WorldWideScience

Sample records for publicly funded cross-border

  1. Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the “Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable.” The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Represen...

  2. Cross-Border Higher Education for Labor Market Needs: Mobility of Public-Funded Malaysian Students to Japan over Years. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako; Hong, Yeeyoung

    2011-01-01

    As globalization and the knowledge economy spreads, the demand for highly skilled workers has increased and developing countries are engaged in cross-border higher education to develop high level human resources for their nations. Using data on a cross-border higher education program between Malaysia and Japan, namely the Higher Education Loan…

  3. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  4. Cross-border delivery of public services : How useful are EGTCs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaansoo, Annika; Groenendijk, Nico

    2014-01-01

    The European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) is a European legal instrument designed to facilitate and promote cross-border, transnational and interregional cooperation. It was introduced in 2006 to enable public authorities of various Member States to team up and deliver joint services,

  5. Crossing borders for creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jacobs; Ewan Lentjes

    2012-01-01

    The Organza project was proud to present "Crossing Borders for Creativity". This publication is a reflective record of the Organza project. The second chapter examines What Organza was all about. It is a concise analysis of the process, starting from the regional profile descriptions, it points at

  6. Parasites and vectors carry no passport: how to fund cross-border and regional efforts to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye Cara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tremendous progress has been made in the last ten years in reducing morbidity and mortality caused by malaria, in part because of increases in global funding for malaria control and elimination. Today, many countries are striving for malaria elimination. However, a major challenge is the neglect of cross-border and regional initiatives in malaria control and elimination. This paper seeks to better understand Global Fund support for multi-country initiatives. Methods Documents and proposals were extracted and reviewed from two main sources, the Global Fund website and Aidspan.org. Documents and reports from the Global Fund Technical Review Panel, Board, and Secretariat documents such as guidelines and proposal templates were reviewed to establish the type of policies enacted and guidance provided from the Global Fund on multi-country initiatives and applications. From reviewing this information, the researchers created 29 variables according to eight dimensions to use in a review of Round 10 applications. All Round 10 multi-country applications (for HIV, malaria and tuberculosis and all malaria multi-country applications (6 from Rounds 1 – 10 were extracted from the Global Fund website. A blind review was conducted of Round 10 applications using the 29 variables as a framework, followed by a review of four of the six successful malaria multi-country grant applications from Rounds 1 – 10. Findings During Rounds 3 – 10 of the Global Fund, only 5.8% of grants submitted were for multi-country initiatives. Out of 83 multi-country proposals submitted, 25.3% were approved by the Technical Review Panel (TRP for funding, compared to 44.9% of single-country applications. The majority of approved multi-country applications were for HIV (76.2%, followed by malaria (19.0%, then tuberculosis (4.8%. TRP recommendations resulted in improvements to application forms, although guidance was generally vague. The in-depth review of Round 10

  7. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...

  8. Public Service Media and Challenge of Crossing Borders: Assessing New Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Aslama Horowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the need for new models of public service media. First, the article looks at the core factors, or borders, that frame the quest for new models: the digitalization, deinstitutionalization, and globalization of communication. It then outlines some suggested models for public service. Finally, the models are assessed in terms of how they respond to some core challenges for public service media as a concept and as an institution.

  9. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  10. The role of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Cross Border Cooperation (CBC) as strategic practice in the EU Policies and cooperation tools for 2014-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Lussi, Manoela

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasingly widespread acknowledgement among all active actors in the development co-operation sector that the Public Private Partnership (PPP) can be a new important tool, not only to build important infrastructure (public works) but also to provide services to the citizens at central and local level as well as to have a strategic value in the Cross-Border Co-operation (CBC) in the next future. The European Commission defines PPPs in a rather broad and general way without giv...

  11. Cross border nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, P

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, the Canadian Nurses Association asked a professional nurse from British Columbia to help nurses in Nepal develop their association an work on nursing legislation. Nepal had about 3000 nurses, including assistant nurse-midwives, 500 of whom were members of the Trained Nurses Association of Nepal (TNAN). It wanted to expand nursing's contribution to health care in Nepal. The nurses wanted to increase the visibility of the association, to become a self-sustaining organization, to establish a licensing law, and to improve the availability of continuing education. The Canadian nurse helped the Nepalese nurses with a workshop on association management covering record keeping and meeting plans. She helped a newly formed committee with licensing law and with decision factors in pursuing self-regulation for nursing. She discussed a work plan and a lobby strategy. She helped another committee develop objectives for the next year. A follow-up visit the next year revealed that the office was operating well and the association was keeping good records. TNAN sponsored workshops on professionalism and leadership. This visit yielded further progress on a licensing law and on identifying ways to become self-sufficient. The nurses discussed the Norwegian Nurses Association's (NNA) interest in providing funds to buy a building for TNAN use and to derive income from rent. NNA eventually donated the funds. By the 1992 visit, the nurses had revised and registered their constitution and bylaws. They had sponsored workshops on HIV/AIDS and mental health. The name was now the Nursing Association of Nepal (NAN). The newly created executive council had met frequently. NAN had expanded from 6 to 11 local branches. It had created 5 committees: fund raising, research, international coordination, nurses welfare, and publications. A workshop in western Nepal centered on quality nursing care. NAN had a role in the government's progress in primary health care and mental health services.

  12. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  13. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...

  14. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced...... to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other cross...

  15. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  17. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  18. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  19. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...... stay large since it receives large funds...

  20. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can......This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...

  1. Should Public Pensions be Funded?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hemming

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the arguments for and against the funding of public pensions, with a view to establishing whether there is an economic basis for judging funding to be superior to pay-as-you-go (PAYG). It is argued that funding does not have a clear advantage, and the case for a shift from PAYG to funding is thus an uneasy one. There is nonetheless growing advocacy of funded public pensions as part of an ideal pension system, which raises more general issues about the role of the p...

  2. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS IN ROMANIA-REPUBLIC OF SERBIA IPA CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is based on the analysis of the sustainability aspects in cross-border cooperation programmes. The importance of this research topic consists in presenting if the implementation of the activities of the projects submitted under cross-border cooperation programmes is based on the sustainability aspects. In this matter, the article will present theoretical aspects of sustainable development, territorial cohesion and cross-border development and focuses on practical questions related to sustainability aspects in the case of the Romania – Republic of Serbia IPA Cross-border Cooperation Programme. One of the main challenges of the cross-border area is also environmental challenges. Sustainable development is represents the fundamental objective of the European Union and refers to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. Countries cannot develop without existing cooperation between them, therefore EU policy is based on economic, social and territorial cohesion. Methodologically, the research is based on identifying of appropriate theoretical concepts corresponding to the chosen theme, collecting and processing data. The paper concludes with answers to key questions related to the integration of sustainable development aspects in cross-border cooperation programmes and projects. The results of the research have implications that could contribute to the current problem of absorption rate of EU funds, offering information about IPA cross-border cooperation programmes and increasing the capacity of potential applicants to elaborate and implement projects for obtaining and using financial EU funds. The added value of the paper results from the fact that EU financing is a topical issue of great interest to European and national level. To the best of our knowledge, this topic has not yet been researched within the national literature. The author contributed by performing methodology of qualitative research

  4. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent, a...

  5. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  6. Lesson plan. Crossing borders: the globalization debate

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2008-01-01

    Students will consider both sides of the globalization debate—the benefits and the costs—by reading and discussing the article "Crossing Borders: The Globalization Debate" from the Spring 2008 issue of Inside the Vault. Working in groups, students will analyze statements regarding the benefits and costs of globalization, categorize the statements and discuss them.

  7. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  8. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  9. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  10. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...

  11. Cross-Border Higher Education, Who Profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Peim, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Emphasis on "the knowledge economy", the commodification of public services, the massification of HE and decreases in public funding of education are the context for new forms of educational provision. Some nations have led the demand for and provision of cross-national educational services. The largest exporters of Higher Education have…

  12. Cross-Border Higher Education, Who Profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Peim, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Emphasis on "the knowledge economy", the commodification of public services, the massification of HE and decreases in public funding of education are the context for new forms of educational provision. Some nations have led the demand for and provision of cross-national educational services. The largest exporters of Higher Education have been the…

  13. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration........ This paper discusses the reasons behind this mismatch which means that the concept still rests upon and draws policy suggestions based on a thin evidence base. Directions for further research are pointed out by underlining the need for holistic empirical validations of the concept together with the need...

  14. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers....

  15. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  16. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Institutional Development of Cross-Border Higher Education:The Case of an Evolving Malaysia-Japan Project

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yuki, Takako; Sakata, Nozomi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines institutional governance for a cross-border higher education program, focusing on the effects of introducing a new form of program. The paper analyzes the case of the Higher Education Loan Fund Project between Malaysia and Japan, in which the form of cross-border higher education has evolved from student mobility to program mobility through a twinning arrangement. Although academic staff sent from Japanese universities continued to play important roles and be involved in d...

  18. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design

    2012-07-01

    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  19. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within......This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross-border...... West Africa to develop cross-border initiatives in a number of ways. Combining these two analyses with the perceptions of regional policy makers as to which border areas they consider as priorities for regional integration, the publication concludes with the analytical foundations for more effective...

  20. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  1. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  2. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  3. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  4. Pension Funding in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia S. Mitchell; Smith, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of pension funding in the public sector. We formulate and test several hypotheses about the determinants of public employer pension funding practices, using a new data set describing financial and other characteristics of state, local, and teacher plans. The data show that, on average, public sector pension plans were relatively well-funded during the late 1980s. There were, however, wide variations in funding practices in our sample. Our analysis of these...

  5. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  6. Detecting a trend change in cross-border epidemic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2016-09-01

    A method for a system of Langevin equations is developed for detecting a trend change in cross-border epidemic transmission. The equations represent a standard epidemiological SIR compartment model and a meta-population network model. The method analyzes a time series of the number of new cases reported in multiple geographical regions. The method is applicable to investigating the efficacy of the implemented public health intervention in managing infectious travelers across borders. It is found that the change point of the probability of travel movements was one week after the WHO worldwide alert on the SARS outbreak in 2003. The alert was effective in managing infectious travelers. On the other hand, it is found that the probability of travel movements did not change at all for the flu pandemic in 2009. The pandemic did not affect potential travelers despite the WHO alert.

  7. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... foreign policy establishment and industrial-military complexes reluctant to cede control over a vital technology and production base - particular to neighbouring countries which in a not to distant past were rivals rather then partners. The latter will be linked to recent work on the nature and impacts...

  8. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  9. Cross-border cooperation in the Fehmarn Belt Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document......Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document...

  10. Public Opinion and the Funding of Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bryce

    2003-01-01

    This investigation compared self-reported use of public libraries and public opinion about library services with levels of per-capita library funding over time. Results showed a small relationship between self-reported use of libraries and levels of library funding. There was no relationship between public opinion and funding levels. Non-economic…

  11. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  12. Public Funds and Local Biotechnology Firm Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolympiris, C.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Miller, D.

    2014-01-01

    A long stream of academic literature has established that public funding towards research and development matters for economic growth because it relates to increases in innovation, productivity and the like. The impact of public funding on the creation of new firms has received less attention in thi

  13. Patient’s Cross-border Mobility Directive: Application, Performance and Perceptions Two Years after Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Rafał

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the directive on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Two years after the transposition, it is time for first evaluations of its application, performance and perception. The analysis consists of three major elements: reconstruction of the legal scope and subject matter of the new legislation, conclusions of the evaluative reports monitoring its implementation and performance as well as the public opinion polls revealing the EU citizens’ perception of its details. These three components combined together deliver a picture of the state of play about the pan-European cross-border patients’ mobility. The bottomline conclusions negatively verify the supposition present in some earlier literature on patients’ cross-border mobility that the directive has a transformative potential leading towards the creation of truly competitive pan-European medical market. After two years of its operation, there is still no increased patients’ mobility across EU internal borders observed. As regards the speculations for the future, there are only some weak symptoms identified and they may result in intensified cross-border mobility for healthcare.

  14. TAX EVASION IN CROSS BORDER TEXTILES OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We appreciated that the work can be divided into four chapters designed to enlighten, as far as possible the negative effects that evasion has, particularly the socio-economic phenomenon, faced by all countries. The negative effects generate an indisputable fraud phenomenon and tax evasion, which are felt directly on the level of tax revenue receipts, causing major distortions in the functioning of the mechanism of the market. Fiscal policy using the taxes generates psychological, financial, economic, social effects on a socio-economic environment. The public power that realizes the reality of the tax consequences of the action taken as solution changes of the tax system structure in order to modulate the effects according with the expected outcome. Therefore, the aimed pursued extent influences the technical characteristics of the taxes, and they influence the micro and macroeconomic effects. In this respect it has been proved that reducing tax evasion it allows the creation of budgetary resources necessary for allotting funds for economic growth. Developing and implementing a modern and predictable tax for a medium and long term, would be indispensable in the context of competition that occurs between the European states for attracting new investment and creating new jobs. The taxes do not have to shape the behavior of taxpayers, they must be the same regardless of the type of income, it should not include distortions. In order to be reasonable, the fiscal tax should be distributed as wide as possible.

  15. The European Electricity Market and Cross-Border Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic characteristics and features of trading in electricity, especially in cross-border trading. First, the most important features of electricity as a commodity are explained, with the consequences for electricity trading. Then characteristics and changes in the electricity market after liberalization are discussed. This liberalization has taken place throughout Europe, and the consequences of this revolutionary change are still visible. The main features of electricity trading are mentioned in general. Then cross-border trade in Europe is discussed in greater detail. In this context the basic principles of the allocation of cross-border transmission capacities are explained.The next part of the paper considers the characteristics of the European electricity market from the trader’s point of view. Liquidity as a very important index is introduced here.Finally the most visible trends in cross-border trade and the most probable future development in this area are presented. 

  16. Partnership and Cooperation Models in Cross-Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Slusarciuc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at exploring the partnership and cooperation issues in cross-border areas in European Union. The theoretical part of the papers is defining the role of the borders in the framework of the European Union enlarged and it includes a review of forms of cooperation and principles applicable in cross-border cooperation considered by the Council of Europe and the European Union or the Association of European Border Regions. Further there are identified in the specific literature important challenges and key points that are marking the cross-border partnerships. The last part of the paper is focusing on some examples of cross-border cooperation, making distinction between two main situations: the border between Member States and the borders between EU and neighbouring countries.

  17. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers ...

  18. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. Copyright © 2016

  19. Cross-border acquisitions in the global food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Herger, Nils; Kotsogiannis, Christos; McCorriston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border acquisitions constitute the main form of foreign direct investment in the world economy, the focus of this paper being to consider the determinants of the location and growth of cross-border acquisitions in the global food sector. The data relates to over 2,000 international acquisitions in the food sector from 45 source to 46 host countries. The results highlight the importance of market size, relative costs and stock market growth as important determinants. We also report diffe...

  20. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in huma...

  1. Alternative Funding For Public Goods Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Kodrat Wibowo

    2002-01-01

    Finding alternatives in public good financing is one of the most recent issues in the government sector. Tax-financed for pure public good is well known results further problems like externalities and economic inequity. This paper only addresses the qualitative analysis in discussing benefits and costs of the society in applying some alternatives in funding public good provisions, pure and impure one.

  2. Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province from 2009-2013%2009-2013年云南省边境地区传染病类突发公共卫生事件流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬志薇; 戚艳波; 林燕; 李琼芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过了解云南省边境地区传染病类突发公共卫生事件流行特征,以指导边境地区传染病防控工作.方法 对2009-2013年间云南省边境地区的传染病类突发公共卫生事件资料进行整理和描述分析,资料来源于《中国疾病预防控制信息系统》.结果 云南省25个边境县(市)共报告传染病类突发公共卫生事件110起,占全省疫情的16.72%.主要为一般事件(Ⅳ级),占74.55%;发病7 086例,死亡15人;疫情波及446 213人,罹患率为1.59%.甲类传染病事件4起,占3.64%;乙类46起,占41.82%;丙类33起,占30.00%;其他27起,占24.54%.事件主要发生于每年3-5和9-12月份,以水痘等呼吸道传染病为主,主要发生在学校.境外输入传染病事件6起,均为缅甸输入.结论 传染病跨境输入,特别是甲类传染病跨境输入引起的突发公共卫生事件,是云南省边境地区疾病预防控制工作的一个难点和重点.%[Objective] To understand the epidemiologic characteristics of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province,guide the prevention and control of communicable diseases in cross border area.[Methods] The data of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province from 2009-2013,which were collected from the China disease prevention and control information system,were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology.[Results] Totally 110 public health emergencies of communicable diseases were reported in 25 border counties/ cities,accounting for 16.72% of total events in Yunnan Province.74.55% of the emergencies were general events (grade Ⅳ),there were 7 086 patients and 15 death cases,446 213 people were involved,and the attack rate was 1.59%.There were 4 events of category A communicable disease,46 events of category B communicable disease,33 events of category C communicable disease and 27 events of other communicable disease

  3. FUNDING PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin, DIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of this article started from the fact that in the field of public institutions accounting there have been many changes and it aims to capture the essential aspects of their financing. Thus the article covers a series of issues related to the credit officers, to employment, to settlement and payment of public institutions expenditure, to the budgeting and budgetary credits accounting. It also presents a brief classification of the public institutions according to several criteria, as well as their financing sources. The paper also practically presents the accounting of the budgetary credits and their sharing mechanism between the principal, secondary and tertiary budgetary credits officers.

  4. Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

  5. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    OpenAIRE

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  6. Private Funds for Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addonizio, Michael F.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses sources of nontraditional revenue for public school systems: the result of donor activities (the solicitation of goods, services, and money via direct and indirect donations); enterprise activities (the selling or leasing of services or facilities); and shared or cooperative activities (pooling functions with other agencies or…

  7. Cross-border regional innovation system integration: An analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  8. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic multinati......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...... multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either...

  9. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  10. Cross border hospital use: analysis using data linkage across four Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Katrina; Rosman, Diana; Alan, Janine; Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B

    2015-06-15

    To determine the quality and effectiveness of national data linkage capacity by performing a proof-of-concept project investigating cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths. Analysis of person-level linked hospital separation and death registration data of all public and private hospital patients in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia and of public hospital patients in South Australia, totalling 7.7 million hospital patients from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2009. Counts and proportions of hospital stays and patient movement patterns. 223 262 patients (3.0%) travelled across a state border to attend hospitals, in particular, far northern and western NSW patients travelling to Queensland and SA hospitals, respectively. A further 48 575 patients (0.6%) moved their place of residence interstate between hospital visits, particularly to and from areas associated with major mining and tourism industries. Over 11 000 cross-border hospital transfers were also identified. Of patients who travelled across a state border to hospital, 2800 (1.3%) died in that hospital. An additional 496 deaths recorded in one jurisdiction occurred within 30 days of hospital separation from another jurisdiction. Access to person-level data linked across jurisdictions identified geographical hot spots of cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths in Australia. This has implications for planning of health service delivery and for longitudinal follow-up studies, particularly those involving mobile populations.

  11. Cross-border reproductive care: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is a growing worldwide phenomenon, raising questions about why assisted reproductive technology (ART) patients travel abroad, what harms and benefits may result, and what duties health-care providers may have in advising and treating patients who travel for reproductive services. Cross-border care offers benefits and poses harms to ART stakeholders, including patients, offspring, providers, gamete donors, gestational carriers, and local populations in destination countries. This document replaces the previous document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:645-50). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of cross-border transmission lines in Poland and their significance for the Central East Europeam energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruszkiewicz, Jerzy

    2010-09-15

    This publication presents the existing cross-border transmission lines connecting Poland with neighbouring countries and their use in the currently applied mechanisms for making available the transfer capacities. The prospects and the considered options of development in cross-border interconnections were presented, taking into account their role in the integration of the European market and of the trade relations with neighbouring counties other than members of the European Community. The role of the planned interconnections in solving the problems of central European countries connected with the implementation of European strategy that reduce CO2 emissions in the area of electricity generation was discussed.

  13. Transgranichnoe sotrudnichestvo nepravitel'stvennyh organizacij v Pomorskom i Varmin'sko-Mazurskom voevodstvah [Cross-border cooperation between nongovernmental organisations in the Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomulka Christina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of cross-border cooperation carried out by agents resident in the Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian voivodeships. Among such agents there are non-governmental organizations. This article aims to identify the role of NGOs in cross-border cooperation and the predominant fields of their cooperation, as well as to assess their activity in attracting funding from European budgets. The article widely applies the results of surveys of NGOs conducted by the author, compares the results of performance reports submitted by these organisations within international projects, and offers the data presented in relevant publications (Euroregion Baltic documents and Phare CBC reports, Interreg IIIA and, Interreg IIIB, NMF, and Polish-Swiss Cooperation reports, as well as the data of the Central Department of Statistics. The research covers the period from the late 90s to 2012. The article highlights the difficulties agents face in forging and implementing cross-border cooperation, resulting from the mismatching definitions of the tertiary sector in Poland’s neighbour states.

  14. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PROGRAMS FOR THE FINANCING OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara BORZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of European funding shows a great interest for present and, especially, for the future. The common problems of areas implied in the cross-border programs are correlated to socio-economic development of communities. By this paper we propose an analysis, by inventory type, descriptive and qualitative, of implemented projects and of the perspectives for projects in 2014-2020 period. The results of paper consist in identification of solid arguments about the importance and necessity of these programmes and projects.

  15. FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik

    FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...... on international level. The project started in late 2009 with a runtime of 3 years. The FURGY project pursues the goal to strengthen this existing location advantage by a vital cross-border network. In the sector of renewable energy surveys, interdisciplinary networks and active information policies shall optimize...

  16. Crossing Borders: The Two-Year College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Discusses negative stereotyping of the public or others in the profession of two-year college educators. Defines the open-admissions student and the emphasis on the "introductory" elements as a mission of transformation. Encourages working together towards a common goal of achievement in the profession of English Studies by crossing the border…

  17. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  18. Shifting Institutional Boundaries through Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Sin, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African…

  19. Global Liquidity and Drivers of Cross-Border Bank Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a definition of global liquidity consistent with its meaning as the "ease of financing" in international financial markets. Using a longer time series and broader sample of countries than in previous studies, it identifies global factors driving cross-border bank flows, alongside

  20. Cross-Border Acquisitions and Employee-Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Vansteenkiste, Cara

    2017-01-01

    We provide novel evidence that a firm’s engagement in employee-related issues explains part of the value difference between its domestic and cross-border takeovers. An acquirer’s investment in employee relations is positively related to the firm’s performance when acquiring domestically, but

  1. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe. W

  2. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international mobil

  3. What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if economic factors drive gross and net cross-border venture capital inflows differently. Using a dataset of venture capital investments in European and North American countries from 2000 to 2008, we find that higher expected economic growth goes hand in hand with higher gross as well

  4. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  5. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Tumbas; Predrag Matkovic; Marton Sakal

    2013-01-01

    The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  6. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the au

  7. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tumbas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  8. Cross-border banking in Europe and financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are wel

  9. Cross-border banking in Europe and financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are

  10. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    2006-01-01

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political stabilit

  11. Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Toman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electrici...

  12. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the

  13. Cross- border interfirm knowledge generation and enterprise development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is grounded in the theoretical understanding that knowledge provides the foundation for innovation within fi rms and industries and propels economic growth. Furthermore, the amount and value of the learning that takes place within and between fi rms locally and in cross- border colla...

  14. Creditor Protection in a Cross-Border Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This comment focuses initially on the way in which cross-border mobility plays a central role in shaping creditor protection regimes across the European Union. We conclude with some preliminary observations about the European Insolvency Regulation and the potential impact of forum shopping on

  15. The Nature of Public and Private Sectors of Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Public Utilities in China:From the Perspective of Cross-Border Governance%跨界治理视域下中国城市公用事业公私合作制的主体性质探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付金存; 王岭

    2016-01-01

    在公私合作制下,公私部门的主体属性划分直接关系到双方的权责配置与合作形式。改革开放以来,中国城市公用事业发展的实践历程,实质是私人部门边界不断拓展、公私合作不断深化的过程。从跨界治理视角看,公私合作制蕴含的私人部门打破公共部门的垄断边界,突破城市政府的行政边界,政府部门间监管职能整合的内在逻辑,为公私部门的属性划分提供了理论启示。中西方文化对公私性质的认知差异表明:确定公权边界,明确经济主体的责任属性是判定公私部门的基本准则。基于这一准则,公共部门包括与城市公用事业直接或间接相关的行政部门,以及依法取得政府授权、代表政府行使公共职能的国有企业,私人部门则涵盖各种形态、甚至是国有资本在内的社会资本。上述结论的政策蕴意在于,政府要以包容的姿态接纳各种形态社会资本,并辅之以有效监管,才能真正推动城市公用事业领域公私合作制的发展。%The nature of the public sector and private sector is the key issue for the development of the public-private partnerships (PPP), many problems are related or derived from it. The development of urban public utilities from BOT to franchise and multiple governance was actually reflected the expanding of the private sector boundary since the reform and opening. From the perspective of the cross-border governance, the private sector broke the public sector monopoly boundary and the city's administration boundary, integrate the regulatory functions between different government's departments are necessary for the development of PPP. By comparing the Chinese and western culture, I found that the boundary of the public power and judging the nature of the responsibility which the economic agents bear were the basic criterion to define the nature of public and private sectors. The public sectors

  16. The marginal cost of public funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the theory and measurement of the marginal cost of public funds (MCF) to account for labor force participation responses. Our work is motivated by the emerging consensus in the empirical literature that extensive (participation) responses are more important than intensive (hours...

  17. Is It More Important to Address the Issue of Patient Mobility or to Guarantee Universal Health Coverage in Europe?; Comment on “Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Legido-Quigley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses whether European institutions should devote so much attention and funding to cross-border healthcare or they should instead prioritise guaranteeing universal health coverage (UHC, inequalities and tackling the effects of austerity measures. The paper argues through providing the evidence in both areas of research, that the priority at European level from a public health and social justice perspective should be to guarantee UHC for all the population living in Europe and prioritise protective action for those who are most in need.

  18. The Funding of Public Service Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowe, Gregory F.; Berg, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    the complexion of media systems in the 21st century as a consequence of greater instability and higher uncertainty. A model describes 4 modes of funding for media and assesses operational implications for each. This work elaborates on earlier research questioning the premise that big, rich countries are suitable...... funding public broadcasting is not only about funding; it is about wider issues only partly rooted in the current economic malaise. An underlying dynamic is keyed to the digitalization of the media system at large, co-related with growing complexity in media competition, fuelling debate over......, for consideration of implications in how media are understood and organized and the purposes for which media are mandated...

  19. Funding child care and public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, E F; Finn-Stevenson, M

    1996-01-01

    Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every community--the public school. The linkage of child care with the public education system would eliminate the false distinction between child care and education, and would create a universally accessible system of child care services for children. The School of the 21st Century is an example of such a system. Initially conceptualized by Zigler, it has now been implemented in 400 schools across 13 states, with the leadership and direction of Finn-Stevenson. This article describes how school districts that have implemented the program employ a mixture of parent fees and local, state, federal, and private dollars to fund it, and then proposes an ideal financing model for the program. In the ideal model, the same mix of funding sources would be retained, but a per-pupil expenditure of about $9,000 per year is advocated to deliver child care and other social services to three- and four-year-olds. Funds for initial start-up could be derived from reallocation of existing dollars, especially state prekindergarten programs, but eventually new funds would be needed to support ongoing operations.

  20. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... a tourist attraction in itself, which benefits the local economies on both sides of the border. However, this potential is not taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. The article, thus, concludes with suggestions for the tourism industry to develop its image and brand by integrating cross...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  1. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...... for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a depiction...

