzin project is also presented in short films, e.g. on monitoring, drilling and well closure. As the post-closure and pre-transfer phase started after the cease of CO2 injection in August 2013 and the injection facility was dismantled in December 2013, we were looking for a tool to further inform about the previous operation and site infrastructure. A virtual tour was set up for the Ketzin site which is accessible via the website. This tour includes several videos which virtually guide you on site and provide information on the (former) facilities. Public acceptance is a key issue for the Ketzin project as it is for any other CO2 storage project. For example, an open communication with the local residents helped to conduct large-scale seismic campaigns without severe restrictions. The experience from the Ketzin pilot site shows that honest communication and a diverse dissemination program is able to overcome critical public perception even for highly debated technologies.

  7. Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE) Interface Team: Public Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-28

    interface. There are no CLP support ser - vices supplied by the host operating system. The terminal manager in the AIE has been designed as a virtual...services called the KAPSE and user oriented ser -vices called the MAPSE. 0 There will be a well defined set of system services which support all target...we specify in such a way as to not limit the capabilities for target dependent functionality? Poderate . 1.riority Voderate. .. .Related Ctgre A

  8. Public Support for a Ban on Headscarves: A Cross-National Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda van der Noll

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper compares a psychological explanation of support for a ban on headscarves in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the Netherlands. This study examines how perceptions of threat posed by Muslims and Islam and the overall attitude towards Muslims explain support for a ban on headscarves. In addition, cross-national comparisons are made to study how these relations are affected by contextual differences. Analyses are based on the 2005 survey on Islamic extremism by the Pew Research Center. Results show that the countries have a large influence on whether someone supports the ban on headscarves, indicating that contextual differences matter. In addition, having a negative attitude towards Muslims makes it more likely to support a ban on headscarves. In general, perceived threat contributes to stronger support, although there are slight differences in effect between the countries. Finally, perceived threat equally influences support for the ban on headscarves among prejudiced and non-prejudiced people.

  9. Where is the evidence supporting public service announcements to eliminate mental illness stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2012-01-01

    Advocates and social marketers have used substantial resources to develop public service announcements (PSAs) as a lead strategy in public education and awareness campaigns meant to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness. Evaluations of PSAs are needed to determine whether this is a good investment. The author notes that very few studies have been reported in the peer-reviewed medical and psychological research literature addressing this question. Reports of government contractors suggest that PSAs have some effect as measured by population penetration, but such data provide no meaningful evidence about the impact of PSAs, such as real-world change in prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors. The author considers reasons for the limited impact of PSAs and proposes that social marketing campaigns could enhance their impact by targeting local groups.

  10. The power of relationships: exploring how Public Health Nurses support mothers and families during postpartum home visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Price, Sheri; Etowa, Josephine; Vukic, Adele; Young, Linda; Hart, Christine; MacLeod, Emily; Randel, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Postpartum home visiting by Public Health Nurses (PHNs) has been used by many health departments across Canada as a way of supporting new mothers and their families. Although positive health outcomes are linked with support from PHNs, little is known about how this occurs during the home visit. The purpose of this research was to explore how home visiting programs for mothers and babies were organized, delivered, and experienced through the everyday practices of PHNs, mothers, and managers in Nova Scotia, Canada. Feminist poststructuralism was used to guide the research and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 PHNs, 16 mothers, and 4 managers. Participants described how relationships were an essential part of supporting mothers and families. These findings also challenge dominant health discourses and stereotypes that are often associated with mothering and the practice of PHNs with families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Improvements of Decision Support Systems for Public Administrations via a Mechanism of Co-creation of Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindara Abbate

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a possible improvement of knowledge-based decision support systems for human resource management within Public Administrations, using a co-creation of value’s mechanism, according to the Service-Dominant Logic (SDL paradigm. In particular, it applies ontology-driven data entry procedures to trigger the cooperation between the Public Administration itself and its employees. Advantages in such sense are evident: constraining the data entry process by means of the term definition ontology improves the quality of gathered data, thus reducing potential mismatching problems and allowing a suitable skill gap analysis among real and ideal workers competence profiles. The procedure foresees the following steps: analyzing organograms and job descriptions; modelling Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSA for job descriptions; transforming KSAs of job descriptions into a standard-based model with integrations of other characteristics; extracting information from Curricula Vitae according to the selected model; comparing profiles and roles played by the employees.The 'a priori' ontology-driven approach adequately supports the operations that involve both the Public Administration and employees, as for the data storage of job descriptions and curricula vitae. The comparison step is useful to understand if employees perform roles that are coherent with their own professional profiles.The proposed approach has been experimented on a small test case and the results show that its objective evaluation represents an improvement for a decision support system for the re-organization of Italian Public Administrations where, unfortunately often, people are engaged in activities that are not so close to their competences.

  12. I've got a mobile phone too! Hard and soft assistive technology customization and supportive call centres for people with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Simon; Green, Jenny; Maxwell, Hazel

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the use of a mobile technology platform, software customization and technical support services by people with disability. The disability experience is framed through the participants' use of the technology, their social participation. A qualitative and interpretive research design was employed using a three-stage process of observation and semi-structured interviews of people with disability, a significant other and their service provider. Transcripts were analyzed to examine the research questions through the theoretical framework of PHAATE - Policy, Human, Activity, Assistance and Technology and Environment. The analysis revealed three emergent themes: 1. Engagement and activity; 2. Training, support and customization; and 3. Enablers, barriers and attitudes. The findings indicate that for the majority of users, the mobile technology increased the participants' communication and social participation. However, this was not true for all members of the pilot with variations due to disability type, support needs and availability of support services. Most participants, significant others and service providers identified improvements in confidence, security, safety and independence of those involved. Yet, the actions and attitudes of some of the significant others and service providers acted as a constraint to the adoption of the technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Customized mobile technology can operate as assistive technology providing a distinct benefit in terms of promoting disability citizenship. Mobile technology used in conjunction with a supportive call centre can lead to improvements in confidence, safety and independence for people experiencing disability. Training and support are critical in increasing independent use of mobile technology for people with disability. The enjoyment, development of skills and empowerment gained through the use of mobile technology facilitate the social inclusion of people with

  13. A decision support system framework to improve design-construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Gary Bruce

    One of the noted difficulties with the traditional public works project development process is the lack of integration and sharing of information between engineering and construction entities that results in a decrease in project performance. To improve project performance on public sector underground utility projects, the research develops a decision support system framework that enhances the exchange and integration of relevant information and knowledge between entities on such projects by incorporating a lessons-learned database to document, organize and disseminate lessons-learned on a project. To identify the critical activities within the project development process that could be linked to the decision support system, the Integration Definition for Functioning Modeling (IDEFO) technique was used to create a representative model of the public works project development process. The resultant model demonstrated the repeatable nature of the process both across project phases and from project-to-project and identified the decision-making activities of generating and evaluating alternatives as key opportunities for construction-related input that could be linked to a decision support system. An inspection of current industry practices was conducted through interviews with knowledgeable industry sources to determine the scope of the decision support system framework. Results revealed the type of critical decisions on underground utility projects that could benefit from construction-related input and identified the documentation of lessons-learned as a major industry weakness. A prototype decision support system incorporating a lessons-learned database was developed and the framework integrated into common project management reporting mechanisms found in the industry. The actual decision-maker can retrieve lessons-learned according to predetermined categories of critical decisions, compare and evaluated retrieved alternatives, and document the rationale behind the

  14. How Politicians' Reelection Efforts Can Reduce Public Trust, Electoral Support, and Policy Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels

    2016-01-01

    were described as motivated by reelection considerations than when no such motive was present. The findings advance our understanding of how citizens view political representation and have important implications for research on public opinion, legislative behavior, and democratic theory.......Politicians’ desire for reelection motivates them to be responsive to voters’ policy preferences. In the traditional view, voters choose between candidates based on their delivery of favorable outcomes such as ideologically appealing policies or a prospering economy. However, research in psychology...

  15. ScafBank: a public comprehensive Scaffold database to support molecular hopping

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The search for molecules whose bioactivities are similar to those of given compounds or to optimize the initial lead compounds from high throughput screening has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Our goal is to provide a publically searchable database of scaffolds out from a large collection of existing chemical molecules. Results: Although a number of in silico methods have emerged to facilitate this process, which has become known as ”scaffold hopping” or “molecular hoppin...

  16. Spending Reviews – a Tool to Support the Effcient Management of Public Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Postuła

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Respective European Union member states’ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries’ public fnances, as a result of the global fnancial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia, and by those that introduced them for the frst time (Ireland, Canada, France. However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by signifcant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries’ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to flling two main gaps identifed in the literature review.

  17. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  18. Fostering Scientific and Numerate Practices in Journalism to Support Rapid Public Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Yarnall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Journalism has the potential––and arguably the mandate––to expand public understanding of societally important phenomena. However, some methods for more effectively educating the public have been persistently underutilized: in particular, embedding informative numerical rates and efficient scientific explanations in news reports. In the current era of disrupting and downsizing the news business, the challenges to using such methods have only increased. To address this problem, this article seeks to (a raise awareness about the psychological reasons that help explain why it is crucial to use such elements in news reports, and (b exhibit some methods for doing so that require modest effort. Building on a review of relevant psychological literatures, principles, and existing reporting methods, we describe findings from a series of cognitive-scientific studies that demonstrate how using key––and relatively minimal––scientific and numerical elements can enhance public learning from news reports. We conclude by also describing curricula and resources designed to help journalists and bloggers use these methods.

  19. Costs of genetic testing: Supporting Brazilian Public Policies for the incorporating of molecular diagnostic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Paixão Schlatter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and describes the operating costs associated with the molecular diagnosis of diseases, such as hereditary cancer. To approximate the costs associated with these tests, data informed by Standard Operating Procedures for various techniques was collected from hospital software and a survey of market prices. Costs were established for four scenarios of capacity utilization to represent the possibility of suboptimal use in research laboratories. Cost description was based on a single site. The results show that only one technique was not impacted by rising costs due to underutilized capacity. Several common techniques were considerably more expensive at 30% capacity, including polymerase chain reaction (180%, microsatellite instability analysis (181%, gene rearrangement analysis by multiplex ligation probe amplification (412%, non-labeled sequencing (173%, and quantitation of nucleic acids (169%. These findings should be relevant for the definition of public policies and suggest that investment of public funds in the establishment of centralized diagnostic research centers would reduce costs to the Public Health System.

  20. Enabling Water Quality Management Decision Support and Public Outreach Using Cloud-Computing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2013-12-01

    Watershed management is a participatory process that requires collaboration among multiple groups of people. Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) have long been used to support such co-management and co-learning processes in watershed management. However, implementing and maintaining EDSS in-house can be a significant burden to many water agencies because of budget, technical, and policy constraints. Basing on experiences from several web-GIS environmental management projects in Texas, we showcase how cloud-computing services can help shift the design and hosting of EDSS from the traditional client-server-based platforms to be simple clients of cloud-computing services.

  1. Electronic Support for Public Health: Validated Case Finding and Reporting for Notifiable Diseases Using Electronic Medical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Ross; Klompas, Michael; Campion, Francis X.; McNabb, Scott J.N.; Hou, Xuanlin; Daniel, James; Haney, Gillian; DeMaria, Alfred; Lenert, Leslie; Platt, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Health care providers are legally obliged to report cases of specified diseases to public health authorities, but existing manual, provider-initiated reporting systems generally result in incomplete, error-prone, and tardy information flow. Automated laboratory-based reports are more likely accurate and timely, but lack clinical information and treatment details. Here, we describe the Electronic Support for Public Health (ESP) application, a robust, automated, secure, portable public health detection and messaging system for cases of notifiable diseases. The ESP application applies disease specific logic to any complete source of electronic medical data in a fully automated process, and supports an optional case management workflow system for case notification control. All relevant clinical, laboratory and demographic details are securely transferred to the local health authority as an HL7 message. The ESP application has operated continuously in production mode since January 2007, applying rigorously validated case identification logic to ambulatory EMR data from more than 600,000 patients. Source code for this highly interoperable application is freely available under an approved open-source license at http://esphealth.org. PMID:18952940

  2. College Experiences for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Personal Identity, Public Disclosure, and Institutional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bradley E.; Thompson, Kerry; Anderson, Amelia; Mintz, Amanda; Locks, Taylor; Morgan, Lindee; Edelstein, Jeffrey; Wolz, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are completing high school with reasonable expectations for postsecondary success. College educators are likely ill prepared to provide appropriate support for these students. Based on personal interviews with a diverse group of students with autism, this study (a) amplifies these students' voices,…

  3. Web Services as Public Services: Are We Supporting Our Busiest Service Point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Huff, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    This article is an analysis of academic library organizational culture, patterns, and processes as they relate to Web services. Data gathered in a research survey is examined in an attempt to reveal current departmental and administrative attitudes, practices, and support for Web services in the library research environment. (Contains 10 tables.)

  4. College Experiences for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Personal Identity, Public Disclosure, and Institutional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bradley E.; Thompson, Kerry; Anderson, Amelia; Mintz, Amanda; Locks, Taylor; Morgan, Lindee; Edelstein, Jeffrey; Wolz, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are completing high school with reasonable expectations for postsecondary success. College educators are likely ill prepared to provide appropriate support for these students. Based on personal interviews with a diverse group of students with autism, this study (a) amplifies these students' voices,…

  5. Public Support for Faith-Based Correctional Programs: Should Sacred Places Serve Civic Purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Francis T.; Pealer, Jennifer A.; Santana, Shannon A.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Applegate, Brandon K.; Blevins, Kristie R.

    2007-01-01

    In light of President Bush's enthusiastic support and numerous initiatives, there is a growing call to fund "faith-based" social service programs, including those focused on juvenile and adult offenders. These programs are controversial because they seek to reconfigure the line separating church and state. Based on a national 2001 survey of 327…

  6. VALUE ORIENTATIONS AND SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRACY AMONG ELITES AND MASS PUBLICS IN OLD AND NEW DEMOCRACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hoffmann-Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that without broad elite consenus on democratic institutions and practices new democracies remain fragile. The article studies the association between the support for democracy by the population and the degree of elite consensus on democratic values and procedures across parties.

  7. The Utilization of Supportive Personnel in Speech Correction in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    A pilot program for supportive personnel in speech pathology and audiology began with 3 weeks of formal training. Ten speech aids then worked for 10 weeks in nine school districts. Speech correctionists evaluated the aids and indicated that they were most helpful in articulation and language drills, carry-over activities, ear training, preparation…

  8. 75 FR 32792 - Office of Public Health Support; Division of Planning, Evaluation & Research Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... will be supported through science education projects designed to increase the numbers of, and to... this announcement. The available funds are inclusive of direct and appropriate indirect costs. Only one... studies on AI/AN communities and what will be the benefits to service providers and/or communities?...

  9. The Support of Public Opinion Is Imperative for any Legislative Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2007-01-01

    In the early spring of 2007,two important matters of great public concern finally bore fruition.Firstly,the National People’s Congress eventually passed the Law of Property following 13 years of&bate,revision and deliberation.Secondly,China initiated the individual tax return filing system in which an individual earning RMB 120,000 or above per year is required to file his/her annual tax returns separately with China’s tax authorities.To date,there have been about 1.6 million Chinese nationals filing tax returns under the new system.

  10. Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.

  11. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harding Icefield Trail. 13...

  12. Developing public health clinical decision support systems (CDSS for the outpatient community in New York City: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Jesse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing a clinically relevant set of quality measures that can be effectively used by an electronic health record (EHR is difficult. Whether it is achieving internal consensus on relevant priority quality measures, communicating to EHR vendors' whose programmers generally lack clinical contextual knowledge, or encouraging implementation of EHR that meaningfully impacts health outcomes, the path is challenging. However, greater transparency of population health, better accountability, and ultimately improved health outcomes is the goal and EHRs afford us a realistic chance of reaching it in a scalable way. Method In this article, we summarize our experience as a public health government agency with developing measures for a public health oriented EHR in New York City in partnership with a commercial EHR vendor. Results From our experience, there are six key lessons that we share in this article that we believe will dramatically increase the chance of success. First, define the scope and build consensus. Second, get support from executive leadership. Third, find an enthusiastic and competent software partner. Fourth, implement a transparent operational strategy. Fifth, create and test the EHR system with real life scenarios. Last, seek help when you need it. Conclusions Despite the challenges, we encourage public health agencies looking to build a similarly focused public health EHR to create one both for improved individual patient as well as the larger population health.

  13. Be active together: supporting physical activity in public housing communities through women-only programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Luiza G; Sharify, Denise; Krieger, James; Saelens, Brian E; Calleja, Jeniffer; Aden, Ayaan

    2013-01-01

    Low-income and minority groups in the United States have low levels of physical activity that contribute to health inequities. In public housing communities, both built and social environments are key factors that impact residents' physical activity levels. To develop and evaluate women-only physical activity programs that provide women from cultures in which physical activity in mixed-gender settings is not acceptable (e.g., Muslim women) with physical activity opportunities. We describe the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) process and evaluation feedback from our initial research and evaluation phases, including focus groups, to shape interventions. Active community engagement in all phases of research, including cultural tailoring of interventions, and decisions about location and affordability, was critical. Implementing interventions in public housing is feasible, but requires frequent feedback from residents and correction. The use of CBPR resulted in the implementation of a successful, culturally appropriate set of physical activity interventions, specifically for Muslim Somali women. Housing authorities should consider incorporating recreational facilities on site and women-only opportunities to provide venues for physical activity.

  14. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-10-01

    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  15. Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE) Interface Team. Volume I. Public Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    system software in high level languages. In particular, Wirth’s Lilith project demonstrates that a complete programming support environment can be...or the Lilith system written in Modula. We then discuss the performance issues of this approach and its extension to multiple user environments...written in Concurrent Pascal or the Lilith system written in Modula. Once these issues have been mastered, we could proceed to add functions in reasonably

  16. Fusion Analytics: A Data Integration System for Public Health and Medical Disaster Response Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this demonstration is to show conference attendees how they can integrate, analyze, and visualize diverse data type data from across a variety of systems by leveraging an off-the-shelf enterprise business intelligence (EBI) solution to support decision-making in disasters. Introduction Fusion Analytics is the data integration system developed by the Fusion Cell at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedn...

  17. Increasing Geoscience Literacy and Public Support for the Earthscope National Science Initiative Through Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubele, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Geology and geophysics are frequently perceived by the student, teacher, or adult non-geologist as "difficult to understand"; however, most non-geologists of all ages appreciate geological landforms such as mountains, volcanoes and canyons, and are interested in phenomena such as earthquakes and natural resources. Most people are also interested in local connections and newsworthy programs and projects. Therefore, the EarthScope Project is a perfect opportunity to excite and educate the public about solid-Earth geoscience research and to increase the non-geologist's understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. As the EarthScope Project sweeps across the country, the general public must be made aware of the magnitude, scope, excitement, and achievements of this national initiative. However, EarthScope science is difficult for the non-scientist to understand. The project is large-scale and long-term, and its data sets consist of maps, structural graphics, 3D and 4D visualizations, and the integration of many different geophysical instruments, all elements that are difficult for the non-scientist to understand. Targeted programs for students, teachers, and visitors to the National Parks will disseminate EarthScope information; in addition, museums and other informal science education centers can also play an important role in translating scientific research for the general public. Research on learning in museums has shown that museums educate an audience that is self-selected and self-directed (non-captive), includes family/groups, multigenerational, and repeat visitors, and requires presentation of information for a variety of learning styles. Informal science centers have the following advantages in geoscience-related education: (1) graphics/display expertise; (2) flexibility in approach and programming; (3) ability to quickly produce exhibits, educational programming, and curricula themed to specific topics of interest; (4) inclusion of K-12 teachers in the

  18. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay...... for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more...... for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country – even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people...

  19. Health related quality of life in pregeriatric patients with chronic diseases at urban, public supported clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding health-related quality of life (HRQOL leads to more effective and focused healthcare. America's growing health disparities makes it is increasingly necessary to understand the HRQOL of pregeriatric individuals who are now 55–64 years old, i.e. before they are eligible for federally mandated health care at age 65. Our study measured the self-perceived HRQOL of pregeriatric, poor patients with multiple chronic diseases treated at 2 public clinics. Methods Consecutive patients aged 55–64 years, many with multiple chronic diseases, responded in an interview to the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF–36 as a general measure of HRQOL during a regular visit to one of two university-staffed urban public clinics. Results The perceived physical and mental functioning of 316 pregeriatric patients was tabulated from SF–36 scores to yield their HRQOL. Their scores were statistically significantly lower than those of the general US pregeriatric population and lower than averages for US patients with multiple chronic diseases. All eight subscale scores of SF–36 were 16% to 36% lower compared with the averages of the general US pregeriatric population. Further, as the number of chronic diseases increased, the lower was the HRQOL. Lower physical and mental scores were associated with a lower income, unemployment, and higher numbers of multiple chronic diseases. Conclusion Chronic diseases have a powerful negative impact on perceived mental and physical functioning in pregeriatric patients. HRQOL information can assist health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their pregeriatric patients' health.

  20. Why Is It So Hard to Quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit? It’s hard to tackle the physical addiction to nicotine . Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive ... a support group can give you comfort and positive reinforcement. Cut back on caffeine . Caffeine is a ...

  1. Framing of Uncertainty in Scientific Publications: Towards Recommendations for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, J. H. A.; Helgeson, C.; Elsawah, S.; Jakeman, A. J.; Kummu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty is recognised as an essential issue in environmental decision making and decision support. As modellers, we notably use a variety of tools and techniques within an analysis, for example related to uncertainty quantification and model validation. We also address uncertainty by how we present results. For example, experienced modellers are careful to distinguish robust conclusions from those that need further work, and the precision of quantitative results is tailored to their accuracy. In doing so, the modeller frames how uncertainty should be interpreted by their audience. This is an area which extends beyond modelling to fields such as philosophy of science, semantics, discourse analysis, intercultural communication and rhetoric. We propose that framing of uncertainty deserves greater attention in the context of decision support, and that there are opportunities in this area for fundamental research, synthesis and knowledge transfer, development of teaching curricula, and significant advances in managing uncertainty in decision making. This presentation reports preliminary results of a study of framing practices. Specifically, we analyse the framing of uncertainty that is visible in the abstracts from a corpus of scientific articles. We do this through textual analysis of the content and structure of those abstracts. Each finding that appears in an abstract is classified according to the uncertainty framing approach used, using a classification scheme that was iteratively revised based on reflection and comparison amongst three coders. This analysis indicates how frequently the different framing approaches are used, and provides initial insights into relationships between frames, how the frames relate to interpretation of uncertainty, and how rhetorical devices are used by modellers to communicate uncertainty in their work. We propose initial hypotheses for how the resulting insights might influence decision support, and help advance decision making to

  2. Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous-led natural resource management (NRM on traditionally owned land in northern Australia has raised important questions in relation to policies that compensate indigenous Australians for providing environmental services. A choice experiment survey was mailed out to respondents across the whole of Australia to assess if and to what extent Australian people think that society benefits from these services and how much they would pay for them. More than half the respondents would in principle support indigenous NRM in northern Australia, with a high willingness to pay for carbon, biodiversity, and recreational services. Social aspects of indigenous NRM, however, were not valued by the society, emphasizing the need for awareness raising and clarifications of benefits that indigenous people gain while carrying out land management on their traditional country. Any marketing campaign should take into account preference variation across Australian society, which this research shows is substantial, particularly between people from the north and those from the south. People from the south were more likely to support indigenous NRM, a significant finding for campaigns targeting potential donors.

  3. Public transfers and living alone among the elderly: A case study of Korea's new income support program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hye-Won Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the significant implications of older adults' living arrangements for their well-being, it is not clear whether public transfers for the elderly will increase or decrease their independent living. A few natural experiments in the U.S. show that such support increases elders' living alone owing to their preferences for privacy. There has been little quasi-experimental evidence in Asia, where multigenerational coresidence is prevalent and norms and preferences for that form of living arrangement remain strong. Objective: In 2008 the Korean government introduced the Basic Old-Age Pension (BOAP, a means-tested income support program for elders. This article examines how the program affects unmarried Korean elders' likelihood of living alone. Methods: I analyze the 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 waves of the Korean Retirement and Income Study, a longitudinal survey of nationally representative Koreans. The analysis takes a difference-in-difference approach, which compares changes in the living arrangements of two elderly groups, one that received BOAP benefits and the other that did not. Results: Overall, the program has a negative, not positive, impact on elders' living alone. A closer look reveals that the transfers helped non-coresident elders to continue living alone and prevented coresident elders from forming one-person households. Conclusions: Ambivalent attitudes towards living alone in the transitional Korean society, together with the modest amount of BOAP benefits, appear to explain the mixed results. These findings are particularly relevant to other rapidly changing societies where public elder-support systems are expanding and norms of familial elder support are weakening.

  4. Conformity-driven agents support ordered phases in the spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Antonioni, Alberto; Caravelli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the spatial Public Goods Game in the presence of fitness-driven and conformity-driven agents. This framework usually considers only the former type of agents, i.e., agents that tend to imitate the strategy of their fittest neighbors. However, whenever we study social systems, the evolution of a population might be affected also by social behaviors as conformism, stubbornness, altruism, and selfishness. Although the term evolution can assume different meanings depending on the considered domain, here it corresponds to the set of processes that lead a system towards an equilibrium or a steady state. We map fitness to the agents' payoff so that richer agents are those most imitated by fitness-driven agents, while conformity-driven agents tend to imitate the strategy assumed by the majority of their neighbors. Numerical simulations aim to identify the nature of the transition, on varying the amount of the relative density of conformity-driven agents in the population, and to study the nature of related equilibria. Remarkably, we find that conformism generally fosters ordered cooperative phases and may also lead to bistable behaviors.

  5. Conformity-Driven Agents Support Ordered Phases in the Spatial Public Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Caravelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spatial Public Goods Game in the presence of conformity-driven agents on a bi-dimensional lattice with periodic boundary conditions. The present setting usually considers fitness-driven agents, i.e., agents that tend to imitate the strategy of their fittest neighbors. Here, fitness is a general property usually adopted to quantify the extent to which individuals are able to succeed, or at least to survive, in a competitive environment. However, when social systems are considered, the evolution of a population might be affected also by social behaviors as conformity, stubbornness, altruism, and selfishness. Although the term evolution can assume different meanings depending on the considered domain, here it corresponds to the set of processes that lead a system towards an equilibrium or a steady-state. In doing so, we use two types of strategy update rules: fitness-driven and conformity-driven. We map fitness to the agents' payoff so that richer agents are those most imitated by fitness-driv...

  6. Developing public awareness for climate change: Support from international research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, F.J.; Clements, W.E.

    1998-12-31

    Developing regional and local public awareness and interest in global climate change has been mandated as an important step for increasing the ability for setting policy and managing the response to climate change. Research programs frequently have resources that could help reach regional or national goals for increasing the capacity for responding to climate change. To obtain these resources and target recipients appropriately, research investigators need clear statements of national and regional strategies or priorities as a guide. One such program, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, has a requirement to develop local or regional education enrichment programs at their observational sites in the central US, the tropical western Pacific (TWP), and on the north slope of alaska. ARM's scientific goals will result in a flow of technical data and as well as technical expertise that can assist with regional needs to increase the technical resources needed to address climate change issues. Details of the ARM education program in the Pacific will be presented.

  7. Informal social support in contexts of diversity: shaping the relationship between the public and the private sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Naomi; Roets, Griet; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This paper aims to re-examine the social dimension of social support as the shared responsibility of social work and families in shaping social support rather than pressuring parents' individual responsibilities, as this has been a significantly under-theorised issue in social work research. In our qualitative study, we discuss parents' experiences of informal social support in Centres for Children and Parents (CCP) in two cities in Belgium. During 2012, six discussion groups were held with 29 mothers, three fathers and one nanny who visited one of the CCP included in the project. A broad topic list was used, investigating parents' first visit and motivations to return; their encounters with other children, parents and the professionals; and the actual role of the professional. Data were interpreted repeatedly using qualitative content analysis. The CCP focus on engaging with a wide diversity of parents of young children, not framed as 'at risk', reflecting the contemporary contexts of diversity in which these practices unfold. Our research shows that departing from an anti-essentialist approach to diversity and heterogeneity may be productive for the promotion of both social support and social cohesion as it captures social issues such as diverse and changing norms and values, diverse and changing family compositions, lifestyles and situations, and diverse and changing biographical, socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds of children and parents. As the CCP offer the opportunity of a confrontation between private issues and public concerns, social encounters between a diverse mix of families are experienced as supportive. While embracing parents' perspectives regarding equity, reciprocity, agency and social cohesion, it becomes clear that these processes of interaction require facilitation by a specific professional. In this article, we attempt to unravel and discuss the possible role(s) of social work in generating informal social support.

  8. GISEpi: a simple geographical information system to support public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, F F; Braga, A L; Pinheiro, R S; Lopes, J A

    1997-05-01

    One important question for the implementation of a surveillance system concern the type of instrument that can provide timely information on the course of diseases and other health events. This may facilitate prompt implementation of prevention and intervention efforts, such as strengthening control action in one specific area or initiation of epidemiological investigation. Since health related variables of interest are often spatially distributed they require special tools for representation and analysis. Owing to their inherent ability to manage spatial information, geographical information systems (GIS) provide an excellent framework for the design of surveillance systems. This paper presents a simple information system, based on the concepts of GIS, designed for representation and elementary analysis of epidemiological data. An example of its potential use to support malaria control activities in Brazil is discussed.

  9. Parenting competence, social support, and self-esteem in teen mothers case managed by public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, M M; Van Cleve, L; Levisen, L

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine whether self-esteem, parenting competence, and social support for teenage mothers changed over the first 18 months of parenting when case managed by a public health nurse (PHN). A sample of 56 first-time teen mothers from a health department parenting project agreed to participate in the study. PHN case managers collected data close to the birth of the infants and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Demographic findings of teen mothers showed that the majority were below expected grade level, over half lived with parents, and over half were children of teen mothers. Outcome findings related to the infants revealed no delays in development as measured on the Denver Development Screening Test, adequate follow-up for identified health problems, and a high percentage of the children with up-to-date with immunizations. The research question findings showed a statistically significant drop in self esteem for the teens between birth and 6 months, and in social support between 6 and 18 months. No other findings were significant, but some trends appeared when the sample was divided by ethnicity, suggesting a need for closer follow-up for certain groups. Implications for public health nursing and nursing education are included.

  10. Audience status moderates the effects of social support and self-efficacy on cardiovascular reactivity during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Christenfeld, Nicholas; Kulik, James A

    2002-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure responses to stress are implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, and an effort has been made to identify factors associated with such responses. One situational factor that impacts cardiovascular responses to stress is the presence of other people and their behavior. Here, we manipulated the status of the audience during a stressful public speaking task to explore its impact on reactivity and its possible role in moderating the effects of the speaker's confidence and the audience's response during the speech. Sixty-four normotensive female undergraduates, classified as having high or low self-efficacy for public speaking, gave a 5-min speech to an audience that responded positively or negatively. Half of the audiences were presented as public speaking experts and half as novices. Cardiovascular reactivity was greater for low-efficacy speakers and for those receiving positive feedback. Reactivity was also greater facing an expert audience. Furthermore, the effects of both self-efficacy and audience feedback were intensified before an expert audience. To understand social support effects, we must attend not only to characteristics of the recipient but also to those of the provider.

  11. Public administration of processes for supporting of inner ecology safety in Ukraine: organizational and legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Romanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the legal framework that regulates social relations in the field of internal environmental safety and provides a unified state policy and the exercise of powers by the authorities at all levels. Thus, in the legal field there are the gaps on many issues that are important in solving the tasks, including the powers and responsibilities of the various subjects of law in an extreme situation, as well as management and leadership of emergency rescue activity and other urgent works in disaster areas. It is established that to increase the state’s role in protecting the population from emergency situations of natural character, it is necessary to achieve a qualitative change in the legal status of government, the formation of relevant legislation and conduct regulation. In general, the process of regulation in addressing the problems of population protection from emergency situations of different nature must be carry out through the systematization of the national, regional and local levels regulations that are relevant to the issues of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations; also we must eliminate inconsistencies in current legislation and coordinate the national legislation with international. Based on analysis of existing and unresolved problems of internal environmental safety it is necessity to implement new mechanisms of state influence to prevent environmental degradation, the use of methods and means of protecting the population from current anthropogenic influences; reorganization of the territory, defining the boundaries of zones of sanitary, medical and sanitary survey of the population; ensuring internal environmental safety is realized with the help of legal, operational and rescue, functional and territorial public administration practices; the use of multi-state management controls that are able to simultaneously influence the situation in the sphere of nature.

  12. ScafBank: a public comprehensive Scaffold database to support molecular hopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bibo YAN; Mengzhu XUE; Bing XIONG; Ke LIU; Dingyu HU; Jingkang SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:The search for molecules whose bioactivities are similar to those of given compounds or to optimize the initial lead compounds from high throughput screening has attracted increasing interest in recent years.Our goal is to provide a publi-cally searchable database of scaffolds out from a large collection of existing chemical molecules.Results: Although a number of in silico methods have emerged to facilitate this process,which has become known as "scaffold hopping" or "molecular hopping",there is an urgent need for a database system to provide such valuable data in the drug design field.Here we have systematically analyzed a collection of commercially available small molecule databases and a bioactive compound database to identify unique scaffolds and we have built apublically searchable database.The analysis of approximately 4 800 000 of these compounds identified 241 824 unique scaffolds,which are stored in a relational database (http://202.127.30.184:8080/db.html).Each entry in the database is associated with a molecular occurrence and includes its distribution of molecular properties,such as molecular weight,logP,hydrogen bond acceptor number,hydrogen bond donor number,rotatable bond number and ring number.More importantly,for scaffolds derived from the bioactive compounds database,it also contains the original compounds and their target information.Conclusion: This Web-based database system could help researchers in the fields of medicinal and organic chemistry to design novel molecules with properties similar to the original compounds,but built on novel scaffolds.

  13. Toward a Public Toxicogenomics Capability for Supporting Predictive Toxicology: Survey of Current Resources and Chemical Indexing of Experiments in GEO and ArrayExpress

    Science.gov (United States)

    A publicly available toxicogenomics capability for supporting predictive toxicology and meta-analysis depends on availability of gene expression data for chemical treatment scenarios, the ability to locate and aggregate such information by chemical, and broad data coverage within...