  2. Foreign Direct Investment in Cross-Border Infrastructure Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Kwok-Chiu; Garcia-Herrero, Alicia; Ng, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors critically review the relevant information and literature that can enhance the feasibility and the successful implementation of cross-border infrastructure projects. They provide detailed information concerning foreign direct investment in the major emerging regions: East Asia and the Pacific, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. They also discuss the theoretical and empirical literature which sheds light on the characteristics of transnational infrastructure projects,...

  3. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attracti...

  4. Report on the cross border movement of children

    OpenAIRE

    Society for Advanced Legal Studies, Family Law Working Group

    1999-01-01

    Report by a Working Group of practitioners and academic lawyers who have expertise in family law, and an interest in and commitment to that field of law. The papers take a contemporary view of problems and issues relating to the cross border movement of children. They cover a wide range of topics including international child abduction, international adoption, EC law, Shari'a law, immigration and movement of children for abusive purposes.

  5. Changing Destinations: Ideal Attraction and Actual Movement of Cross-Border Tertiary Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has driven growth in the market for cross-border students. Mainland China, with a burgeoning economy and the largest national population, has become an important source of cross-border students. This study identifies ideal attraction in mainland China to destinations for cross-border tertiary education, as expressed by ideal first…

  6. Cross-border Cooperation as a Mechanism of Regional Marketing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Denis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a pragmatic approach to certain aspects of cross-border regionalisation. The marketing component of Euroregion development and the implementation of cross-border cooperation projects are considered as key directions of the joint activity of cross-border partner-regions. The authors analyse the opportunity to apply the territory brand model to research on the mechanisms of cross-border cooperation and to the elaboration of an efficient development strategy as a promising direction of further study of the cross-border cooperation and regionalisation phenomena.

  7. Cross-Border Governance: Balancing Formalized and Less Formalized Co-Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Zumbusch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses cross-border co-operation with regard to its degree of formalization. Herewith, the focus is not on single cross-border organizations, but on the encompassing governance systems in the respective regions. That means that the specific combination of differently organized cross-border arrangements is analyzed. Cross-border governance systems are facing multiple governance challenges which ask either for a certain degree of institutionalization or for more informal solutions. Based on an empirical comparison of the two experienced, but differently organized, cross-border regions in Europe the Lake Constance Region and the Upper-Rhine Region, the paper illustrates that the organizational variation of cross-border governance systems show specific patterns. From these findings, first arguments are deduced for balancing formalized and more informal co-operations in cross-border governance systems.

  8. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-02-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  9. Establishing Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and Improving Cross-Border Collaboration in Criminal Cases: Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul; Rijken, Conny; D'Orsi, Sergio; Esser, Luuk; Hol, Floor; Gallagher, Anne; Greenberg, Galit; Helberg, Louis; Horvatits, Lisa; McCarthy, Sean; Ratel, Jonathan; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Forsythe, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and cross-border cooperation are made. These are the outcomes of a working group discussion during the writers' conference of the HOTT project, a European Union-funded project against trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500251

  10. Creditor protection in cross-border mergers; unfinished business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert T.M.J. Raaijmakers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In cross-border mergers, creditor protection is important to facilitate a smooth, efficient and transparent process necessary to facilitate the single market. As all assets and liabilities are being transferred and there is a risk that the liabilities of the acquiring company will exceed the assets, creditor protection needs to be safeguarded in legal mergers. As the title suggests, creditor protection in the context of cross-border mergers and the recently adopted directive is examined in this paper, as well as the position of creditors under Dutch law and the Third Directive. The ex-ante and ex-post systems of creditor protection, both existing in the Member States of the EU, and which are both supported by strong arguments, are also discussed. The fact that differences in creditor protection rules nevertheless remain may create unjustifiable differences in the position of various groups of creditors involved in one single cross-border merger. The authors conclude that the case for leaving creditor protection to the Member States is weakening. Differences in national legislation on creditor protection, defendable as they may be, are ultimately of a technical nature and create unnecessary and unjustifiable impediments. There are strong arguments, in other words, to adopt the same provisions for all transactions for the sake of simplicity, but while this may be attractive, it can lead to undesired delay. Amending the Directive at this point in time thus seems equally unfeasible. This stresses the need to make haste with at least some further harmonization of creditor protection rules related to the Third Directive.

  11. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd; Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    , content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video...... with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students...

  12. Cross border testamentary trusts and the conflict of laws

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente Sánchez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    The trust is a creation of equity and the English Common Law which has not passed to civil jurisdictions. Among the different types, the testamentary trusts are created by the testator in the will to provide the benefits of property after his or her death. This article explores the issue of conflict of laws –jurisdiction and applicable law- and the cross-border testamentary trusts from the perspective of English Common Law. The paper highlights the obstacles arising in the application of the ...

  13. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka

    2016-01-01

    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  14. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  15. 14 April 1895, Ljubljana earthquake - A new, cross-border study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Cecić, Ina; Hammerl, Christa

    2014-05-01

    Though it has been the object of both contemporary and modern investigations, the 14 April 1895, Ljubljana event (Mw ~6, according to the European catalogue SHEEC) is still not fully described in its effects. One manifest reason for this is that being the 1895 earthquake a cross-border event, it affected an area that today pertains to three different countries, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy, as well as accounted for in sources today scattered in different archives and libraries. In addition, the 1895 Ljubljana earthquake was a turning point for many aspects. Imperial Vienna sent help to rebuild the damaged city and its surroundings, and the architects brought modern ideas about urban planning, public hygiene and contemporary design. It was also the beginning of organised seismological observations in Slovenia - macroseismic, right after the earthquake, and instrumental, in 1896. The macroseismic data about this earthquake are plentiful and very well preserved. In this new, cross-border study we intend to re-evaluate the already known as well as the newly collected data sources. Specific attention is devoted to the archival documentation on damage, and to the far-field data, which were not comprehensively taken into account beforehand. As the earthquake was felt in a large part of central and Eastern Europe, a considerable effort is put into collecting and interpreting the coeval sources, written in many different languages.

  16. RMB Cross-border Flows and Risk Management%人民币跨境流动风险及管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚珈玉

    2016-01-01

    伴随我国人民币国际化进程的快速推进,人民币跨境收支规模成倍快速增长,人民币产品结构不断丰富,资金汇划途径和范围迅速扩大。其快速发展将降低我国外贸企业汇兑成本、增加人民币铸币税收益,并有效增强我国金融系统抵御风险的能力。但任何事物都具有两面性,在获得收益的同时,跨境贸易结算风险,宏观政策非独立性,汇率波动产生套利风险日益突显。因此,明晰人民币跨境流动风险,进而采取相应的政策措施趋利避害,对推动人民币跨境使用至关重要。%With the rapid progress of the process of internationalization of RMB, the cross-border payments doubled growth, product structure being rich, fund transfer route expanded rapidly. The rapid development will reduce the cost of remittance, increase coinage tax revenue, and effectively enhance the ability of our ifnancial systems against risks. However, everything has two sides, the risk of cross-border trade settlement , independence of monetary policy, risk arbitrage from exchange rate fluctuations has become increasingly prominent. Thus, make sense cross-border RMB liquidity risk, and then take appropriate policy measures while avoiding disadvantages, to promote the use of RMB cross-border.

  17. Features of the Triple Helix Model in Cross-Border Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhaylov, S. Andrey

    2013-01-01

    The article is aimed at discussing the unique characteristics of the “triple helix” model that are unveiled while applied to cross - border cluster studies. The results of the case study method of the best practice on cross - border cluster formation at the Baltic Sea region shows evidence of the doubling of the number of helices represented in a complex collaboration system. Major factors of the dynamics and the transformation of the cross-border cluster interactions are stated. The hypothes...

  18. Features of the Triple Helix Model in Cross-Border Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhaylov, S. Andrey

    2013-01-01

    The article is aimed at discussing the unique characteristics of the “triple helix” model that are unveiled while applied to cross - border cluster studies. The results of the case study method of the best practice on cross - border cluster formation at the Baltic Sea region shows evidence of the doubling of the number of helices represented in a complex collaboration system. Major factors of the dynamics and the transformation of the cross-border cluster interactions are stated. The hypothes...

  19. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions...... and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  20. Does Online Cross-border Shopping Affect State Use Tax Liabilities?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Melnik, Mikhail I.

    2012-01-01

    How does online cross-border shopping affect state use tax liabilities? We collect our own data on actual online cross-border shopping transactions from eBay.com, focusing upon a "representative" commodity classification and a "typical" day. These data allow us to examine the extent of actual online cross-border shopping by buyers, and the subsequent potential impact on state use tax liabilities of buyers. Our results indicate that online cross-border shopping is highly prevalent on eBay, wit...

  1. Strangers and neighbours: cross-border banking in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. DEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with regulatory and competitive aspects of the mutual penetration by Canadian and U.S. banks of each other’s domestic markets. The authors assess the degree to which economic factors alone are responsible for the difference in growth rates between domestic and foreign banks in North America. They argue that regulation has not affected the growth of foreign banks in North America by addressing the question of reciprocity in banking regulations, before examining foreign banks in the U.S. and the manner in which they have been regulated. U.S. banks operating in Canada are then dealt with. Finally, the results of an empirical test of the proposition that the growth of cross-border banking is attributable to factors other than differential regulation is presented.

  2. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... outcomes. The results shed light on the mechanisms through which the constructs influence value creation in CBAs and highlight the procedural and dynamic character of these determinants. The results also indicate that an integrative and process perspective, such as the “input-process-output” model proposed...

  3. Motives for Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    that were conducted amongst Danish firms, our empirical evidence supports that CBM&A motives are based on Rationality Hypothesis, including Synergy Theory, Resource Dependence Theory, and Resource-based View. Besides, overconfidence and imitation sometimes play a role in the firms’ decision-making process......This study addresses two questions based on Danish firms’ practices: first, what are motives for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As)? Second, how the external and internal factors influence the firms’ decisions? Based on the literature review, survey questionnaire and multiple-case study......, and acquiring technical knowledge & expertise are the top five motives for Danish firms. In addition, we found the nature of the firms’ businesses mainly determines their motives for conducting CBM&As. They focus on their core businesses rather than diversification, and horizontal CBM&As....

  4. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd; Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    mathematics, language, science, social studies and history. This paper provides an in-depth description and analysis of how four social science and history elementary school teachers and their 70 students (5th–7th grades) worked together between November 2011 and December 2012. Previous research regarding...... the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in history education in elementary schools is limited, thus calling for contemporary investigations in this particular subject domain. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model, enhancing the combination of teachers’ pedagogical...... with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students...

  5. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  6. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  7. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  8. Implementation of the cross-border healthcare directive in Poland: How not to encourage patients to seek care abroad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska-Bobko, Iwona; Mokrzycka, Anna; Sagan, Anna; Włodarczyk, W Cezary; Zabdyr-Jamróz, Michał

    2016-11-01

    In October 2014, after over 12 months of delay, Poland finally implemented directive 2011/24/EU on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare. The implementing legislation in the area of cost reimbursement and prior authorization is very restrictive. The goal is to either defer the public payer's expenses into the future or to discourage patients from seeking care abroad or from seeking care altogether. The Polish government and the Ministry of Health, the key stakeholders in the implementation process, seemed to overlook the potential monetary benefits that the implementation of the directive could bring, for example, by promoting Poland as a destination for health tourism. Other stakeholders, such as patients and healthcare providers, had no real influence on the policy process. So far, the number of applications for planned treatment abroad has been very low and the majority of them were actually turned down as they did not meet the formal requirements. This number is likely to remain low in the future as accessing such care is cumbersome and not affordable for many patients. Overall, while the directive does not aim to encourage patients to seek cross-border healthcare, the current national regulations in Poland do not seem to facilitate access to cross-border healthcare, which is the main goal of the directive.

  9. Cross-border merger & acquisition activity and revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an important implication of oligopolistic international trade modeling for the predicted pattern of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Our core argument is that cross-border M&As are, among other factors, driven by cross-country differences in comparative advantage. We find

  10. Cross-border merger & acquisition activity and revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an important implication of oligopolistic international trade modeling for the predicted pattern of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Our core argument is that cross-border M&As are, among other factors, driven by cross-country differences in comparative advantage. We find st

  11. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  12. Cross-border Place Branding: Zooming in the potential case of Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS 3 Minho-Lima, Cávado, Ave, Grande Porto, Tâmega, En

  13. Cross-border Place Branding: Zooming in the potential case of Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS 3 Minho-Lima, Cávado, Ave, Grande Porto, Tâmega,

  14. Intergenerational risk-sharing through funded pensions and public debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.H.J.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Ponds, E.H.M.; Romp, W.E.

    We explore the benefits of intergenerational risk-sharing through both private funded pensions and via the public debt. We use a multi-period overlapping generation model with a pay-as-you-go pension pillar, a funded pension pillar and a government. Shocks are smoothed via the public debt and

  15. Teachers’ organisational behaviour in public and private funded schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72

  16. Teachers’ organisational behaviour in public and private funded schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 p

  17. Intergenerational risk-sharing through funded pensions and public debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.H.J.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Ponds, E.H.M.; Romp, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the benefits of intergenerational risk-sharing through both private funded pensions and via the public debt. We use a multi-period overlapping generation model with a pay-as-you-go pension pillar, a funded pension pillar and a government. Shocks are smoothed via the public debt and variat

  18. CROSS-BORDER PROJECTS – MEANS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA (BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the linkage between establishing crossborder relations and tourism development by focusing on ten tourism projects implemented under Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme (2007-2013. The study area comprises the two neighbouring counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the border connecting two areas characterised by social and economic similarities. Building on a solid foundation, as the first Hungarian-Romanian cross-border initiatives were launched nearly two decades ago, the two counties work together towards the shared aim of developing business infrastructure, cross-border trade, culture and tourism. The present study examines the relevance of cross-border projects viewed from the perspective of sustainable tourism development in two peripheral counties featuring similar resources. Moreover, the investigation is based on consultation of project documents, reports and promotional materials, against the theoretical framework of cross-border cooperation and regional development.

  19. Golden Jubilee photos - The first cross-border Accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic ...

  20. Structural changes in cross-border liabilities: A multidimensional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Spelta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We study the international interbank market through a geometric analysis of empirical data. The geometric analysis of the time series of cross-country liabilities shows that the systematic information of the interbank international market is contained in a space of small dimension. Geometric spaces of financial relations across countries are developed, for which the space volume, multivariate skewness and multivariate kurtosis are computed. The behavior of these coefficients reveals an important modification acting in the financial linkages since 1997 and allows us to relate the shape of the geometric space that emerges in recent years to the globally turbulent period that has characterized financial systems since the late 1990s. Here we show that, besides a persistent decrease in the volume of the geometric space since 1997, the observation of a generalized increase in the values of the multivariate skewness and kurtosis sheds some light on the behavior of cross-border interdependencies during periods of financial crises. This was found to occur in such a systematic fashion, that these coefficients may be used as a proxy for systemic risk.

  1. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  2. Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Wagner, Karla D; Armenta, Richard F; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Hendrickson, Erik; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are significantly lower among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego, CA, USA compared with PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, located directly across the border. We investigated associations between cross-border injection drug use (IDU), HIV and HCV seroprevalence and engagement in injecting risk behaviours while on each side of the border. Using baseline interviews and serologic testing data from STAHR II, a longitudinal cohort study of PWID in San Diego, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between recent (past six months) cross-border IDU and HIV and HCV antibody seropositivity, socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and participants' connections to, and perceptions about Mexico. Chi-squared tests and McNemar tests examined associations between cross-border IDU and injecting risk behaviours. Of the 567 participants (93% U.S.-born, 73% male, median age 45 years), 86 (15%) reported recent cross-border IDU. Cross-border IDU was not associated with HIV (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.37-1.95) or HCV seropositivity (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.62-1.65). Age, identifying as Hispanic or Latino/a, and being concerned about risk of violence when travelling to Mexico were independently associated with decreased odds of recent cross-border IDU. Injecting cocaine at least weekly, having ever lived in Mexico and knowing PWID who reside in Mexico were associated with increased odds of recent cross-border IDU. PWID who reported cross-border IDU were significantly less likely to engage in receptive needle sharing, equipment sharing, and public injection while in Mexico compared with in San Diego (all p<0.001). Prevalence of HIV and HCV infection was similar among PWID who had and had not injected in Mexico, possibly due to practising safer injecting while in Mexico. Research is needed to elucidate contextual factors enabling U.S. PWID to inject safely while in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  4. Indian Education: Funding Sources for Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Barbetta L.

    Although provisions in countless treaties have mandated Indian educational services, federal and state governments were for many years unenthusiastic about accepting the responsibility for educating the Indian people. Inadequately funded educational services provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs did little to reflect the realities and needs of…

  5. A determination Standard of Jurisdiction in Cross-Border Insolvency——Center of Main Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玥

    2010-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (‘the Model Law’) enacted on May 5 1997 and the European Commission Insolvency Regulation enforced in 2002 both adopted a new type of establishing standard-company’s main interest (COMI)-to distribute the jurisdiction around the world in cross-border insolvency cases. The purpose of these two legal documents is to endeavor to find the place that has the most significant connection with the debtor. This essay is trying to analyze the new standard and enlighten the judicial practice of China in cross-border insolvency field.

  6. 76 FR 66872 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions AGENCY... entities that would be required to report information on the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border...-based debit network companies would be required to report on cross-border transactions between (1)...

  7. 77 FR 10958 - International Services Surveys: BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions AGENCY: Bureau of Economic... on the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions, to... number (PIN). PIN-based debit network companies will be required to report on cross- border...

  8. The Politics of Teaching, Funding and Publication in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2010-05-14

    May 14, 2010 ... l'enseignement, de financement, de recherche/publication. Dans cet ..... of us has previously applied twice for funding to the Medical Research. Council. ... Often the feedback is also so sketchy that the questions remain unan-.

  9. School Competition and Efficiency with Publicly Funded Catholic Schools

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Martin Dooley; Abigail Payne

    2010-01-01

    The province of Ontario has two publicly funded school systems: secular schools (known as public schools) that are open to all students, and separate schools that are open to children with Catholic backgrounds. The systems are administered independently and receive equal funding per student. In this paper we use detailed school and student-level data to assess whether competition between the systems leads to improved efficiency. Building on a simple model of school choice, we argue that incen...

  10. CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE – PROBLEMS IN IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon in the contemporary world economy and very little examined. The aim of this paper is to specify and charac-terize basic problems for the cross-border e-commerce research. It was carried out a wide literature review, including methodological manuals, studies, reports and statistics. The problems with definition of the cross-border e-commerce notion were studied, as well as the scope of official statistics and private sources of data in this area. The finding is that the studies of cross-border e-commerce are currently faced with serious problems of fundamental nature, which are identification of meaning and quantitative dimension of this phenomenon.

  11. A balanced way for China's inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of solutions to China’s inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation, the doctoral dissertation provides 10 original recommendations accompanied with comments, which are entitled “CICIA”.

  12. Domestic banking sector development and cross border mergers and acquisitions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikplimi K. Agbloyor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, economists have started taking a closer look at cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As due to its phenomenal rise in the past two decades. This study investigates the relation between banking sector development and cross M&As in Africa. Our sample consists of 11 African countries with data covering the period, 1993–2008. We use a Baltagi panel instrumental variable Error Component Two Stage Least Squares (EC2SLS estimator with the Baltagi-Chang estimators of the variance components to deal with endogeneity. The results of the study indicate that banking sector development promotes cross border M&A activity in Africa. We also document evidence suggesting that cross border M&A activity drives banking sector development in Africa. Overall, our evidence suggests a two-way causation between banking sector development and cross border M&As.

  13. Gender access to formal credit and its impact on cross-border bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    There is high potential in cross-border bean business between. Kenya and Uganda. However ... countries, such as Mexico under field conditions (Muasya,. 2001). ..... quality variation in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. L.). Ph.D. Thesis ...

  14. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing: The case of Southern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  15. Development of the model of protected cross-border information interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyashev, R. G.; Nyssanbayeva, S. E.; Begimbayeva, Ye. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates a proposed model of cross-border exchange and information security in the cross-border interaction in the integration system. A structural scheme of protected cross-border information exchange is proposed. Cross-border interaction of sides for information exchange in the integrated system is provided by the creation and use of the integration segment and national segments. The main tasks of a trusted third party are formulated. The model of sides' interaction scheme of the integration system using the integration gateway is presented. In this paper, a model of modified nonconventional digital signature system based on the scheme of the Digital Signature Algorithm and nonpositional polynomial number systems (NPNs) are described. Application of NPNs allows creating effective cryptographic systems of high reliability, which enables the confidentiality, authentication, integrity of stored and transmitted information.

  16. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world: a critical reconceptualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    , while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity...

  17. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  18. The danger of declining funds: Public Health Preparedness in NYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Monica; Patel, Prachee; Raphael, Marisa; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has built a strong public health preparedness foundation, made possible in large part by funding from the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While this funding has allowed NYC DOHMH to make great progress in areas such as all-hazards planning, risk communication, disease surveillance, and lab capacity, the erosion of federal preparedness dollars for all-hazards preparedness has the potential to reverse these gains. Since the initiation of the PHEP grant in 2002, PHEP funding has steadily declined nationwide. Specifically, the total federal allocation has decreased approximately 20%, from $862,777,000 in 2005 to $688,914,546 in 2009. With city and state budgets at an all-time low, federal funding cuts will have a significant impact on public health preparedness programs nationwide. In this time of strict budgetary constraints, the nation would be better served by strategically awarding federal preparedness funds to areas at greatest risk. The absence of risk-based funding in determining PHEP grant awards leaves the nation's highest-risk areas, like New York City, with insufficient resources to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. This article examines the progress New York City has made and what is at stake as federal funding continues to wane.

  19. Cross-Border Higher Education Institutions in Mainland China : A developmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mei; Li, Shengbing

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border higher education institutions are considered a main way to fulfill the educational internalization in Mainland China; to some extent they represent the attitude of entering the international market. In this paper, the history, status quo, and future of Chinese-foreign cooperatively-run schools are analyzed and discussed. Cross-border higher education institutions in Mainland China have experienced the process from accidental and disorder to a systematic and quality orientation.

  20. The Effect of Regulatory Harmonization on Cross-border Labor Migration: Evidence from the Accounting Profession

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines whether international regulatory harmonization increases cross-border labor migration. To study this question, we analyze European Union (EU) initiatives that harmonized accounting and auditing standards. Regulatory harmonization should reduce economic mobility barriers, essentially making it easier for accounting professionals to move across countries. Our research design compares the cross-border migration of accounting professionals relative to tightly-matched other prof...

  1. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  2. Initiatives of cross-border regional planning in Matamoros-Brownsville (Mexico-United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oliveras González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border regional planning is a recent phenomenon, which its first initiatives date back to 1960s. Currently some experiences have been conducted, most of them in Europe. The weak development of this phenomenon lies on the obstacles and limitations that it has to deal with. Those obstacles derive from the asymmetries between the political and administrative systems, urban and spatial policies, land planning and land uses, etc. on each side of an international border. In a great extent, cross-border planning has been theoretically approached from an institutional construction perspective. However, in this research it has been adopted the symbolic regional construction perspective that allows to analyze cross-border regional planning through spatial imaginaries. In this sense, crossborder planning is understood as a result of the interaction between regional actors and the social constructed values and meanings (geographical, cultural, social, economic, historical, etc. given to border and cross-border regions. This investigation pursues, in first place, to determine the spatial imaginaries on which cross-border planning is constructed and, at the same time, the spatial imaginaries that cross-border planning reproduces; in second place, to determine in which way cross-border planning contributes to deactivate the border (deborder or, on the contrary, to reproduce and reinforce the spatial differentiation process (the process by which two contiguous national or bordered spaces build spatial discontinuities as a way to distinguish of each other. To achieve these objectives, it has been conducted a content analysis based on the documentation of the spatial and urban planning and of the cross-border initiatives from a case study area; a direct observation of an ongoing cross-border initiative; and interviews to key informants (planning agencies and other organizations related to cross-border initiatives. In the Mexico-United States border region

  3. Public funding of political parties when campaigns are informative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian

    ’s dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...

  4. Private Giving Crowding Government Funding in Public Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thomas Sav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Private giving and government funding are critical revenue sources for public colleges and universities. If increased private giving reduces government funding, then that type and extent of crowding out carries important managerial and public policy implications. Approach: The study used a government funding reaction function and an instrumental variable approach to empirically estimate the potential for crowding out. Results: The study examined the extent to which private giving reduces or crowds out state government funding of public colleges and universities. Government free riding was at question and investigated to determine how active it is in terms of private donations partially or wholly displacing state government funding. The findings suggested that the rate of crowding out was 43% on the dollar. That compares to the 45% political substitution of the 1960’s but is much diminished from the 1980’s dollar for dollar crowding out. Those are aggregate comparisons for all public institutions. A disaggregated approach in this study additionally revealed that doctoral universities were victims of the same 43% crowd out but that at two other levels, master degree granting and associate degree granting colleges, there was the opposite effect of crowding in. Those colleges received state funding augmentations of 32-92% on their dollar of privately provided donations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study’s finding of the existence of both crowding out and crowding in can carry important policy implications for college and university funding. Future managerial and public policy decision making should take that into account. However, political sustainability and economy wide and localized effects over time of crowding out and in could prove fruitful avenues of inquiry for future research.

  5. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  6. Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴长洪; 林江

    2007-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of Chinese enterprises by foreign investors have moved onto the public radar in recent years.To date,the M&A frenzy has drawn widespread attention,with a mixed reaction from proponents and opponents.Proponents consider such mergers and acquisitions conducive to realizing strategic readjustment of the national economic structure,optimizing resource allocation and improving the corporate governance structure.Opponents,however,are concerned that foreign mergers and acquisitions may jeopardize China’s industrial security and erode the executive power of the central government in undertaking industrial development planning.Are the benefits of M&A outweighed by the costs,or vice versa? The focus column of this edition features two articles which debate this issue from opposing viewpoints.In the article"Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A",the authors consider foreign M(?)A to be a new way of boosting the level of foreign investment utilization,and advocate China taking full advantage of this approach.The authors of the article"Self-Improvement Or Self-Mutilation",meanwhile,hold foreign M&A to blame for state-owned asset erosion,and insist that China should oppose mergers and acquisitions of key state- owned enterprises by foreign investors at fire-sale prices.

  7. The Open Method of Coordination, a Cross-Border Mechanism for Social Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the debate on the future of the European Union a new topic has started. This topic is represented by Europeanization process and its profound impact upon the public policy of the member states. In order to understand it, since 1990s, the EU has included “new modes of governance” in its arsenal of policy-making instruments, among others the open method of coordination. The open method of coordination is one of the instruments that attract a particular attention of scholars, being described as “primus inter pares”. The open method of coordination is a cross-border mechanism that aims to create a coherent social practice between the European Union member states. In this paper the author addresses the following query: in what extent uses Romania this mechanism for increasing coherence between its social practice and European ones? For answering have been drawn the subsequent objectives: (1 describing the instrument and the operational process of the open method of coordination, stressing the comparative perspective between community method and open method of coordination; (2 researching on historical development and main features of this tool; (3 exploring Romania‟s efforts for using the open method of coordination in social policies. From a methodological standpoint, the paper relies on comprehensive and systematic search of the literature and document analysis (among others Annual Reports, authorities‟ data, resume, obtained by using free accession to information and strategic documents.