  14. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2017-07-17

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  16. Terminology supported archiving and publication of environmental science data in PANGAEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Huber, Robert; Pesant, Stéphane; Stocker, Markus; Felden, Janine; Buss, Melanie; Weinrebe, Matthias

    2017-07-23

    Exemplified on the information system PANGAEA, we describe the application of terminologies for archiving and publishing environmental science data. A terminology catalogue (TC) was embedded into the system, with interfaces allowing to replicate and to manually work on terminologies. For data ingest and archiving, we show how the TC can improve structuring and harmonizing lineage and content descriptions of data sets. Key is the conceptualization of measurement and observation types (parameters) and methods, for which we have implemented a basic syntax and rule set. For data access and dissemination, we have improved findability of data through enrichment of metadata with TC terms. Semantic annotations, e.g. adding term concepts (including synonyms and hierarchies) or mapped terms of different terminologies, facilitate comprehensive data retrievals. The PANGAEA thesaurus of classifying terms, which is part of the TC is used as an umbrella vocabulary that links the various domains and allows drill downs and side drills with various facets. Furthermore, we describe how TC terms can be linked to nominal data values. This improves data harmonization and facilitates structural transformation of heterogeneous data sets to a common schema. Technical developments are complemented by work on the metadata content. Over the last 20 years, more than 100 new parameters have been defined on average per week. Recently, PANGAEA has increasingly been submitting new terms to various terminology services. Matching terms from terminology services with our parameter or method strings is supported programmatically. However, the process ultimately needs manual input by domain experts. The quality of terminology services is an additional limiting factor, and varies with respect to content, editorial, interoperability, and sustainability. Good quality terminology services are the building blocks for the conceptualization of parameters and methods. In our view, they are essential for data

  17. Family Support or School Readiness? Contrasting Models of Public Spending on Children's Early Care and Learning. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, public policy and expenditure intended to improve the prospects of children from low-income families have focused on better preparing children for school through Head Start and universal pre-K. This school readiness approach differs from the dominant model of public support for early care and learning in Northern Europe,…

  18. Expanding Technical Assistance Consultation to Public Schools: District-Wide Evaluation of Instructional and Behavior Support Practices for Students with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Robert F.; Luiselli, James K.; Jefferson, Gretchen, L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes consultation to a public school district in the form of a systems-wide evaluation of instructional and behavior support practices for students with developmental disabilities. The format of the evaluative model, respective findings, suggested remedies, and implications for large-scale public school consultation are provided. (Contains 22…

  19. The changing nature of clinical decision support systems: a focus on consumers, genomics, public health and decision safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, E; Lau, A Y S; Tsafnat, G; Sintchenko, V; Magrabi, F

    2009-01-01

    To review the recent research literature in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). A review of recent literature was undertaken, focussing on CDSS evaluation, consumers and public health, the impact of translational bioinformatics on CDSS design, and CDSS safety. In recent years, researchers have concentrated much less on the development of decision technologies, and have focussed more on the impact of CDSS in the clinical world. Recent work highlights that traditional process measures of CDSS effectiveness, such as document relevance are poor proxy measures for decision outcomes. Measuring the dynamics of decision making, for example via decision velocity, may produce a more accurate picture of effectiveness. Another trend is the broadening of user base for CDSS beyond front line clinicians. Consumers are now a major focus for biomedical informatics, as are public health officials, tasked with detecting and managing disease outbreaks at a health system, rather than individual patient level. Bioinformatics is also changing the nature of CDSS. Apart from personalisation of therapy recommendations, translational bioinformatics is creating new challenges in the interpretation of the meaning of genetic data. Finally, there is much recent interest in the safety and effectiveness of computerised physician order entry (CPOE) systems, given that prescribing and administration errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Of note, there is still much controversy surrounding the contention that poorly designed, implemented or used CDSS may actually lead to harm. CDSS research remains an active and evolving area of research, as CDSS penetrate more widely beyond their traditional domain into consumer decision support, and as decisions become more complex, for example by involving sequence level genetic data.

  20. Hardness Tester for Polyur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, D. L.; Buras, D. F.; Corbin, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Rubber-hardness tester modified for use on rigid polyurethane foam. Provides objective basis for evaluation of improvements in foam manufacturing and inspection. Typical acceptance criterion requires minimum hardness reading of 80 on modified tester. With adequate correlation tests, modified tester used to measure indirectly tensile and compressive strengths of foam.

  1. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  2. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dynamic hardness of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuecheng

    Dynamic hardness (Pd) of 22 different pure metals and alloys having a wide range of elastic modulus, static hardness, and crystal structure were measured in a gas pulse system. The indentation contact diameter with an indenting sphere and the radius (r2) of curvature of the indentation were determined by the curve fitting of the indentation profile data. r 2 measured by the profilometer was compared with that calculated from Hertz equation in both dynamic and static conditions. The results indicated that the curvature change due to elastic recovery after unloading is approximately proportional to the parameters predicted by Hertz equation. However, r 2 is less than the radius of indenting sphere in many cases which is contradictory to Hertz analysis. This discrepancy is believed due to the difference between Hertzian and actual stress distributions underneath the indentation. Factors which influence indentation elastic recovery were also discussed. It was found that Tabor dynamic hardness formula always gives a lower value than that directly from dynamic hardness definition DeltaE/V because of errors mainly from Tabor's rebound equation and the assumption that dynamic hardness at the beginning of rebound process (Pr) is equal to kinetic energy change of an impact sphere over the formed crater volume (Pd) in the derivation process for Tabor's dynamic hardness formula. Experimental results also suggested that dynamic to static hardness ratio of a material is primarily determined by its crystal structure and static hardness. The effects of strain rate and temperature rise on this ratio were discussed. A vacuum rotating arm apparatus was built to measure Pd at 70, 127, and 381 mum sphere sizes, these results exhibited that Pd is highly depended on the sphere size due to the strain rate effects. P d was also used to substitute for static hardness to correlate with abrasion and erosion resistance of metals and alloys. The particle size effects observed in erosion were

  4. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego, E-mail: vbmartins@ien.gov.br, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Impactos Ambientais; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  5. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Á Nagy

    2005-09-01

    The concept of the ensemble Kohn-Sham hardness is introduced. It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the limit → 0. It is proposed that the first excitation energy can be used as a reactivity index instead of the hardness.

  6. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  7. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  8. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  9. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A Support Vector Machine classification of galaxies, stars and AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, K; Pollo, A; Fritz, A; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Iovino, A; Granett, B R; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; De Lucia, G; de la Torre, S; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Marulli, F; McCracken, H J; Paioro, L; Polletta, M; Schlagenhaufer, H; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Burden, A; Di Porto, C; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Nichol, R C; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive method for classifying sources in large sky surveys and we apply the techniques to the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Using the optical (u*, g', r', i') and NIR data (z', Ks), we develop a classifier for identifying stars, AGNs and galaxies improving the purity of the VIPERS sample. Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised learning algorithms allow the automatic classification of objects into two or more classes based on a multidimensional parameter space. In this work, we tailored the SVM for classifying stars, AGNs and galaxies, and applied this classification to the VIPERS data. We train the SVM using spectroscopically confirmed sources from the VIPERS and VVDS surveys. We tested two SVM classifiers and concluded that including NIR data can significantly improve the efficiency of the classifier. The self-check of the best optical + NIR classifier has shown a 97% accuracy in the classification of galaxies, 97 for stars, and 95 for AGNs ...

  10. Hardness amplification in nondeterministic logspace

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sushmita

    2007-01-01

    A hard problem is one which cannot be easily computed by efficient algorithms. Hardness amplification is a procedure which takes as input a problem of mild hardness and returns a problem of higher hardness. This is closely related to the task of decoding certain error-correcting codes. We show amplification from mild average case hardness to higher average case hardness for nondeterministic logspace and worst-to-average amplification for nondeterministic linspace. Finally we explore possible ...

  11. Using a "small wind" demonstration project to support public extension and education in renewable energy and STEM disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'brien-gayes, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    inconsistent with a nation considered the world leader in scientific innovation. …The U.S. ranked 28th in math literacy and 24th in science literacy. This is a national and state level issue particularly in historically economically depressed areas. The program is developing content and supporting materials for select regional schools to facilitate the awareness of renewable energy fields and need for a wide range of technical and other disciplinary expertise to accelerate the development of the "green economy". Bringing this technology and program into the classroom is a valuable resource for local schools. It helps link public, K-12, university, regional economic development interests towards a common and interdisciplinary goal of increasing need for our society and environment. Experiential education has been found to be a key factor in creating student experiences that inspire students to pursue in traditionally difficult courses. Combining information in the STEM disciplines through renewable energy applications helps support efforts to address future needs and professional development.

  12. HOBE+, a case study: a virtual community of practice to support innovation in primary care in Basque Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abos Mendizabal, Galder; Nuño Solinís, Roberto; Zaballa González, Irune

    2013-11-05

    A virtual professional community of practice (VCoP), HOBE+, has been set up to foster and facilitate innovation in primary care. It is aimed at all primary care professionals of the Basque Public Health Service (Osakidetza) in the provinces of Biscay and Araba. HOBE + is a VCoP that incorporates innovation management from the generation of ideas to their implementation in primary care practice. We used a case study method, based on the data provided by the technology platform that supports the VCoP, and from a survey completed by HOBE + users. The target population was all primary care staff (including all professional categories) from Araba and Biscay provinces of the Basque Country (Spain), who represent the target users of the VCoP. From a total of 5190 professionals across all the professional categories invited to join, 1627 (31.3%) actually registered in the VCoP and, during the study period, 90 (5.5% of the registered users) participated actively in some way. The total number of ideas proposed by the registered users was 133. Of these, 23 ideas (17.2%) are being implemented. Finally, 80% of the users who answered the satisfaction survey about their experience with HOBE + considered the initiative useful in order to achieve continuous improvement and real innovation in clinical and managerial processes. The experience shows that it is possible to create a virtual CoP for innovation in primary care where professionals from different professional categories propose ideas for innovation that are ultimately implemented.This manuscript objectives are to assess the process of developing and implementing a VCoP open to all primary care professionals in Osakidetza, including the take-up, participation and use of this VCoP in the first 15 months after its launch in October 2011. In addition, the usefulness of the VCoP was assessed through a survey gathering the opinions of the professionals involved.

  13. Effective public involvement in the HoST-D Programme for dementia home care support: From proposal and design to methods of data collection (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa; Roe, Brenda; Hodgson, Anthony; Britt, David; Clarkson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Public involvement is an important element in health and social care research. However, it is little evaluated in research. This paper discusses the utility and impact of public involvement of carers and people with dementia in a five-year programme on effective home support in dementia, from proposal and design to methods of data collection, and provides a useful guide for future research on how to effectively involve the public. The Home SupporT in Dementia (HoST-D) Programme comprises two elements of public involvement, a small reference group and a virtual lay advisory group. Involving carers and people with dementia is based on the six key values of involvement - respect, support, transparency, responsiveness, fairness of opportunity, and accountability. Carers and people with dementia gave opinions on study information, methods of data collection, an economic model, case vignettes, and a memory aid booklet, which were all taken into account. Public involvement has provided benefits to the programme whilst being considerate of the time constraints and geographical locations of members.

  14. On Social Support for Public Library from a System Perspective%从制度视角谈公共图书馆社会支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁

    2012-01-01

    公共图书馆发展的资源一方面来自政府财政,另一方面来自社会。政府在公共图书馆制度建设方面的重要内容是培育图书馆社会支持组织、促进社会支持图书馆发展的责任。从图书馆制度的视角探讨公共图书馆社会支持的路径、方法与机制,以形成政府和社会对公共图书馆投入与支持的良性循环。%The development resources of public library are on the one hand from the government budget, and on the other hand from the community. Government' s role in the public library system construction is to cultivate the librarycommunity to support the organization and to promote the responsibility of the community to support library development. From the Perspective of the library system, the paper explores the path, methods and mechanisms of the public library social support, in order to form a virtuous cycle of the government and the community input and support for public libraries.

  15. Hard and superhard nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Univ. of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.

    2000-03-01

    This article reviews the development of hard coatings from a titanium nitride film through superlattice coatings to nanocomposite coatings. Significant attention is devoted to hard and superhard single layer nanocomposite coatings. A strong correlation between the hardness and structure of nanocomposite coatings is discussed in detail. Trends in development of hard nanocomposite coatings are also outlined. (orig.)

  16. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    In many European countries, accommodating water has become the dominant paradigm in river management. In the Netherlands, extensive river restoration projects are being implemented, many of which draw serious opposition from the public. To investigate the causes of such opposition, a comprehensive s

  17. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  18. Hard-hat day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN will be organizing a special information day on Friday, 27th June, designed to promote the wearing of hard hats and ensure that they are worn correctly. A new prevention campaign will also be launched.The event will take place in the hall of the Main Building from 11.30 a.m. to 2.00 p.m., when you will be able to come and try on various models of hard hat, including some of the very latest innovative designs, ask questions and pass on any comments and suggestions.

  19. Hardness of metallic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wuhui Li; Fengzhang Ren; Juanhua Su; Zhanhong Ma; Ke Cao; Baohong Tian

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new formula for calculating the hardness of metallic crystals, resulted from the research on the critical grain size with stable dislocations. The formula is = 6 /[(1 – )], where is the hardness, the coefficient, the shear modulus, the Poisson’s ratio, a function of the radius of an atom () and the electron density at the atom interface (). The formula will not only be used to testify the critical grain size with stable dislocations, but also play an important role in the understanding of mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals.

  20. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  1. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern's mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol's causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies.

  2. CSI: Hard Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  3. Hard Probes at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Z; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has measured several hard probe observables in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions at the LHC. These measurements include jets which show modification in the hot dense medium of heavy ion collisions as well as color neutral electro-weak bosons. Together, they elucidate the nature of heavy ion collisions.

  4. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  5. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  6. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...

  7. Running in Hard Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

  8. Hard times; Schwere Zeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-10-02

    The prices of silicon and solar wafers keep dropping. According to market research specialist IMS research, this is the result of weak traditional solar markets and global overcapacities. While many manufacturers are facing hard times, big producers of silicon are continuing to expand.

  9. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A support vector machine classification of galaxies, stars, and AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, K.; Solarz, A.; Pollo, A.; Fritz, A.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Iovino, A.; Granett, B. R.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive method for classifying sources in large sky surveys and to apply the techniques to the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Using the optical (u∗,g',r',i') and near-infrared (NIR) data (z', Ks), we develop a classifier, based on broad-band photometry, for identifying stars, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and galaxies, thereby improving the purity of the VIPERS sample. Methods: Support vector machine (SVM) supervised learning algorithms allow the automatic classification of objects into two or more classes based on a multidimensional parameter space. In this work, we tailored the SVM to classifying stars, AGNs, and galaxies and applied this classification to the VIPERS data. We trained the SVM using spectroscopically confirmed sources from the VIPERS and VVDS surveys. Results: We tested two SVM classifiers and concluded that including NIR data can significantly improve the efficiency of the classifier. The self-check of the best optical + NIR classifier has shown 97% accuracy in the classification of galaxies, 97% for stars, and 95% for AGNs in the 5-dimensional colour space. In the test of VIPERS sources with 99% redshift confidence, the classifier gives an accuracy equal to 94% for galaxies, 93% for stars, and 82% for AGNs. The method was applied to sources with low-quality spectra to verify their classification, hence increasing the security of measurements for almost 4900 objects. Conclusions: We conclude that the SVM algorithm trained on a carefully selected sample of galaxies, AGNs, and stars outperforms simple colour-colour selection methods and can be regarded as a very efficient classification method particularly suitable for modern large surveys. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programme 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint

  10. Infusion of Atmospheric Dust Model Outputs into a Public Health Decision Support System: The Integration of Open Geospatial Consortium Service Products Into the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Cavner, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    New Mexico's Environmental Public Health Tracking System (EPHTS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), aims to improve health awareness and services by linking health effects data with levels and frequency of environmental exposure. As a public health web-based decision-support system, EPHTS systems include: state-of-the-art statistical analysis tools; geospatial visualization tools; data discovery, extraction, and delivery tools; and environmental/public health linkage information. As part of its mandate, EPHTS issues public health advisories and forecasts of environmental conditions that have consequences for human health. Through a NASA-funded partnership between the University of New Mexico and the University of Arizona, efforts have been underway to infuse NASA Earth Science results, as well as meteorological forecast data, into two existing models (the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model) in order to improve forecasts of atmospheric dust, ozone, and aerosols. The goal of this work has been to develop services that can be integrated into existing public health decision support systems (DSS) to provide enhanced environmental data (i.e. ground surface particulate concentration estimates) for use in epidemiological analysis, public health warning systems, and syndromic surveillance systems. The results and products derived from the outputs of these models are made available to the New Mexico EPHTS. In particular, these products are integrated into existing clients within the larger framework of the EPHTS Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The SOA can be described as an multi-tiered architecture of interacting services, each providing a specific function. They include SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services to deliver maps, data, and analytical capabilities. This paper reviews the SOA developed as

  11. Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PROFIROIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

  12. Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch Education and Public Outreach Support of NASA's Strategic Goals in Fiscal Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Mallory A.

    2013-01-01

    As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientists, and the general public. This is so important to NASA s future that it is one of the agency s strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in achieving this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.

  13. Accessibility of Water-Related Cultural Ecosystem Services through Public Transport—A Model for Planning Support in the Stockholm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalantari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning for sustainable cities involves supporting compact, energy-efficient urban form as well as maintaining attractive and liveable urban landscapes. Attractive cities depend highly on services provided by ecosystems, especially cultural ecosystem services (ES, which give direct benefits to urban citizens. Therefore, access to a diversity of urban functions and publicly available ES by walking and public transport should be considered when planning for sustainable cities. This could be facilitated by user-friendly planning support models. The aim of this study was to develop a GIS-based model for assessing accessibility to ES, more specifically, water-related cultural ecosystem services (WCES, via walking and public transport, with input from stakeholders. The model was applied to the Stockholm region in Sweden. Travel times and census data were used to derive measures and maps of accessibility to prioritised WCES in the region, today and in urbanisation scenarios for 2050. The results showed how access to WCES varied spatially within the region. The number of potential visitors to different WCES sites now and in the future urbanisation scenarios was estimated, and areas in need for future development of the public transport system as well as WCES were identified. The GIS-based accessibility model has potential to be used as planning support in urban planning.