  8. Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence from the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Brenna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of “voting with their feet”. We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI, aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe.

  9. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods: The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results: We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion: Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. PMID:26029895

  10. Problems and Prospects of Cross-Border Cooperation in Tourism between Russia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitseva Natalia A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this research is related to the increasing role of tourism in the world in general and in border areas in particular. This article sets out to identify the problems and prospects of the development of cross-border cooperation in tourism between Russia and European countries. The authors focus on the scientific and theoretical aspects of cross-border cooperation and examine the role of tourism, and recreational potential and its effective use. The authors employ the methods of expert judgement and statistical analysis, refer to the surveys of Russian and European consumers showing their preferences, as well as to the authors’ own materials. The analysis makes it possible to have a deeper insight into the issue of cross-border cooperation in tourism between Russia and European countries and to assess the prospects of it. The authors provide an assessment of changes in the socio-economic relations between Russia and European countries and identify key problems in the development of cross-border cooperation in tourism. These problems relate to both macroeconomic and regional/industrial factors. The article is of interest for researchers studying cross-border tourism, the regional and local administrations of border areas of Russia and European countries, and representatives of the tourism business.

  11. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  12. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    , the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment......The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  13. 76 FR 6653 - Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... the private sector within the meaning of UMRA. Environmental Impact A Finding of No Significant Impact... February 7, 2011 Part II Department of Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Parts 903, 905, 941 et al. Public Housing Capital Fund Program; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 25 /...

  14. Legal aspects of open access to publicly funded research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Margoni, T.

    2015-01-01

    Internet growth, content digitisation, and expanding "big data" and data analytics capabilities have affected the ways in which publicly funded research results are accessed, disseminated and used. While these technological advances have made sharing and processing information easier, that does not

  15. Effectiveness of cross-border knowledge transfer in Malaysian MSC status corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sow Yee Pook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become the key asset for the economy to gain competitiveness as more and more countries have shifted or are shifting towards knowledge-based economy, no exception for Malaysia. In order to acquire and transfer technology and/or knowledge from overseas to Malaysia, Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC has been proposed. However, research focuses on cross-border knowledge transfer especially in the context of MSC status corporations in Malaysia is still limited. The factors that affect the effectiveness of cross-border knowledge transfer will be determined and presented in this paper. Quantitative approach has been adopted in this study. The findings of this study show that knowledge characteristics (KC and network characteristics (NC have positive significant relationship with cross-border knowledge transfer. The effects context towards KC and NC will also be examined in this study.

  16. Smart specialisation strategies and cross-border integration of regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Zenker, Andrea; Hufnagl, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the implications of the European Commission’s smart specialisation agenda in a specific, cross-border context. The paper critically reflects on some of the RIS3 (research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation) agenda’s premises by ill...... strategy. The last section brings together these conceptual and applied perspectives on smart specialisation and outlines suggestions for progressive cross-border integration via regional innovation policies....... by illustrating its practical implementation in the Upper Rhine area (i.e. Alsace in France and Baden-Württemberg in Germany). The first section revisits not only the smart specialisation concept in itself but also discusses it vis-à-vis the thematic of cross-border regional innovation systems and outlines some...

  17. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  18. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At t...

  19. Letting the managers manage: analyzing capacity to conserve biodiversity in a cross-border protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Clement

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss is one of the most significant drivers of ecosystem change and is projected to continue at a rapid rate. While protected areas, such as national parks, are seen as important refuges for biodiversity, their effectiveness in stemming biodiversity decline has been questioned. Public agencies have a critical role in the governance of many such areas, but there are tensions between the need for these agencies to be more "adaptive" and their current operating environment. Our aim is to analyze how institutions enable or constrain capacity to conserve biodiversity in a globally significant cross-border network of protected areas, the Australian Alps. Using a novel conceptual framework for diagnosing biodiversity institutions, our research examined institutional adaptive capacity and more general capacity for conserving biodiversity. Several intertwined issues limit public agencies' capacity to fulfill their conservation responsibilities. Narrowly defined accountability measures constrain adaptive capacity and divert attention away from addressing key biodiversity outcomes. Implications for learning were also evident, with protected area agencies demonstrating successful learning for on-ground issues but less success in applying this learning to deeper policy change. Poor capacity to buffer political and community influences in managing significant cross-border drivers of biodiversity decline signals poor fit with the institutional context and has implications for functional fit. While cooperative federalism provides potential benefits for buffering through diversity, it also means protected area agencies have restricted authority to address cross-border threats. Restrictions on staff authority and discretion, as public servants, have further implications for deploying capacity. This analysis, particularly the possibility of fostering "ambidexterity" - creatively responding to political pressures in a way that also achieves a desirable

  20. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control.We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO.A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries.Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies. The under-fives and the school going children were the most

  1. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration Among Former Soviet States. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-09-01

    transport development in cross-border traffic are shown. The findings of the study suggest that the development of cross-border transportation of goods and the transport and transit potential implementation in Eurasian Economic Union countries — can and should provide income for business entities, the budgets of all levels and the public, as well as to become the locomotive of industrial and technological modernization and institutional — organizational evolution of economic systems and integration associations.

  2. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S E; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the school going children were the most affected age

  3. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S. E.; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. Materials and Methods We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. Results A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Conclusions Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the

  4. The Analysis of the Difficulty of Checking Cross - border Gambling%跨境赌博问题屡禁不绝的原因及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高茂春

    2011-01-01

    跨境赌博活动是当前影响我国社会稳定的重要治安问题之一,虽然经过公安机关的集中打击,在一定时期内取得了一定的成效,但集中打击过后在很多地区又出现重新开业或者变化形式逃避打击的现象。从历史、认识、法律、经济利益、网络赌博以及边境管理现状等方面,对我国跨境赌博活动屡禁不绝的原因进行了分析,提出了遏制跨境赌博活动的打防对策。%The cross - border gambling is a serious problem affecting social stability. It has been controlled to some extent after the public security organs cracked down on cross - border gambling, but there are still some new casinos or phenomenon coming into being. This paper tries to analyze the difficulty of cross - border gambling activities from the points of history, the people' s awareness, law, economic interests, the characteristics of cross - border gambling and online gambling. The paper suggests prevention countermeasures to cross -border gambling activities.

  5. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  6. 浅议当前打击跨境电信诈骗犯罪的难点与对策--以“2·7”特大跨境电信诈骗案为例%Humbly Discuss Diffculties in Combating Cross-Border Telecom Fraud and Countermeasures --Take“2/7” Cross-Border Telecom Fraud for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何灏东; 周衍

    2016-01-01

    跨境电信诈骗犯罪除了具有一般电信诈骗犯罪的欺骗性和隐蔽性特点,还具有跨境犯罪的特殊性,公安机关在赃款追缴工作方面难度较大。为了更好保护人民群众财产安全,创造良好的社会环境,在打击与防范此类犯罪过程中,职能部门要不断加强对电信、金融等行业的监管,公安机关要把加强跨境侦查协作工作作为打击此类犯罪的重要举措。%In addition to common characteristics of deception and concealment, cross-border fraud has special feature, that is, diffculty for police agencies to retrieve defrauded funds. In order to protect the public and their property safety, create good social environment, police agencies should consistently supervise telecom, financial sectors and others concerned and take transnational cooperation and investigation as an important crime-combating measure in the process of combating the crime of such kind.

  7. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  8. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  9. The impact of cross-border reproductive care or 'fertility tourism' on NHS maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, A; David, A L; Shenfield, F; Jauniaux, E R

    2009-10-01

    High order multiple pregnancies have substantial morbidity and mortality. Fertility treatment is commonly responsible for their conception and is available globally with variable regulation. We investigated cross-border fertility treatment in these pregnancies in a UK fetal medicine unit, recording mode of conception, country of fertility treatment, reason for non-UK treatment and fetal reduction. Over an 11-year period, 109 women had a high order multiple pregnancy. Ninety-four women (86%) conceived with fertility treatment of whom 24 (26%) had this performed overseas. Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to obstetricians. National data on its occurrence is urgently needed.

  10. Chinese enterprise’s wealth effect of cross-border M&A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingrui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the Chinese enterprises’ wealth effect of cross-border M&A and the factors which impact it. The results indicate that in the [-10, 10] event window Chinese enterprises’ get wealth effect from cross-border M&A, but in the longer event windows this wealth effect doesn’t exist. And high R&D density of the acquirer enterprises, acquisitions experience and host country’s high level of innovation have positive influence to this cumulative abnormal return, while large asset scale, high growth speed, high equity centralized degrees and horizontal acquisition mode have significant negative effects.

  11. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  12. Protecting Pregnant Pennsylvanians: Public Funding of Crisis Pregnancy Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan McElroy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief overview of the history of CPCs in the United States and the “abortion alternatives” program in Pennsylvania, this Note examines possible legal claims in terms of legal standards and likelihood of success. The results of a Right to Know (“RTK” request directed toward the Pennsylvania DPW, including both what the DPW offered to produce and what it refused to produce, will supplement this evaluation of possible legal claims. This Note also proposes Public policy recommendations aimed at eliminating the DPW’s liability for these claims in the interest of preventing abusive tactics by CPCs and conserving public funds. Finally, this Note compares the relative benefits and disadvantages of legislative and regulatory reform to those of litigation. Either litigative or legislative action is necessary to prevent publically funded CPCs from inflicting further harm on pregnant Pennsylvanians.

  13. 1/54 CROSS-BORDER JURISDICTION AND ASSISTANCE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), both Malaysia and. Singapore .... public policy.36 This view has had to be relaxed in the United Kingdom for. 31 Act 55 ... express consent of the foreign court to initiate and assist proceedings. In this ... security to be given by a liquidator50 was held applicable to a company.

  14. Public funding of innovation; Financiacion publica de la innovacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guisado Tato, M.; Vila, M.; Guisado Gonzalez, M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper contrasts how business cooperation at the level of RandD, the size and the membership in printing industry determine the participation of innovative manufacturing companies in the systems of public support for innovation. Material and methods. From the microdata of the survey on technological innovation 1998-2000, of the National Institute of Statistics (INE), a database is created by the manufacturing Spanish companies involved in innovation. Afterwards, by univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we contrast whether cooperation, size and membership in printing industry determine the participation of the manufacturing innovative companies in the systems of public support for innovation, as well as the direction of that conditioning. Results. The tests carried out indicate that more cooperation between companies at the level of a larger size have a positive influence on the degree of business involvement in the systems of public support for innovation.Discussion. Public administrations seek to foster the development of innovation among manufacturing companies facilitating by providing funds to the companies that cooperate in the area of IandD. Likewise, public support for innovation are targeting in larger firms, while the companies, belonging to the printing industry have less likely to obtain public funding for their innovative projects that the remaining companies of the Spanish manufacturing sector. (Author).

  15. Replicator dynamics in public goods games with reward funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Unemi, Tatsuo

    2011-10-21

    Which punishment or rewards are most effective at maintaining cooperation in public goods interactions and deterring defectors who are willing to freeload on others' contribution? The sanction system is itself a public good and can cause problematic "second-order free riders" who do not contribute to the provisions of the sanctions and thus may subvert the cooperation supported by sanctioning. Recent studies have shown that public goods games with punishment can lead to a coercion-based regime if participation in the game is optional. Here, we reveal that even with compulsory participation, rewards can maintain cooperation within an infinitely large population. We consider three strategies for players in a standard public goods game: to be a cooperator or a defector in a standard public goods game, or to be a rewarder who contributes to the public good and to a fund that rewards players who contribute during the game. Cooperators do not contribute to the reward fund and are therefore classified as second-order free riders. The replicator dynamics for the three strategies exhibit a rock-scissors-paper cycle, and can be analyzed fully, despite the fact that the expected payoffs are nonlinear. The model does not require repeated interaction, spatial structure, group selection, or reputation. We also discuss a simple method for second-order sanctions, which can lead to a globally stable state where 100% of the population are rewarders.

  16. Cross-border transfer of knowledge: Cultural lessons from project GLOBE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javidan, Mansour; Stahl, Günther K.; Brodbeck, Felix; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Distant cross-border business is on the rise. It necessitates effective transfer of knowledge across geographic and cultural borders. In this article we present the key results from the GLOBE study of 62 cultures and apply them to a real-life case of a North European business school designing and

  17. 1/35 CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCY LAW IN EUROPE: PRESENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCY LAW IN EUROPE: PRESENT STATUS ... institutions. Where a regulation is a European Community law measure binding fully the .... proceedings of the Member States; annex C mentions all names of the office ...... rules as falling under the domain of insolvency law or corporate law.45 In.

  18. K ocenke potenciala razvitija prigranichnyh regionov [On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  19. Spillover of Corporate Governance Standards in Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-border acquisitions, the differences between the bidder and target corporate governance have an important impact on the takeover returns. Our country-level corporate governance indices capture the changes in the quality of the national corporate governance regulations over the past 15 years

  20. Socio-Environmental Issues of Marginal Territories within the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIANA TOTH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system overlapping cross-border areas shapes a particularly dynamic and complex functional area. This paper synthesises several research outcomes regarding the social and environmental dysfunctions and opportunities defining the marginal territories that were emphasised during the ‘Analysis and diagnosis of the current situation in the cross-border area’, a phase of the project ‘Common Strategy of Sustainable Territorial Development of the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area’ (SPATIAL. The main indicators concerning the population structure and movement highlight a series of problematic aspects within the cross-border area: population decline, significant rural population concentration on the Romanian side, demographic ageing, increase in the age dependency ratio, and a negative natural growth and migration rate. The analysis also indicates areas of socio-demographic potential that are marked by population growth, a significant young population presence that is convergent with an important share of active population. In this perspective, the spatial analysis also focused on identifying natural drivers affecting development and restrictive factors, on the environmental quality evaluation, as well as on establishing areas exposed to natural and technological risks. Therefore, delineating and analysing components underlying social and environmental processes were intended to determine those issues and opportunities considered to influence the evolution of this potentially functional area.

  1. "Will MyBank lead to more cross-border e-commerce in the EU?"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The launch of MyBank – the EU wide online payment system that provides consumers the possibility to make payments for goods and services in other EU countries via their own online banking environment – may give a boost to cross-border e-commerce within the European Union.

  2. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  3. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  4. The Changing Nature of Volunteering and the Cross-Border Mobility: Where Does Learning Come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the more conventional approaches of volunteering, by looking into the experiences of young people involved in long-term cross-border volunteering in Romania. Drawing on qualitative interviews with European Voluntary Service volunteers, the paper examines how this experience is intersecting their learning trajectories. The…

  5. Inter-Cultural Competence and Cross-Border Inter-firm Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies in cross-cultural management and cross-border interfirm relations have been among the dominant research themes in international business management during the last three decades. There are significant commonalities in the foundational thoughts underlying these studies and there have been...

  6. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  7. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other,

  8. Practical Obstacles in Cross-Border Litigation and Communication between (EU) Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Stadler (Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In cross-border civil litigation the use of different official court languages causes severe problems when - at least one of the parties - is not familiar with the official language of the court, since the parties' constitutional right to a fair trial depends very much

  9. The Great Cross-Border Bank Deleveraging: Supply Constraints and Intra-Group Frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.

    2014-01-01

    International banks greatly reduced their direct cross-border and local affiliates’ lending as the global financial crisis strained balance sheets, lowered borrower demand, and changed government policies. Using bilateral, lender-borrower countrydata and controlling for credit demand, we show that r

  10. Inter-Cultural Competence and Cross-Border Inter-firm Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies in cross-cultural management and cross-border interfirm relations have been among the dominant research themes in international business management during the last three decades. There are significant commonalities in the foundational thoughts underlying these studies and there have been ...

  11. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: the facts as a guide for international economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUsing a detailed and large data set on cross-border merger and acquisitions we discuss the relationship between theory and observed empirical characteristics: - most FDI is in the form of M&As, - firms engaged in M&As seem to be ‘market-seeking’, - M&As come in waves (the most recent wav

  12. Professional Development for Cross-Border Managers: New Growth Opportunities for Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalberg, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of business enterprises for professionals trained for the challenges of cross-border assignments will increase exponentially through the decade. Business schools will be hard pressed to deliver programs with the scope, scale, and effectiveness necessary to address the unique competencies required for cross-cultural understanding and…

  13. Determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in transition economies1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the microeconomic determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in 11 transition economies over the period 1992-2006. We find that foreign banks target relatively large and efficient banks when they enter transition economies with weak institutions. This evidence provides support for the

  14. Who makes the (new) metropolis? Cross-border coalition and urban development in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Savini

    2012-01-01

    In fragmented agglomerations, urban development in peripheral areas tends to express the hegemony of the core city over its suburbs. However, this paper demonstrates that, despite deep-rooted political conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation can still take place in the context of cross-border developm

  15. Cross-border dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Nulens, Eric; Valvatne, Havard; Sebastian, Silvie; Driessen, Christel; Craeghs, Jos; De Brauwer, Els; Heising, Bernhard; Kraat, Yvette J; Riebe, Joachim; Stals, Frans S; Trienekens, Thera A; Scheres, Jacques; Friedrich, Alexander W; van Tiel, Frank H; Beisser, Patrick S; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2009-01-01

    Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the emerge

  16. Cross-border reproductive care : market forces in action or market failure? An economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark

    2011-01-01

    From an economist's perspective, cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) reflects a global market economy bringing together the needs of patients and skills of doctors at an agreed price. From this perspective CBRC is neither wrong nor right, rather it reflects rational economic behaviour of couples t

  17. Cross-border infrastructure constraints, regulatory measures and economic integration of the Dutch - German gas market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate to which extent regulatory measures in the Dutch market have reduced the vulnerability of this market to constraints in the cross-border infrastructure with Germany, which is the largest Dutch neighbouring market. We measure this vulnerability by the degree the markets are integrated, i.

  18. Constructing regional advantage in branding the cross-border Euroregion Galicia-northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a constructing regional advantage (CRA) approach in respect of examining the potential of joint branding strategies intended to position and give visibility to cross-border regions. The CRA concept is introduced here to improve understanding about the empirical significance of a b

  19. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  20. Cross-border mobility of workers between Galicia and north of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falagán Mota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with cross-border flows of people within the Euroregion Galicia-North of Portugal, paying particular attention to those led by workers. Based on data for daily mobility between the places of residence and work (commuters, it can be defined, within this territory, the so-called Polycentric Urban Regions (PUR of Vigo and Porto. These regions should constitute significant referents of cross-border mobility, whose importance we begin to realize by estimating the movement of passengers across border crossings linking the south of Galicia and the north of Portugal. In this context, given the non-existence of official statistics, the reports prepared by the Eures Galicia/Região Norte office provide relevant information about the flow of cross-border workers in the area, which we have complemented by conducting two surveys directed, respectively, to involved workers and companies, and data from a recent study on labour mobility in the Euroregion. The evidence demonstrates the quantitative importance achieved in the territory analyzed by this interesting phenomenon of cross-border work and allows a description of its characteristics that shows the difficulties faced by the process of construction of a European labor market.

  1. School Engagement and Parental Involvement: The Case of Cross-Border Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Celeste Y. M.; Cheung, Alan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the mutual relationship between school engagement of cross-border students (CBS) from Malaysia in Singapore and parental involvement in education. Focus-group interviews were conducted with school personnel, CBS and their non-local counterparts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the…

  2. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatc

  3. Cross-Border Partnerships in Higher Education: Strategies and Issues. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Robin, Ed.; Chapman, David, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Cross-border Partnerships in Higher Education" looks beyond student and faculty exchanges to examine the myriad ways international colleges and universities work together as institutions. These partnerships have involved the creation of branch campuses, joint research and technology initiatives, collaboration in strengthening…

  4. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  5. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation...

  6. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous s

  7. Developing Qualitative Coding Frameworks for Educational Research: Immigration, Education and the Children Crossing Borders Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys; Pastori, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    The Children Crossing Borders (CCB) study is a polyvocal, multi-sited project on immigration and early childhood education and care in five countries: Italy, Germany, France, England and the USA. The complicated nature of the data pushed us as a group to expand our methodological resources to not only organize the data but also to make it…

  8. Professional Development for Cross-Border Managers: New Growth Opportunities for Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalberg, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of business enterprises for professionals trained for the challenges of cross-border assignments will increase exponentially through the decade. Business schools will be hard pressed to deliver programs with the scope, scale, and effectiveness necessary to address the unique competencies required for cross-cultural understanding and…

  9. What drives cross-border M&As in commercial banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galamhussen, Mohamed; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Pinheiro, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Using a gravity model, we analyze the determinants of the probability that commercial banks in 89 acquiring countries and 118 target countries will undertake M&As over a 30-year period (1981–2010) and of the value of these M&As. We find that the value of cross-border M&As increases with the size of

  10. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  11. Crossing borders : een kader voor het tot ontwikkeling brengen van grensoverschrijdende samenwerking in watermanagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der Jan

    2011-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation as referred to in this research may have different underlying motives. Depending on the motive, there usually is an organisation or a person who feels responsible, or is made responsible for the development of the cooperation. In pursuance of the terminology and current prac

  12. Constructing regional advantage in branding the cross-border Euroregion Galicia-northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a constructing regional advantage (CRA) approach in respect of examining the potential of joint branding strategies intended to position and give visibility to cross-border regions. The CRA concept is introduced here to improve understanding about the empirical significance of a

  13. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    an optimization framework that minimizes the cost of reserve procurement. The framework decouples the share of upward and downward primary, secondary, and tertiary reserve services within DK1 (western Danish power system) and neighboring cross border resources (Norway and Germany). Results indicate the economic...

  14. Images crossing borders: image and workflow sharing on multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peeter; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2011-04-01

    Digitalisation of medical data makes it possible to share images and workflows between related parties. In addition to linear data flow where healthcare professionals or patients are the information carriers, a new type of matrix of many-to-many connections is emerging. Implementation of shared workflow brings challenges of interoperability and legal clarity. Sharing images or workflows can be implemented on different levels with different challenges: inside the organisation, between organisations, across country borders, or between healthcare institutions and citizens. Interoperability issues vary according to the level of sharing and are either technical or semantic, including language. Legal uncertainty increases when crossing national borders. Teleradiology is regulated by multiple European Union (EU) directives and legal documents, which makes interpretation of the legal system complex. To achieve wider use of eHealth and teleradiology several strategic documents were published recently by the EU. Despite EU activities, responsibility for organising, providing and funding healthcare systems remains with the Member States. Therefore, the implementation of new solutions requires strong co-operation between radiologists, societies of radiology, healthcare administrators, politicians and relevant EU authorities. The aim of this article is to describe different dimensions of image and workflow sharing and to analyse legal acts concerning teleradiology in the EU.

  15. 75 FR 10561 - Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community Development Financial and Technical Assistance Awards, Native Initiatives, and Bank Enterprise Awards AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund,...

  16. A Strategic Spatial Planning Approach to Cross-Border Place Branding with References to Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo; Zenker, Sebastian; Jacobsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place-branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS III Alto Minho, Cávado, Ave, Área Metropolitina do

  17. Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education: Where Do We Strand? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan; Pfotenhauer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" were developed and adopted to support and encourage international cooperation and enhance the understanding of the importance of quality provision in cross-border higher education. The purposes of the "Guidelines" are to protect students and other…

  18. The value of express delivery services for cross-border e-commerce in European Union markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFurther growth of cross-border e-commerce in the European Union markets requires improved express delivery services. The framework presented in this paper identifies relevant contextual factors that affect express delivery adoption rates in European cross-border e-commerce. This

  19. A Strategic Spatial Planning Approach to Cross-Border Place Branding with References to Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo; Zenker, Sebastian; Jacobsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place-branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS III Alto Minho, Cávado, Ave, Área Metropolitina do

  20. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development fo

  1. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development

  2. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  3. The value of express delivery services for cross-border e-commerce in European Union markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFurther growth of cross-border e-commerce in the European Union markets requires improved express delivery services. The framework presented in this paper identifies relevant contextual factors that affect express delivery adoption rates in European cross-border e-commerce. This framewor

  4. Export experience and key success factors in cross-border trade: Evidence from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Dhliwayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Cross-border trade (CBT is an important economic activity that contributes to the development of many economies of the developing world.Research purpose:  The two primary aims of the study were to find out the major factors needed to succeed in cross-border trading and whether the importance of these factors significantly decreased with export experience.Motivation for the study: The economic contribution of cross-border trade (CBT is often understated. As a result, it does not get the attention it deserves.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected in Gauteng from 146 cross-border traders from 10 Southern African Development Community (SADC countries. A cross-sectional research design was used.Main findings: The major key success factors were found to be skills/knowledge in; markets and supplies; financial management; and border issues. The importance of these factors was found to not significantly change with levels of export experience.Practical/managerial implications:  Stakeholders should know that small firms of differing export experience require the same interventions to succeed. Interventions should empower traders to better access markets and supplies, improve their financial management skills and ease border constraints.Contribution/value-add: Few studies on cross border trading have been carried out in the Southern African Development Community region. The key success factors and the constraints in this type of trade had not been adequately explored. The economic contribution of CBT, which usually goes unnoticed, was highlighted. Interventions to appropriately address the challenges faced, such as trading legitimacy and border harassment, were suggested.

  5. Towards a cross-border hydrogeological model: harmonized data integration within the H3O-projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Vernes, Ronald W.; Deckers, Jef; Bogemans, Frieda; Deceukelaire, Marleen; Den Dulk, Maryke; Doornenbal, Hans C.; Dusar, Michiel; Hummelman, Jan; Kiden, Patrick; Lanckacker, Timothy; Menkovic, Armin; Meyvis, Bruno; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Reindersma, Reinder N.; ten Veen, Johan H.; van de Ven, Tamara J. M.; Walstra, Jan; Westerhoff, Wim E.; Witmans, Nora

    2016-04-01

    The sustainable use and management of natural resources in border regions requires unambiguous geological information from neighbouring countries. However, the available data often lack compatibility and the same level of detail across borders. Various stakeholders in the Netherlands and Flanders expressed their interest to harmonize the (hydro) geological models in the shared border region. Accordingly, the first H3O project was initiated in March 2012, focussing on the Roer Valley Graben across the Dutch-Flemish border. A second project (H3O-Campine area) set off in April 2015 and deals with the adjacent Campine area. Aim of these successive projects was (is) to produce cross-border, up-to-date, three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models of the Cenozoic deposits. Existing (hydro) geological data (boreholes, well logs, seismic data, fault traces, geological maps and models) are collected, re-interpreted according to a harmonized lithostratigraphic scheme and fed into the 3D modelling process. Results of the first H3O-Roer Valley Graben project include: • A correlation scheme between Dutch and Belgian/Flemish (hydro) geological units; • A consistent fault model of the Roer Valley Graben; • Geometrically and stratigraphically consistent geological and hydrogeological models of the Cenozoic deposits in the Roer Valley Graben across the Dutch-Flemish border. The resulting 3D models can be considered as a state-of-the-art reference for the subsurface structure of the project area and can be used as a base for cross-border management of natural resources. The correlation scheme serves as a guideline for present (H3O-Campine area) and future cross-border projects. The H3O projects are carried out by a partnership between TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands, VITO and the Geological Survey of Belgium. The H3O models will be available in the public domain via the online data portals of DOV (Databank Ondergrond Vlaanderen) and DINOloket (Data en

  6. 75 FR 60377 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Cross-Border Electronic Transmittals of Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... efforts against money laundering and terrorist financing, and is proposing to issue regulations that would.... The BSA was amended by the Annunzio-Wylie Anti-Money Laundering Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-550... conduct the efforts of the Secretary against money laundering and terrorist financing.'' II. Background...