  14. A proposal for a computer-based framework of support for public health in the management of biological incidents: the Czech Republic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bures, Vladimír; Otcenásková, Tereza; Cech, Pavel; Antos, Karel

    2012-11-01

    Biological incidents jeopardising public health require decision-making that consists of one dominant feature: complexity. Therefore, public health decision-makers necessitate appropriate support. Based on the analogy with business intelligence (BI) principles, the contextual analysis of the environment and available data resources, and conceptual modelling within systems and knowledge engineering, this paper proposes a general framework for computer-based decision support in the case of a biological incident. At the outset, the analysis of potential inputs to the framework is conducted and several resources such as demographic information, strategic documents, environmental characteristics, agent descriptors and surveillance systems are considered. Consequently, three prototypes were developed, tested and evaluated by a group of experts. Their selection was based on the overall framework scheme. Subsequently, an ontology prototype linked with an inference engine, multi-agent-based model focusing on the simulation of an environment, and expert-system prototypes were created. All prototypes proved to be utilisable support tools for decision-making in the field of public health. Nevertheless, the research revealed further issues and challenges that might be investigated by both public health focused researchers and practitioners.

  15. Evidence-based practice implementation: the impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sommerfeld, David H; Walrath-Greene, Christine M

    2009-12-31

    The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings.

  16. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld David H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170. Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in

  17. Remember Hard but Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushu Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness, biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between hard and rigid and between soft and flexible in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affected cognitive functions requiring either rigidity (memory or flexibility (creativity. In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition than a cushioned one (the soft condition. In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity and flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations could be grounded via metaphorical association in bodily states.

  18. Benefit Goal Oriented Information Public System of Public Financial Support for Scientific Research Project%效益目标导向的公共财政支持科研项目信息公开机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商兰芳

    2013-01-01

      公共财政的公益性特征与资源配置职能决定了其支出不仅要满足社会公共需要与公众公共利益,而且应当符合社会净效益最大化的原则。因此建立在公共财政支持基础上的科研项目理应将效益作为其逻辑起点与目标追求。文章针对当前公共财政支持科研项目的现实起点,指出信息公开是联结两个起点的有效实践通道,并根据当前科研项目的现状,提出构建效益指向的科研项目信息公开机制的对策建议。%Characteristics of public welfare and public finance resource allocation function determines its spending not only to meet the social public needs and the public interest, and shall conform to the principles of net social benefit maximization. Therefore based on public financial support of scientific research project would benefit as the logical starting point and objective pursuit. This article in view of the current public financial support research projects the reality of the starting point, points out that the information is connecting two starting point the effective practice of the channel, and according to the current situation of scientific research project, and puts forward constructing benefit pointing in the direction of the scientific research project of information disclosure mechanism countermeasures.

  19. Theory of hard photoproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The present theoretical knowledge about photons and hard photoproduction processes, i.e. the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons in photon-photon and photon-hadron collisions, is reviewed. Virtual and polarized photons and prompt photon production in hadron collisions are also discussed. The most important leading and next-to-leading order QCD results are compiled in analytic form. A large variety of numerical predictions is compared to data from TRISTAN...

  20. Green public procurement – legal base and instruments supporting sustainable development in the construction industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozik Renata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the respect of value, public procurement in the construction industry belongs to one of the largest ones in the domestic market. Therefore, green procurement for construction works should become the center of attention of public authorities in a broad sense, due to its scale and importance for the sustainable development. The authorities and contracting entities who spend public money should have the opportunity to apply such legal articles and instruments that allow them to both optimize public expenditures and consider the environmental factor, such as decreasing carbon emission. To make the idea of sustainable development a reality as European Union’s the most vital aim, EU law is implemented in Poland. Local authorities’ duty is to appropriately shape their policies and use the vital instrument of sustainable development, namely green public procurement. This paper presents a comparative analysis of legal regulations to illustrate the actual Polish and EU laws concerning the construction industry. Even though the generally applicable law allows to implement the idea of sustainable development efficiently, local self-government units in their regional policies do not report any need for specific solutions, or they do so only occasionally.

  1. Understanding Public Perception of and Participation in Non-Revenue Water Management in Malaysia to Support Urban Water Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hui Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contextualising the serious water loss, inefficient resource utilization, and ineffective water utility management in Malaysia, the objective of this study is to understand the public’s perception of non-revenue water (NRW management in order to provide policy inputs, and to determine ways to improve public participation in NRW reduction. Findings reveal that there is currently only meagre public participation in NRW management in Malaysia, with a majority of the respondents demonstrating a lack of knowledge and awareness on NRW; over-dependence on water utility and government agencies in reducing NRW rates; and failure to submit a report when a leaking pipe is noticed. Educating the public on the importance of reducing NRW and promoting public interests and concerns around water tariffs, is essential to improve NRW reductions in Malaysia. Community-led strategies to better engage the public in addressing NRW-related issues have to be enhanced. To this end, concrete policy implications derived from the findings of the study are outlined.

  2. Public support for a sugar-sweetened beverage tax and pro-tax messages in a Mid-Atlantic US state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Rutkow, Lainie; Villanti, Andrea C; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-08-01

    To examine the characteristics of supporters and opponents of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax and to identify pro-tax messages that resonate with the public. A survey was administered by telephone in February 2013 to assess public opinion about a penny-per-ounce tax on SSB. Support was also examined for SSB consumption reduction and pro-tax messages. Individual characteristics including sociodemographics, political affiliation, SSB consumption behaviours and beliefs were explored as predictors of support using logistic regression. A representative sample of voters was recruited from a Mid-Atlantic US state. The sample included 1000 registered voters. Findings indicate considerable support (50 %) for an SSB tax. Support was stronger among Democrats, those who believe SSB are a major cause of childhood obesity and those who believe childhood obesity warrants a societal intervention. Belief that a tax would be effective in lowering obesity rates was associated with support for the tax and pro-tax messages. Respondents reporting that a health-care provider had recommended they lose weight were less convinced by pro-tax messages. Women, Independents and those concerned about childhood obesity were more convinced by the SSB reduction messages. Overall, the most popular messages focused on the importance of reducing consumption among children without mentioning the tax. Understanding who supports and opposes SSB tax measures can assist advocates in developing strategies to maximize support for this type of intervention. Messages that focus on the effect of consumption on children may be useful in framing the discussion around SSB tax proposals.

  3. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Louis K [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  4. Are We Supporting Teacher Success: Insights from an Alternative Route Mathematics Teacher Certification Program for Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Q.; Brantlinger, Andrew; Haydar, Hanna N.; Smith, Beverly; Gonzalez, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine induction policies and practices for new alternatively certified mathematics teachers in the country's largest urban school district, New York City. Our focus is on the support system for such teachers as it is legislated and as it is enacted. This includes the induction and general supports (e.g., mentoring, coaching,…

  5. School Autonomy and District Support: How Principals Respond to a Tiered Autonomy Initiative in Philadelphia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    A tiered autonomy policy was recently implemented in Philadelphia, where select principals were granted autonomy to manage school operations while others were promised greater district support to improve school functioning. This article provides evidence on how principals used their autonomy and the extent of district support for non-autonomous…

  6. Are We Supporting Teacher Success: Insights from an Alternative Route Mathematics Teacher Certification Program for Urban Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Q.; Brantlinger, Andrew; Haydar, Hanna N.; Smith, Beverly; Gonzalez, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine induction policies and practices for new alternatively certified mathematics teachers in the country's largest urban school district, New York City. Our focus is on the support system for such teachers as it is legislated and as it is enacted. This includes the induction and general supports (e.g., mentoring, coaching,…

  7. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  8. A modelling tool for policy analysis to support the design of efficient and effective policy responses for complex public health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Page, Andrew; Wells, Robert; Milat, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-03-03

    In the design of public health policy, a broader understanding of risk factors for disease across the life course, and an increasing awareness of the social determinants of health, has led to the development of more comprehensive, cross-sectoral strategies to tackle complex problems. However, comprehensive strategies may not represent the most efficient or effective approach to reducing disease burden at the population level. Rather, they may act to spread finite resources less intensively over a greater number of programs and initiatives, diluting the potential impact of the investment. While analytic tools are available that use research evidence to help identify and prioritise disease risk factors for public health action, they are inadequate to support more targeted and effective policy responses for complex public health problems. This paper discusses the limitations of analytic tools that are commonly used to support evidence-informed policy decisions for complex problems. It proposes an alternative policy analysis tool which can integrate diverse evidence sources and provide a platform for virtual testing of policy alternatives in order to design solutions that are efficient, effective, and equitable. The case of suicide prevention in Australia is presented to demonstrate the limitations of current tools to adequately inform prevention policy and discusses the utility of the new policy analysis tool. In contrast to popular belief, a systems approach takes a step beyond comprehensive thinking and seeks to identify where best to target public health action and resources for optimal impact. It is concerned primarily with what can be reasonably left out of strategies for prevention and can be used to explore where disinvestment may occur without adversely affecting population health (or equity). Simulation modelling used for policy analysis offers promise in being able to better operationalise research evidence to support decision making for complex problems

  9. Astronomical Libraries Make the Future Happen: Support to Public Communication of Science as Part of the Library Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

    2010-10-01

    Despite the advent of the electronic age and the wide dissemination of information of all kinds via the Internet, the specialized library can and will become an active pole in the knowledge-based society. By exploiting their scientific authority and consequent validation of information accuracy, libraries can build a bridge between science and the public. The "Declaration Concerning the Evolving Role of Libraries in Research Centres" (2007) describes a moment of great impetus in the professional activity of librarians but is also a cry of alarm for the unique situation of the libraries in research centres. This presentation will consider the theoretical context of this point of view and focus on libraries in main European research centres. Particular attention will be paid to their relationship with the dissemination of scientific information to the general public and their role in public outreach.

  10. A hard case for modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsh

    2002-10-01

    Some fighter pilots alive today owe their survival to tough, low-weight helmets whose qualities have been refined as a result of biomechanical modeling. Porter and his colleagues have modeled the human head as a mechanical arrangement of a heavy ball on a rod support, as a system of soft matter contained in a hard case, as an arrangement of meso-scale sub-systems, and as a combination of material systems built up from the nano-molecular and atomic scales. An extensive modeling hierarchy (Fig. 1 is held on nothing more esoteric than a networked workstation and server architecture. Nevertheless, thanks to a process of focused simplification at each hierarchical level, it is able to predict the mechanical behavior of the human head and its constituents in reacting to impacts with considerable accuracy.

  11. US Army Public Health Command’s (Prov) (Formly USACHPPM) Process to Screen Chemicals in Support of DoD’s CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    US Army Public Health Command’s (Prov) (Formly USACHPPM) Process to Screen Chemicals in Support of DoD’s CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program...CMRM Emerging Contaminants Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Occupational Health • DoD Instruction 5000.2 Operation of the Defense Acquisition System • DoD Instruction 4715.18 Emerging Contaminants (EC

  12. Home-School Differences in Beliefs, Support, and Control during Public Pre-kindergarten and their Link to Children's Kindergarten Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Downer, Jason; Odom, Erica; Head, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of home-school match in child-rearing beliefs and socialization practices (control and support) and their relation to ethnicity and readiness skills of children (n=310) making the transition from publicly sponsored pre-k to kindergarten. Home-school match was operationalized both as a continuous absolute measure and as categories of match or mismatch. Overall, home-school match was more prevalent than mismatch. However, the results corroborate previous ethno...

  13. Microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Vrdoljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses as ready-to-eat food should be considered as a potential source of foodborne pathogens, primarily Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of present study was to determine the microbiological quality of soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses during the shelf-life, with particular reference to L. monocytogenes. Five types of cheeses were sampled at different timepoints during the cold storage and analyzed for presence of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, as well as lactic acid bacteria, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, molds, sulfite-reducing clostridia and L. monocytogenes counts. Water activity, pH and NaCl content were monitored in order to evaluate the possibility of L. monocytogenes growth. Challenge test for L. monocytogenes was performed in soft whey cheese, to determine the growth potential of pathogen during the shelf-life of product. All analyzed cheeses were compliant with microbiological criteria during the shelf-life. In soft cheeses, lactic acid bacteria increased in the course of the shelf-life period (1.2-2.6 log increase, while in semi-hard and hard cheeses it decreased (1.6 and 5.2 log decrease, respectively. Soft cheeses support the growth of L. monocytogenes according to determined pH values (5.8-6.5, water activity (0.99-0.94, and NaCl content (0.3-1.2%. Challenge test showed that L. monocytogenes growth potential in selected soft cheese was 0.43 log10 cfu/g during 8 days at 4°C. Water activity in semi-hard and hard cheeses was a limiting factor for Listeria growth during the shelf-life. Soft, semi-hard and hard cheeses were microbiologically stable during their defined shelf-life. Good manufacturing and hygienic practices must be strictly followed in the production of soft cheeses as Listeria-supporting food and be focused on preventing (recontamination.

  14. Does the mixture of policy instruments matter? An empirical test of government support for the private provision of public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mulder (Arjen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGovernments wishing to encourage the private sector provision of a public good can choose amongst a wide variety of economic instruments. This paper analyses how governments in the EU(15) countries have succeeded in stimulating investment in wind turbines between 1985 and 2000, using nat

  15. "GotFlu Channel": An Online Syndromic Surveillance Tool Supporting College Health Practice and Public Health Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Valerie; Shick-Porter, Melodie; Moore, Deborah; Grant, Darrell; Wolfe, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop a tool to ease the burden of H1N1 influenza on a campus clinic by promoting self-care, generating medical notes, and identifying vulnerable students. Participants: Students at Brock University, a mid-sized urban campus; Brock's Student Health Services; and Niagara Public Health. Methods: Students accessed a controlled portal of…

  16. DOE role in support of a small-scale appropriately distributed technology. Official transcript of public briefing and addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    This report first lists 94 questions raised relative to the DOE public briefing on appropriate technology. The keynote speaker was John O'Leary who gave some perceptions of the future. The introductory speech was given by Phillip S. Hughes. Panel members from DOE who provided answers to the questions were: Maxine Savitz, John Deutch, Robert Thorne, and Donald Beattie. (MCW)

  17. Interest Groups Vie for Public Support: The Battle Over Anti-Affirmative Action Initiatives in California and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    Although affirmative action in college admissions has not been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the consideration of race in admissions has been banned in nine states--in six of them by public vote. This article analyzes the campaigns to ban affirmative action in California and Michigan as a battle between interest groups. The…

  18. Building an Information System to Support Continuous Improvement in California Public Schools. Policy Brief 08-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara; Perez, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Data-based decision making has been the mantra of the school reform movement since the late 1980s, but California does not yet have an effective system for collecting and using vital school information. California has taken a number of steps to address this shortcoming. These include the Public School Accountability Act of 1999 and Senate bills…

  19. The Support to Rural India's Public Education System (STRIPES) trial: a cluster randomised controlled trial of supplementary teaching, learning material and material support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Eble, Alex; Bhakta, Preetha; Frost, Chris; Boone, Peter; Elbourne, Diana; Mann, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the STRIPES trial was to assess the effectiveness of providing supplementary, remedial teaching and learning materials (and an additional 'kit' of materials for girls) on a composite of language and mathematics test scores for children in classes two, three and four in public primary schools in villages in the Nagarkurnool division of Andhra Pradesh, India. STRIPES was a cluster randomised trial in which 214 villages were allocated either to the supplementary teaching intervention (n = 107) or to serve as controls (n = 107). 54 of the intervention villages were further randomly allocated to receive additional kit for girls. The study was not blinded. Analysis was conducted on the intention to treat principle, allowing for clustering. Composite test scores were significantly higher in the intervention group (107 villages; 2364 children) than in the control group (106 villages; 2014 children) at the end of the trial (mean difference on a percentage scale 15.8; 95% CI 13.1 to 18.6; pteaching and learning materials had a substantial impact on language and mathematics scores of primary school students in rural Andhra Pradesh, yet providing a 'kit' of materials to girls in these villages did not lead to any measured additional benefit. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN69951502.

  20. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    -profile cases for which additional resources are available for tool application or in case-study regions where place-specific models have already been developed. To improve the value of these tools in decisionmaking, we suggest scientific needs that agencies such as U.S. Geological Survey can help meet—for instance, development and support of data archives. Such archives could greatly reduce resource needs and improve the reliability and consistency of results. Given the rapid state of evolution in the field, periodic follow-up studies on ecosystem services tools would help to ensure that the Bureau of Land Management and other public land management agencies are kept up to date on new tools and features that bring ecosystem services closer to readiness for use in regular decisionmaking.