  7. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  8. The inhibiting factors that principal investigators experience in leading publicly funded research projects

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, James; O'Reilly, Paul; O'Kane, Conor; Mangematin, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Securing public funding to conduct research and leading it by being a principal investigator (PI) is seen as significant career development step. Such a role brings professional prestige but also new responsibilities beyond research leadership to research management. If public funding brings financial and infrastructure support, little is understood about the inhibiting factors that publicly funded PIs face given the research autonomy offered by publicly funded researc...

  9. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration among Former Soviet States. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    transport development in cross-border traffic are showed. The findings of the study suggest that the development of cross-border transportation of goods and the transport and transit potential implementation in Eurasian Economic Union countries — can and should provide income for business entities, the budgets of all levels and the public, as well as become the locomotive of industrial and technological modernization as well as institutional and organizational evolution of economic systems and integration associations

  10. 76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... to digital data resulting from federally funded research, and a summary of public input...

  11. Financing Higher Education in South Africa: Public Funding, Non-Government Revenue and Tuition Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, G.; Cloete, N.

    2008-01-01

    The funding of public higher education is currently a moot issue in South Africa. Public funding has been declining and opportunities for winning non-government revenue remain limited. The frequent raising of tuition fees, which is one of the main strategies public universities have resorted to mitigate declining state funding is not without…

  12. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  13. Cross-border Childbirth Between Mainland China and Hong Kong: Social Pressures and Policy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Yam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using secondary data analysis, this paper examines the societal impact of mainland Chinese expectant mothers who gave birth in Hong Kong (HK. In 2009, 45.4% of live births were born to this group of women, compared to 10.2% in 1995. These women agreed unanimously that giving birth in HK would secure the future of their child with permanent residency, access to free education, subsidised health care, social welfare benefits and a better standard of living. For parents who choose to have more than one child, cross-border birthing can provide an opportunity to bypass China’s one-child policy. This rising trend has put heavy pressure on the already stretched obstetric services at the expense of local women. The Hospital Authority (HA responsible for public hospitals acknowledged that in the 2004-5 financial year, 1 670 mainland women failed to pay HK$12.64 million (USD1.63m in hospital bills; and in 2005-6, 2 138 women defaulted HK$28.58m (USD3.68m. In response to protests at this situation and the lack of an effective policy, HA introduced an obstetric package in February 2007. Non-local expectant mothers must now pay HK$39 000 (USD5 000 in advance to cover one antenatal visit, delivery service and delivery-related hospitalisation for three days; non-compliant women would be charged HK$48 000 (USD6 154. Mainland women who are over 28 weeks’ gestation are now denied entry at immigration checkpoint if they do not have a prior booking. Between February and December 2007, an HA audit showed a 229% increase in booking for public hospitals alone and secured HK$257.4m (USD33m in fees. Non-compliant cases and last-minute hospital admissions were significantly reduced. In addition to the high bill settlement rate, this policy has provided a steady workload and training opportunities for many health care providers. If these new citizens remain in HK, they may contribute to the prosperity as well as alleviating the ageing population of HK.

  14. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection....... The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have...

  15. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...... the Swedish and Danish sides of the Sound. The strengths and weaknesses of the Øresund Region’s ‘traditional’ and new institutions as instruments for change are examined. The article identifies and discusses the structures, institutions, and players which are the driving forces in the field between markets...

  16. Cross-Border Insolvency Law in Europe: Present Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Wessels

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 the European countries celebrated the first lustrum of the EU Insolvency Regulation (1346/2000. This article describes where Europe stands with its model which is based on well known theories of private international law for dealing with cross-border insolvencies. The EU Insolvency Regulation provides for a national court to exercise international jurisdiction to open insolvency proceedings. The basis for international jurisdiction is the debtor’s “centre of main interests” or COMI. The two most important cases decided by the European Court of Justice (17 January 2006 Staubitz Schreiber and 2 May 2006 Eurofood are discussed. The article further analyses the regulation’s legal concept and its procedural context and explains that 'financial institutions' are not covered by the Insolvency Regulation, but by separate directives (2001/17; 2001/24. After having taken stock several suggestions are submitted for improvement of the system of cross-border insolvency in Europe.

  17. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2016-01-01

    VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we......Frequent and open interaction between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs is necessary for venture capital investments to occur. Increasingly, these investments are made across jurisdictions. The vast majority of these cross-border investments are carried out in a syndicate of two or more...... examine worldwide venture capital investment flows from 2000–2012 and consider the effects of geographical, cultural, and institutional proximity as well as institutional and relational trust. We find trust to mitigate the negative effects of geographical and cultural distance, where institutional trust...

  18. Cross-border innovation cooperation: Partner selection, national borders and knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  19. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  20. Medical sociology as a heuristic instrument for medical tourism and cross-border healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we establish a relationship between medical sociology and the study of medical tourism and cross-border healthcare by introducing Ronald Andersen’s behavioral model of healthcare use, and linking this model to the recent empirical study of Kovacs et al. on patients travelling to Hungary for orthopedic treatment. Finally, we plead for more measurement in the field of patient mobility. PMID:25844386

  1. Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing borders in Education and Work-based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    17th EDINEB Conference Crossing borders in Education and Work-based Learning June 9 - 11, 2010 Thames Valley University, London, UK During the last few years economics and business education have emerged as one of the largest fields of study in higher education. Simultaneously, the pressing concern for improving the quality of higher education in these fields has led to a definite need for more knowledge about effective instruction methods and tools, as well as about innovation (in terms of b...

  2. Trends of cross-border mobility of physicians and nurses between Portugal and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Claudia; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault,Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Context Health workforce cross-border mobility has an impact not only on individual health workers, but also on how health services are organized, planned, and delivered. This paper presents the results of a study of current mobility trends of health professionals along the borders between Portugal and Spain. The objective was to describe the profile of mobile physicians and nurses; to elicit the opinions of employers on mobility factors; to describe incentive policies to retain or attract he...

  3. Trends and Determinants in the Japanese Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Filobok, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trends in the Japanese cross-border M&A activity in 1988-2004 and investigates the factors influencing them. We develop classifications of theoretical foundations and factors of M&A activity and their application for the Japanese case. The article examines two categories of the Japanese M&As - transactions with Japanese companies as a target (sales) and transactions with Japanese companies as an acquirer (purchases). In the Japanese cr...

  4. Reviewing the Spanish-Portuguese border: conflict, interaction and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Calderón Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European borders, or borders between European Union member states, are historical products that embody the ebbs and flows of European borderlands. These areas are evolving from past struggles and confrontations between European kingdoms toward a future of progressive European integration. Such processes are highly complex, as they involve border deactivation. In this work, we examine the evolution of the Spanish- Portuguese border from the perspective of cross-border interaction.

  5. Knowledge-based urban development of cross-border twin cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge-based urban development (KBUD) has recently emerged as a central topic of discussion among scholars and practitioners interested in urban development tools and policies. However, what has rarely been discussed before is whether KBUD can be achieved in a cross-border context. This paper......-Malmö. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, guide potential further studies on KBUD and twin cities and raise relevant suggestions for urban policy-makers in border regions....

  6. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    military and cultural influence. Within month, the agreements rang hollow, as both nations lent support to the FLN.107 The French capture of Ben...Africa in Namibia, 56. 142 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, South Africa Report, 45. Kelly Bell, “Operation Savannah: Task Force Zulu and the...focused cross-border raids. Indigenous intelligence networks can also help preserve tactical forces by sharing cultural information that can affect the

  7. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  8. THE SCOPE OF DUE DILIGENCE IN CROSS-BORDER ACQUISITIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Sacek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border acquisitions play an important role in the corporate strategic development and international expansion. The paper summarizes the results of the dissertation, which intends to establish vital link between research and practice, deeply exploring the risk assessment methods and the scope of due diligence audit in the pre-acquisition phase. The central hypothesis of the comprehensive model stated that thorough due diligence in the pre-acquisition phase is necessary to make successful cross-border acquisition. The empirical evidence has been drawn on data sample of acquisitions made by automotive firms in cross-border acquisitions in the Central and Eastern Europe. The main results support the proposition that the thorough due diligence audit is necessary pre-requisite for successful acquisition. The findings further support the clear trend: In the past few years, several big automotive leaders strategically gain more control over their supply chains by acquiring technology specialists. From a practical standpoint, the research results provide acquisition management with a simple method of performing the pre-acquisition evaluation of potential acquisition candidates.

  9. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  10. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molland, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  11. Multilatinas and Value Creation from Cross-Border Acquisitions: An Event Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Feldmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The central proposition of this paper is to assess the performance of cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas. Applying the event study method to a sample of 607 announcements of acquisitions during the period 1989-2011 by 182 Multilatinas from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, we conclude that: (a on average, these announcements have a neutral impact on the short-term returns to acquiring companies’ shareholders; (b cross-sectional analysis reveals that relative size of the deals have anegative and significant effect on investors’ reactions and; (c unlike the institutional distance between home and host countries, cultural distance matters, since it has a negative and significant effect on the perceptions that investors have regarding the expected economic impact of acquirers’ cross-border merger and acquisition(M&A decisions. Inasmuch as the market rationality assumption that underlies the event study method has been questioned, future research lines are proposed in order to search for alternative long-term performance constructs concerning M&A processes in general that can: (a shed light on the reality of value creation (and destruction from cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas; and (b contribute to strategy, international business and M&A theories and practice.

  12. Cross-border-assisted reproduction: a qualitative account of UK travellers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine; Blyth, Eric; Norton, Wendy; Pacey, Allan; Rapport, Frances

    2016-06-01

    Surveys on patients' experiences of cross-border fertility treatment have reported a range of positive and challenging features. However, the number of such studies is limited, and there is no detailed qualitative account of the experiences of UK patients who travel overseas for fertility treatment. The present study used a cross-sectional, qualitative design and in-depth interviews. Fifty-one participants (41 women and 10 men, representing 41 treatment 'cases') participated in semi-structured interviews. The experiences reported were broadly positive with a large proportion of participants (39 cases, 95%) citing a favourable overall experience with only two cases (5%) reporting a more negative experience. Thematic analysis revealed 6 major categories and 20 sub-categories, which described the positive and challenging aspects of cross-border fertility travel. The positive aspects were represented by the categories: 'access', 'control' and 'care and respect'. The more challenging aspects were categorized as 'logistics and coordination of care', 'uncertainty' and 'cultural dissonance'. The study confirms findings from others that despite some challenges, there is a relatively high level of patient satisfaction with cross-border treatment with participants able to extend the boundaries of their fertility-seeking trajectories and in some cases, regain a sense of control over their treatment.

  13. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  14. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  15. Punishment based on public benefit fund significantly promotes cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Wang

    Full Text Available In prisoner's dilemma game (shortly, PD game, punishment is most frequently used to promote cooperation. However, outcome varies when different punishment approaches are applied. Here the PD game is studied on a square lattice when different punishment patterns are adopted. As is known to all, tax system, a common tool to adjust the temperature of the economy, is widely used in human society. Inspired by this philosophy, players in this study would pay corresponding taxes in accordance with their payoff level. In this way, public benefit fund is established consequently and it would be utilized to punish defectors. There are two main methods for punishing: slight intensity of punishment (shortly, SLP and severe intensity of punishment (shortly, SEP. When the totaling of public benefit fund keeps relatively fixed, SLP extends further, which means more defectors would be punished; by contrast, SEP has a smaller coverage. It is of interest to verify whether these two measures can promote cooperation and which one is more efficient. Simulate results reveal that both of them can promote cooperation remarkably. Specifically speaking, SLP shows constant advantage from the point of view either of fractions of cooperation or average payoff.

  16. Viewpoint of Illegal Cross-border Marriage Sino-vietnamese Border Areas-- Yunnan Wenshan Funing County Illegal Cross-border Marriage Status Quo Investigation%中越边境地区跨境非法婚姻探析--云南省文山州富宁县跨境非法婚姻现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洪波

    2015-01-01

    this article in wenshan funing county in yunnan province as an example, the sino-vietnamese border illegal cross-border marriage status quo and the causes were analyzed, and points out its violation of immigration laws and regulations in our country, and in violation of the foreign marriage laws and regulations, as well as accompanying cross-border crime, obstruction of family planning and influenced the stability of the border, and from strengthening the publicity, strict border controls, to carry out the judicial cooperation, establishing mechanisms for repatriation aspects put forward the countermeasures and Suggestions to solve the problem of illegal cross-border marriage.%文章以云南省文山州富宁县为例,对中越边境地区跨境非法婚姻的现状和成因作了分析,指出其既违反我国出入境法律法规,又违反涉外婚姻法律法规,同时还伴生出跨境违法犯罪、妨碍计划生育、影响边境稳定等问题,并从加强法制宣传、严格边境管控、开展司法协作、建立遣返机制等方面提出了解决跨境非法婚姻问题的对策建议。

  17. Adequate Yearly Progress as a Means of Funding Public Elementary and Secondary Education for Impoverished Students: Florida Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escue, Carlee Poston

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the public policy of adequacy by the creation of a Florida state-wide poverty index model to assist in the distribution of state and local dollars in funding public education. This poverty index model would measure the amount and severity of poverty in every public school within the state each year and…

  18. Adequate Yearly Progress as a Means of Funding Public Elementary and Secondary Education for Impoverished Students: Florida Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escue, Carlee Poston

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the public policy of adequacy by the creation of a Florida state-wide poverty index model to assist in the distribution of state and local dollars in funding public education. This poverty index model would measure the amount and severity of poverty in every public school within the state each year and…

  19. The contribution of european projects in the cross-border management of drinking water: between hydrodynamics and vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cucchi, Franco; Turpaud, Philippe; Ravbar, Nataša; Petrič, Metka; Urbanc, Janko; Zini, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The Classical Karst Region represents an evolved binary karst hydrostructure located across NE Italy and SW Slovenia. Its deeply karstified limestones and dolomitic limestones swallow rainfall in a network of caves and fractures through the epikarst and vadose zones. In the phreatic zone, horizontal or sub-horizontal conduits quickly convey water to the springs. The aquifer is also recharged by the input of three rivers. Along its SE edge in Slovenia, the Reka River sinks entirely into the Škocjan caves. Along its NW edge, the Isonzo/Soča and Vipacco/Vipava rivers recharge the aquifer in a more diffuse manner as the input is supplied by porous aquifers alimented by riverbed leakages. The hydrostructure is drained by numerous springs situated NW of the plateau along its SE facing edge, between Monfalcone and Duino. The common average discharge of the Timavo spring is about 35.5 m3/s. The Reka-Timavo aquifer has attracted the attention of researchers for the last 200 years due to the increasing need for good quality drinking water. Water withdrawn in this area is guaranteed drinking water for the inhabitants of the Classical Karst. This water is supplied by AcegasApsAmga and Kra\\vski Vodovod delivering to more than 250.000 inhabitants. Since World War II, the Classical Karst Region has been politically divided. Consequently this area has been studied and managed separately for almost 70 years. Only recently has a collaboration between researchers of both countries begun. Within this framework is the 3-year Hydrokarst Project funded by the European Union which focussed on the joint protection and management of the cross border aquifer through the analysis of groundwater dynamics. The structuring and implementation of a shared geodatabase has allowed for the hydrochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characterisation of the aquifer. A second step consisted of the elaboration of a joint hydrogeological map. Thirdly, vulnerability mapping has allowed for the

  20. Effects of In-country and Cross-Border Mobility on Condom Use Among Transgender Women (hijras) in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, A K M Masud; Reza, Md Masud; Alam, Md Shah; Khatun, Mahmuda; Khan, Sharful Islam; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-10-01

    In Bangladesh transgender women (hijras) are thought to be highly mobile that may be an impediment to condom use. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of mobility of hijras, in-country and cross-border, and whether mobility affects condom use in anal intercourse. Hijras ≥15 years of age, receiving services from the Global Fund supported HIV prevention program were enrolled. A behavioral questionnaire was administered and blood was tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis. Of 889 hijras sampled, 41.3 % never traveled, 26.4 % traveled in-country and 32.3 % crossed the border in the last year. HIV and active syphilis was at 0.8 and 1.8 % respectively. Among hijras who crossed the border condom use was less likely in last anal intercourse (AOR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.48-0.96), and consistently with new (AOR 0.59; 95 % CI 0.34-1.01) and regular clients (AOR 0.45; 95 % CI 0.27-0.76) in the last week. This study concludes that in Bangladesh hijras are highly mobile and cross-border mobility negatively affects condom use.

  1. Public funding - a solution for technological SMEs and entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilia, Calefariu; Traian Alexandru, Buda

    2016-11-01

    Technological SMEs are in a constant struggle for growth or sometimes maintaining the production capacity, increase market share, supporting tax burden, ensuring employees' salaries, profit growth. They constantly consider short-term survival of the company, with trying to maintain a long-term uptrend for the business. Entrepreneurs are again in a position to access public financing under quite favorable conditions. The paper aims to analyze the opportunity of accessing these external financing options, which have both advantages and a series of long-term constraints which should not be excluded before the final decision to access this funding. New research is required, thus sustainable development can be maintained for the business environment in order to increase efficiency, competitiveness, sustainable development strategies that generate job security, regional growth and rewarding the risk-taking of the entrepreneur.

  2. Metodika ocenki prigranichnoj specializacii mezhregional'nyh vzaimodejstvij prigranichnyh regionov i rezul'taty pilotnoj ocenki [Cross-border Specialization of Interregional Interaction: Applying New Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border cooperation as a type of interregional interaction is becoming a significant factor in the development of border regions. It can be viewed as a result of intensification of cross-border contacts and greater economic openness of cross-border regions. Thus, the roots of current development are quite easy to pinpoint. However, assessment of the impact of cross-border cooperation on the development of border regions appears to be a research challenge. In this paper, we offer an approach to the assessment of the role of cross-border cooperation in the system of interregional interaction between border regions. We present a system of indices to describe cross-border specialization of interregional interaction in certain fields, namely investment, international trade, tourism, and migration. Cross-border specialization determines the role of cross-border cooperation in regional external relations. The empiric data we have gathered is used to develop and implement a pilot assessment of cross-border specialization of interregional relations which are characteristic of the border regions of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The article offers cross-border specialization indices for each border region of the Northwestern Federal District. With their help, we were able to identify the spheres of interaction with the highest degree of cross-border specialization, and in particular foreign investment and business activities with the participation of foreign capital.

  3. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. CONCLUSIONS: By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  4. The problems of cross-border personal bankruptcy in russian and chinese legislation and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the legal and practical problems of cross-border personal bankruptcyin Russia and China.The main goal of this work is to analyze the major issues and obstacles in recognition andenforcement of Russian individual bankruptcy decisions in China and introduce it to Russianscholars and legal professionals.The methodological basis is analysis of the Russian and Chinese legislation, judicial practiceand special literatureThe results, scope of application. This article discusses the possibility of applying the provisionsof the Federal Law On Insolvency (Bankruptcy to the Chinese nationals registered asindividual entrepreneurs in Russia. The article also reviews the Chinese legal regulation andoffers recommendations on execution of the court judgments on bankruptcy and collectionof debts from the PRC nationals. Existing Russian legislation allows to recognize the foreignnationals as bankrupts. The provisions on the cross-border insolvency also apply to them.The bankruptcy in China is not applied currently to the individuals, although theoretically itmay affect their property sphere during the bankruptcy of an individual private enterprise.Conclusions. The cross-border insolvency of the Chinese nationals encounters obstacles on threelevels. Firstly, the awards of the Russian arbitration courts have not been practically enforced inPRC due to inadequate notification of the Chinese party in the case. Secondly, Chinese courts inprinciple are extremely reluctant in recognizing foreign judgments on bankruptcy, such cases areexceptional. Thirdly, there is no personal bankruptcy institution in the PRC, while similar procedureslike bankruptcy of individual private enterprises are not applied in reality, and there are nolegislative prospects for the personal bankruptcy in the nearest future. Therefore, when conductingthe bankruptcy procedure for the Chinese nationals on the Russian territory, one can onlycount on their property located

  5. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2016-01-01

    VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...... examine worldwide venture capital investment flows from 2000–2012 and consider the effects of geographical, cultural, and institutional proximity as well as institutional and relational trust. We find trust to mitigate the negative effects of geographical and cultural distance, where institutional trust...

  6. Foreign currency-related translation complexities in cross-border healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Rodrigues, Jean M

    2009-01-01

    International cross-border private hospital chains need to apply the standards for foreign currency translation in order to consolidate the balance sheet and income statements. This not only exposes such chains to exchange rate fluctuations in different ways, but also creates added requirements for enterprise-level IT systems especially when they produce parameters which are used to measure the financial and operational performance of the foreign subsidiary or the parent hospital. Such systems would need to come to terms with the complexities involved in such currency-related translations in order to provide the correct data for performance benchmarking.

  7. Motivations, Valuation, and Performance Assessment in Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...... the practitioners’ CBM&A practice, performance, and opinions using an online survey, we aim to improve and integrate understanding of these topics, as well as identify the research gaps. Based on survey evidence, we obtained some unexpected findings, and a couple of conclusions have been drawn in the end. Meanwhile...

  8. Conflict and Conflict Mangement in the Cross-border Provision of Healthcare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2009-01-01

    Welfare regulation in the European Union continues to crawl forward despite salient conflicts of interests. This article addresses the fundamental puzzle of how regulatory competences may expand into the core of the welfare state and how conflicts are, eventually, managed in such processes....... It analyses the EU cross-border provision of healthcare services and argues that the interplay between the Commission and the Court constitutes a powerful dynamic in generating new regulatory activities and in finding ways to set conflicts aside. The Commission draws on formulations offered by the Court...

  9. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2014-01-01

    VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...... examine worldwide venture capital investment flows from 2000-2012 and consider the effects of geographical, cultural, and institutional proximity as well as institutional and relational trust. We find trust to mitigate the negative effects of geographical and cultural distance; where institutional trust...

  10. Gender and National Identity Constructions in the Cross-Border Merger Context

    OpenAIRE

    Tienari, Janne; SÞderberg, Anne-Marie; Holgersson, Charlotte; Vaara, Eero

    2005-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which vertical gender inequality is accomplished in discourse in the context of a recent chain of cross-border mergers and acquisitions that resulted in the formation of a multinational Nordic company. We analyse social interactions of ‘doing’ gender in interviews with male senior executives from Denmark, Finland and Sweden. We argue that their explanations for the absence of women in the top echelons of the company serve to distance vertical gender ineq...

  11. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  12. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  13. LINGUOCULTURAL MONITORING OF THE CROSS-BORDER REGION: ALTAI VIEWED BY CHINESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrieva, L.M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of linguocultural monitoring of the cross-border region. The studied group consists of Chinese students who receive education in the institutions of higher education in Barnaul. The reactions of the students to the stimulus-words related to the Altai realia are studied in the investigation. The results of the investigation show that most associations are those with positive connotation which can be explained by the desire of the students to appeal to the interlocutor and establish contacts. The results of the associative experiment once again prove the necessity of such investigations for intercultural communication.

  14. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  15. The impact of the EU Directive on patients' rights and cross border health care in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Aluttis, Christoph; Sorensen, Kristine; Pace, Roderick; Brand, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    The patients' rights and cross-border health care directive was implemented in Malta in 2013. Malta's transposition of the directive used the discretionary elements allowable to retain national control on cross-border care to the fullest extent. This paper seeks to analyse the underlying dynamics of this directive on the Maltese health care system through the lens of key health system stakeholders. Thirty-three interviews were conducted. Qualitative content analysis of the interviews reveals six key themes: fear from the potential impact of increased patient mobility, strategies employed for damage control, opportunities exploited for health system reform, moderate enhancement of patients' rights, negligible additional patient mobility and unforeseen health system reforms. The findings indicate that local stakeholders expected the directive to have significant negative effects and adopted measures to minimise these effects. In practice the directive has not affected patient mobility in Malta in the first months following its implementation. Government appears to have instrumentalised the implementation of the directive to implement certain reforms including legislation on patients' rights, a health benefits package and compulsory indemnity insurance. Whilst the Maltese geo-demographic situation precludes automatic generalisation of the conclusions from this case study to other Member States, the findings serve to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which European legislation on health services is influencing health systems, particularly in small EU Member States.

  16. Local border traffic as an efficient tool for developing cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local border traffic (LBT is a tool for cooperation between the EU member states and neighbouring countries. It emerged as a measure to mitigate the barrier effect of the EU’s external border. In 2006, the European Parliament authorised the EU member states to conclude bilateral agreements on a simplified border crossing regime in border areas. This article analyses local border traffic as a cross-border cooperation tool. The territory described in the study includes the external borders of the EU (and Norway with the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. The article will be of interest to specialists in international and, particularly, in cross-border cooperation. The authors analyse the mechanism of local border traffic and identify possible trends based on the general socioeconomic situation and foreign policy background in Russia, Belarus, and the EU (Norway. The article employs the cartographic method to enhance the visual component of the study. It is concluded that the LBT mechanism is effective and it has a positive effect on the development of border contacts between countries. There is a need to continue the dialogue between Russia, Belarus and the EU countries on both expanding the geographical scope of the LBT mechanism and ensuring its qualitative development.

  17. Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions in China: A Test of the Free Cash Flow Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates whether Chinese cross-border investments have positive impact onshareholders wealth and whether the amount of bidders’ free cash flow influences the shareholderreturns resulted from the acquisitions. The sample is based on 77 top Chinese cross-border investmentsduring the years 2005-2009 with each deal value of minimum US$100 million. The assessmentsof acquisition abnormal returns are based on the event study methodology (Brown & Warner, 1985.Cross-sectional regression analysis is used to determine the bidding firms factors which significantlyaffect the returns. Factors are examined using OLS with White’s heteroscedasticity-corrected standarderrors, since the assumption of homoscedasticity is likely to be violated. The study proves Chinesecross- border acquisitions result in positive abnormal returns which is consistent with synergyhypothesis. The amount of bidders’ free cash flow is also found to be marginally but positively associatedwith shareholders return which is consistent with Myers and Majluf’s pecking order hypothesisbut unsupportive of Jensen’s free cash flow hypothesis.

  18. Modeling cross-border care in the EU using a principal-agent framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, L; Zweifel, P

    1998-01-01

    Cross-border care is likely to become a major issue among EU countries because patients have the option of obtaining treatment abroad under Community Regulations 1408/71. This paper develops a model formalizing both the patient's decision to apply for cross-border care and the authorizing physician's decision to admit a patient to the program. The patient is assumed to maximize expected utility, which depends on the quality of care and the length of waiting in the home country and the host country, respectively. Not all patients qualifying for the EU program present themselves to the authorizing physician because of the transaction cost involved. The physician in her turn shapes effective demand for authorization through her rate of refusal, which constitutes information to potential applicants about the probability of obtaining treatment abroad. The authorizing physician thus acts as an agent serving two principals, her patient and her national government, trading off the perceived utility loss of patients who are rejected against her commitment to domestic health policy. The model may be used to explain existing patient flows between EU countries.

  19. Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing: Concept, Structure and Salient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharullizuannizam Salehuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Musharakah Tijarah Cross-Border Financing (“Product” is the product to enable the Bank to undertake project and contract cross-border financing activities or other identified business ventures on “pure” Joint Venture basis, using the underlying Islamic financing contract of Musharakah. Musharakah concept has a low market share of less than 2.5% in the overall existing Islamic financing products in Malaysia. This product encourages mobilization of idle capital / cash entities and thus provides a basis for economic cooperation between these organizations in the society. The product also is expected to inject greater prosper to the Bank’s overall performance and ultimately able to assist small time landowners in a big way through business risk sharing. Musharakah provides an alternative investment, which will cater for Islamic investors and partners, especially from GCC, who may have been reluctant to invest in conventional or current debt-based financing scheme. With Musharakah concept, the most preferred and globally accepted Islamic financing, this can attract these investors to participate on similar risk-sharing arrangements through the creation of Specific Investment Account (SIA or Islamic Syndication to back financing made into the Joint Venture.