  1. Referral system for hard exudates in eye fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Gohar; Zafar, Muhammad Faisal; Haq, Ihsan ul

    2015-09-01

    Hard exudates are one of the most common anomalies/artifacts found in the eye fundus of patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. These exudates are the major cause of loss of sight or blindness in people having diabetic retinopathy. Diagnosis of hard exudates requires considerable time and effort of an ophthalmologist. The ophthalmologists have become overloaded, so that there is a need for an automated diagnostic/referral system. In this paper a referral system for the hard exudates in the eye-fundus images has been presented. The proposed referral system works by combining different techniques like Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), K-means Clustering, Visual Dictionaries and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The system was also tested with Back Propagation Neural Network as a classifier. To test the performance of the system four fundus image databases were used. One publicly available image database was used to compare the performance of the system to the existing systems. To test the general performance of the system when the images are taken under different conditions and come from different sources, three other fundus image databases were mixed. The evaluation of the system was also performed on different sizes of the visual dictionaries. When using only one fundus image database the area under the curve (AUC) of maximum 0.9702 (97.02%) was achieved with accuracy of 95.02%. In case of mixed image databases an AUC of 0.9349 (93.49%) was recorded having accuracy of 87.23%. The results were compared to the existing systems and were found better/comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory of hard photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2002-06-01

    The present theoretical knowledge about photons and hard photoproduction processes, i.e. the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons in photon-photon and photon-hadron collisions, is reviewed. Virtual and polarized photons and prompt photon production in hadron collisions are also discussed. The most important leading and next-to-leading order QCD results are compiled in analytic form. A large variety of numerical predictions is compared to data from TRISTAN, LEP, and HERA and extended to future electron and muon colliders. The sources of all relevant results are collected in a rich bibliography. (orig.)

  3. Publication Speed, Reporting Metrics, and Citation Impact of Cardiovascular Trials Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Lauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that cardiovascular (CV) trials funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) were more likely to be published in a timely manner and receive high raw citation counts if they focused on clinical endpoints. We did not examine the metrics of trial reports, and our citation measures were limited by failure to account for topic-related citation behaviors. Methods and Results Of 244 CV trials completed between 2000 and 2011, we identified 184 whose main results were published by August 20, 2014. One investigator who was blinded to rapidity of publication and citation data read each publication and characterized it according to modified Delphi criteria. There were 46 trials (25%) that had Delphi scores of 8 or 9 (of a possible 9); these trials published faster (median time from trial completion to publication, 12.6 [interquartile range {IQR}, 6.7 to 23.3] vs. 21.8 [IQR, 12.1 to 34.9] months; Pcitation impact (median citation percentile for topic and date of publication, with 0 best and 100 worst, 1.92 [IQR, 0.64 to 7.83] vs. 8.41 [IQR, 1.80 to 24.75]; P=0.002). By random forest regression, we found that the 3 most important predictors of normalized citation percentile values were total costs, intention-to-treat analyses (as a modified Delphi quality measure), and focus on clinical (not surrogate) endpoints. Conclusions NHLBI CV trials were more likely to publish results quickly and yield higher topic-normalized citation impact if they reported results according to well-defined metrics, along with focus on clinical endpoints. PMID:26231845

  4. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER Site (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible sitting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 45 refs.

  5. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  6. [Work-to-family influence and social supports: job satisfaction in a north-Italy public health organization --differences between medical and administrative staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lara; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in the well-being at work has grown considerably, also considering the latest law directives. Several scholars have devoted particular attention to the topic of the work-to-family influence and of social supports, as elements able to affect the perceived well-being. The well-being in health care has to consider the particular nature of work and the relevant relational dimensions that require special attention for the emotional side. The research was promoted by the Committee for Equal Opportunities of a public health organization in the North-West Italy. Referring to the job demands-resources theoretical model, this study investigated the role of organizational and family supports, work-to-family spillover (positive and negative) and family workload as possible determinants of job satisfaction, intended as an indicator of psychological well-being at work. Respondents to the questionnaire are 541 (55% of the total employees), their average age is 43 and they are mostly women (80%). Data analysis showed the central role of supervisors supports, of the co-workers supports and, to a lesser extent, the role of the work-to-family spillover in influencing job satisfaction. Moreover, significant differences between medical and administrative staff were detected. The centrality of supports, especially those of supervisors in determining job satisfaction, is in line with studies indicating that a supportive leadership and a family-friendly culture can facilitate the arise of positive outcomes for both workers and organizations.

  7. Parents welcome "hard-hitting" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The FPA (Family Planning Association)'s recent pilot campaign to encourage parents to talk to their children about sex has generated an excellent response rate. Funded by the Department of Health as part of "The health of the nation" efforts to reduce unplanned teenage pregnancies, the campaign centered on two radio advertisements. Aired during March in Greater London and North West England, the advertisements featured a free phone number from which people could obtain free copies of the booklet "Answering your child's questions," part of the FPA's "Growing Up" series. Nearly 7500 copies of the booklet were distributed in response to over 5000 requests--2500 rang in the first week alone. Most requests were from parents (69% mothers, 31% fathers) with one to three children aged between 7 and 13. Over 1000 requests were from parents with children under 7. Hundreds of schools, youth clubs, health professionals and voluntary organizations requested multiple booklets for use in their work. Research carried out to gauge public reaction showed overwhelming support for the campaign's message, demonstrating the immense need by parents for information in this area. "Answering your child's questions" was praised for being "open, direct and easy to follow." One parent said, "The booklet arms parents with the right way of putting information across." Parents described the advertisements as "hard-hitting" and "attention-grabbing." One listener commented: "They really stopped me in my tracks." FPA director Doreen Massey said: "The favorable reaction to the campaign is extremely encouraging. We are looking at ways to relay this pilot effort into a full-scale UK-wide campaign next year."

  8. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between “hard” and “rigid” and between “soft” and “flexible” in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations. PMID:27672373

  9. Increasing public support for food-industry related, obesity prevention policies: The role of a taste-engineering frame and contextualized values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Selena E; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Adler, Gary J

    2016-05-01

    Support for policies to combat obesity is often undermined by a public sense that obesity is largely a matter of personal responsibility. Industry rhetoric is a major contributor to this perception, as the soda/fast food/big food companies emphasize choice and individual agency in their efforts to neutralize policies that are burdensome. Yet obesity experts recognize that environmental forces play a major role in obesity. We investigate whether exposure to a taste-engineering frame increases support for food and beverage policies that address obesity. A taste-engineering frame details strategies used by the food industry to engineer preferences and increase the over-consumption of processed foods and sugary beverages. We also examine the effects of exposure to two contextualized values that have recently been promoted in expert discourse-consumer knowledge and consumer safety - on public support of policies. Our research shows how causal frames and contextualized values may effectively produce support for new obesity policies. We use an online survey experiment to test the effects of exposure to a taste-engineering frame (TEF), the value of consumer knowledge (CK), or the value of consumer safety (CS), on level of support for a range of policies. A random sample of adults, age 18 + living in the United States was included in the study (N = 2580). Ordered logistic regression was used to measure the effects of treatment exposure. The primary outcome was level-of-support for four (4) food-industry related, obesity prevention policies (aka food and beverage policies): 1) require food-manufacturers to disclose the amount of additives in food products on food packaging; 2) require food-manufacturers to advertise food products in accordance with their actual nutritional value; 3) prohibit all high-fat, high-sugar food advertising on television programming watched primarily by children; and 4) increase healthy food availability in work sites, schools, and hospitals

  10. 22nd RD50 Workshop on Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for High Luminosity Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Sally [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-05-06

    The 22nd RD50 Workshop on Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for High Luminosity Colliders was held on the campus of the University of New Mexico from June 3 to 5, 2013. This was the first North American meeting of the series going back to 2001. The sessions covered Material and Defect Characterization, Detector Characterization, Full Detector Systems, and New Structures. A half-day mini-workshop was allocated to radiation damage at LHC experiments. All talks are archived permanently available to the public at rd50.web.cern.ch. Financial support was used for room rental audiovisual equipment rental, and document preparation services.

  11. The Politics of Information: Building a Relational Database To Support Decision-Making at a Public University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Debra; Hoffman, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    Describes creation of a relational database at the University of Washington supporting ongoing academic planning at several levels and affecting the culture of decision making. Addresses getting started; sharing the database; questions, worries, and issues; improving access to high-demand courses; the advising function; management of instructional…

  12. The "Virtual Face" of Distance Learning at Public Colleges and Universities: What Do Websites Reveal about Administrative Student Support Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Meyer, Katrina A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how higher education institutions support their distance learning initiatives through their institutional websites--their "virtual face." The population was 40 institutions, of which 10 each were doctoral/research, master, baccalaureate, and community college, located in 40 different states. Using a researcher-developed…

  13. Examining the Digital Divide in K-12 Public Schools: Four-Year Trends for Supporting ICT Literacy in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.; Kemker, Kate

    2008-01-01

    While there is evidence that access to computers in schools has increased, there remain questions about whether low socio-economic status (SES) schools provide students with equitable supports for achieving information communication technology (ICT) literacy. This research first presents a theoretical model to examine the digital divide within…

  14. BiebBeep: An Interactive Screen for Supporting Public Library 2.0 Information and Social Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Meys, Wouter; Groen, Maarten; Veenstra, Mettina; Slakhorst, Wout

    2011-01-01

    This video presents BiebBeep, an interactive touchscreen system that has been developed with the aim to support information and social services for the New Library in Almere, The Netherlands. The constantly updated information displayed on the interactive screen concerns not only the library itself,

  15. A Computational Model of Public Support for Insurgency and Terrorism: A Prototype for More-General Social-Science Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder... Religious change • Caliphate • Millennialism Political change • Independence of state • Anarchy... Single-issue change...involve, for example, sympathy, approval, material contributions, sheltering from the government, or direct participation in insurgent operations...insurgency and terrorism Impulses, emotions, social psychology Environmental factors • International political -military (e.g., state support) • Economic and

  16. Public and Private Lives: Institutional Structures and Personal Supports in Low-Income Single Mothers' Educational Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerven, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a case study of 60 low-income single mothers in California, I present a grounded account of the barriers and supports single mothers encounter in their pursuit of postsecondary education (PSE) and detail what the women themselves attributed to their success. I highlight the role both significant others (peers, family, friends) and…

  17. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  18. [Special Issue on Hmong Newcomers to Saint Paul Public Schools] Supporting Hmong Newcomers’ Academic and Social Transition to Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Bigelow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When elementary aged Hmong children were resettled in St. Paul Public Schools after the closing of the Wat Tham Krabok refugee camp in Thailand, their families largely enrolled them in either a Transitional Language Center or a Language Academy program. This study reports on the perceptions teachers and educational assistants had about how well these programs met the needs of this unique population of newcomers. Findings show that the Transitional Language Centers were better able to ease the adjustment to school for the Hmong newcomers because of the safe, bilingual environment they created.

  19. [Special Issue on Hmong Newcomers to Saint Paul Public Schools] Supporting Hmong Newcomers Academic and Social Transition to Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Bigelow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When elementary aged Hmong children were resettled in St. Paul Public Schools after the closing of the Wat Tham Krabok refugee camp in Thailand, their families largely enrolled them in either a Transitional Language Center or a Language Academy program. This study reports on the perceptions teachers and educational assistants had about how well these programs met the needs of this unique population of newcomers. Findings show that the Transitional Language Centers were better able to ease the adjustment to school for the Hmong newcomers because of the safe, bilingual environment they created.

  20. Cracking a Hard Nut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Public institutions are new focus of reform efforts After more than three decades of reform,China has finally decided to reshape public institutions to improve social services.In March,the Chinese Governmenti mplemented a program to reform publici nstitutions nationwide by type.On June 2,a detailed timetable was announced at a conference in Beijing,inaugurating one of thec ountry’s toughest reforms in history.

  1. [Institutional support as a method of analysis-intervention in the context of public health policies: the experience in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Maria Elizabeth Barros de; Guedes, Carla Ribeiro; Roza, Monica Maria Raphael

    2011-12-01

    The article addresses the elaboration of a method for analysis/intervention in the sphere of public health policies. It describes the introduction of the National Humanization Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) in a general hospital. It proposes institutional support expressed as a method for doing things that seeks the creation of group action, work process analysis and involves examining work management methods. It relies on promotion of health, which implies the production of subjects. The promotion of health is a networking process that involves individuals, work processes, knowledge and power. The challenge of supporting this network is to foster the exercise of the role of individuals and summon the inherent creative potential of life for the construction of new ways of work management that are not new forms of subjection. The study aims to show that by means of institutional support it is possible to bring to the fore the forces involved in the promotion of health and thereby summon the groups for an analysis of its implications. The effects produced indicate that this is a powerful strategy for the intervention of work processes within the scope of public health policies.

  2. Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, mass shootings by persons with serious mental illness have received extensive news media coverage. The authors test the effects of news stories about mass shootings on public attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and support for gun control policies. They also examine whether news coverage of proposals to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns exacerbates the public's negative attitudes toward this group. The authors conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=1,797) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to groups instructed to read one of three news stories or to a no-exposure control group. The news stories described, respectively, a mass shooting by a person with serious mental illness, the same mass shooting and a proposal for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness, and the same mass shooting and a proposal to ban large-capacity magazines. Outcome measures included attitudes toward working with or living near a person with serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness of persons with serious mental illness, and support for gun restrictions for persons with serious mental illness and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Compared with the control group, the story about a mass shooting heightened respondents' negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and raised support for gun restrictions for this group and for a ban on large-capacity magazines. Including information about the gun restriction policy in a story about a mass shooting did not heighten negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness or raise support for the restrictions. The aftermath of mass shootings is often viewed as a window of opportunity to garner support for gun control policies, but it also exacerbates negative attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness.

  3. Support for a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to an Alzheimer's disease medication: a survey of the general public in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarride Jean-Eric

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public drug insurance plans provide limited reimbursement for Alzheimer's disease (AD medications in many jurisdictions, including Canada and the United Kingdom. This study was conducted to assess Canadians' level of support for an increase in annual personal income taxes to fund a public program of unrestricted access to AD medications. Methods A telephone survey was administered to a national sample of 500 adult Canadians. The survey contained four scenarios describing a hypothetical, new AD medication. Descriptions varied across scenarios: the medication was alternatively described as being capable of treating the symptoms of cognitive decline or of halting the progression of cognitive decline, with either no probability of adverse effects or a 30% probability of primarily gastrointestinal adverse effects. After each scenario, participants were asked whether they would support a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to the drug. Participants who responded affirmatively were asked whether they would pay an additional $75, $150, or $225 per annum in taxes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the determinants of support for a tax increase. Results Eighty percent of participants supported a tax increase for at least one scenario. Support was highest (67% for the most favourable scenario (halt progression - no adverse effects and lowest (49% for the least favourable scenario (symptom treatment - 30% chance of adverse effects. The odds of supporting a tax increase under at least one scenario were approximately 55% less for participants who attached higher ratings to their health state under the assumption that they had moderate AD and almost five times greater if participants thought family members or friends would somewhat or strongly approve of their decision to support a tax increase. A majority of participants would pay an additional $150 per annum in taxes, regardless of scenario. Less

  4. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...

  5. Hard photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    In view of possible photoproduction studies in ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, we briefly review the present theoretical understanding of photons and hard photoproduction processes at HERA, discussing the production of jets, light and heavy hadrons, quarkonia, and prompt photons. We address in particular the extraction of the strong coupling constant from photon structure function and inclusive jet measurements, the infrared safety and computing time of jet definitions, the sensitivity of di-jet cross sections on the parton densities in the photon, factorization breaking in diffractive di-jet production, the treatment of the heavy-quark mass in charm production, the relevance of the color-octet mechanism for quarkonium production, and isolation criteria for prompt photons. (author)

  6. [Eduard Lent (1831-1911): founder and supporter of public health care, social institutions, and physician self-management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, V

    2014-06-01

    Modern urology owes much to our predecessors. Researchers in the 20th century were able to develop their specialist techniques and their professional independence on the basis of the fundamental studies and measures carried out by their predecessors in the 19th century. As a medical practitioner, Eduard Lent provided pioneering solutions to the three major sociomedical problems of his time, namely wide-spread epidemics like cholera, social inequalities, and lack of organization of the medical profession. His answer are to be found in the organization of public healthcare, establishment of suitable social institutions, and the promotion of self-government of the medical profession. These achievements have left their imprint on many fields, including urology.

  7. Short communication: East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Fertő

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian and West (French European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  8. Supporting the Creation and Publication of Reviewed and Tested Teaching Modules through the InTeGrate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Birnbaum, S. J.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Gosselin, D. C.; Iverson, E. A. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Steer, D. N.; Taber, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    InTeGrate is dedicated to providing robust curricular materials that increase Earth literacy among undergraduate students. As of August 2016, 14 modules that use an interdisciplinary approach to teach about Earth-related sustainability issues across the curriculum have been published, and 19 courses and modules are undergoing final revisions. Materials are designed for undergraduate courses and have been tested in a variety of disciplines including geoscience, engineering, humanities, ethics, and Spanish language courses. The materials were developed, tested, revised, and reviewed using a two-year, highly scaffolded process that involves meeting a series of checkpoints, and is supported by a team of experts who provide guidance and formative feedback throughout the process. A series of webinars also supported teams in the development process. Author teams comprise 3-6 faculty members from at least three different institutions. Authors work collaboratively in a templated webspace designed specifically for creating materials, and representatives from the InTeGrate leadership, assessment, and web teams support each group of authors. This support team provides guidance and feedback on content, pedagogy, and web layout as authors develop materials. Authors attend two face-to-face meetings, one at the beginning of the process and another after materials are piloted in authors' classes. These meetings serve to initially orient authors to the development process, including the rubric that will guide their work, and in making revisions following the piloting phase of the project. Authors report that the meetings also provide professional development experience wherein they learn about pedagogy from each other and team leaders. The bulk of the materials development occurs remotely, with teams meeting regularly via teleconference as they follow the project timeline. All materials undergo review against the Materials Design and Refinement Rubric to ensure they meet project

  9. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  10. [Information analytical support of the US Armed Forces Medical Service at the theater of operations (review of foreign online publications)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, A A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I

    2013-05-01

    The current article is dedicated to the modern state of information analytical support of the US Armed Forces Medical Service at the theater of operations. It is shown that at the present time for that purpose it is employed the Joint Theater Medical Information Program (TMIP) which integrates all medically significant information in a single system. The described program covers the whole evacuation chain, specifically, wounded registration on the battle field, treatment conduction at the stages of evacuation, including the aeromobile evacuation, treatment and rehabilitation at specialized establishments in the United States, subsequent veteran care after retirement. It also provides paperless documents circulation and telemedicine needs, takes into consideration the certain Armed Forces components peculiarities, satisfies the information analytical requirements of the commanding body of the medical service. The main TMIP subprograms are introduced, namely: AHLTA, TMDS, MSAT, TMIP-M, MMM, TC2, NCAT, and the basic providing and supporting unit DHIMS is described. Finally, it is mentioned that currently the TMIP project starts to be used not only on the battlefield but at the garrisons as well and it is supposed that it will gradually expand to the entire national health care system.

  11. IT-support for failure management in railroad-based public mass transit; Informationstechnische Unterstuetzung des Stoerungsmanagements im schienengebundenen Personenfernverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhl, L.; Mellouli, T.; Goecke, J. [Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Decision Support and Operations Research Lab.

    2000-07-01

    The contribution discusses computer-supported operative real time management of railway passenger transport. There are many reasons why this problem has never been solved satisfactorily, e.g. high time pressure, poor formalizeability of the decision basis, large data volume, etc. The contribution discusses requirements, problems and solution strategies. A general architecture and a prototype implementation are presented, and the functions and solution strategies tested so far are gone into. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der DV-Unterstuetzung der operativen Echtzeitsteuerung des Personenfernverkehrs in Bahngesellschaften. Aus vielen Gruenden, wie extremer Zeitdruck, schlechte Formalisierbarkeit der Entscheidungsgrundlagen, Groesse der benoetigten Datenmengen etc. stellt diese Aufgabenstellung eine Herausforderung dar, die bisher nicht zufriedenstellend geloest ist. In dieser Arbeit werden Anforderungen, Probleme und Loesungsansaetze diskutiert. Eine Gesamtarchitektur fuer ein Disponentenunterstuetzungssystem wird zusammen mit einer prototypischen Implementierung praesentiert. Den Abschluss bildet eine Darstellung der bisher im Testsystem erprobten Funktionen und Loesungsansaetze. (orig.)

  12. Using Satellite-Based Earth Science Data in a Public Health Decision-Support System to Track and Forecast Pollen Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Budge, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is widespread recognition within the public health community that ongoing changes in climate are expected to increasingly pose threats to human health. Environmentally induced health risks to populations with respiratory illnesses are a growing concern globally. Of particular concern are dust and smoke events carrying PM2.5 and PM10 particle sizes, ozone, and pollen. There is considerable interest in documenting the precise linkages between changing patterns in the climate and how these shifts impact the prevalence of respiratory illnesses. The establishment of these linkages can drive the development of early warning and forecasting systems to alert health care professionals of impending air-quality events. As a component of a larger NASA-funded project on Integration of Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems, the Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) at the University of New Mexico, is developing web-based visualization and analysis services for forecasting pollen concentration data. This decision-support system, New Mexico's Environmental Public Health Tracking System (NMEPHTS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), aims to improve health awareness and services by linking health effects data with levels and frequency of environmental exposure. The forecast of atmospheric events with high pollen concentrations has employed a modified version of the DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model, a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling. In this application, PREAM (Pollen Regional Atmospheric Model) models pollen emission using a MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Model outputs are verified and validated with ground-based records of pollen release timing and quantities. Outputs of the PREAM model are post-processed and archived in EDAC's Geographic Storage, Transformation, and

  13. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  14. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  15. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  16. Why All the Hard Work?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype of the hard working Chinese has been around for a long time in the West. As early a 1894, Arthur Smith, a missionary who spent 54 years in China, wrote book introducing the hard-working Chinese people to Americans. In his book Chinese Characteristics, Smith wrote about the dili

  17. Phase behavior of hard particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijneveldt, J.S. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1995-01-01

    The phase behavior of hard particles and mixtures thereof is reviewed. Special attention is given to a lattice model consisting of hard hexagons and points on a triangular lattice. This model appears to have two disordered phases and an ordered phase.

  18. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  19. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find th

  20. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  1. Surgical lasers and hard dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S

    2007-04-28

    The cutting of dental hard tissue during restorative procedures presents considerable demands on the ability to selectively remove diseased carious tissue, obtain outline and retention form and maintain the integrity of supporting tooth tissue without structural weakening. In addition, the requirement to preserve healthy tissue and prevent further breakdown of the restoration places the choice of instrumentation and clinical technique as prime factors for the dental surgeon. The quest for an alternative treatment modality to the conventional dental turbine has been, essentially, patient-driven and has led to the development of various mechanical and chemical devices. The review of the literature has endorsed the beneficial effects of current laser machines. However utopian, there is additional evidence to support the development of ultra-short (nano- and femto-second) pulsed lasers that are stable in use and commercially viable, to deliver more efficient hard tissue ablation with less risk of collateral thermal damage. This paper explores the interaction of laser energy with dental hard tissues and bone and the integration of current laser wavelengths into restorative and surgical dentistry.

  2. Nottingham Trent University and Makerere University School of Public Health partnership: experiences of co-learning and supporting the healthcare system in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoke, David; Gibson, Linda; Mukama, Trasias; Khalil, Yesmean; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-03-28

    Partnerships between developed and developing country institutions are increasingly becoming important in addressing contemporary global health challenges faced by health systems. Inter-university health collaboration such as the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda) partnership provide opportunities for working together in training, research and service delivery while strengthening health systems. This paper shares the experiences, achievements and opportunities of this partnership in co-learning and supporting the health system in Uganda. This includes a project being implemented to strengthen the training, supervision and motivation of community health workers in rural Uganda. Training and research are a key focus of the partnership and have involved both staff and students of both institutions including guest lectures, seminars and conference presentations. The partnership's collaboration with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health (Uganda) and local health authorities has ensured participation necessary in supporting implementation of sustainable interventions. The partnership uses several channels such as email, telephone, Skype, Dropbox and WhatsApp which have been useful in maintaining constant and effective communication. The challenges faced by the partnership include lack of funding to support student mobility, and varying academic schedules of the two institutions. The experiences and prospects of this growing partnership can inform other collaborations in similar settings.

  3. Water hardness and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1982-08-01

    On the macrogeographic scale, a strong negative association exists in the United States between water hardness and urinary stone disease. This investigation studies the association on the microgeographical scale, where it is possible to control for confounding environmental factors. The study was conducted on 2,295 patients from 2 regions: the Carolinas which had soft water and high stone incidence, and the Rockies which had hard water and low stone incidence. Home tap water samples from urinary stone patient hospitalizations were compared with that of controls, concurrent inguinal hernia patient hospitalization. After adjusting for environmental factors, no significant difference (p = 0.59) between the 2 groups was obtained in tap water calcium, magnesium, and sodium concentrations. An incidental but potentially important finding was that those consuming water from a private well had an estimated relative risk of 1.5 (p less than 0.01) compared to those using public water. While no cause-effect relationship is suggested, stone-formers might consider avoiding private well water. On the other hand, water hardness should be a minor concern with respect to stone formation.

  4. Maximizing Modularity is hard

    CERN Document Server

    Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D

    2006-01-01

    Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.

  5. Supporting Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting Information. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Washington , J., T. Jenkins, and E. Weber. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H...

  6. Supporting Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting Info. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Washington , J., and T. Jenkins. Abiotic Hydrolysis of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers as a...

  7. Supporting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....

  8. Es ist das Einfache, das schwer zu machen ist – Open Access im wissenschaftlichen Publikationsprozess / It is the simple things that are hard to do: Open Access and scholarly publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böske, Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the scientific system of publication was challenged increasingly. Open Access – the free access to scientific information – has contributed a lot to it. Therefore is a profound discussion with the phenomenon Open Access worthwhile. In this context the business model of traditional publishing is compared to that of the Open Access. This comparison should give the impulse to think over the interpretation of the Open Access referring to the Berlin Declaration and to open to new forms of the Open Access. However, for this purpose existing enemy images must be destroyed which were aroused since the last years above all between commercial publishing companies and the science. In this respect the following implementations are not only a dialogue help, but they also refresh the legitimization of commercial publishing companies in the publication process and offer them a new action basis. Because Open Access should be understood not only as a danger – above all it is a challenge and chance for the continuity of commercial scientific publishing companies. The point is that it is possible to break into electronic markets of tomorrow.

  9. If We Build It, They Will Come: Exploring Policy and Practice Implications of Public Support for Couple and Relationship Education for Lower Income and Relationally Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  10. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Unified approach to hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of S-Matrix and perturbative QCD properties in the small x_{Bj} regime, we propose a formulation of hard diffraction unifying the partonic (Ingelman-Schlein) Pomeron, Soft Colour Interaction and QCD dipole descriptions.

  12. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -win solutions supported by the general public. While existing research suggests that an important function of public relations is to create a perception of legitimacy and that the hope of economic and commercial public diplomacy is to create a perception of attractiveness among the public in foreign countries...

  13. Effect of physical activity, social support, and skills training on late-life emotional health: a systematic literature review and implications for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Mark B; Steinman, Lesley E; Carlson, Whitney L; Mochan, Kara N; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Duffy, Michael; Knight, Bob G; Jeste, Dilip V; Leith, Katherine H; Lenze, Eric J; Logsdon, Rebecca G; Satariano, William A; Zweiback, Damita J; Anderson, Lynda A

    2014-01-01

    Given that emotional health is a critical component of healthy aging, we undertook a systematic literature review to assess whether current interventions can positively affect older adults' emotional health. A national panel of health services and mental health researchers guided the review. Eligibility criteria included community-dwelling older adult (aged ≥ 50 years) samples, reproducible interventions, and emotional health outcomes, which included multiple domains and both positive (well-being) and illness-related (anxiety) dimensions. This review focused on three types of interventions - physical activity, social support, and skills training - given their public health significance and large number of studies identified. Panel members evaluated the strength of evidence (quality and effectiveness). In all, 292 articles met inclusion criteria. These included 83 exercise/physical activity, 25 social support, and 40 skills training interventions. For evidence rating, these 148 interventions were categorized into 64 pairings by intervention type and emotional health outcome, e.g., strength training targeting loneliness or social support to address mood. 83% of these pairings were rated at least fair quality. Expert panelists found sufficient evidence of effectiveness only for skills training interventions with health outcomes of decreasing anxiety and improving quality of life and self-efficacy. Due to limitations in reviewed studies, many intervention-outcome pairings yielded insufficient evidence. Skills training interventions improved several aspects of emotional health in community-dwelling older adults, while the effects for other outcomes and interventions lacked clear evidence. We discuss the implications and challenges in moving forward in this important area.

  14. Further Research is Required to Determine Which Database Products Best Support Research in Public Administration. A review of: Tucker, James, Corey. “Database Support for Research in Public Administration.” Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian 24.1 (2005: 47-60.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hook

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the extent to which six commercial database products support student and faculty research in the area of public administration. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – Academic library in the United States. Subjects – Six commercial business‐related database products were examined: Proquest’s ABI/INFORM Global edition (ABI, EBSCO’s Business Source Premier (BSP, Gale’s General BusinessFile ASAP (GBF, EBSCO’s Academic Search Premier (ASP, EBSCO’s Expanded Academic Index (EAI and Proquest’s International Academic Research Library (ARL. Three of the databases (ABI, BSP, GBF were chosen because they address the management, human resource, and financing elements of public administration. The other three (ASP, EAI, ARL were included because of their multidisciplinary coverage. Methods – A list of journal titles covering public administration was assembled from the Institute of Scientific Information’s Social Sciences Citation Index and previously published lists of recommended journals in the field. The author then compared the compiled list of journal titles against the journal titles indexed by the six database products. He further analyzed the results by level of journal coverage (abstract only, full‐text, and full‐text with embargo and subject area based on categories described in Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory. Main Results – The study found that three of the six database products ‐‐EAI, BSP, and ARL ‐‐ provide indexing for the greatest number of public administration journals contained in the compiled list. EIA and ARL cover the greatest number of those that are full‐text journals, while BSP and ASP cover the greatest number of those full‐text journals limited by publisher embargoes. Conclusion – The author concludes that of the six databases examined, EAI, BSP, and ARL are the best for public administration research, based on their strength in the subject areas of public

  15. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  16. When does playing hard to get increase romantic attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Dong, Ping; Jia, Jayson S

    2014-04-01

    Folk wisdom suggests playing hard to get is an effective strategy in romantic attraction. However, prior research has yielded little support for this belief. This article seeks to reconcile these contrasting views by investigating how 2 hitherto unconsidered factors, (a) the asymmetry between wanting (motivational) and liking (affective) responses and (b) the degree of psychological commitment, can determine the efficacy of playing hard to get. We propose that person B playing hard to get with person A will simultaneously increase A's wanting but decrease A's liking of B. However, such a result will only occur if A is psychologically committed to pursuing further relations with B; otherwise, playing hard to get will decrease both wanting and liking. Two studies confirm these propositions. We discuss implications for interpersonal attraction and the interplay between emotion and motivation in determining preferences.

  17. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Thiveral-Grignon, 78 (France); Vanderpooten, D. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, LAMSADE, Paris, 75 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l{sup -1} [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l{sup -1} for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l{sup -1} for ester and 3.30FF l{sup -1} for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l{sup -1} for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  18. NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS WITH ENHANCED HARDNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Musil

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the present state of the art in the magnetron sputtering of hart and superhard nanocomposite coatings. It is shown that there are (1) two groups of hard and superhard nanocomposites: (i) nc-MN/hard phase and (ii) nc-MN/soft phase, (2) three possible origins of the enhanced hardness: (i) dislocation-dominated plastic deformation, (ii) cohesive forces between atoms and (iii) nanostructure of materials, and (3) huge differences in the microstructure of single- and two-phase films. A main attention is devoted to the formation of nanocrystalline and/or X-ray amorphous films. Such films are created in a vicinity of transitions between (i)crystalline and amorphous phases, (ii) two crystalline phases of different chemical composition or (iii) two different preferred orientations of grains of the sane material from which the coating is composed. The existence of the last transition makes it possible to explain the enhanced hardness in single-phase films. The thermal stability and oxidation resistance of hard nanocomposite films is also shortly discussed.

  19. Hard Diffraction at D{phi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilvan A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cosmologia e Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias

    2000-07-01

    Full text follows: We review recent Hard Diffraction results from the D{phi} experiment at Fermilab, for the following processes: hard color singlet exchange, hard single diffraction, and hard double pomeron exchange. Measurements of rates, {eta}, E{sub T} and {radical}S dependencies are presented and comparisons made with predictions of several models. (author)

  20. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Hard Diffraction in Pythia 8

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general--purpose event generator Pythia 8. We review the existing model for low-- and high--mass soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction in pp and ppbar collisions. Both models uses the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the single diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF. The model for hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions framework, thereby introducing a dynamical rapidity gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  2. Hard Diffraction in Pythia 8

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  3. Hard diffraction in Pythia 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard Rasmussen, Christine

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8 [1]. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  4. Getting our house in order: an audit of the registration and publication of clinical trials supported by the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, AC; Petit-Zeman, S; Goldacre, B.; Heneghan, CJ

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To audit the proportion of clinical trials that had been publically registered and, of the completed trials, the proportion published. Setting 2 major research institutions supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR). Primary and secondary outcome measures The proportion of trials reporting results within 12 months, 24 months and ‘ever’. Factors associated with non-publication were analysed using logistic regression. Inclusion criteria Phases 2–4 clinical trials i...

  5. Application of hardness testing in foundry processing operations: A university and industry partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donald H.; Lash, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are the following: (1) to plan a tour of local manufacturing facility to observe hardness testing methods used and how they support the manufacturing process today; (2) to learn the operation of Brinell Hardness Testing and equipment set up with samples of accessory equipment for testing of various materials; (3) to use a Brinell scope (hand magnifier) to measure the diameter of the test indentation (in millimeters); (4) to use the hardness equation to determine the spherical area of the indentation and the calculation of the Brinell Hardness Number; (5) to use standard charts for ASTM standard size indenters to find the hardness number; and (6) to learn a method of conversion of the Brinell number to other hardness scales, their common usage, and also to convert the hardness number to the approximate tensile strength.

  6. Quantifying Cyanobacteria and High Biomass Bloms from Satellite to Support Environmental Management and Public Use of U.S. Lakes and Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Dupuy, Danielle; Wynne, Timothy T.; Briggs, Travis

    2015-12-01

    Algal blooms of high biomass and cyanobacteria are on the rise, occurring both nationally and internationally. These blooms can foul beaches, clog water intakes, produce toxins that contaminate drinking water, and pose a threat to human and domestic animal health. A quantitative tool can aid in the management needs to respond to these issues. These blooms can affect many lakes within a state management district, pointing to the need for a synoptic and timely assessment. The 300 m Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite imagery provided by the European Space Agency from 2002 to 2012 has led to advances in our ability to monitor these systems. Algorithms specific to quantifying high biomass blooms have been developed for use by state managers through a comparison of field radiometry, water quality and cell enumeration measurements, and remotely-sensed satellite data. These algorithms are designed to detect blooms even with atmospheric interference and suspended sediments. Initial evaluations were conducted for Florida lakes and the St. Johns River, Florida, USA and showed that cyanobacteria blooms, especially of Microcystis, can be identified and their biomass can be estimated (as chlorophyll concentration and other metrics). Forecasts and monitoring have been demonstrated for Lake Erie and for Florida. A multi-agency (NASA, EPA, NOAA, and USGS) project, “Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN)” intends to apply these methods to Sentinel-3 data in near real-time on a U.S. national scale, in order to support state management agencies in protecting public health and the environment.