  20. Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on MESP Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Schenone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy, which transcends boundaries or governments and fosters a common effort for sustainability through networking. The European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI aims at reinforcing cooperation between the European Union (EU and partner countries’ regions placed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. To this extent, MESP (Managing the Environmental Sustainability of Ports for a durable development can be considered as a typical cross border cooperation project, willing to create a sustainable environmental management of port in northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean basin. This has been achieved through the development of specific guidelines towards environmental sustainability and the collection of common tools, methodologies, good practices and innovations focused on pollution reduction that can be replicated in Mediterranean ports and further. This was possible through the creation of a strong cooperation network and long-lasting collaborations among partners and stakeholders such as harbour cities, port authorities, universities, research centres and scientific skills.

  1. Scoping paper on new CDM baseline methodology for cross-border power trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poeyry has been sub-contracted by Carbon Limits, under the African Development Bank CDM Support Programme, to prepare a new CDM baseline methodology for cross border trade, based on a transmission line from Ethiopia to Kenya. The first step in that process is to review the response of the UNFCCC, particularly the Methodologies Panel ('Meth Panel') of the CDM Executive Board, to the various proposals on cross-border trade and interconnection of grids. This report reviews the Methodology Panel and Executive Board decisions on 4 requests for revisions of ACM2 'Consolidated baseline methodology for grid-connected electricity generation from renewable sources', and 5 proposed new baseline methodologies (NM255, NM269, NM272, NM318, NM342), all of which were rejected. We analyse the reasons the methodologies were rejected, and whether the proposed draft Approved Methodology (AM) that the Methodology Panel created in response to NM269 and NM272 is a suitable basis for a new methodology proposal.(auth)

  2. A simulation approach to reconciling customs and trade risk associated with cross-border freight movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Alwyn J.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa critically depends on increased exports to enable economic growth and job creation. Logistical inefficiencies, however, are hampering exports, with cross-border freight delays a key contributor that adds cost and unpredictability to the supply chain, making South Africa an unattractive participant in global just-in-time value chains. The detention of cargo consignments at border posts is intended to reduce the risk of customs duties not being paid and to prevent the smuggling of illegal contraband. These risks must be weighed against the risk to trade caused by unpredictable time delays, and the resulting harmful impact on the economy. The increased use of ICT technologies has been proposed to enable a more attractive compromise between customs and trade risks. This study investigates the impact of the proposed new measures, including the use of technology, on the efficiency of cross-border freight movements. The research approach will combine the analysis of historical electronic transaction data exchanged between customs and consignors, with the simulation of different scenarios for the ICT support of customs processes. The expected impact of the proposed measures on exports within and from the SADC region, and the direct impact on corridor users, are estimated and compared against the estimated cost of the proposed measures. It is shown that implementing the proposed improvements should represent an attractive investment for the regional economy.

  3. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  4. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relyea George

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  5. The Correspondence of Public Perceptions of Graduates' Life Chances and University Departmental Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Haubner, Tanja; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Very little prior research has examined public perceptions of research funding and the life chances associated with various fields of study. In the present task, 315 members of the Austrian general public rated 34 higher-education courses in terms of funding cuts or increases, and the perceived life chances of graduates, respectively. The results…

  6. On the Optimal Degree Of Funding Of Public Sector Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijdam, A.C.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the optimal degree of funding of public sector pension plans. It is assumed that a benevolent social planner decides on the contribution of current taxpayers to the funding of public sector pensions next period, weighing the interests of current and future tax payers. T

  7. The Canadian Armed Forces “YouTube War”: A Cross-Border Military-Social Media Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner Mirrlees

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to conceptualize, contextualize, and critically analyze the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF use of YouTube to promote itself, recruit soldiers, and frame its role in the post-9/11 U.S.-led NATO war in Afghanistan. The first section of this paper engages with scholarship on war and the media, the military-industrial-communications complex (MICC, and YouTube War to conceptualize YouTube as a tool and contested battle-space of 21st century new media wars. The second section contextualizes the rise of the CAF’s YouTube channels—Canadian Forces and Canadian Army—with regard to post-9/11 Canadian foreign policy, the growth of the Canadian military publicity state, the creeping militarization of culture, and the CAF’s “social media policy”. The third section conceptualizes the CAF’s two YouTube channels as tools and spaces of its publicity front; then, through a synoptic critical overview of numerous CAF-generated YouTube videos, it shows how the CAF uses YouTube to recruit personnel and frame its role in the war in Afghanistan. The conclusion discusses the characteristics of this cross-border military-social media complex and its contradictions, namely, the spread of pacifist and veteran-generated videos that contest the war in Afghanistan. Overall, the paper offers an initial political-economy of communication of the CAF’s foray into the global battle-space of the Internet and its use of YouTube for publicity.

  8. Firm Characteristic’s and Shareholder Wealth Effects: An Acquiring Firm perspective in India for Cross-border and Domestic Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Bhadran Shamala, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    I analyse, what is the differences in abnormal returns to acquiring firm shareholders for cross-border and domestic acquisitions in India? Does the acquiring firm characteristics have a significant impact on acquiring firm’s shareholder wealth for both cross-border and domestic acquisitions? For the purpose of this study I have collected a total sample of 200 Indian acquiring companies, comprising of 100 cross-border acquiring companies and 100 domestic acquiring companies respectively, for t...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF HOME COUNTRY MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON INWARD CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehleanu Mariana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Expanding abroad and entering on foreign markets is a natural step in the process of growth and development of firms. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions represent, currently, an important tool in the competitive struggle, which is increasingly intense due to the globalization of economies, and also the driving force behind the growth of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI flows globally. In Romania, the share of cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows in the total FDI inflows increased progressively, reaching 46,6% in 2006, when the highest value of these transactions was registered (5.308 million dollars, according to UNCTAD. The aim of this empirical research is to study the correlation between the number of inward cross-border mergers acquisitions and a series of other variables, considered factors of influence, over the period 1992-2013. Using simple regression models, the study reveals that economic factors such as Gross domestic product (GDP, stock market capitalization (as a percentage of GDP, interest rate, exchange rate, M2 monetary aggregate and inflation have an important role in explaining cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows. Between the number of inward cross-border mergers and acquisitions and GDP, M2 monetary aggregate, market capitalization, respectively the exchange rate, there is a direct and linear correlation and between the number of inward mergers and acquisitions and the interest rate, respectively the inflation, there is an inverse linear correlation. The research conducted reveals the important role played by macroeconomic factors with regard to the cross-border mergers and acquisitions inflows, as an entry mode of FDI in Romania.

  10. Cross-border collaboration between China and Myanmar for emergency response to imported vaccine derived poliovirus case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Li-Fen; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Tang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Wen-Bo; Li, Li; Ding, Zheng-Rong; Luo, Hui-Ming

    2015-01-17

    This report describes emergency response following an imported vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) case from Myanmar to Yunnan Province, China and the cross-border collaboration between China and Myanmar. Immediately after confirmation of the VDPV case, China disseminated related information to Myanmar with the assistance of the World Health Organization. A series of epidemiological investigations were conducted, both in China and Myanmar, including retrospective searches of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage assessment, and investigation of contacts and healthy children. All children Myanmar. It is necessary to reinforce cross-border collaboration with neighboring countries in order to maximize the leverage of limited resources.

  11. Financial risk identification and control of cross border merger and acquisition enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina DUMITRESCU – PECULEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions are basic channels for modern companies’ growth. With globalization speeding up, multinational companies increasingly take on M_A activities to strengthen global market positions and raise competitiveness. In recent years, M_A activities have played an important role in Chinese companies. Financial risk is inherent to M_A processes in cross-border companies. Also, more than 50% of Chinese companies did not achieve their M_A goals. Therefore, recognizing and controlling financial risk is essential. This paper analyses the financial risk from different perspectives and then provides suggestions by analysing a typical M_A case: Bohai Leasing merger with Seaco Company. Complete due diligence and clear M_A strategies, combination of various financing instrument, strategic paying methods and finance integration are some ways for controlling and decreasing finance risk.

  12. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  13. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  14. Conflict and Conflict Mangement in the Cross-border Provision of Healthcare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2009-01-01

    . It analyses the EU cross-border provision of healthcare services and argues that the interplay between the Commission and the Court constitutes a powerful dynamic in generating new regulatory activities and in finding ways to set conflicts aside. The Commission draws on formulations offered by the Court......Welfare regulation in the European Union continues to crawl forward despite salient conflicts of interests. This article addresses the fundamental puzzle of how regulatory competences may expand into the core of the welfare state and how conflicts are, eventually, managed in such processes...... in finding ways to manage conflict, for example, by requiring ‘proportionate’ national policies which establish that national obstacles to free movement principles are ‘objectively necessary’. The article concludes that law and evidence-based policy-making serve as powerful resources for the Commission...

  15. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  16. Motives for Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: Some Evidence from Danish Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    from Danish firms, Synergy Theory, Resource Dependence Theory, and Resource-based View are supported for explaining the motives for CBM&As. Besides, overconfidence and imitation sometimes play a role in the firms’ decision-making process. However, agency problems cannot be identified. It seems, CBM......This study addresses two questions based on Danish firms’ practices: first, what are motives for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As)? Second, how the external and internal factors influence the firms’ decisions? According to the results of survey questionnaire and multiple-case study....... In addition, we found the nature of the firms’ core businesses mainly determines their motives for conducting CBM&As....

  17. Civic stratification and the exclusion of undocumented immigrants from cross-border health care*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M.; Waldinger, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework and an empirical example of the relationship between the civic stratification of immigrants in the United States, and their access to healthcare. We use the 2007 Pew/RWJF Hispanic Healthcare Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. Latinos (n=2783 foreign-born respondents) and find that immigrants who are not citizens or legal permanent residents are significantly more likely to be excluded from care in both the U.S. and across borders. Legal status differences in cross-border care utilization persisted after controlling for health status, insurance coverage, and other potential demographic and socio-economic predictors of care. Exclusion from care on both sides of the border was associated with reduced rates of receiving timely preventive services. Civic stratification, and political determinants broadly speaking, should be considered alongside social determinants of population health and healthcare. PMID:26582512

  18. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  19. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöber, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region...... building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen...... a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building...

  20. THE PERFORMANCE OF GLOBAL BANKS IN THEIR CROSS-BORDER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that affected the global financial stability and the economy in 2007-09 has reinforced the need to rethink some of the approaches adopted by the financial community in assessing banks’ performance. The aim of this paper is to see if global banks improve their performance due to their cross-border activity, whether we speak about mergers or acquisitions of local banks or we speak about other ways a global bank begins the activity in a different country. As methodology, we will analyze the dynamic of ROAA and ROAE during 2006-2013 in the case of two global banks, Société Générale and Erste Group, and their branches in countries from Central and Eastern Europe. At the end of the paper, we will compare the results for each big bank and their branches.

  1. Cross-border mergers and minority protection
    An open-ended harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Wyckaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minority protection is an important, though difficult, issue in company law, and a subtle balance must be struck between the legitimate interests of the majority and minority shareholder(s. The rules on minority protection in the context of the Cross-border Mergers Directive, which was recently adopted and should have been transposed into Member States’ national law towards the end of 2007, are examined in this paper. The authors analyse how minority shareholders are protected within the scope of this Directive and how some of the Member States (such as Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands have transposed or will transpose some of these protective provisions. The different levels of minority protection (information rights, consultation rights, rights to challenge majority decisions and other specific rights are considered, as well as which types of shareholders can benefit from such protection, and why they should be afforded protection. With respect to the last question, the authors conclude that the change in corporate law encountered especially by the shareholders of the disappearing company seems to be the major rationale underlying the European legislator's decision to introduce minority protection (but not oblige Member States to do so. The authors submit that this reflects too narrow a vision on the need for minority protection because it ignores the fact that the change of the corporate form as a consequence of a merger is in itself sufficient rationale for protecting minority shareholders. It remains somewhat of a mystery as to why the European legislator, while confirming that a cross-border merger should be subject to the same rules as a national merger, has created one possible and very vague exception to that rule.

  2. The Analysis of the Tourism Plan within a Cross-border Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrtko Josip Čelan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Regional Tourism Product Plan (RTPP and analyses the strategic approach in the planning of tourism. Until 1 July 2013 the Hungary-Croatia Cross-border Co-operation Programme 2007-2013 (hereinafter HU-HR (IPA CBC Programme was part of the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA. Compared to the previous periods, IPA brought significant development in co-operation, by introducing single set of rules and the Lead Beneficiary principle. The HU-HR (IPA CBC Programme applied a new two-step development of tourism. First, it prescribed the preparation of RTPP within a special project and only after the RTPP was elaborated could the open call for tourism proposals be launched. There was no similar case in other CBC programmes. The author will review the Programme level documents and reports, furthermore, examine the RTPP outcomes and the methodology introduced in the planning of tourism actions in the Programme. The risks RTPP involved and its influence on the implementation of the Programme and tourism projects will be investigated by highlighting the problems of application of RTPP in practice. The aim of this work is to focus on and to evaluate this specific planning methodology, and to assess whether it could be recommended to other similar programmes. Due to the shortcomings that the RTPP entailed, the author will come to conclusion that the planning of such strategies has to be prepared in advance and that the two-step approach of tourism development should not be recommended to other cross-border programmes.

  3. Cross-border mergers and minority protection An open-ended harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Wyckaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minority protection is an important, though difficult, issue in company law, and a subtle balance must be struck between the legitimate interests of the majority and minority shareholder(s. The rules on minority protection in the context of the Cross-border Mergers Directive, which was recently adopted and should have been transposed into Member States’ national law towards the end of 2007, are examined in this paper. The authors analyse how minority shareholders are protected within the scope of this Directive and how some of the Member States (such as Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands have transposed or will transpose some of these protective provisions. The different levels of minority protection (information rights, consultation rights, rights to challenge majority decisions and other specific rights are considered, as well as which types of shareholders can benefit from such protection, and why they should be afforded protection. With respect to the last question, the authors conclude that the change in corporate law encountered especially by the shareholders of the disappearing company seems to be the major rationale underlying the European legislator's decision to introduce minority protection (but not oblige Member States to do so. The authors submit that this reflects too narrow a vision on the need for minority protection because it ignores the fact that the change of the corporate form as a consequence of a merger is in itself sufficient rationale for protecting minority shareholders. It remains somewhat of a mystery as to why the European legislator, while confirming that a cross-border merger should be subject to the same rules as a national merger, has created one possible and very vague exception to that rule.

  4. Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC in Southern Europe—An Iberian Case Study. The Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Castanho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiences of cross-border cooperation (CBC, undertaken not only in Europe but throughout the world, have enabled areas to gain greater importance in recent decades at an international level, showing potential for integrative functions and joint development as exemplified by several CBC projects. The present paper assesses the impact of CBC projects by analyzing a protocol established in 2013 between the cities of Elvas and Badajoz, which induced the creation of the Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz. The paper kicks off with a critical review on territorial factors for success in CBC areas, considering the analysis of several case studies throughout Europe. The lessons learned, taken from the analyzed case studies, and the identified territorial success factors were used as assessment points for the investigation of the target study area, the Eurocity ElvasBadajoz. The investigation explores public participation perceptions towards the identification of what changes with respect to standards of life with the CBC project, providing the current state of affairs and identifying where to place efforts in order to reach sustainable development for the region. While being a transition area, it presents several opportunities for growth. These opportunities have not yet been object of analysis and debate with respect to lasting, sustainable successful growth. The present research enables the identification of several territorial factors for success in the study area, such as the connectivity/movement between cities and strong political commitment. From the identified critical factors, it was possible to highlight the importance of public transportation as a priority for achieving success in this CBC project.

  5. On the Optimal Degree Of Funding Of Public Sector Pension Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Meijdam, A.C.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the optimal degree of funding of public sector pension plans. It is assumed that a benevolent social planner decides on the contribution of current taxpayers to the funding of public sector pensions next period, weighing the interests of current and future tax payers. Two elements play a role in the optimal funding decision: the optimal-portfolio choice (i.e. the tradeoff between the expected excess return and the additional risk of funding vis-à-vis pay-as-you-g...

  6. Cross-border Ties as Sources of Risk and Resilience: Do Cross-border Ties Moderate the Relationship between Migration-related Stress and Psychological Distress for Latino Migrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Alcántara, Carmela; Rudolph, Kara E; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined the associations between health and the cross-border ties that migrants maintain with their family members in communities of origin. We draw on theory related to social ties, ethnic identity, and mental health to examine cross-border ties as potential moderators of the association between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, we find that remittance sending is associated with significantly lower levels of psychological distress for Cuban migrants, and difficulty visiting home is associated with significantly greater psychological distress for Puerto Rican migrants. There were significant associations between migration-related stressors and psychological distress, although these associations fell to nonsignificance after accounting for multiple testing. We found little evidence that cross-border ties either buffer or exacerbate the association between migration-related stressors and psychological distress. We consider the findings within the current political and historical context of cross-border ties and separation. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  7. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  8. Crossing borders in educational innovation : Framing foreign examples in discussing comprehensive education in the Netherlands, 1969-1979

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greveling, Linda; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, crossing borders to study comprehensive schools was an important strategy in the 1970s, a decisive period for the start and the end of the innovation. According to policy-borrowing theory, actors that engage in debating educational issues are framing foreign examples of

  9. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies: The Effects of Relational and Institutional Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2015-01-01

    VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...... is more relevant for investments in emerging economies, relational trust is more relevant for investments in developed economies....

  10. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  11. It's no longer mine: the role of brand ownership and advertising in cross-border brand acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.; Kwak, H.; Puzakova, M.; Park, J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-border brand acquisitions are increasingly common in the global marketplace, research on how consumers respond to them is limited. Building on social identity and psychological ownership theories, we introduce the concept of brand ownership to the advertising literature, and show its

  12. Establishing trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and

  13. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant…

  14. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  15. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…

  16. Regulating the New Borderlands: An Event History Analysis of State Cross-Border Distance Higher Education Policy Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border state distance higher education policy is a complex web of complicated and often contradictory regulations stretching across 50 states and 14 US territories. This study examined the applicability of strategic choice theory to state higher education policy innovation in the context of the adoption of polices that regulate the distance…

  17. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  18. Tackling Language Obstacles in Cross-Border Litigation: The European Order for Payment and the European Small Claims Procedure Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Ontanu (Elena); E. Pannebakker (Ekaterina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn cross-border litigation, language differences are one of the main obstacles preventing parties from taking action and defending their rights. The Regulations creating a European Order for Payment Procedure (EOP) and establishing a European Small Claims Procedure (ESCP) have introduced

  19. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  20. It's no longer mine: the role of brand ownership and advertising in cross-border brand acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.; Kwak, H.; Puzakova, M.; Park, J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-border brand acquisitions are increasingly common in the global marketplace, research on how consumers respond to them is limited. Building on social identity and psychological ownership theories, we introduce the concept of brand ownership to the advertising literature, and show its

  1. Crossing Borders in Educational Innovation: Framing Foreign Examples in Discussing Comprehensive Education in the Netherlands, 1969-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greveling, Linda; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, crossing borders to study comprehensive schools was an important strategy in the 1970s, a decisive period for the start and the end of the innovation. According to policy-borrowing theory, actors that engage in debating educational issues are framing foreign examples of comprehensive schooling to convince their audiences.…

  2. Crossing borders in educational innovation : Framing foreign examples in discussing comprehensive education in the Netherlands, 1969-1979

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greveling, Linda; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, crossing borders to study comprehensive schools was an important strategy in the 1970s, a decisive period for the start and the end of the innovation. According to policy-borrowing theory, actors that engage in debating educational issues are framing foreign examples of comprehen

  3. Crossing Borders with HRM: An Inquiry of the Influence of Contextual Differences in the Adoption and Effectiveness of HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Konter (Daina)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The increased global connectivity urges us to look across borders, for previous boundaries may have been broken down or on the contrary have become more visible. In this thesis we explore what it means to cross borders with human resource management (HRM). Many believe

  4. Technological and cross-border mixture value chain of science and engineering of multi-integrative mechatronics-integronics-adaptronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Popan, Gheorghe

    2013-10-01

    This scientific paper presents in national premiere and in original concept of the author, the scientific national and the author's original concept, the technological and cross-border mixture value chain of science and engineering of multi-integrative Mechatronics-Integronics-Adaptronics, as high-tech vector support development, for viability and sustainability of a new intelligent and competitive labour market.

  5. Crossing Borders with HRM: An Inquiry of the Influence of Contextual Differences in the Adoption and Effectiveness of HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Konter (Daina)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The increased global connectivity urges us to look across borders, for previous boundaries may have been broken down or on the contrary have become more visible. In this thesis we explore what it means to cross borders with human resource management (HRM). Many

  6. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy: findings from the ITC Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Allwright, S.; Mons, U.; McNeill, A.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; Siahpush, M.; Joossens, L.; Fong, G.T.; de Vries, H.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. OBJECTIVE: To describe socioeconomic and country varia

  7. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  8. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  9. Trends in Technology Planning and Funding in Florida K-12 Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert Dieter; Hohlfeld, Tina N; Barron, Ann E.; Kemker, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This empirical research investigates trends in technology planning and funding in Florida's K-12 public schools between the 2003-04 and 2005-06 academic years. Survey items that focused on funding and planning issues on Florida's statewide school technology integration survey were analyzed using logistic models. Results indicate a significant…

  10. 25 CFR 170.436 - How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Public Hearings § 170.436 How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects...

  11. The future of public sector funding of regeneration project in England

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Paul; Hargreaves, Sylvia

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the policy framework through which urban regeneration is promoted and highlights the difficulties encountered in co-ordinating the current public funding initiatives to secure effective urban regeneration and maximise value for money.

  12. 75 FR 1755 - Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S.... SUMMARY: On December 2, 2009, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration...

  13. Funding New Zealand's public healthcare system: time for an honest appraisal and public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Lyndon; Bagshaw, Philip; Nicholls, M Gary; Rosenberg, Bill; Frampton, Christopher M; Powell, Ian

    2016-05-27

    Successive New Zealand governments have claimed that the cost of funding the country's public healthcare services is excessive and unsustainable. We contest that these claims are based on a misrepresentation of healthcare spending. Using data from the New Zealand Treasury and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we show how government spending as a whole is low compared with most other OECD countries and is falling as a proportion of GDP. New Zealand has a modest level of health spending overall, but government health spending is also falling as a proportion of GDP. Together, the data indicate the New Zealand Government can afford to spend more on healthcare. We identify compelling reasons why it should do so, including forecast growing health need, signs of increasing unmet need, and the fact that if health needs are not met the costs still have to be borne by the economy. The evidence further suggests it is economically and socially beneficial to meet health needs through a public health system. An honest appraisal and public debate is needed to determine more appropriate levels of healthcare spending.

  14. Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government ob...

  15. Output-Driven Funding and Budgeting Systems in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2002-01-01

    Output-driven funding systems are systems in which payments made to service-delivery agencies by government are an explicit function of quantities of outputs delivered by those agencies. This paper considers the feasibility of such systems for the funding tax-financed public services. It focuses upon the implications of key characteristics of public sector outputs, and specifically upon the prevalence of heterogeneous outputs, the predominance of services (as opposed to physical goods), and t...

  16. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea N. POPOVICI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current research is to study bank mergers and acquisitions (M-A and to see whether they have implications on the productivity of the target banks, and also for the bidder bank. The aim of this paper is to see if, during 2002-2008 period, three banks from the European banking system, Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania, Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the bank is the purchaser or the target. To reach our goal, we used DEA method, by estimating the productivity achieved by these three banks during the period pre-M-A, post M-A, but we also estimated the productivity for entire period of seven years. Using Malquist DEA method, we show that, on average, the merger or acquisition in which a bank was involved improved the Total Factor Productivity of all analyzed banks.

  17. Emergency management on the island of Ireland – Recent cross-border developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Finian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management has developed separately in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland as a result of the differences in the political, legal, organisational and cultural backgrounds that exist in the two jurisdictions. Good cross-border cooperation has existed at individual organisational level between the principal emergency response agencies for many years. Now that regions in Europe are becoming more connected it is becoming increasingly obvious to agencies with responsibility for emergency management on both sides of the border that we need to be better prepared and ready to work effectively together to deal with any major emergency that may arise along the border. Emergencies and natural or manmade disasters do not respect geographical borders, particularly on a landmass as small as the island of Ireland. It is recognised that there is a need for more formalised joint planning and greater collaboration by the statutory agencies, which will result in a more coordinated and effective response to any possible major emergencies or disasters that may occur along the border areas. This paper reviews the current emergency management arrangements in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, how the structures, roles and responsibilities of the various agencies involved differ, and how a move to greater collaboration has occurred, as well as examining the drivers for this collaboration, how this has manifested itself so far, and how the potential for pragmatic, flexible and creative solutions will achieve further progress in the coming years.

  18. Cross-border Portfolio Investment Networks and Indicators for Financial Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Andreas C.; Joseph, Stephan E.; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-02-01

    Cross-border equity and long-term debt securities portfolio investment networks are analysed from 2002 to 2012, covering the 2008 global financial crisis. They serve as network-proxies for measuring the robustness of the global financial system and the interdependence of financial markets, respectively. Two early-warning indicators for financial crises are identified: First, the algebraic connectivity of the equity securities network, as a measure for structural robustness, drops close to zero already in 2005, while there is an over-representation of high-degree off-shore financial centres among the countries most-related to this observation, suggesting an investigation of such nodes with respect to the structural stability of the global financial system. Second, using a phenomenological model, the edge density of the debt securities network is found to describe, and even forecast, the proliferation of several over-the-counter-traded financial derivatives, most prominently credit default swaps, enabling one to detect potentially dangerous levels of market interdependence and systemic risk.

  19. The Fight against Terrorism and Cross-Border Crime in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing an area of freedom, security and justice, an objective assumed by the European Union can only be achieved under conditions that ensure an improvement of judicial cooperation activity in criminal matters. The Council Framework Decision 2008/615/JHA of 23 June 2008 is the framework normative act that rules the Member States' cooperation in the fight against terrorism and cross-border crime. This paper is a review of the European legislative act, with critical remarks and it represents the sequel of these types of examinations, previously published. The research results consist of the presentation of some critical observations regarding the skills of the agents operating in the territory of another Member State rather than in the country from where they come, terms of keeping the data that regards people, the need to take in the records the judicial persons and the need for establishing separate accounts that would regard the natural and legal persons from other countries that are not members of the European Union. The relevant conclusions highlight the usefulness of European legislative act as a whole and the need to complete it with new provisions. The work is useful both for theorists and practitioners in the field, the essential contribution consisting of the formulation of critical remarks and sustained proposals de lege ferenda.

  20. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING EUROJUST'S CONTRIBUTION IN FIGHTING CROSS-BORDER CRIME IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, MIHALCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the European Union enshrined in 67 alin.(1 (ex-art. 61 TCE and ex-art. 29 TUE of the consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union is to create a common European space of security and justice without internal frontiers, in which to ensure the free movement of people, corralated with appropriate measures on external border controls , asylum , immigration, and crime prevention and combating. This is a long term goal that requires active cooperation of Member States and multiple efforts by EU institutions. The institutional functioning practice has shown that the clasic forms of judicial cooperation do not have the ability to complete this objective and that is necessary to create specialized structures. In this context the First European institutional structure was established in 2002, a specialized agency of the European Union, named Eurojust, with the main objective to promote and improve coordination and cooperation between the judicial authorities of the Member States in the fight against serious cross-border crime affecting the European Union. Tasks of Eurojust and relations with other European bodies, particularly the Council and Commission are established by Decision 2002/187 / JHA amended by Decision 2009/426 / JHA Council of 16 December 2008 It is exercised by College Eurojust or through its national members.

  1. The role of basic data registers in cross-border interconnection of eHealth solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregar, Mirjana; Marčun, Tomaž; Dovžan, Irma; Cehovin, Lojzka

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly closer international business cooperation in the areas of production, trade, transport and activities such as tourism and education is promoting the mobility of people. This increases the need for the provision of health care services across borders. In order to provide increasingly safer and effective treatment that is of ever higher quality in these cases as well, it is necessary to ensure that data accompanies patients even when they travel to other regions, countries or continents. eHealth solutions are one of the key tools for achieving such objectives. When building these solutions, it is necessary to take into account the different aspects and limitations brought about by the differences in the environments where such a treatment of a patient takes place. In the debates on the various types of cross-border interoperability of eHealth solutions, it is necessary to bring to attention the necessity of suitable management and interconnection of data registers that form the basis of every information system: data on patients, health care service providers and basic code tables. It is necessary to promote well-arranged and quality data in the patient's domestic environment and the best possible options for transferring and using those data in the foreign environment where the patient is receiving medical care at a particular moment. Many of the discussions dealing with conditions for the interoperability of health care information systems actually start with questions of how to ensure the interconnectivity of basic data registers.

  2. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Stöber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen these arguments, the paper will focus on two examples from Northern Europe, the existing Danish-Swedish Øresund link as well as the planned link between Denmark and Germany across the Femernbelt. In the course of the paper, focus will be on central bodies or actors that are taking up the issue of culture within a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building’ (Paasi 2010:2300.

  3. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform.

  4. Trends in Technology Planning and Funding in Florida K-12 Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERT DIETER RITZHAUPT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates trends in technology planning and funding in Florida’s K–12 public schools between the 2003–04 and 2005–06 academic years. Survey items that focused on funding and planning issues on Florida’s statewide school technology integration survey were analyzed using logistic models. Results indicate a significant increase in the number of schools revising their technology plans on a regular basis; a significant increase in the frequency with which Florida’s K–12 public schools are seeking funding for technology-related initiatives; a significant increase in parent, administrator, teacher, and student involvement in the technology planning process; and a significant decline in adequate funding for software and hardware needs. In addition, schools with low proportions of economically disadvantaged students sought and were awarded significantly more funds from donations and federal and state grants. Implications for educational leadership and policy are provided.

  5. Better prepared but spread too thin: the impact of emergency preparedness funding on local public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Justeen; Kim, Basil; Martinez, Linda Sprague; Clark, Mary; Hacker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Local public health authorities (LPHAs) are recognized as playing critical roles in response to biological, chemical, and other health emergencies. An influx of emergency preparedness funding has created new and expanding responsibilities for LPHAs. Concern that funding for emergency response is diverting attention and resources away from other core public health responsibilities is increasing. In order to determine the impact of emergency preparedness funding on public health infrastructure, qualitative interviews with 27 LPHAs in the metro-Boston area were conducted as part of an on-going evaluation of preparedness planning in Massachusetts. Feedback on the benefits and challenges of recent emergency preparedness planning mandates was obtained. Benefits include opportunities to develop relationships within and across public health departments and increases in communication between local and state authorities. Challenges include budget constraints, staffing shortages, and competing public responsibilities. Policy recommendations for improving planning for emergency response at the local level are provided.

  6. Assessing the level of public health partner spending using the funding formula analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Patrick M

    2012-01-01

    Public health services are delivered through a variety of organizations. Traditional accounting of public health expenditures typically captures only spending by government agencies. New Hampshire collected information from public health partners, such as community centers that host smoking cessation classes or health education done by Girls, Inc. This study compares the new data to spending by government agencies, focusing on breakdowns by fund source and service categories. Expanded funds secured by these partners account for a 42% of all local public health spending, and they spent 4 times more than government agencies on promoting healthy behavior. The funding formula analysis tool revealed that these partners spent in ways that would be politically difficult to achieve. In an era of declining budgets, an understanding of public health's partners is increasingly vital.

  7. 上海国际金融中心建设过程中的人民币跨境使用%RMB Cross-Border Use in Construction Process of Shanghai International Financial Centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    capital items is one factor affecting RMB cross-border use. This is also a factor restricting the construction of Shanghai International Financial Center. We should explore the forms of RMB cross-border use, and then improve the forms and scope, according to the extent of the RMB convertible process. There are three important overseas areas, Asia, Latin America and Africa, promoting RMB cross-border use. We should encourage Chinese industries and enterprises, which seize the initiative in foreign-related economic activities, to use RMB cross-border payments. At the same time, to promote official foreign-related economic activities will bring about wider use of RMB. According to the requirement of RMB cross-border use, we should abolish gradually the restrictions in convertibility of RMB. Through promoting the opening up domestic financial markets, supporting the expansion of cross-border business of Chinese-funded financial institution, improving the RMB cross- border payment and settlement system and so on, we can promote the construction of Shanghai international financial center.

  8. The Philosophical Underpinnings of Public School Funding Jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, James R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Uses the theories of John Rawls (democratic/egalitarian) and Robert Nozick (libertarian) as prisms through which to analyze judicial opinions underlying court decisions regarding public education financing. (302 footnotes) (MLF)

  9. The Philosophical Underpinnings of Public School Funding Jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, James R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Uses the theories of John Rawls (democratic/egalitarian) and Robert Nozick (libertarian) as prisms through which to analyze judicial opinions underlying court decisions regarding public education financing. (302 footnotes) (MLF)

  10. 76 FR 39474 - Monthly Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Mae) and to the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC or Freddie Mac) that use these indices... determine, after notice and opportunity for comment, that (A) the new indices are based upon data... values and changes of 17 publicly available indices on a monthly basis from January 1990 through...

  11. The implementation of the Directive on the Application of Patients' Rights in Cross-border Healthcare in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, L M H; Townend, D M R

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses the significance of the Directive 2011/24/EU on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare for the protection of individual patients' rights in the Netherlands by describing how its provisions are implemented in Dutch health law. The responsible Dutch authorities take the view that most of the Directive's provisions and requirements are covered in existing Dutch law. Implementation of the Directive would only require adaptations to national legislation with regard to the establishment of a national contact point for cross-border healthcare and the recognition of medical prescriptions issued in another Member State. This article looks into the question of how far the Dutch law meets the requirements of the Directive in relation to the individual patients' rights addressed in this special issue of the European Journal of Health Law.

  12. Flexibility for Survival: State Funding and Contingent Faculty Employment at Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Joanna R.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of state funding for public higher education in the United States are changing. Per-student state appropriations to higher education have decreased over the past few decades and have become increasingly volatile from year to year. As public higher education institutions seek ways to educate more students with fewer and less…

  13. Efficiency-Based Funding for Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Thomas R.; Comunale, Christie L.; Gara, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an efficiency-based mechanism for state funding of public colleges and universities using data envelopment analysis. We describe the philosophy and the mathematics that underlie the approach and apply\\break the proposed model to data from 362 U.S. public four-year colleges and universities. The model provides incentives to institution…

  14. 76 FR 10053 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., Office of Public and Indian Housing, Real Estate Assessment Center (REAC), 550 12th Street, SW., Suite... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Scoring...

  15. New Perspectives on the Evaluation of Public R&D Funding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Sala, Davide

    Any economic criteria for an effcient allocation of resources is based on marginal "thinking". Such criteria can equally be applied to the evaluation of the public allocation of R&D funds. Differently from the usual evaluation schemes - mainly dichotomous - this study implements the continuous...... treatment matching approach to investigate the optimality of the modulation of public grants. With this method, the marginal treatment effects can be identified and sub-optimal amounts of public funding determined. Although we can distinguish cases of input additionality, the substitutability outcome seems...

  16. Funding and Focus: Resource Dependence in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing resource dependence theory, this study investigates the relationship between institutional reliance on net tuition dollars as a source of revenue and institutional expenditures for education and related activities at public, four-year institutions of higher education in the United States. Drawing on an 11-year panel of university-level…

  17. Funding Public Computing Centers: Balancing Broadband Availability and Expected Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Krishna; Park, Eun-A

    2012-01-01

    The National Broadband Plan (NBP) recently announced by the Federal Communication Commission visualizes a significantly enhanced commitment to public computing centers (PCCs) as an element of the Commission's plans for promoting broadband availability. In parallel, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has…

  18. The Main Influencing Factors of Customer Trust in China’s Import Cross-Border E- commerce Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lu; Liu, Jiaqi; Lu, Yanzhu

    2016-01-01

    China’s import cross-border e-commerce (CICBEC) business model differs from other online shopping business models in both the participators and transaction processes. Government as an important participator has greatly promoted the healthy and rapid development of this business model. As a vital topic in all kinds of businesses, customer trust is also a core research topic in online shopping. Many scholars have studied customer trust in traditional online shopping while few of them focused on...

  19. THE RELATION BETWEEN TERRITORIAL COLECTIVITIES IN FRANCE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. THOUGHTS ON THE CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BARBOIU-GILIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available France, one of the founding members of the European Union, is a unitary state from the administrativeterritorial point of view, based on deep centralism. Having territorial collectivities with highly complex structure (communes, departments, regions, sui-generis collectivities and overseas collectivities, France committed itself to cooperation not only between its own administrative structures, but also to cross-border cooperation within the European Union. After showing reluctance to external actions underwent by territorial collectivities, France ended up with acknowledging this right of its territorial collectivities within the «decentralized cooperation», expressly brought under regulation by the Law of 6 February 1992. According to the law, there is no need for any ratification on behalf of the State to allow cooperation between territorial collectivities, within the boundaries of their competence. The Law of 1992 thus authorized the territorial collectivities to close agreements with other collectivities from abroad. Furthermore, the Law of 4 February 1995 allowed several treaties with the border states to be signed, thus creating the SAAR-LOR-LUX region (an European cross-border region that made way for cooperation between Germany, France and Luxembourg. The French legislation also allowed several European districts to be created, acting as local groups for cross-border cooperation, created on the initiative of territorial collectivities. The aim of our study is to identify the main relationship between territorial collectivities in France and EU and to analyze the cooperation instruments used by the French collectivities in order to foster the cross-border cooperation.

  20. Crossing Borders with HRM: An Inquiry of the Influence of Contextual Differences in the Adoption and Effectiveness of HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Konter, Daina

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The increased global connectivity urges us to look across borders, for previous boundaries may have been broken down or on the contrary have become more visible. In this thesis we explore what it means to cross borders with human resource management (HRM). Many believe in the virtues of the American way of doing business, but does this also mean that the American way of doing business is applicable in other countries? Human resource studies furthermore started in ...

  1. The Labor Market Outcomes of Two Forms of Cross-Border Higher Education Degree Programs between Malaysia and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the labor market outcomes of two different forms of cross-border higher education degree programs (i.e., full study abroad vs. twinning) between Malaysia and Japan. Specifically, based on a new graduate survey, it examines whether there are differences in the labor market outcomes between the two programs and what other factors have significant effects on the labor market outcomes. The results of regression analysis indicate that there are no significant differences betwee...

  2. Cross-Border Landscape: Construction of Natural Heritage and Local Development at Bulgarian-Serbian Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Markov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normally nature is examined as a phenomenon which is subject to natural laws; it belongs to the field of natural sciences. In constructivist perspective the environment is subsumed under the symbolism of humans’ tradition and culture. From such point of view the very notion of nature is unthinkable without taking into account its existence and understanding in a specific social, economic and cultural context of definite time, space and society. In the proposed paper I proceed from this paradigm in examination of a definite natural landscape which, however, is divided by the political border. The research attention is focused on a region of Bulgarian-Serbian borderlands – the area where the Erma River flows. The river takes its sources in Serbia and though it is not very long, it is notable for passing the Bulgarian-Serbian border twice, and for its two remarkable gorges – the Gorge of Tran in Bulgaria and the Gorge of Poganovo in Serbia. During the socialist period this border region was under strong military and police control. The crossing of the border was formally impossible; the borderlands remained peripheral industrially undeveloped areas and were putted under strong depopulation. However, the lands on either side of the border preserved its pristine nature. During the last two decades the preserved natural landscape and certain nature objects have been turned into more important landmarks and included in the value scale of local communities as symbols and heritage. In result, the above mentioned gorges have become more important part of strategic priorities in the local policies of revival of these economically undeveloped borderlands in the Western Bulgaria and Eastern Serbia. Nowadays the local efforts are uniting through different joint cross-border projects and activities in the sphere of nature preservation and eco-tourism.

  3. THE CONTRIBUTION AND SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF CROSS BORDER COOPERATION FOR MOLDOVAN SMES (THE CASE OF COOPERATION WITH ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aculai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, some characteristics of cross border cooperation of Moldovan SMEs are examined - types of cooperation, problems and preferences in choosing foreign partners, impact of cross border cooperation on business and regional development. The stress is made on the cooperation with Romania. Content of the paper is based on results of the international research project “Cross-border Cooperation and Partnership in selected NIS countries and the Consequences of EU-Enlargement: Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova”, elaborated by a research team from 5 countries during 2005-2007 years with the support of INTAS. The main research method within the project was weakly structured “face to face” interviews with different actors, first of all, with enterprises and households involved in CBC. In Moldova, actors from 2 districts (Edinet, Cahul placed in the northern and southern parts of the country, correspondingly on the territories of Upper Prut and Lower Danube Euroregions, right along the border with Romania, were interviewed.

  4. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compete with each other; second since they are located in Bohai Sea (North China, they have to compete with other cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas (South China. In this paper, our aim is to build models to provide best price strategies for these two cities. Based on the two-sided market theory and the geographical position, this paper builds two competitive theory models. Through the analyzing of the equilibrium, we get two main results: (1 according to different service area, the cities (Dalian and Tianjin should have different price; (2 the two-sided market characters have an impact on their strategies.

  5. Overview of IPR Practices for Publicly-funded Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Holt, Elmer C.; De La Rue du Can, Stephane

    2005-10-31

    The term technology transfer refers to a broad set of processes that cover the flows of know-how, experience, and equipment for mitigating and adapting to climate change amongst different stakeholders, including governments, the private sector, and financial institutions, environmental organizations, and research/education institutions. (Metz et al. 2000). Transfer encompasses diffusion of technologies and technology cooperation across and within countries, and forms one element of the overarching goal of the Climate Convention (UNFCCC) to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Governments devote varying amounts toward sponsoring or in some manner supporting a broad array of research activities pursuing a diverse set of outcomes ranging from medicine to energy and the environment. These activities can take place within government-owned facilities, private companies, or universities or some combination thereof. Such pursuits may result in the identification of a patentable technology or process, as well as copyrightable computer programs or other publications worthy of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection. Although the precise arrangements vary from country to country, there is a high degree of commonality in the manner in which the property rights to these publicly-sponsored results are assigned. Except in the case of 'pure research' the property rights are assigned to one or more of the participants to the research process; government, university, private contractor, etc. For example, captured under the 'pure research' classification is genomic sequence data that is immediately shared with the public at large and to a significant extent climate data resulting from government-sponsored research is placed in the public domain. The results of this review are intended to inform the Expert Group on Technology Transfer as called for by 2005 program of work.

  6. Publically Funded Recreation Facilities: Obesogenic Environments for Children and Families?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti-Jean Naylor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed.

  7. Bibliometric analyses of publications from Centres of Excellence funded by the Danish National Research Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Costas, Rodrigo; Henriksen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    , the interaction with host institutions, and the governance and management of the DNRF. The evaluation concludes that the DNRF has had a very positive impact on the quality of research in Denmark and recommends that the foundation is re-funded. The evaluation is based on a bibliometric study, self......-assessment report by DNRF, numerous interviews and desk studies. Appendix 5: Bibliometric analyses of publications from Centres of Excellence funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  8. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  9. No publication bias in industry funded clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Colin; Tavakoli, Samon; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    Industry sponsorship of clinical research of degenerative diseases of the spine has been associated with excessive positive published results as compared to research carried out without industry funding. We sought the rates of publication of clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine based on funding source as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. We reviewed all clinical trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov relating to degenerative diseases of the spine as categorized under six medical subject heading terms (spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, spondylosis, failed back surgery syndrome, intervertebral disc degeneration) and with statuses of completed or terminated. These collected studies were categorized as having, or not having, industry funding. Published results for these studies were then sought within the clinicaltrials.gov database itself, PubMed and Google Scholar. One hundred sixty-one clinical trials met these criteria. One hundred nineteen of these trials had industry funding and 42 did not. Of those with industry funding, 45 (37.8%) had identifiable results. Of those without industry funding, 17 (40.5%) had identifiable results. There was no difference in the rates of publication of results from clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine no matter the funding source.

  10. International fund flows: surges, sudden stops, and cyclicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao

    2017-01-01

    International fund flows are cross-border investments in domestic equity and bond markets by global investment funds. They have increased dramatically since the 1990s and played an increasingly important role in the transmission of shocks. In this thesis, we examine the drivers of large changes in

  11. International fund flows: surges, sudden stops, and cyclicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao

    2017-01-01

    International fund flows are cross-border investments in domestic equity and bond markets by global investment funds. They have increased dramatically since the 1990s and played an increasingly important role in the transmission of shocks. In this thesis, we examine the drivers of large changes in f

  12. International fund flows: surges, sudden stops, and cyclicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao

    2017-01-01

    International fund flows are cross-border investments in domestic equity and bond markets by global investment funds. They have increased dramatically since the 1990s and played an increasingly important role in the transmission of shocks. In this thesis, we examine the drivers of large changes in f

  13. Study on the Integration of Cross-border E-commerce and Logistics Development%跨境电子商务与物流融合发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝明; 周沛锋; 孟玲

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border E-commerce, which is to optimize the allocation of resources, expand the channels of trade, improve trade structure, plays an important role in foreign trade and in the development of modern service industry. In view of the bottlenecks exist of cross-border logistics, cross-border E-commerce should integrate with logistics while developing. Through integration, they not only can play upon advantages in their own resources, funds, brand and management, en-hance the influence in the domestic and international market, also can improve customer service ability and level, increase the trust of buyers and purchasing power. This paper analyzes the necessity, difficulty and path selection of the integration of cross-border E-commerce and logistics development; it points out that the integration of cross-border E-commerce and lo-gistics development needs to integrate various operating mech-anism of inbound logistics, outbound logistics and cross-border E-commerce; needs to optimize the interest distribution policy. These can be executed from the business integration, platform integration, process optimization, business innovation, benefit distribution aspects.%跨境电子商务具有优化资源配置,扩大贸易渠道,改善贸易结构的功能,对外贸和现代服务业发展具有重要意义。鉴于跨境物流瓶颈的存在,跨境电子商务需要与物流融合发展。通过融合,不但可以发挥各自在资源、资金、品牌和运营管理等方面的优势,提升双方在国内和国际市场上的影响力,还可以提升客户服务能力和水平,增加买家的信任和购买力。文章分析了跨境电子商务与物流融合发展的必要性、难点及其路径选择;指出跨境电子商务与物流的融合发展,需要整合境内物流、境外物流、跨境电子商务的各项营运机制,优化利益分配政策。具体可以从业务整合、平台集成、流程优化、业务创新、利益分配几个方面进行。

  14. Applying for, reviewing and funding public health research in Germany and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Becher, Heiko; Groenewegen, Peter; Mansmann, Ulrich; Meyer, Thorsten; Pfaff, Holger; Puhan, Milo; Razum, Oliver; Rehfuess, Eva; Sauerborn, Rainer; Strech, Daniel; Wissing, Frank; Zeeb, Hajo; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-06-13

    Public health research is complex, involves various disciplines, epistemological perspectives and methods, and is rarely conducted in a controlled setting. Often, the added value of a research project lies in its inter- or trans-disciplinary interaction, reflecting the complexity of the research questions at hand. This creates specific challenges when writing and reviewing public health research grant applications. Therefore, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the largest independent research funding organization in Germany, organized a round table to discuss the process of writing, reviewing and funding public health research. The aim was to analyse the challenges of writing, reviewing and granting scientific public health projects and to improve the situation by offering guidance to applicants, reviewers and funding organizations. The DFG round table discussion brought together national and international public health researchers and representatives of funding organizations. Based on their presentations and discussions, a core group of the participants (the authors) wrote a first draft on the challenges of writing and reviewing public health research proposals and on possible solutions. Comments were discussed in the group of authors until consensus was reached. Public health research demands an epistemological openness and the integration of a broad range of specific skills and expertise. Applicants need to explicitly refer to theories as well as to methodological and ethical standards and elaborate on why certain combinations of theories and methods are required. Simultaneously, they must acknowledge and meet the practical and ethical challenges of conducting research in complex real life settings. Reviewers need to make the rationale for their judgments transparent, refer to the corresponding standards and be explicit about any limitations in their expertise towards the review boards. Grant review boards, funding organizations and research ethics committees

  15. 跨境人民币外债发展问题研究%The Research of Development of Foreign Debt of Cross-border Renminbi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2012-01-01

    With the accelerated process of internationalization of the RMB,a large number of kept outside the RMB funds to flow back into the territory of China in the form of the RMB foreign debt.To precede the development process of cross-border Renminbi foreign debt,the Author do research on costs and benefits of developing the RMB foreign debt,comparatively analyze the similarities and differences of the RMB foreign debt and foreign currency debt,propose countermeasures and suggestions for developing the RMB foreign debt.%伴随着人民币国际化进程的加快,大量留存境外的人民币资金通过人民币外债的方式又流回境内。从跨境人民币外债发展进程着手,研究发展人民币外债存在的成本与收益,比较分析人民币外债与外币外债的异同,有利于提出发展人民币外债的相关对策和建议。

  16. Sovereign wealth fundspublic investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  17. Public-Private Partnerships: The Evolving Role of Industry Funding in Nutrition Research12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachwieja, Jeffrey; Hentges, Eric; Hill, James O.; Black, Richard; Vassileva, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The global burdens of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity-related chronic diseases are crippling public health and are predicted to exponentially increase over the next 3 decades. Meanwhile, the resources necessary to conduct research that may offer solutions to the obesity epidemic continue to decline and funding has become increasingly difficult to secure. Alternative models for funding nutrition and health research are necessary to make considerable and timely progress to improve public health. Key stakeholders include, but are not limited to, government agencies, foundations, private industry, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:24038261

  18. The Innovation of Cross-border E-commerce Logistics%浅析跨境电子商务物流模式的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 窦粲灿

    2015-01-01

    现如今,跨境电子商务已在全球范围内迅速发展。但是跨境电子商务物流的发展却跟不上跨境电子商务的发展,满足不了跨境电子商务的需要。因此跨境电子商务物流需要不断创新其物流模式,以便更好的服务于跨境电子商务。目前,跨境电商选择的跨境电子商务物流模式多为国际邮政小包和国际快递,但是随着跨境电子商务的发展,这两种物流模式的劣势日益凸显。因此跨境电子商务物流模式的创新是大势所趋。文中主要介绍了一些新兴的跨境物流模式。%Nowadays,cross-border e-commerce has been rapid development on a global scale.But the development of cross-border e-commerce logistics couldn't keep up with the development of cross-border e-commerce,and doesn't satisfy the need of cross-border e-commerce.So cross-border e-commerce logistics needs to innovate its logistics mode,in order to better serve the cross -border e -commerce.Currently,cross -border electrical contractor selection of cross -border e -commerce logistics mode for international postal parcel and international express delivery,but with the development of cross -border e-commerce,the disadvantages of this two kinds of logistics mode.So the cross -border e -commerce logistics mode innovation is the trend of The Times.This article mainly introduces some new cross-border logistics mode.

  19. Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

  20. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  1. Using IT to Provide Easier Access to Cross-Border Legal Procedures for Citizens and Legal Professionals - Implementation of a European Payment Order e-CODEX pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pangalos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration in Europe has resulted in a steadily increasing number of legal procedures containing cross-border effects which require better cooperation between different national judicial systems and simpler and more efficient procedures for the users. Information and Communication technologies can help make cross-border judicial procedures more transparent, efficient and economic both in civil and criminal matters. e-CODEX is an important project of the EU in the domain of e-Justice that aims to provide to citizens, enterprises and legal professionals an easier access to justice in cross border procedures, as well as make cross-border collaboration of courts and authorities easier and more efficient. It develops the required infrastructure and the organizational, procedural and legal environment necessary and also conducts a number of real life cross-border pilots. One of the first such pilots to become operational is that of the European Payment Order (EPO, in which Greece also participates. In this paper we briefly present the services of cross-border access of citizens and legal professionals to legal means in Europe provided by e-CODEX and also the Greek e-CODEX pilot of European Payment Order, which has already launched operation in the framework of this major e-Justice project.

  2. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS FUNDING MECHANISMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE RAILWAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pashchenko, Y.; Korin, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper found that the implementation of the priority areas of railway infrastructure, defined transport strategy Ukraine requires significant funding required amounts which are absent in Railways and the state budget of Ukraine. It was determined that one of the effective tools of financial security of railroad infrastructure is a mechanism of public-private partnerships. Based on this the essence of public-private partnership, its main characteristics and forms of implementation. Deals wi...

  3. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Local Food Procurement in Publicly Funded Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Community-Based Social Marketing is presented as a technique to add to Extension's community economic development toolbox by examining perceived benefits and barriers to local food procurement at publicly funded institutions. Data were gathered through 86 in-person interviews with representatives across the supply chain. The findings revealed that…

  4. 76 FR 52997 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...\\ 15 U.S.C. 7217(b). \\2\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\3\\ Release No. 34-64816 (Jul. 6, 2011) [76 FR 40950 (Jul... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's Accounting Support Fee Among Issuers, Brokers, and Dealers, and Other Amendments...

  5. Mission-Based Funding Compacts with Public Universities. Go8 Backgrounder 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This Go8 Backgrounder explores the possible uses of compacts in government financing of university activities, examines their potential costs and benefits, and outlines principles for their design and implementation. The Government has committed to compacts as an element of its future funding arrangements with public universities but has not yet…

  6. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Soren

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted r

  7. Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish Research Policy and New Public Research Funding Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallonsten, Olof; Silander, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special…

  8. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted...

  9. An Analysis of Size Adjustment Factors in the New Mexico Public School Funding Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Doug

    Using 1975-76 school-year data, the study describes New Mexico size adjustment factors for public school funding, compares them with the manner in which other states recognize smallness or sparsity, and delineates the impact of size adjustment factors on New Mexico school districts in terms of resources, net operational and proportionate…

  10. Sense of place, organizational context and the strategic management of publicly funded hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, N T

    2001-11-01

    An era of managerialism in health care delivery systems is now well ensconced throughout the nations of the OECD. This development has occurred, in large part, as a response to funding pressures in institutionally based health care delivery imposed by principal third party insurers. In the case of publicly funded hospitals, the more traditional concerns for stewardship and appeasement of professional groups is being replaced by a greater emphasis on cost consciousness and corporate-style leadership as these organizations seek to reposition themselves in new funding and regulatory environments. While institutional theory and strategic management perspectives help illuminate these issues, this paper argues that a place-based perspective is also needed to understand the changes currently underway in health care delivery and publicly funded human services more generally. This is illustrated with reference to developments in the strategic management of public hospitals in the province of Ontario. Evidence from a survey of senior administrators of public hospitals, distributed at the height of these policy reform initiatives, is examined to shed light on local level management responses to changing policy and fiscal pressures. The data suggest that the latest policy directions in the province of Ontario will 'encourage' hospital executives in particular community settings to steer their organizations in very unfamiliar directions. The findings suggest a need for greater attention to context and setting in health services research and policy.