  7. Public comments on the proposed 10 CFR Part 51 rule for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses and supporting documents: Review of concerns and NRC staff response. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review of public comments provided in response to the NRC`s proposed amendments to 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51, which establish new requirements for the environmental review of applications for the renewal of operating licenses of nuclear power plants. The public comments include those submitted in writing, as well as those provided at public meetings that were held with other Federal agencies, State agencies, nuclear industry representatives, public interest groups, and the general public. This report also contains the NRC staff response to the various concerns raised, and highlights the changes made to the final rule and the supporting documents in response to these concerns.

  8. Mongoose: Creation of a Rad-Hard MIPS R3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Dan; Smith, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a 32 Bit, full MIPS R3000 code-compatible Rad-Hard CPU, code named Mongoose. Mongoose progressed from contract award, through the design cycle, to operational silicon in 12 months to meet a space mission for NASA. The goal was the creation of a fully static device capable of operation to the maximum Mil-883 derated speed, worst-case post-rad exposure with full operational integrity. This included consideration of features for functional enhancements relating to mission compatibility and removal of commercial practices not supported by Rad-Hard technology. 'Mongoose' developed from an evolution of LSI Logic's MIPS-I embedded processor, LR33000, code named Cobra, to its Rad-Hard 'equivalent', Mongoose. The term 'equivalent' is used to infer that the core of the processor is functionally identical, allowing the same use and optimizations of the MIPS-I Instruction Set software tool suite for compilation, software program trace, etc. This activity was started in September of 1991 under a contract from NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Flight Data Systems. The approach affected a teaming of NASA-GSFC for program development, LSI Logic for system and ASIC design coupled with the Rad-Hard process technology, and Harris (GASD) for Rad-Hard microprocessor design expertise. The program culminated with the generation of Rad-Hard Mongoose prototypes one year later.

  9. Hard Trying and These Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Nancie

    2003-01-01

    Writers thrive when they are motivated to work hard, have regular opportunities to practice and reflect, and benefit from a knowledgeable teacher who knows writing. Student feedback to lessons during writing workshop helped guide Nancie Atwell in her quest to provide the richest and most efficient path to better writing.

  10. Kinetic theory of hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic equations for the hard-sphere system are derived by diagrammatic techniques. A linear equation is obtained for the one-particle-one particle equilibrium time correlation function and a nonlinear equation for the one-particle distribution function in nonequilibrium. Both equations are nonloca

  11. Metrics for Hard Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in hard goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  12. Inclusive Hard Diffraction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Proskuryakov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments on hard inclusive diffraction are discussed. Results of QCD analyses of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering processes are reported. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet measurements.

  13. Hard sphere packings within cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Steinhardt, William; Zhao, Hao; Socolar, Joshua E S; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-03-07

    Arrangements of identical hard spheres confined to a cylinder with hard walls have been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest configurations, called close packings, of hard spheres of diameter σ in a cylinder of diameter D is a purely geometric problem that grows increasingly complex as D/σ increases, and little is thus known about the regime for D > 2.873σ. In this work, we extend the identification of close packings up to D = 4.00σ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond D ≈ 2.85σ, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between the core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  14. Hard sphere model of atom

    CERN Document Server

    Tsekov, R

    2014-01-01

    The finite size effect of electron and nucleus is accounted for in the model of atom. Due to their hard sphere repulsion the energy of the 1s orbital decreases and the corrections amount up to 8 % in Uranium. Several models for boundary conditions on the atomic nucleus surface are discussed as well.

  15. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion bombardment

  16. Unifying approach to hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H

    2001-01-01

    We find a formulation of hard diffraction unifying the partonic (Ingelman-Schlein) Pomeron, Soft Colour Interaction and QCD dipole descriptions. A theoretical interpretation in terms of S-Matrix and perturbative QCD properties in the small x_{Bj} regime is proposed.

  17. Verrucous Carcinoma of Hard Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Parmod Kalstra,Monica Manhas,Rajdeep Sood

    2000-01-01

    VerrucouS squamous cell carcinoma occurs mainly in oral cavity and larynx, buccal mucosa being most commonly involved. One case of verrucous carcinoma involvmg left hard palate (T4 No Mo)in an adult male is being reported who underwent left total maxillectomy. The tumor behaviour andlts management has been dlscussed.

  18. Signature Schemes Secure against Hard-to-Invert Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2012-01-01

    -theoretically reveal the entire secret key. In this work, we propose the first constructions of digital signature schemes that are secure in the auxiliary input model. Our main contribution is a digital signature scheme that is secure against chosen message attacks when given an exponentially hard-to-invert function...... of the secret key. As a second contribution, we construct a signature scheme that achieves security for random messages assuming that the adversary is given a polynomial-time hard to invert function. Here, polynomial-hardness is required even when given the entire public-key – so called weak auxiliary input...... security. We show that such signature schemes readily give us auxiliary input secure identification schemes...

  19. IKONPAINT -- Ikon and GWM window to Inkjet Hard-copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clive G.; Mellor, G. R.

    IKONPAINT provides ``push-button'' colour hard-copy from the Ikon screen or from a GWM window to an inkjet printer. The DEC Companion Colour Printer (LJ250/LJ252) and the Hewlett-Packard Paintjet are both supported. These printers normally take 8 by 11 inch fan-fold paper but single transparency sheets can be hand-fed.

  20. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satz, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Universitat Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, X.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  1. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  2. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  3. 7 CFR 1945.30 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Support Teams (ELST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.30 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... immediate attention by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 in implementing the EM...

  4. Corporate social responsibility: the role of public policy: a systematic literature review of the effects of government supported interventions on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) behaviour of enterprises in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.; de Grip, K.; de Ruyter de Wildt, M.; Ton, G.; Douma, M.; Boone, K.; van Hoeven, H.

    2013-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) focuses on creating social and environmental value in addition to economic performance: people, planet and profit (or Triple P). Public authorities are increasingly supporting companies that choose to do so. What has become of the Dutch government’s efforts to i

  5. Research on the Construction of Public Library Service Research Support Ning Yang (Hunan Library)%公共图书馆科研支持服务建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁阳

    2014-01-01

    通过对31个省级公共图书馆网站的调查,了解目前公共图书馆科研支持服务的现状,并根据现有情况发现存在的问题,进而提出完善公共图书馆科研支持服务的举措。%Based on the investigation of 31 provincial public library website, understand the present research situation of public library service support, and find the existing problems according to the existing situation, and puts forward the measures to improve public library research support services.

  6. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  7. Predicting Career Development in Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Renee; Creed, Peter A.; Hyde, Merv

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the career development of hard-of-hearing high school students attending regular classes with itinerant teacher support. We compared 65 hard-of-hearing students with a matched group of normally hearing peers on measures of career maturity, career indecision, perceived career barriers, and three…

  8. DETECTION OF HARD EXUDATES IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY RETINAL IMAGES BY UTILIZING VISUAL DICTIONARY AND CLASSIFIER APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Akyol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that causes blindness resulting from damages that emerge in the retina depending on the diabetes mellitus. There are two stages of the disease including the non-proliferative and proliferative. Eyesight loss is blocked by means of early detection and diagnosis of non-proliferative DR findings. In this study, we designed a decision support system for automatic detection of hard exudates which are early stage DR lesions. This system consists of region-of-interest, feature extraction, visual dictionary and classifying stages. We tested the performance of the system, which we carried out based on system learning and analysis of new retinal images, on the public DIARETDB1 retinal image dataset. Experimental results showed us that machine learning technique suggested by us is successful.

  9. Molecular hardness and softness, local hardness and softness, hardness and softness kernels, and relations among these quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Max; Parr, Robert G.

    1988-02-01

    Hardness and softness kernels η(r,r') and s(r,r') are defined for the ground state of an atomic or molecular electronic system, and the previously defined local hardness and softness η(r) and s(r) and global hardness and softness η and S are obtained from them. The physical meaning of s(r), as a charge capacitance, is discussed (following Huheey and Politzer), and two alternative ``hardness'' indices are identified and briefly discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  11. Development of Radiation Hard Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah; Bilki, Burak; Winn, David; Onel, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments are in ever increasing need for radiation hard scintillators and detectors. In this regard, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), our prototype material Scintillator X (SX) and Eljen (EJ). Scintillation and transmission properties of these scintillators are studied using stimulated emission from a 334 nm wavelength UV laser with PMT before and after certain amount of radiation exposure. Recovery from radiation damage is studied over time. While the primary goal of this study is geared for LHC detector upgrades, these new technologies could easily be used for future experiments such as the FCC and ILC. Here we discuss the physics motivation, recent developments and laboratory measurements of these materials.

  12. Schwannoma of the hard palate

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated perineural tumors. The head and neck region is the most common site. Intraoral origin is seen in only 1% of cases, tongue being the most common site; its location in the palate is rare. We report a case of hard-palate schwannoma with bony erosion which was immunohistochemically confirmed. The tumor was excised completely intraorally. After two months of follow-up, the defect was found to be completely covered with palatal mucosa.

  13. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and consequences of public support for policies.

  14. Enthalpy versus entropy: What drives hard-particle ordering in condensed phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Ou, Jane J.; Weinfeld, Jeffrey A.; Chen, Shaw H.

    2016-09-01

    In support of mesoscopic-scale materials processing, spontaneous hard-particle ordering has been actively pursued for over a half-century. The generally accepted view that entropy alone can drive hard particle ordering is evaluated. A thermodynamic analysis of hard particle ordering was conducted and shown to agree with existing computations and experiments. Conclusions are that (i) hard particle ordering transitions between states in equilibrium are forbidden at constant volume but are allowed at constant pressure; (ii) spontaneous ordering transitions at constant pressure are driven by enthalpy, and (iii) ordering under constant volume necessarily involves a non-equilibrium initial state which has yet to be rigorously defined.

  15. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  17. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  18. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  19. [Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. II. Cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarca, S; Zerbini, I; Simonati, C; Gelatti, U

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1950s a causal relation between water hardness and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in humans has been hypothesized. In order to evaluate the influence of calcium and magnesium, the minerals responsible for the hardness of drinking water, on human health, a review of all the articles published on the subject from 1980 up to today has been carried out. Many but not all geographic correlation studies showed an inverse association between water hardness and mortality for CVD. Most case-control and one cohort studies showed an inverse relation, statistically significant, between mortality from CVD and water levels of magnesium, but not calcium. Consumption of water containing high concentrations of magnesium seems to reduce of about 30-35% the mortality for CVD, but not the incidence. This inverse association is supported by clinical and experimental findings and is biologically plausible and in line with Hill's criteria for a cause-effect relationship.

  20. Raman Model Predicting Hardness of Covalent Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Qian, Quang-Rui; Sun, Jian; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the fact that both hardness and vibrational Raman spectrum depend on the intrinsic property of chemical bonds, we propose a new theoretical model for predicting hardness of a covalent crystal. The quantitative relationship between hardness and vibrational Raman frequencies deduced from the typical zincblende covalent crystals is validated to be also applicable for the complex multicomponent crystals. This model enables us to nondestructively and indirectly characterize the hardness o...

  1. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  2. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  3. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  4. On the relation between virial coefficients and the close-packing of hard disks and hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Miguel Angel G; Santos, Andrés; Robles, Miguel; de Haro, Mariano López

    2011-02-28

    The question of whether the known virial coefficients are enough to determine the packing fraction η(∞) at which the fluid equation of state of a hard-sphere fluid diverges is addressed. It is found that the information derived from the direct Padé approximants to the compressibility factor constructed with the virial coefficients is inconclusive. An alternative approach is proposed which makes use of the same virial coefficients and of the equation of state in a form where the packing fraction is explicitly given as a function of the pressure. The results of this approach both for hard-disk and hard-sphere fluids, which can straightforwardly accommodate higher virial coefficients when available, lends support to the conjecture that η(∞) is equal to the maximum packing fraction corresponding to an ordered crystalline structure.

  5. Twitter and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  6. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  7. Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is able to offer a special opportunity for deaf and hard of hearing STEM students. June 29 - ... the infographic and spread the word about what deaf children can do! our community Support AG Bell ...

  8. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  9. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  10. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Subhadra; K Kishan Rao; D B Sirdeshmukh

    2000-04-01

    In view of discrepancies in the available information on the hardness of lithium niobate, a systematic study of the hardness has been carried out. Measurements have been made on two pure lithium niobate crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load variation of hardness is examined in detail. The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. The Fe-doped crystal has a larger hardness of 750 ± 50 kg/mm2.

  11. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  12. Sampling hard to reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugier, J; Sargeant, M

    1997-10-01

    Studies on 'hidden populations', such as homeless people, prostitutes and drug addicts, raise a number of specific methodological questions usually absent from research involving known populations and less sensitive subjects. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of nonrandom methods of data collection such as snowball sampling. It reviews the currently available literature on sampling hard to reach populations and highlights the dearth of material currently available on this subject. The paper also assesses the potential for using these methods in nursing research. The sampling methodology used by Faugier (1996) in her study of prostitutes, HIV and drugs is used as a current example within this context.

  13. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the mission space environment. The subset of interests for NEPP and the REAG, are EEE parts. It is important to register that all of these undertakings are in a feedback loop and require constant iteration and updating throughout the mission life. More detail can be found in the reference materials on applicable test data for usage on parts.

  14. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

    2010-08-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  15. The Hard-Core Unemployed, An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Memorandum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesics, Emil, Comp.; Marcus, Samuel, Comp.

    Pertinent items having to do with national policy on hard-core unemployed and specific applications and techniques drawn from organizational experiences are identified. The compilers focused upon 1968 publications; the earliest publication date is 1964. The 41 entries are organized under the following headings: (1) Poverty in the Community and the…

  16. Public Education, Public Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  17. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  18. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pExposure to e-cigarette communications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  19. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and its association with public support for smoke-free and vape-free policies: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette communications (eg, advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of US adults (n=1449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the US adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-0.022, p=0.006), other media (B=-0.022, p=0.043) and interpersonal discussion (B=-0.071, pExposure to e-cigarette communications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Characteristics of ground behavior of fully mechanized caving faces in hard thick seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Yong-lu(索永录)

    2003-01-01

    It is showed in practice that the support load and its fluctuation is large, the periodic weighting is obvious and can be divided into two kinds, the large and small pressure, sometimes the behavior of the large pressure is very violent in hard thick seam caving faces. These are obviously different from those of the generally soft or medium hard seam caving feces. All above these are summarized, and the causes aroused these are researched. Finally the powered support selection of hard thick seam caving faces is discussed.

  1. Hard Fault Analysis of Trivium

    CERN Document Server

    Yupu, Hu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Fault analysis is a powerful attack to stream ciphers. Up to now, the major idea of fault analysis is to simplify the cipher system by injecting some soft faults. We call it soft fault analysis. As a hardware-oriented stream cipher, Trivium is weak under soft fault analysis. In this paper we consider another type of fault analysis of stream cipher, which is to simplify the cipher system by injecting some hard faults. We call it hard fault analysis. We present the following results about such attack to Trivium. In Case 1 with the probability not smaller than 0.2396, the attacker can obtain 69 bits of 80-bits-key. In Case 2 with the probability not smaller than 0.2291, the attacker can obtain all of 80-bits-key. In Case 3 with the probability not smaller than 0.2291, the attacker can partially solve the key. In Case 4 with non-neglectable probability, the attacker can obtain a simplified cipher, with smaller number of state bits and slower non-linearization procedure. In Case 5 with non-neglectable probability,...

  2. Driver support systems and traffic safety : theoretical considerations. On behalf of the Directorate-General of Public Works and Water Management, Transport Research Centre AVV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, M.J. & Heijer, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an overview of possible approaches, when considering driver support and traffic safety. The assessment of driver support systems should address potential problems in relation to the environment, the driver, and the driving task. Assessment procedures should focus on potential er

  3. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-04-01

    The California Energy Commission directed the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions to analyze possible future scenarios for the California electricity system and assess transmission research and development (R&D) needs, with special emphasis on prioritizing public-interest R&D needs, using criteria developed by the Energy Commission. The scenarios analyzed in this report are not predictions, nor do they express policy preferences of the project participants or the Energy Commission. The public-interest R&D needs that are identified as a result of the analysis are one input that will be considered by the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research staff in preparing a transmission R&D plan.

  4. CAN MARKETING SUPPORT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE EGOVERNMENT? ANALYSIS OF THE SINGLE POINT OF ACCESS PORTAL FOR ROMANIAN ELECTRONIC PUBLIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velicu Bogdan Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in technology hold great potential for helping Romanian government respond to its challenges namely, better service delivery, better procurement, efficient working and better communication with citizens and businesses. While the European Commission develops the main strategies on eGovernment, every member state has the freedom to identify its own necessities and decide according to specific social, administrative and economic context. Designing, cost setting, choosing the best supply channels or communicating with involved actors, are all marketing instruments which, if used accordingly, can ensure modern and efficient public services. This paper presents an analysis of the degree of development of public services available at the www.e-guvernare.ro portal, the single point of access for specific Romanian electronic public services.