  11. 11 CFR 201.3 - Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... soon after the communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the... communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the communication, unless... REGULATIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS § 201.3 Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts...

  12. Funding public services through religious and charitable foundations in the late-medieval Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Religious and charitable foundations are often held to have been a sub¬stantial presence in pre-industrial societies. One of their key tasks was the funding of public services, specifically social and religious services. This dissertation has tried to explain the regional variation in the extent to

  13. Prevalence, awareness, and management of CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Troyanov, S.; Mongeau, F.; Fradette, L.; Bouchard, J.; Awadalla, P.; Madore, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The CARTaGENE study evaluated B

  14. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Soren

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted

  15. The Use and Misuse of Taxpayers' Money: Publicly-Funded Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Darrell P.; Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    How should educational research be contracted? And is there anything wrong with the way that public funding of educational research is currently administered? We endeavour to answer these questions by appeal to the work of two of the most prominent philosophers of science of the twentieth century, namely Popper and Kuhn. Although their normative…

  16. Private Schools and Public Funding: A Comparison of Recent Policies in England and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tony; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines government policies in England and Australia toward nongovernment schools, compares forms of direct and indirect support which such schools and their pupils receive from public funds, and looks at ways in which state aid for nonstate schools has been justified and condemned. (JHZ)

  17. A Qualitative study of language barriers between South African health care providers and cross-border migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Adams, Jo; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2017-01-31

    Communication with health care providers represents an essential part of access to health care for the over 230 million cross-border migrants around the world. In this article, we explore the complexity of health communication from the perspective of cross-border migrants seeking antenatal care in Cape Town, South Africa in order to highlight the importance of high quality medical interpretation. As part of a broader study of migrant maternal and infant nutrition, we conducted a secondary data analysis of semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 23) with Congolese (n = 7), Somali (n = 8) and Zimbabwean (n = 8) women living in Cape Town, as well as nine focus group discussions (including men: n = 3 and women: n = 6) were conducted with migrant Somalis, Congolese, and Zimbabweans (N = 48). We first used content analysis to gather all data related to language and communication. We then analysed this data thematically. Zimbabwean participants described how the inability to speak the local South African language (IsiXhosa) gave rise to labelling and stereotyping by healthcare staff. Congolese and Somali participants described medical procedures, including tubal ligation, which were performed without consent. Partners often tried to play the role of interpreter, which resulted in loss of income and non-professional medical interpretation. Participants' highlighted fears over unwanted procedures or being unable to access care. Challenges of communication without a common language (and without professional medical interpretation), rather than outright denial of care by healthcare professionals, mediated these encounters. Although there are several factors impeding cross-border migrants' access to health care, effective communication is a prerequisite for quality care. Free-to-patient professional medical interpretation would not only benefit migrant populations but would benefit the broader community where language and health literacy are

  18. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students: A case study about creating innovative ICT didactic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Spante

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education, the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history. This paper provides an in-depth description and analysis of how four social science and history elementary school teachers and their 70 students (5th–7th grades worked together between November 2011 and December 2012. Previous research regarding the use of information and communication technology (ICT in history education in elementary schools is limited, thus calling for contemporary investigations in this particular subject domain. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK model, enhancing the combination of teachers’ pedagogical, content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video productions, texts and photos distributed and shared on a mutual blog, real-time interaction and teachers’ communication. The teachers tried out two ICT didactic models. In the asynchronous model, the major focus was on the form and content of the video productions being shared, whereas work with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students in the three nations, facilitating goal fulfillment in communication skills and digital competence. However, achieving subject-specific goals in history

  19. Developing an Australian framework for scope of practice decisions by nurses and midwives - lessons for cross-border standards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Young, Stephanie; Ashley, Christine

    2010-08-01

    Lessons for cross-border standard development learned in the consultation to create the Australian National Framework for the Development of Decision-Making Tools for Nursing and Midwifery (National DMF). Although existing tools are broadly consistent, no cross-border or internationally accepted version exists of scope of practice decision-making guides. Development of a national framework in Australia's federated political system required commitment to wide consultation and consensus. Concurrent moves towards national registration stimulated timely completion of the work. Contextual factors such as differentiation of the profession of midwifery from nursing and varying understanding of scope of practice concepts in eight Australian jurisdictions were challenges. A consultative policy development framework was used. Thematic analysis of written responses to a draft document and of focus group feedback informed the production of the National DMF. A widely accepted National DMF allowing nurses and midwives in Australia to engage in planned changes to professional practice, grounded in the professional judgement of the individual nurse or midwife, and collaboration with the consumer. The project's grounding in consensus influenced the process and outcomes of consultation. A nationally consistent framework, incorporating useful decision-making tools for two professions and principles to guide implementation and evaluation, was a distinct achievement. The article adds to accumulated knowledge by: * identifying the professional and political factors influencing consultation and outcomes in cross-border standard development and * exploring key considerations for future projects to produce national or international professional standards that are relevant across borders and across professions. Decision-making tools that assist nurses and midwives in determining their scopes of practice and guide them in delegating aspects of consumer care to other health care workers are

  20. Multiparous women's confidence to have a publicly-funded homebirth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling-Paull, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Homer, Caroline S E; Homer, Caroline C S E

    2011-09-01

    Hospital birth is commonly thought to be a safer option than homebirth, despite many studies showing similar rates of safety for low risk mothers and babies when cared for by qualified midwives with systems of back-up in place. Recently in Australia, demand has led to the introduction of a small number of publicly-funded homebirth programs. Women's confidence in having a homebirth through a publicly-funded homebirth program in Australia has not yet been explored. The aim of the study was to explore the reasons why multiparous women feel confident to have a homebirth within a publicly-funded model of care in Australia. Ten multiparous English-speaking women who chose to have a homebirth with the St George Hospital Homebirth Program were interviewed in the postnatal period using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed, then a thematic analysis was undertaken. Women, having already experienced a normal birth, demonstrated a strong confidence in their ability to give birth at home and described a confidence in their bodies, their midwives, and the health system. Women weighed up the risks of homebirth through information they gathered and integration with their previous experience of birth, their family support and self-confidence. Women choosing publicly-funded homebirth display strong confidence in both themselves to give birth at home, and their belief in the health system's ability to cope with any complications that may arise. Many women may benefit from access to publicly-funded homebirth models of care. This should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  1. Recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Marlies; Overbeke, John; Out, Henk J

    2013-09-30

    Numerous studies on publication bias in clinical drug research have been undertaken, particularly on the association between sponsorship and favourable outcomes. However, no standardized methodology for the classification of outcomes and sponsorship has been described. Dissimilarities and ambiguities in this assessment impede the ability to compare and summarize results of studies on publication bias. To guide authors undertaking such studies, this paper provides recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source. As part of ongoing research into publication bias, 472 manuscripts on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with drugs, submitted to eight medical journals from January 2010 through April 2012, were reviewed. Information on trial results and sponsorship was extracted from manuscripts. During the start of this evaluation, several problems related to the classification of outcomes, inclusion of post-hoc analyses and follow-up studies of RCTs in the study sample, and assessment of the role of the funding source were encountered. A comprehensive list of recommendations addressing these problems was composed. To assess internal validity, reliability and usability of these recommendations were tested through evaluation of manuscripts submitted to journals included in our study. The proposed recommendations represent a first step towards a uniform method of classifying trial outcomes and sponsorship. This is essential to draw valid conclusions on the role of the funding source in publication bias and will ensure consistency across future studies.

  2. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  3. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  4. Implementing the First Cross-border Professional Development Online Course through International E-mentoring: Reflections and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhini Gayathri Jayatilleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper discusses the accomplishments, issues, and challenges experienced by Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL academics when offering the first cross-border professional development online course to train online tutors and mentors. The course was delivered exclusively online and facilitated by OUSL academics and e-mentors from the USA. The course was comprised of 30 participants: 9 from Pakistan, 10 from Mauritius and 11 from Sri Lanka. This qualitative study is based on reflections of both faculty and participants. Data were collected using reflections and informal anecdotal records of the three OUSL academics and self-reflection instruments (pre, mid and final administered to participants, and reflective journal entries made by participants. Participants’ views were triangulated with the reflections of the OUSL academics to validate the results. While there were many accomplishments in the design and delivery of the course, the findings revealed that there were many challenges in implementing the course: pedagogical, organizational and technological aspects in particular. The paper provides recommendations to address such challenges when offering cross-border online courses in the future.

  5. Profitable increases in cross border transmission capacities in a European power system with large shares of renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wolfgang, Ove

    2012-07-01

    This report describes analyses of profitable increases in cross border capacities in Europe in a time perspective 2030-2050 for situations with large shares of renewables in the power system. The analysis reuses a lot of the methodology from the EU 7th Framework Programme project SUSPLAN. The analyses use the EMPS model (a European model for multi-area power market simulations) and a new investment algorithm on four scenarios Red (40.1 % RES-E in 2050, traditional technologies), Yellow (54 % RES-E in 2050, traditional technologies + extra PV), Green (69 % RES-E in 2050, mainly local and regional production) and Blue (72 % RES-E in 2050, large scale production far away from demand centers). The analyses show that for the four scenarios considerable increases in cross border connections will be necessary. The capacities are in all scenarios more than doubled in 2050 compared to the system in 2010 based on profitability criteria. The result varies from about 120 000 MW in new capacities to as much as 712 700 MW dependent on the volume and location of the new renewables. The increase of transmission capacities is much higher in Blue than in the other scenarios. Blue is dominated by large scale offshore wind production and import of solar based production from Africa. The Green has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, a secure electricity system and the lowest electricity prices. High investments are required, but they are limited compared to a future like Blue. (Author)

  6. Perceived Costs and Benefits of IFRS Adoption of Cross-Border Mergers: A Statistical Analysis of Indian and Chinese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the links between IFRS adoption status, mergers tempo, and perception of IFRS costs and benefits among Indian and Chinese companies. As more capital accrues in India and China, more cross-border mergers activity initiated from these countries should be expected. This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the results related the adaption of IFRS in India and China. During the analyses around 2 authors‘ books were related to this paper. During the study it was focused to collect information observation through published academic books and articles. Some questions raised by the increased tempo of cross-border mergers activity are as follows: (a What are the differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? (b What are the differences between IFRS adopters and IFRS non-adopters in perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? This study identified some significant differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceived IFRS costs and benefits, centering on the role that management accounting played for Chinese companies. Additionally, there were significant differences between how IFRS adopters and non-adopters perceived IFRS in terms of statement simplification, global credibility, and investor attractiveness. This study provides a statistical analysis for the IFRS adaption process of Indian and Chinese companies for the crossborder merger actions.

  7. 'The bloke can be a bit hazy about what's going on': men and cross-border reproductive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    While social science research has begun to demonstrate the significant impact of infertility and involuntary childlessness for men, far fewer studies have specifically explored the male experience of, or men's involvement in, infertility treatment-seeking and there are few published studies which specifically describe men's experiences with cross-border reproduction. This paper presents data from the first UK study of transnational treatment-seeking and specifically explores men's involvement in this process. Data from interviews with 10 men and 34 women who were seeking treatment abroad are organized according to three themes: 'going along with it'; 'being a rock'; and 'doing their bit'. The paper argues that gender is an important aspect of the cross-border treatment experience and that both traditional and emergent gender identities are expressed in the process of treatment-seeking. Healthcare providers need to actively explore men's perspectives of the treatment process in all locations, to improve quality of care by reducing men's feelings of marginalization and enhancing their experience of treatment, especially but not exclusively, around the issue of semen collection. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 跨境电子商务海外仓储问题探析%Analysis on the Oversea Storage Problems of Cross-border E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开旺

    2016-01-01

    跨境电子商务的兴起,带动了国际物流业的蓬勃发展,一些新的物流模式也应运而生。海外仓储作为跨境电子商务物流模式之一,在跨境电子商务中的作用越来越明显,发展速度也日益加快。本文主要研究跨境电子商务背景下,海外仓储的优势及存在的问题,并给出跨境电子商务企业利用及发展海外仓储的建议。%The rise of cross-border e-commerce lead the vigorous development of the international logistics industry, some new logistics mode also arises at the historic moment. As one of cross-border e-commerce logistics model, the role of oversea storage in cross-border e-commerce is more and more obvious, the development of it is faster and faster. This paper mainly studies the advantage and existing problems of oversea storage under the background of cross-border e-commerce, and puts forward the suggestions for cross-border e-commerce enterprises to use and develop oversea storage.

  9. ORGANIZATION AND RESULTS OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS REALIZING INVESTMENTS SUBSIDIZED WITH PUBLIC FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the organization of production and economic results of agricultural holdings that realized investments subsidized with public funds, from the perspective of good agricultural practice. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for crop structure, stock density, production intensity, the value and structure of capital, and profi tableness of land, capital, and labour. Analysis showed that holdings benefi ting from subsidization of investments with public funds were characterized by greater production intensity and also achieved better economic results. However, they exerted greater pressure on the environment and posed hazards that mainly resulted from high stock density.  

  10. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted......) and lifetime gross tax contributions to derive the discounted net tax contribution from assisted-conception singletons. An investment of €11,078 in a mother aged...

  11. PROJECT ABANDONMENT, CORRUPTION AND RECOVERY OF UNSPENT BUDGETED PUBLIC FUNDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of unspent funds budgeted for implementing development projects have been recovered from Nigeria’s public officials since President Yar Adua directed in 2007 that responsible Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs must refund such funds at the end of every fiscal year. While unspent funds recovery represents some progress in the “war on corruption” entrenched by previous governments in the 1980s, the current policy limited by concentrating narrowly on recovery of financial resources thereby excluding accounting for other project resources (human skills application, time management or optimization among others that are usually applied to project implementation but lost through public officers’ failure and/or delays to implement planned projects. This article examines the magnitude of unspent funds recently recovered by the government from its various ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs. The general objective of this article is to contribute towards improving the development project management culture in Nigeria. The specific objectives are: To highlight the magnitude of unspent funds in Nigeria’s MDAs; and to show some adverse consequences of failing (or delaying to spend funds allocated in the budget forimplementing projects in economic sectors and on the pursuit of development objectives. Survey and description methods were used. Data on the refund of unspent funds was obtained from secondary sources (records of MDAs and analysed using qualitative and simple quantitative techniques. Results show that a high rate of projects delay and /or abandonment was discovered shortly after the inauguration of President Yar’ Adua and his administration in May 2007. Although some project funds have been recovered, other project resources (time wasted, human skills/hours and development benefits that would have accrued from completion of the planned and financed projects have not been recovered but lost. The fact

  12. FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik

    FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster statu...... a transnational knowledge transfer in economy, science, politics and administration aiming at establishing vital cooperation and generating innovative projects. The theoretical framework of the FURGY project is the approach of regional and sectoral innovation systems.......FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...

  13. 高职外语类专业的跨境电商人才培养%Higher vocational foreign language major cultivate cross-border electricity trade talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟铃

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border electricity trades have become a new engine of foreign trade, how to innovate cross-border electricity traders to higher vocational foreign language training, cultivate enterprise urgently needed a large number of cross-border electricity business talents, is the current higher vocational foreign language class teaching is an urgent need to solve the problem. Explore training mode to cultivate cross-border electricity traders, this paper based on garden production and education, innovation cooperation mode, explore the cross-border higher vocational foreign language personnel training of e-commerce, summarizing the business English majors in higher vocational school cross-border electricity traders training mode to implement some successful experience, provides some valuable reference for other business English professional talent training in higher vocational school practice.%跨境电商已经成为外贸的新引擎,如何创新高职外语类专业的跨境电商人才培养,培养企业急需的大量跨境电商人才,是当前高职外语类专业教学迫切需要解决的问题。本文深入探索跨境电商人才培养模式,依托产教园,创新合作方式,开拓了高职外语类专业进行跨境电子商务的人才培养,总结得到了高职学校商务英语专业进行跨境电商人才培养模式实施的一些成功经验,为其他高职学校商务英语专业的人才培养实践,提供了一些有价值的参考和借鉴。

  14. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China’s pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505

  15. Municipal Bonds. A Viable Funding Option For Oradea Local Public Administration (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bunescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy government resources are often insufficient to cover all the public budget needs. Public capital collecting process presents a particular interest considering the need of getting them with lower costs. The options for collecting public resources are characterized by diversity and complexity. One of them is based on municipal bonds funds. This paper explores the potential of public bonds issued at a local level in raising capital for infrastructure investments in Romanian public administration. This paper is not meant to be an empirical study at national level because sub-sovereign bonds market in Romania is not very developed. This paper is limited to a case study of public financing methods for a Romanian local public administration. Local authorities from Oradea have no other possibility without one of borrowing to achieve the objectives proposed. Thus, it resorted to a set of internal and external loans. Our study contents a comparative cost analysis of public financing by loans. The analysis lead to the result that the cheapest source of financing is the loan offered by the European Investment Bank, followed by municipal bonds issuing.

  16. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  17. Cross-border forest disturbance and the role of natural rubber in mainland Southeast Asia using annual Landsat time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    ) are there cross border differences in frontier and non-frontier forest disturbance rates between Cambodia and Vietnam, 3) what proportion of disturbances in frontier and non-frontier forests can be accounted for by the impact of rubber plantations, and 4) is there a relationship between global market prices...... rates related to rubber plantation expansion and price fluctuations of natural rubber. This suggests links between localized land cover/use change and international market forces, irrespective of differing political and socioeconomic backgrounds. Our study underlines the value of using dense Landsat...... that this approach can provide accurate forest disturbance maps but that accuracy is affected by forest type. Highest accuracies were found in evergreen forest (90%), with lower accuracies in mixed (80%) and dry-deciduous forest types (83%). Our final map considering all forest types yielded an overall accuracy...

  18. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: Mature markets vs. emerging markets—with special reference to the USA and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Rani Duppati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the differences in the merger waves across markets, the market for cross-border mergers and acquisitions by Indian companies differs in context and situations from those of the mature markets. Post-acquisition performance is critical to the success of companies involved in overseas investments. This paper uses event study methodology to analyse the long-term performance of Indian-acquiring companies by undertaking 30 outward foreign direct investment (OFDI-related deals, during 2000–2008 period. Further, it compares the empirical findings from India with the prior findings from the USA. It is evident from the empirical results that the stock markets reacted positively in the short run following the announcements of the OFDI-related mergers and acquisitions by Indian companies. The empirical findings also showed positive results in the post-acquisition period following the overseas deals.

  19. On the counterintuitive consequences of high-performance work practices in cross-border post-merger human integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilaki, A.; Smith, Pernille; Giangreco, A.

    2012-01-01

    , such as communication, employee involvement, and team building, may not always produce the expected effects on human integration; rather, it can have the opposite effects if top management does not closely monitor the immediate results of deploying such practices. Implications for managers dealing with post......Human integration in cross-border mergers poses challenges to the successful implementation of post-merger processes. Executives often rely on human resource practices to achieve human integration in newly formed organisations. Using an ethnographic study of a merger of four banks in four countries......, this article investigates the impact of systemic and integrated human resource practices [i.e., high-performance work practices (HPWPs)] on human integration and how their implementation affects employees' behaviours and attitudes towards post-merger human integration. We find that the implementation of HPWPs...

  20. The Right to Travel for Abortion Services: A Case Study in Irish 'Cross-border Reproductive Care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Abortion is illegal in Ireland, except in very limited circumstances, but the Irish Constitution guarantees the right of women to travel abroad to obtain abortion services. Every year, large numbers of women travel to the UK to obtain abortions. This article argues that this can be regarded as an illustration of cross-border reproductive care (CBRC). CBRC is the phenomenon whereby people travel abroad to obtain assisted reproduction services that are illegal in their country of origin. A leading commentator, Guido Pennings, argues that CBRC is to be welcomed as a means by which society might compromise on issues of profound moral disagreement. Other commentators believe CBRC is highly problematic. This article argues that the Irish abortion example, when examined as an example of CBRC, illustrates both the advantages and disadvantages of CBRC identified by Pennings and his critics.

  1. Reflections on the Abolition of Exequatur in the Cross-border Cases Regarding the Return of the Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free circulation of judgments within the EU of the authentic instruments and agreements in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility is provided for in Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of the Council of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, repealing Regulation (EC no. 1347/2000. For two categories of judgments, this Regulation provides for the suppression of exequatur. In this article we intend to continue analyzing the suppression of the exequatur under the situation of judgments in family law matters, relating to the return of the child in the cross-border cases, on judgments passed in another Member State.

  2. Optimal dynamic capacity allocation of HVDC interconnections for cross-border exchange of balancing services in presence of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre; Eriksson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    of the power system depends both on the technical parameters of its components, i.e., generators and transmission infrastructure, as well as on the operational practices that make optimal use of the available assets. This work focuses on alternative market designs that enable sharing of cross-border balancing...... and the uncertainty arising from their partial predictability. Considering that the existing setup of the European electricity markets promotes the spatial coordination of neighbouring power systems only on the day-ahead market stage, regional system operators have to rely mainly on their internal balancing resources...... resources between adjacent power systems through High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) interconnections which provide increased controllability. In this context, we formulate a stochastic market-clearing algorithm that attains full spatio-temporal integration of reserve capacity, day-ahead and balancing...

  3. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years.

  4. Community building and cross-border collaboration through online courses in wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monty, A.; Badger, Jake

    2013-01-01

    A new online course in wind energy has been developed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) as part of the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu). The course builds upon a successful physical course, which has been offered to the wind energy industry ...... of the course. The course is then placed in the larger context of project Virtual Campus Hub where participants from four technical universities in Europe collaborate in a virtual framework utilizing state-of-the-art European E-infrastructure....

  5. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: Protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Robert K D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR has defined knowledge translation (KT as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. Design The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. Discussion The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding

  6. The public/private debate in the funding, administration and delivery of healthcare in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2004-01-01

    To help clarify the confusing debate concerning the public-private divide in Canada and the respective positions of the Romanow and Kirby reports, a new approach is proposed. The funding, administration and delivery of the healthcare "system" is split into distinct analytical categories and then applied to three major coverage groupings: universal public (Canada Health Act) coverage for medically necessary/required services; mixed coverage for drug care, home and long-term care; and private health goods and services. While there were no fundamental differences between Romanow and Kirby concerning the funding of public healthcare in Canada, there were some important differences on issues of administration. In particular, the Romanow report recommended that home mental healthcare services become universally covered under the Canada Health Act as well as fundamental changes to the regulation and administration of prescription drug care. The reports also differed in terms of framing the private delivery question, with the Romanow report questioning whether the evidence justified private-for-profit delivery replacing current private not-for-profit or public arm's length delivery modes.

  7. An evaluation of the International Monetary Fund's claims about public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; Gilmore, Anna; Batniji, Rajaie; Ooms, Gorik; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Hammonds, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's recent claims concerning its impact on public health are evaluated against available data. First, the IMF claims that health spending either does not change or increases with IMF-supported programs, but there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Second, the IMF claims to have relaxed strict spending requirements in response to the 2008-9 financial crisis, but there is no evidence supporting this claim, and some limited evidence from the Center for Economic Policy Research contradicting it. Third, the IMF states that wage ceilings on public health are no longer part of its explicit conditionalities to poor countries, as governments can choose how to achieve public spending targets; but in practice, ministers are left with few viable alternatives than to reduce health budgets to achieve specific IMF-mandated targets, so the result effectively preserves former policy. Fourth, the IMF's claim that it has increased aid to poor countries also seems to be contradicted by its policies of diverting aid to reserves, as well as evidence that a very small fraction of the Fund's new lending in response to the financial crisis has reached poor countries. Finally, the IMF's claim that it follows public health standards in tobacco control contrasts with its existing policies, which fail to follow the guidelines recommended by the World Bank and World Health Organization. The authors recommend that the IMF (1) become more transparent in its policies, practices, and data to allow improved independent evaluations of its impact on public health (including Health Impact Assessment) and (2) review considerable public health evidence indicating a negative association between its current policies and public health outcomes.

  8. Mid-term evaluation of the Climate Change Action Fund : Public education and outreach (PEO) Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    In February 1998, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) to assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CCAF managed a budget of 150 million dollars over three years, and the Public Education and Outreach (PEO) Block was allocated 30 million dollars of that total for its operations. Its mandate was to increase public awareness and understanding on the topic of climate change, as well as providing the required information to effect reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to climate change. An evaluation into this program was conducted, and it covered the period September 2000 to January 20, 2001. To date, 152 projects have been approved, which represents an investment of approximately 17.5 million dollars. Approximately 6 million dollars have been spent on the awareness component, while government communication activities used approximately 3.1 million dollars. Staff and project management fees in support of the program account for the remaining funds. This report addressed the performance to date in meeting the objectives, and also included recommendations for improved effectiveness. PEO files and records, a report entitled Interim review of the Climate Change Action Fund PEO Program, interviews with Departmental representatives, and interviews with external stakeholder groups formed the basis for the findings and recommendations. It was determined that future direction represents the most critical issue facing the PEO block. 1 tab.

  9. Restricting access to publications from funded research: Ethical issues and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, Department of Biotechnology (DBT, Department of Science and Technology (DST are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people′s money and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  10. Restricting access to publications from funded research: ethical issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai

    2010-01-01

    India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  11. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the key instruments of international cooperation between Russia and the European Union aimed at stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through

  12. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through different co-financing programmes, can also become innovators.

  13. Cooperation between Russia and the EU in the field of innovative development of tourism: the case of the Lithuania — Poland — Russia cross-border cooperation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Elena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the key instruments of international cooperation between Russia and the European Union aimed at stimulating innovative development of tourism co-financed by the EU and Russia. The author describes specific projects implemented in the framework of the Lithuania-Poland-Russia cross-border cooperation programme for 2009—2013 in the field of tourism. Special attention is paid to analysing tourism innovations that have emerged as a result of the projects aimed at cooperation and tourism development in the border regions of Russia and the EU countries. A number of projects have been implemented under the supervision and with the participation of the author. The article focuses on the role of innovative types of tourism in the regional development of territories in the case of the Kaliningrad region. The current approaches to defining tourism innovations in Russian and international studies are not comprehensive and do not reflect the essence of innovative processes. Innovative development is often reduced to the introduction of new information technologies, i. e. informatization replaces innovative development. However, it is important to take into account other innovative tools: for instance, interactive network museums in developing innovative tourist attraction objects, e-marketing in introducing innovations in tourist product promotion, programmes of private- public partnership in the field of public regulation and tourism stimulation, etc. These technologies contribute to the transition fr om a certain economic agent, the industry as a whole, or a tourist destination to a fundamentally new level in terms of tourist product presentation and increase of competitiveness. The sources for innovations in tourism are both the providers and consumers of tourist services. In those regions wh ere tourism is considered an economic priority, local authorities and even super-governmental organisations, such as the European Commission (through

  14. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  15. 42 CFR 413.149 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on assets financed with Federal or public funds. 413.149 Section 413.149 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE...