  5. Engaging Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in the School Library: A Handbook for Teacher-Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Nadene

    2012-01-01

    Over seventy percent of students who are deaf or hard of hearing will attend a public school and enroll in a classroom with their hearing peers or in a self-contained classroom with other deaf and hard of hearing students. Teacher-librarians who work in these schools can improve their instruction by understanding not only what it means to be…

  6. Expansion of DSSTox: Leveraging public data to create a semantic cheminformatics resource with quality annotations for support of U.S. EPA applications. (American Chemical Society)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expansion of chemical-bioassay data in the public domain is a boon to science; however, the difficulty in establishing accurate linkages from CAS registry number (CASRN) to structure, or for properly annotating names and synonyms for a particular structure is well known. DSS...

  7. Cost-Efficacy Analysis of Out-of-District Special Education Placements: An Evaluative Measure of Behavior Support Intervention in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Robert F.; Luiselli, James K.; Sennett, Kenneth; Malonson, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of out-of-district special education placement costs in the 15 largest Massachusetts public school districts found the criterion school district (which had developed a system-wide approach to behavioral intervention) had the lowest per capita cost, lowest percentage of total school budget consumed by out-of-district placements, and the…

  8. Low-Density Fluid Phase of Dipolar Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, Richard P.

    1996-03-01

    Unexpectedly, recent computer simulation studies [Weis and Levesque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2729 (1993); Leeuwen and Smit, ibid. 71, 3991 (1993)] failed to find a liquid phase for dipolar hard spheres. We argue that the liquid was not observed because the dipolar spheres form long chains which interact only weakly. To support this argument we derive a simple theory for noninteracting chains of dipolar spheres and show that it provides a reasonable description of the low-density fluid phase.

  9. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  10. Probing Strangeness in Hard Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Avakian, H; Cisbani, E; Contalbrigo, M; D'Alesio, U; De Leo, R; Devita, R; Di Nezza, P; Hasch, D; Mirazita, M; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L; Rossi, P

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of strangeness almost five decades ago, interest in this degree of freedom has grown up and now its investigation spans the scales from quarks to nuclei. Measurements with identified strange hadrons can provide important information on several hot topics in hadronic physics: the strange distribution and fragmentation functions, the nucleon tomography and quark orbital momentum, accessible through the study of the {\\it generalized} parton distribution and the {\\it transverse momentum dependent} parton distribution functions, the quark hadronization in the nuclear medium, the hadron spectroscopy and the search for exotic mesons. The CLAS12 large acceptance spectrometer in Hall B at the Jefferson Laboratory upgraded with a RICH detector together with the 12 GeV CEBAF high intensity, high polarized electron beam can open new possibilities to study strangeness in hard processes allowing breakthroughs in all those areas. This paper summarizes the physics case for a RICH detector for CLAS12. Many...

  11. Schwannoma of the hard palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isildak, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ibrahimov, Metin; Aslan, Mehmet; Karaman, Emin; Enver, Ozgun

    2010-01-01

    About half of all neurogenic tumors are seen in the head and neck region. The types of neurogenic tumors must be distinguished. Schwannomas originate from Schwann cells of the neural sheath and are solitary, well-encapsulated, slow-growing adjacent to the parental nerve but extrinsic to the nerve fascicles.Approximately 25% to 45% of all schwannomas are seen in the head and neck region and are found rarely in the oral cavity. Most of the intraoral schwannomas are located in the tongue. Other less common locations are the buccal mucosa, palate, base of the mouth, gingiva, and lips.In this study, we report a rare case of schwannoma of the hard palate, which was excised intraorally.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation.

  13. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk P Netten

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy.The study group (mean age 11.9 years consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior.Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children.Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  14. Hardness measures and resolution lower bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Beyersdorff, Olaf; Kullmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Various "hardness" measures have been studied for resolution, providing theoretical insight into the proof complexity of resolution and its fragments, as well as explanations for the hardness of instances in SAT solving. In this report we aim at a unified view of a number of hardness measures, including different measures of width, space and size of resolution proofs. We also extend these measures to all clause-sets (possibly satisfiable).

  15. Unified characterisations of resolution hardness measures

    OpenAIRE

    Beyersdorff, O; Kullmann, O.

    2014-01-01

    Various "hardness" measures have been studied for resolution, providing theoretical insight into the proof complexity of resolution and its fragments, as well as explanations for the hardness of instances in SAT solving. In this paper we aim at a unified view of a number of hardness measures, including different measures of width, space and size of resolution proofs. Our main contribution is a unified game-theoretic characterisation of these measures. As consequences we obtain new relations b...

  16. Shock Waves in Dense Hard Disk Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmas, Nick; Tudorache, Marion; Barahona, Javier; Radulescu, Matei I.

    2011-01-01

    Media composed of colliding hard disks (2D) or hard spheres (3D) serve as good approximations for the collective hydrodynamic description of gases, liquids and granular media. In the present study, the compressible hydrodynamics and shock dynamics are studied for a two-dimensional hard-disk medium at both the continuum and discrete particle level descriptions. For the continuum description, closed form analytical expressions for the inviscid hydrodynamic description, shock Hugoniot, isentropi...

  17. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  18. Potential health impacts of hard water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    ... the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems...

  19. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy Sarah; Albetkova Adilya; Chapman Will; Taboy Celine H; Rayfield Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimiz...

  20. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synonym-based word frequency analysis to support the development and presentation of a public health quality improvement taxonomy in an online exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Jamie; Chester, Kelley; Danoff, Diana; Koyanagi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Word frequency analysis has not been fully explored as an input to public health taxonomy development. We used document analysis, expert review, and user-centered design to develop a taxonomy of public health quality improvement concepts for an online exchange of quality improvement work (www.phqix.org). Online entries were made searchable using a faceted search approach. To present the most relevant facets to users, we analyzed 334 published public health quality improvement documents using word frequency analysis to identify the most prevalent clusters of word meanings. We reviewed the highest-weighted concepts and identified their relationships to quality improvement details in our taxonomy. The meanings were mapped to items in our taxonomy, and presented in order of their weighted percentages in the data. Using this combination of methods, we developed and sorted concepts in the faceted search presentation so that relevant search criteria were accessible to users of the online exchange. Word frequency analysis may be a useful method to incorporate in other taxonomy development and presentationwhen relevant data is available.

  2. The Hardness of Finding Linear Ranking Functions for Lasso Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Ben-Amram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Finding whether a linear-constraint loop has a linear ranking function is an important key to understanding the loop behavior, proving its termination and establishing iteration bounds. If no preconditions are provided, the decision problem is known to be in coNP when variables range over the integers and in PTIME for the rational numbers, or real numbers. Here we show that deciding whether a linear-constraint loop with a precondition, specifically with partially-specified input, has a linear ranking function is EXPSPACE-hard over the integers, and PSPACE-hard over the rationals. The precise complexity of these decision problems is yet unknown. The EXPSPACE lower bound is derived from the reachability problem for Petri nets (equivalently, Vector Addition Systems, and possibly indicates an even stronger lower bound (subject to open problems in VAS theory. The lower bound for the rationals follows from a novel simulation of Boolean programs. Lower bounds are also given for the problem of deciding if a linear ranking-function supported by a particular form of inductive invariant exists. For loops over integers, the problem is PSPACE-hard for convex polyhedral invariants and EXPSPACE-hard for downward-closed sets of natural numbers as invariants.

  3. Ecology of a key ecosystem engineer on hard coastal infrastructure and natural rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gustavo M; Neto, Ana I; Cacabelos, Eva

    2016-02-01

    The numbers of hard coastal artificial structures is increasing worldwide and there is now cumulative evidence that they support assemblages that are less diverse than natural shores. Here we investigated patterns of distribution and demography of the native barnacle Chthamalus stellatus on hard coastal structures and on natural rocky shores. Barnacles were 35% less abundant on hard structures regardless of substratum type (concrete or basalt). On a subset of sites we found that temporal population stability, growth and mortality were similar on natural rocky shores and hard structures. In contrast, barnacles were significantly larger and recruited more onto natural rocky shores. These results emphasise the important role of recruitment in determining the abundance of a key space occupier on hard coastal structures. Experimental work building on these results may generate insights that can be used as guidelines for the management of urbanised coastal areas.

  4. Public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, A

    2013-04-01

    This opinion-based article aims to highlight the worrying decline in support for dental public health as a specialty. Not only is this specialty important for its role in commissioning services, it is crucial for the identification of vulnerable groups in society and ensuring dental services are acceptable and assessable for these populations. Dental public health also addresses the social determinants of health in its approach, acknowledging the impact of these in perpetuating inequalities and looking for multisectoral approaches to their management. This article also looks at the lack of appreciation for these determinants in dental foundation training and how a change in the structure of the programme could both address this and the current shortage of places.

  5. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  6. Child Support: States' Progress in Implementing the 1984 Amendments. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    Information on the states' progress in implementing 14 provisions of the 1984 Child Support Enforcement Amendments is provided in this report, which also summarizes the states' opinions on the effects of the amendments on five enforcement activities. Responses to questionnaires indicated that, as of March 31, 1986, only Oregon had fully…

  7. Getting our house in order: an audit of the registration and publication of clinical trials supported by the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, A C; Petit-Zeman, S; Goldacre, B; Heneghan, C J

    2016-03-02

    To audit the proportion of clinical trials that had been publically registered and, of the completed trials, the proportion published. 2 major research institutions supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR). The proportion of trials reporting results within 12 months, 24 months and 'ever'. Factors associated with non-publication were analysed using logistic regression. Phases 2-4 clinical trials identified from internal documents and publication lists. In total, 286 trials were identified. We could not find registration for 4 (1.4%) of these, all of which were completed and published. Of the trials with a registered completion date pre-January 2015, just over half (56%) were published, and half of these were published within 12 months (36/147, 25%). For some trials, information on the public registers was found to be out-of-date and/or inaccurate. No clinical trial characteristics were found to be significantly associated with non-publication. We have produced resources to facilitate similar audits elsewhere. It was feasible to conduct an internal audit of registration and publication in 2 major research institutions. Performance was similar to, or better than, comparable cohorts of trials sampled from registries. The major resource input required was manually seeking information: if all registry entries were maintained, then almost the entire process of audit could be automated--and routinely updated--for all research centres and funders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The Purposefulness and Effectiveness of Supporting Entrepreneurship with Public Funds – EU Funds for the Development of Self-Employment and Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Wojtowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper discusses issues associated with using funds that support the development of entrepreneurship – the purpose of the paper is to answer questions regarding the purposefulness and effectiveness of financial instruments from EU funds aimed at the development of emerging businesses (startups. Methodology: The paper analyzes previously conducted research studies in the fi eld of the discussed topic, it systematizes and describes the fi nancial instruments from EU funds supporting self- employment and startups in their early stages of activity. It also provides an overview of evaluation reports concerning these instruments. The paper also contains a case study: an analysis of the effectiveness of a selected project supporting the development of entrepreneurship (co-fi nanced from EU funds, in which the method of evaluating the net effect of the support in the short term has been used. Findings: An analysis of previously conducted research studies has shown that properly designed State aid targeted at those starting up their own business is sensible, as it provides them with seed capital and it helps them survive the most diffi cult period of the so-called “startup”. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies to confirm the positive impact of business support interventions carried out using EU funds. The methodology of evaluating the net effect used by the Author in the conducted study has made it possible to identify the actual size of the – positive – impact of the selected project on the growth of self-employment. Limitations: The study revealed some limitations – the method and time of the study allow to capture the phenomenon on a micro-scale, in the short term. The institutions that are involved in the process of allocating funds should develop a comprehensive methodology that implements the idea of evaluating the net effect, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the support at regional and national level

  9. The roles of users personal characteristics and organisational support in the attitude towards using ERP systems in a Spanish public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems enable central and integrative control over all processes throughout an organisation by ensuring one data entry point and the use of a common database. T his paper analyses the attitude of healthcare personnel towards the use of an ERP system in a Spanish public hospital, identifying influencing factors. This research is based on a regression analysis of latent variables using the optimisation technique of partial least squares. We propose a research model including possible relationships among different constructs using the technology acceptance model. Our results show that the personal characteristics of potential users are key factors in explaining attitude towards using ERP systems.

  10. Instituto Mesoamericano de Salud Pública: órgano de apoyo técnico y fortalecimiento del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública Mesoamerican Public Health Institute: Technical support and capacity strengthening arm of the Mesoamerican Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A González-Block

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El Instituto Mesoamericano de Salud Pública (IMSP se constituyó en 2009 como órgano técnico del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública (SMSP y la Red Virtual de Instituciones Académicas. En la primera fase se identificaron las necesidades de fortalecimiento de sistemas de salud y se evaluaron los primeros resultados de capacitación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de contenido de los Planes Maestros del SMSP para cada prioridad y se encuestó a los integrantes del Grupo de Trabajo en Malaria y Dengue. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron los temas de capacitación requeridos por áreas de prioridad del SMSP y las necesidades de gestión de conocimiento para control y eliminación de la malaria y dengue. Se elaboró un mapeo de competencias a desarrollar con el personal estratégico, táctico y operativo. El IMSP capacitó a 91 funcionarios de ocho países en su primer año. Estas actividades se desarrollaron de julio 2009 a junio 2010, en consulta a directivos de servicios de salud de países integrantes del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública, Colombia y México. CONCLUSIONES: El IMSP está respondiendo a las necesidades de salud pública en la región mesoamericana.OBJECTIVE: The Mesoamerican Public Health Institute (IMSP was constituted in 2009 as the technical organ of the Mesoamerican Public Health System (SMSP and the Virtual Network of Academic Institutions. Health system capacity strengthening needs and preliminary training results were assessed in the first phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SMSP Master Plans were content-analyzed for each priority and members of the Malaria and Dengue Working Group were surveyed. RESULTS: The training needs required for each SMSP priority area were identified and knowledge management needs for malaria and dengue analyzed. Competencies were mapped across strategic, tactical and operative personnel that will be requiring them. IMSP trained in its first year 91 persons in eight

  11. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu

    1999-01-01

    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  12. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  13. Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

  14. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  15. Numerical Solution of Hard-Core Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Buhot, Arnaud; Krauth, Werner

    1997-01-01

    We study the equilibrium phase diagram of binary mixtures of hard spheres as well as of parallel hard cubes. A superior cluster algorithm allows us to establish and to access the demixed phase for both systems and to investigate the subtle interplay between short-range depletion and long-range demixing.

  16. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Skjetne, Erik; Kobernus, Mike

    2013-11-04

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations.

  17. Hardness methods for testing maize kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2009-07-08

    Maize is a highly important crop to many countries around the world, through the sale of the maize crop to domestic processors and subsequent production of maize products and also provides a staple food to subsistance farms in undeveloped countries. In many countries, there have been long-term research efforts to develop a suitable hardness method that could assist the maize industry in improving efficiency in processing as well as possibly providing a quality specification for maize growers, which could attract a premium. This paper focuses specifically on hardness and reviews a number of methodologies as well as important biochemical aspects of maize that contribute to maize hardness used internationally. Numerous foods are produced from maize, and hardness has been described as having an impact on food quality. However, the basis of hardness and measurement of hardness are very general and would apply to any use of maize from any country. From the published literature, it would appear that one of the simpler methods used to measure hardness is a grinding step followed by a sieving step, using multiple sieve sizes. This would allow the range in hardness within a sample as well as average particle size and/or coarse/fine ratio to be calculated. Any of these parameters could easily be used as reference values for the development of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations. The development of precise NIR calibrations will provide an excellent tool for breeders, handlers, and processors to deliver specific cultivars in the case of growers and bulk loads in the case of handlers, thereby ensuring the most efficient use of maize by domestic and international processors. This paper also considers previous research describing the biochemical aspects of maize that have been related to maize hardness. Both starch and protein affect hardness, with most research focusing on the storage proteins (zeins). Both the content and composition of the zein fractions affect

  18. Theoretical Hardness of Wurtzite-Structured Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-Ju; XU Bo; LIU Zhong-Yuan; YU Dong-Li; HE Ju-Long; GUO Li-Cong

    2008-01-01

    Vickers hardness calculations of eleven wurtzite-structured semiconductors are performed based on the microscopic hardness model All the parameters are obtained from first-principles calculations. There axe two types of chemical bonds in wurtzite-structured crystals. The overlap populations of the two types of chemical bonds in lonsdaleite are chosen as Pc for wurtzite structure. The calculated bond ionicity values of the wurtzite-structured semiconductors are in good agreement with the ionicities from the dielectric definition. When the hardness of wurtzite-structured crystal is higher than 20GPa, our calculated Vickers hardness is within 10% accuracy. Therefore, the hardness of novel wurtzite-structured crystal could be estimated from first-principles calculations.

  19. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Kai; Li, Jian; Chen, Kang; Tian, Wen-De; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21374073 and, 21574096).

  20. Effective Defense Support for Public Diplomacy (DSPD) with a Sub-Saharan Africa Target Audience: A Case Study of the African Crisis Response Force Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Proquest and Torpedo Ultra database searches of the world news media. Each instance of defense support for the bid from its announcement in...2939-306, ABI/INFORM Global Database , (Document ID: 10235242) (accessed May 11, 2008). 64 George Gedda and Associated Press Writer, "African...Technical Information Center, 1989). 73 Redie Bereketeab, Eritrea: The Making of a Nation (Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 2007), 48; Clement E. Adibe and David