  16. Effectiveness and impact of the cross-border healthcare model as implemented by non-governmental organizations: case study of the malaria control programs by health poverty action on the China-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Jia-Qiang; Li, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Yang-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Guang-Yun; Li, Qing-Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Cai, Tao

    2016-09-01

    In the Yunnan province of China, 18 counties in six prefectures border Myanmar. Due to its particular combination of geographic features, climate conditions, and cultural landscape, the area provides a suitable environment for the spread of insect-borne diseases such as malaria. In five identified Myanmar Special Regions along the China-Myanmar border, economic development is lagging, people live in extreme poverty, and the healthcare system is fragile. Coupled with political and other reasons, this precludes malaria control work to be effectively carried out in Myanmar, resulting in a heavy burden of the disease. Frequent population movements and favorable conditions for malaria transmission on the border fuel difficulties in controlling and eliminating the spread of the disease in the area. To reduce the prevalence of malaria in the China-Myanmar border area and improve healthcare services for local residents in this particular environment, Health Poverty Action (HPA) has provided malaria aid in the area since the beginning of 2006, as a sub-recipient of the China Global Fund Malaria Programs. In this case study, we examined HPA's activities as part of its malaria control programs in the area, analyzed and summarized the effectiveness and impact of the cross-border healthcare model as implemented by non-governmental organizations, and put forward suggestions for cross-border health aid models and for the prevention of malaria transmission in the Greater Mekong Subregion. HPA had carried out a great quantity of successful malaria control activities in border areas between China and Myanmar, strengthened the partnership and established the collaboration, coordination and cooperation channels among stakeholders. HPA has laid good groundwork and developed its valuable model that could be highlighted and referenced.

  17. U.S.Mexico cross-border workforce training needs:survey implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose

  18. U.S.-Mexico cross-border workforce training needs: survey implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Guernsey de Zapien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals

  19. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@email.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  20. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-09-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R&D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  1. Governance of Public Benefit Funds to Promote Innovation in Energy by Addressing Early Adopter Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew; Oppenheim, Jerrold; Dubravka Pineda, Maria

    2010-09-15

    Building a better energy future will be expensive, in part, because it will require modernizing energy infrastructure and bringing more innovative technologies to deliver energy more efficiently to consumers with less environmental impact. With the extended recession and turmoil in credit markets in 2008, some states have turned to public benefit funds to address critical risks in adopting innovative energy technologies and systems. This paper updates valuable observations for governing PBFs to promote wider adoption of innovative energy technologies enabling a better balance of risk and return in concert with other policy tools by negotiating mitigation of early adopter risks.

  2. Cross-border acquisition abandonment and completion : The effect of institutional differences and organizational learning in the international business service industry, 1981-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; Sahib, Padma Rao; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of North's (1990) political economy of national institutions and economic behavior, we investigate how formal and informal institutional features influence the likelihood that a cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the time taken for its completion after

  3. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  4. Quality control in cross-border agro-based supply chains: Modes of regulation in coffee, cocoa, bananas, palm oil, timber and aquaculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.R.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the regulation and control of quality of product and process in a selection of cross-border agro-based supply chains. The factual presentation reveals the specific nature of regulation in a product group. It also provides a basis for comparing the modes of regulation and inform

  5. New Era, New Policy: Cross-Border Education and Sino-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools in the Eyes of a Fence-Sitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minxuan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Since World War II, the internationalization of education has experienced a change from a period of political influence to a service trade structure. As the Third International Forum on the Educational Service Trade began, more and more governments accepted the concept of cross-border education. At a time when both opportunities and challenges lay…

  6. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  7. Transcending Borders and Traversing Boundaries: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Transnational, Offshore, Cross-Border, and Borderless Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna; Putty, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the literature concerned with transnational, offshore, cross-border, and borderless higher education, which together form a new thematic field within higher education research from the early 2000s onwards. The review places emphasis on the development of this field as well as its most cited contributions. The literature…

  8. Quality control in cross-border agro-based supply chains: Modes of regulation in coffee, cocoa, bananas, palm oil, timber and aquaculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.R.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the regulation and control of quality of product and process in a selection of cross-border agro-based supply chains. The factual presentation reveals the specific nature of regulation in a product group. It also provides a basis for comparing the modes of regulation and

  9. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  10. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  11. Factors associated with the implementation of quality and safety requirements for cross-border care in acute myocardial infarction: Results from 315 hospitals in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groene, Oliver; Suñol, Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Cross-border patients have specific quality and safety requirements for hospital care. Little is known to what extent hospitals meet these requirements. We aim to assess their current level, and the factors associated with their implementation. A cross-sectional survey of 315 hospitals and cardiology departments in the Czech Republic, France, Poland and Spain. Employing bi-variate statistics and logistic regression analysis, we assess quality and safety requirements for cross-border patients and their association with hospital characteristics, cross-border care arrangements, proximity to EU borders, the hospital's quality improvement system, and country. Certain quality and safety requirements are frequently met (administrative support or informed consent using forms in various EU languages) while others are widely absent (case-managers, contacts to patients' general practitioners). Due to communication problems, it is often not possible to inform patients about their condition and treatment. Discharge summaries are rarely available in other than the vernacular languages, and medication upon discharge and arranging back-transfer occur occasionally only. Logistic regression analysis suggests a strong effect of country-level covariates (followed by type of hospital, hospital size and hospital's quality improvement system), but covariates are not consistently associated with higher rates of implementation. Hospitals with existing cross-border care collaboration do not differ substantially from hospitals without such arrangements. Cross-border patients have specific quality and safety requirements that are not always met. Various factors are associated with these requirements; however, the trend is not systematic and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further to inform policy decisions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy. Findings from the ITC Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Allwright, Shane; Mons, Ute; McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Siahpush, Mohammad; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. To describe socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing in six European countries. Cross-sectional data from adult smokers (n=7873) from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in France (2006/2007), Germany (2007), Ireland (2006), The Netherlands (2008), Scotland (2006) and the rest of the UK (2007/2008) were used. Respondents were asked whether they had bought cigarettes outside their country in the last 6 months and how often. In French and German provinces/states bordering countries with lower cigarette prices, 24% and 13% of smokers, respectively, reported purchasing cigarettes frequently outside their country. In non-border regions of France and Germany, and in Ireland, Scotland, the rest of the UK and The Netherlands, frequent purchasing of cigarettes outside the country was reported by 2-7% of smokers. Smokers with higher levels of education or income, younger smokers, daily smokers, heavier smokers and smokers not planning to quit smoking were more likely to purchase cigarettes outside their country. Cross-border cigarette purchasing is more common in European regions bordering countries with lower cigarette prices and is more often reported by smokers with higher education and income. Increasing taxes in countries with lower cigarette prices, and reducing the number of cigarettes that can be legally imported across borders could help to avoid cross-border purchasing.

  13. Cross-border data exchange - a case study on international collaboration gone wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The subject of ethics in science has become a hot topic recently (Gleick, 2011). As publication pressure on researchers increases and use of the internet allows faster turn-around, the quality of the peer review process has suffered. This presentation describes one case of scientific ethics violation in which the editors of a high-ranking scientific journal improperly permitted publication of a paper that was based upon unethical acquisition of data and failed to acknowledge scientific collaboration and exchange of intellectual property. We will present "Case description" and "Ethical issues" with a hope that our experience draws attention to important ethical issues in international collaborative research, and prevents such misconduct in the future. Since international research involves cooperation and coordination among many people in different disciplines and institutions across national borders, ethical standards should promote values that are essential to integrity and collaborative work, including trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. One lesson to be learned is not to engage in collaboration without a written agreement stating clearly who is responsible for what and how the results of collaborative research are to be shared. This is especially important in cases of international collaborations, particularly those involving smaller or developing nations who often do not have the high-tech facilities of developed nations. There is also need to establish clear regulations regarding co-authorship on papers in which intellectual property and significant financial investment was made to allow the research to proceed. As such, a system of ethics to guide the practice of science from data collection to publication and beyond is timely and much needed to protect the integrity of scientific collaboration. It will keep science moving forward by validating research findings and confirming or raising questions about results. References Benos, D. J., Fabres

  14. Who is willing to pay for science? On the relationship between public perception of science and the attitude to public funding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Carolina; Luján, José Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between the general public's understanding of science and the attitude towards public funding of scientific research. It applies a multivariate and discriminant analysis (Wilks' Lambda), in addition to a more commonly used bivariate analysis (Cramer's V), to data compiled from the Third National Survey on the Social Perception of Science and Technology in Spain (FECYT, 2006). The general conclusion is that the multivariate analysis produces information complementary to the bivariate analysis, and that the variables commonly applied in public perception studies have limited predictive value with respect to the attitude towards public funding of scientific research.

  15. ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra M

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as "fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research". The purpose of this study was to summarize the findings and administrative actions reported in ORI notices of scientific misconduct in clinical trials occurring between May 1992 and 2002. Findings of misconduct were gathered from publicly available sources: the ORI annual reports and the NIH Guide to Grants and Contracts. Clinical trials accounted for 17 (13%) of the 136 investigations that resulted in findings of scientific misconduct, and they were noted in 12 (11%) of the 113 brief reports of investigations closed with findings of no scientific misconduct. In clinical trials, the most severe sanction, debarment from US Government funding, was applied in six (35%) of the cases of misconduct compared to 79 (66%) of 119 cases from all other types of research combined. Of individuals cited for misconduct in clinical trials, three (18%) held doctorates in contrast to 81 (68%) in other types of research. In clinical trials, junior employees may bear the burden of sanction for scientific misconduct. The most frequently applied sanction was the requirement that a plan of supervision of the sanctioned employees accompany any future application for funding which would include them. This imposition of sanction on an individual employee does not address possible causes of misconduct which may be inherent in the overall pattern of leadership, training and supervision in the trial. Furthermore, the definition of misconduct, as interpreted by the Departmental Appeals Board, excludes carelessness and other poor research practices that may lead to dissemination of more incorrect data

  16. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  17. Large landslides in the Pyrenees: preliminary tasks carried out for a harmonized cross-border risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José; Grandjean, Gilles; Copons, Ramon; Vaunat, Jean; Buxó, Pere; Colas, Bastien; Darrozes, José; Gasc, Muriel; Guinau, Marta; Gutiérrez, Francisco; García, Juan Carlos; Virely, Didier; Crosetto, Michele; Mas, Raül

    2017-04-01

    Large landslides are recognised as one of the main erosional agents in mountain ranges, having a significant influence on landscape evolution. However, few efforts have been carried out to assess their geomorphological impact from a regional perspective. Regional-scale investigations are also necessary for the reliable evaluation of the associated risks (i.e. for land-use planning). Large landslides are common in the Pyrenees but: 1) their geographic distribution on a regional scale is not well known; 2) their geological and geomorphological controlling factors have been only studied preliminarily; and 3) their state of activity and stability conditions are unknown for most of the cases. Regional analyses of large landslides, as those carried out by Crosta et al. (2013) in the Alps, are rare worldwide. Jarman et al. (2014) conducted a very preliminary analysis in a sector of the Pyrenees. The construction of a cartographic inventory constitutes the basics for such type of studies, which are typically hindered by the lack of cross-border landslide data bases and methodologies. The aim of this contribution is to present the preliminary works carried out for constructing a harmonized inventory of large landslides in the Pyrenees, involving for the first time both sides of the cordillera and the main groups working in landslide risk in France, Spain and Andorra. Methods used for landslide hazard and risk analysis have been compiled and compared, showing a significant divergence, even as regards the terminology. A preliminary cross-border inventory sheet on risk of large landslides has been prepared. It includes specific fields for the assessment of landslide activity (by using complimentary methods such as morpho-stratigraphy, morphometric analysis and remote techniques) and indirect potential costs (that typically overcome direct ones), which usually are neglected in the existing data bases. Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. and Agliardi, F., 2013. Deep seated gravitational

  18. Evaluation of a federally funded workforce development program: the Centers for Public Health Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C

    2013-04-01

    The Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) program was a five-year cooperative agreement funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The program was initiated in 2004 to strengthen terrorism and emergency preparedness by linking academic expertise to state and local health agency needs. The purposes of the evaluation study were to identify the results achieved by the Centers and inform program planning for future programs. The evaluation was summative and retrospective in its design and focused on the aggregate outcomes of the CPHP program. The evaluation results indicated progress was achieved on program goals related to development of new training products, training members of the public health workforce, and expansion of partnerships between accredited schools of public health and state and local public health departments. Evaluation results, as well as methodological insights gleaned during the planning and conduct of the CPHP evaluation, were used to inform the design of the next iteration of the CPHP Program, the Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLC).

  19. Where does public funding for HIV prevention go to? The case of condoms versus microbicides and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharf Maja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses the priorities of public donors in funding HIV prevention by either integrated condom programming or HIV preventive microbicides and vaccines in the period between 2000 and 2008. It further compares the public funding investments of the USA government and European governments, including the EU, as we expect the two groups to invest differently in HIV prevention options, because their policies on sexual and reproductive health and rights are different. We use two existing officially UN endorsed databases to compare the public donor funding streams for HIV prevention of these two distinct contributors. In the period 2000-2008, the relative share of public funding for integrated condom programming dropped significantly, while that for research on vaccines and microbicides increased. The European public donors gave a larger share to condom programming than the United States, but exhibited a similar downward trend in favour of funding research on vaccines and microbicides. Both public donor parties invested progressively more in research on vaccines and microbicides rather than addressing the shortage of condoms and improving access to integrated condom programming in developing countries.

  20. Funding, Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  1. The Role of Cultural Diplomacy for Intensifying the Cross Border Cooperation within Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Koev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of the paper is to highlight the role of cultural diplomacy for strengthening the international cooperation within the Danube macro-region. Prior Work: Some leading points of view in the field of cultural diplomacy serve as a theoretical background of the paper. In order to prove the theses of the research, existing empirical results are discussed and analyzed. Approach: The research uses interdisciplinary approach to conceptualization of cultural diplomacy and applies the methods of observation and systematic analysis and synthesis. Results: The presented empirical data indicate that some measures and actions are needed in the Danube macro-region in order to enhance the culture-based awareness of its citizens and intensify the intercultural cooperation. The establishment of a University Centre for Cultural Diplomacy in the Danube Region (UCDR is presented as a possible tool for the achievement of this goal. Implications: The results of the study can be interesting for public authorities and academics. Value: the promotion of the idea for UCDR is the first of its kind.

  2. 76 FR 40950 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's Accounting Support Fee Among Issuers, Brokers, and Dealers, and Other... 2002 (the ``Act''), notice is hereby given that on June 21, 2011, the Public Company...

  3. RMB cross-border business management system%人民币跨境业务管理前置系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春荣

    2013-01-01

    人民币跨境业务管理前置系统是为了人民币跨境收付信息管理系统(简称RCPMIS)的建设,将各个单位系统与RCPMIS连接起来的桥梁.前置系统的出现为商业银行与RCPMIS间所传数据统一了格式,提高了各系统间数据交互的工作效率,为商业银行减轻二次开发的负担,有效地减少了资金投入并且提供了更加安全到位的服务.%The front-end system of cross-border RMB business management is for construction receipt and payment information management system (RCPMIS),which is the bridge to connect various units of the system with RCPMIS.The appearce of front-end system unified format for transfer data of the commercial bank and the RCPMIS,improce data interaction between various systems work efficiency,reduce the burden of the redevelopment of commercial banks,and provide more security services

  4. Using Religious Capital to Alleviate Poverty? - A Case Study of Cross-Border Migration in South-China (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Wong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Iannaccone’s notion of religious capital highlights the capability of individuals to draw on resources from religious- or faith-based practices, and then convert religious capital into human, social and financial capital. The processes of capital accumulation and conversion have significant implications for poverty reduction. However, in its examination of the cross-border experiences of poor female Chinese migrants in South China, this chapter finds that religious capital is severely inequitably distributed within migrant communities. Religious involvement is both time- and resource- demanding, and the very poor face considerable constraints in negotiating access to religious capital. Empirical evidence indicates that while some migrants are successful in improving their material conditions and experience upward social mobility, the failure to address broader, deep-rooted causes of poverty, such as social discrimination, has stymied more systemic change. Worse still, members of the ruling class use religious symbols and rituals to reinforce their domination. This chapter calls for placing greater emphasis on the distributional effect of religious capital, with the aim of offering poor people better support for their religious participation.

  5. Cross-Border Cooperation in the Context of Romania’s Accession to the Treaty of Prüm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conducted research aims at critically examining the provisions of the Prüm Treaty, and therefore the proposal for the adoption of new provisions that would contribute to the improvement of the legislation in the field and increase the police and judicial cooperation. This paper is a continuation of previous research on topics related to judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. The conclusions and findings highlight the utility of the European legislative act in this area and the need to supplement it with new provisions in order to broaden the jurisdiction of officials of another State on the territory of the host State in joint actions, in order to prevent and combat the cross-border criminality, particularly terrorism. The paper can be helpful to both theoreticians and practitioners, and to all who wish to improve their knowledge in this highly complex domain. The essential contribution of this study refers to the critical examination and the proposals for supplementing and amending the European and internal legislation in this area.

  6. LITIGATING CROSS-BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL DISPUTE IN INDONESIAN CIVIL COURT: THE MONTARA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Prihandono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In August 2009, a wellhead blowout of took place at an offshore drilling facility named the Montara platform, on the north coast of Australia. This incident releases crude oil into the sea and continued until November 2009. The Montara platform owned by PTTEP Australasia Pty. Ltd., a company incorporated under the laws of Australia, and is a subsidiary of PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited, a Thailand based, state-owned oil company. Based on samples taken by the East Nusa Tenggara Municipality in the waters along the coast Kolbano, Desa Tuafanu, District Kualin, South Central Timor, it was found that the sea water has been polluted with crude oil. There was an indication that the crude oil is identical to those of at the Montara well head platform. This incident has been detrimental to at least 9.000 fishermen and seaweed farmers along the coast of West Timor Sea, with total losses estimated at USD2.4 billion. This article examines the possibility of a lawsuit brought by the affected communities to the Indonesian civil court. This article finds that that filing a lawsuit against PTTEP AA, the operator of the Montara Platform, may be possible. Article 100 RV of the Indonesian civil procedure provide an opportunity to sue foreign entity when contractual relationship exist. This article seeks to map the possible parties involved in the dispute should the victims decide to bring this case to Indonesian civil court. It aims at assisting the victims in preparing their case and obtaining the best possible outcome for remedy.

  7. 论教学研究的大数据思维与跨界思维%Discuss the Big Data Thinking and Cross-border Thinking of Teaching Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文霞; 郭芬云

    2016-01-01

    The big data thinking and cross-border thinking are cultural topics which have caused widespread public concern in academia. Teaching research must change from the perspective of big data study and cross-border cooperation so that to get out of the predicament. On the one hand, through the analysis and study of mass data, big data study can reveal students ’ learning path and learning law thus to promote the personalization and adaptiveness of teaching research. On the other hand, big data study is lack of humanistic color, it needs researchers fuse different kinds of specific strategies in the practice of teaching study, thus to promote teaching research’s development in a more scientific and broader way.%大数据思维与跨界融合思维是学界普遍关注的研究焦点。教学研究力求变革发展,突破现实困境,就需要从大数据研究以及跨界融合的思维中寻找灵感:一方面,大数据研究通过海量数据的分析与挖掘,揭示了数据背后学生的学习路径与学习规律,进而推动教学研究的个性化和适应性研究;另一方面,大数据分析中数据的生涩性以及人文色彩的缺失,又需要研究者在教学研究实践中融合各类具体研究方法,从而促进教学研究向着更科学、更宽广的领域推进。

  8. Economics and the evaluation of publicly funded energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.; Paik, I.K.

    1998-10-19

    There are three major areas in which economics can contribute to the evaluation of federal R and D: assessment of net benefits, ex ante expected as well as ex post realized; tailoring of R and D portfolios to policy goals; and guiding the contractual organization of R and D production. Additionally, evaluation of R and D and scientific activity tend to be distinctly retrospective, principally because of the long lags between the initial production activity and the observability of consequences. Extending the purview of economic evaluation of R and D, they find ample opportunity for evaluation that can inform current R and D management practice. The conduct of R and D is organized through a series of explicit and implicit contracts designed to elicit long-term commitments by some agents while attempting to limit the commitment by others. It is natural to consider the efficiency with which R and D is conducted as a subject for economic inquiry, although in practice such inquiries generally are restricted to accounting exercises. In evaluating the efficiency with which R and D is done, the current ordinary practice is to look at labor rates and equipment and materials prices while considering quantities of those items as the principal instrument variables in an optimization problem (the authors conceptualization, not that of the typical review of an R and D project). The authors recommend the contractual structure and other elements of the incentive structure (pay and promotion) of R and D production as prime focal points for managerially useful economic evaluation. Non-economic motivations for funding public R and D, including energy R and D, are well known. The US will consider spending several billion dollars on an international space station, partly if not largely, to fund the peaceful employment of scientists from the Former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, it will be useful to understand the economics of the R and D programs even if other considerations play important

  9. Drug, Sex and Age Differentials in the Use of Australian Publicly Funded Treatment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anne Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment

  10. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They

  11. The Development Path of Cross-border E-commerce in Xinjiang under Background of"Silk Road Economic Belt"%"丝绸之路经济带"背景下新疆跨境电子商务发展路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任华; 崔金梅

    2015-01-01

    In the era the Internet , cross-border e -commerce became an important part of modern service trade .This paper , based on the background of "Silk Road Economic Belt",analyzes the status quo ,problems and favorable conditions of the devel-opment of cross-border e-commerce in Xinjiang and holds that it has trouble in such aspects as talent , cross-border pay-ments, international logistics,but it also has such favorable conditions as the policy support , "Five Big Centers" construction, small language rich talent pool ,increasingly perfect international logistics transportation system ,multilingual talents,studying a-broad interactive education , the market effect and publicity effect of workers mutual flow , and so on.Therefore, it is suggested that weshould promote the development of cross -border e-commerce in Xinjiang through strengthening personnel training ,moti-vating the central Asian expansion of China's banking sector ,Accelerating the process of cross -border electricity goods customs clearance facilitation ,etc.%互联网时代,跨境电子商务成为现代服务贸易的重要内容. 本文基于"丝绸之路经济带"背景对新疆跨境电子商务发展的现状、困境以及有利条件进行了分析,认为新疆在人才、跨境支付、国际物流等方面存在困境,但也具有政策支持、"五大中心"建设、小语种人才储备丰富、国际物流运输体系日益完善、多语种人才以及留学互动教育和务工人员互流的市场效应和传播效应等有利条件. 因此提出,应通过加大人才培养力度、鼓励中国银行业在中亚进行发展、加快跨境电商货物通关便利化的进程等措施来促进新疆跨境电子商务的发展.

  12. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC OFF-BUDGET FUNDS AS AN INFORMATIONAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC INSURANCE MECHANISMS FORMATION (CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COMPULSORY MEDICAL INSURANCE FUND)

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoly A. Kozlov

    2014-01-01

    The article justifies the introduced proposals for a management accounting of theFederal Compulsory Medical InsuranceFund formation and the characteristics and principles of management accounting forms for the analysis of the territorialcompulsory medical insurance programs.

  13. Getting to know the competition: a content analysis of publicly and corporate funded physical activity advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; McCarville, Ron E; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a content analysis of physical activity advertisements in an effort to determine which advertisements were more likely to include features that may attract and maintain attention levels. Fifty-seven advertisements were collected from top circulation Canadian magazines. The advertisements ranged from publicly funded health promotion pieces to corporate sponsored advertisements using physical activity to sell a product. Advertisements were examined for textual and pictorial factors thought to increase attention allocated to advertising of this nature. Only two public health advertisements were found, and the majority of advertisements (57.9%) were from commercial advertisers using physical activity images to sell products or to encourage brand recognition. The advertisements originating with the private sector tended to possess most of the characteristics thought to attract the attention of readers. Once this attention was gained, however, most of these advertisements failed to highlight the benefits of physical activity. As a result, the positive effect of these advertisements may have been compromised. Public health advertisements were so infrequent that we could not compare their characteristics with those originating with the private sector. The characteristics with those we did find were inconsistent with those thought to attract and maintain attention levels. Results are discussed in terms of potential implications for promoting physical activity.

  14. Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice, unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding remains elusive in the industrialised world. Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry since the end of the Second World War is well known. A key objective of the International Breastfeeding Journal is to promote breastfeeding through addressing issues that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration and effective management. Informing this aim is the recognition of artificial feeding as a harmful practice that places infant health at risk. From this perspective it would be unethical for this journal to accept for publication any manuscript that has received funding, sponsorship or any other means of support from infant formula manufacturers. This stance is consistent with the journal's aim of supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. It will also contribute to the promotion of a breastfeeding culture.

  15. Conflicts between religious or spiritual beliefs and pediatric care: informed refusal, exemptions, and public funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment.

  16. Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Annette; Amir, Lisa H

    2007-01-01

    Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice, unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding remains elusive in the industrialised world. Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry since the end of the Second World War is well known. A key objective of the International Breastfeeding Journal is to promote breastfeeding through addressing issues that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration and effective management. Informing this aim is the recognition of artificial feeding as a harmful practice that places infant health at risk. From this perspective it would be unethical for this journal to accept for publication any manuscript that has received funding, sponsorship or any other means of support from infant formula manufacturers. This stance is consistent with the journal's aim of supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. It will also contribute to the promotion of a breastfeeding culture. PMID:17341315

  17. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Søren

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions) and lifetime gross tax contributions to derive the discounted net tax contribution from assisted-conception singletons. An investment of €11,078 in a mother aged fiscal consequences of the policy change on the government over many generations. The analytical framework discussed here estimates the net tax revenue of a cohort of assisted-conception children and the discounted net tax revenue that these children pay to the Danish government over their lifetime. The analysis illustrates that the government will save more costs than those directly related to public fertility services because fewer children are likely to be born and consequently to require government services (e.g. education, health care, family allowances). However, over time as the assisted-conception cohort matures and enters the work force. the reduced number of assisted-conception children, attributed to the funding cuts, will negatively impact government accounts due to lost tax revenue. The policy analysis described here suggests that the economic impact of the fertility policy change is dependent on the time frame over which the analysis is considered. In the short term, it is possible to save on assisted reproduction treatment costs; however, taking into consideration the life course of the diminished size of the assisted-conception cohort, this will negatively influence government accounts in

  18. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  19. Income status and approval for bariatric surgery in a publicly funded regional obesity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Kieran; Padwal, Raj S; Johnson-Stoklossa, Carlene; Sharma, Arya M; Birch, Dan W

    2011-03-01

    Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and safe treatment for severe obesity and utilization rates have increased dramatically. In private health care settings, low socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced likelihood of undergoing a bariatric procedure. Whether this relationship is also present in a universally accessible, publicly funded health care system is not currently known. A retrospective analysis of the Edmonton Weight Wise obesity program clinical registry was conducted. Patients who were unemployed, on long-term disability or receiving social assistance were classified as "low income" status. The remaining patients were categorized as "regular income" status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between low income status and approval for surgery within 1 year of program entry. Thirty-three (7%) of 419 patients were ineligible for surgery or excluded because of missing income status data. Of the remaining 386 patients, 72 (19%) were of low income status and 89 (23%) were approved for surgery. Low income patients were older, heavier, and had greater comorbidity. Compared to patients of regular income status, those with low income status were less likely to be approved for surgery (15.3% versus 24.8%; adjusted OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.94). Within a publicly funded and universally accessible regional obesity program, lower income status patients were less likely to be approved for bariatric surgery. Further study is necessary to clarify this apparent disparity and to determine if program modifications are necessary to ensure equity across all socioeconomic strata.

  20. Public Enemy No. 1’: Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response – a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and from AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate that tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: 1) During the 1990s Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the US, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; 2) In both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in Sub-Sahara Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist. This demonstrates the