Sorin Dan ŞANDOR; Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Simona Claudia CREŢA
Gender equality in public institutions is a sensitive topic considering the vast efforts of European countries to overcome the problems raised by gender inequality, gender segregation and gender discrimination in the labor market. In order to measure gender equality in public institutions and to identify the most important gender related organizational issues a questionnaire was built, tested in 2010 in one public institution, and then applied at national scale to public servants (both women ...
Sorin Dan ŞANDOR
Full Text Available Gender equality in public institutions is a sensitive topic considering the vast efforts of European countries to overcome the problems raised by gender inequality, gender segregation and gender discrimination in the labor market. In order to measure gender equality in public institutions and to identify the most important gender related organizational issues a questionnaire was built, tested in 2010 in one public institution, and then applied at national scale to public servants (both women and men from local public institutions. The questionnaire focuses on gender stereotypes, sexual harassment, gender discrimination (in hiring, promotion, pay and benefits, evaluation, promotion and task distribution practices in institution and occupational mobility.
Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes
Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.
Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J
Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between identification with the "jock" label and adolescent alcohol consumption, specifically problem drinking. Operationalization of problem drinking included frequency measures of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and social problems related to alcohol (e.g., trouble with family, friends, school officials over drinking). Self-identified adolescent "jocks" were more likely to engage in problem drinking than their non-jock counterparts, even after controlling for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, physical maturity, social maturity, and frequency of athletic activity. Jock identity was strongly associated with higher binge drinking frequency in Black adolescent girls. This study underscores the need to distinguish between objective and subjective meanings of athletic involvement when assessing the relationship between sport and adolescent health-risk behavior.
Hansen, Morten Balle
Traditionally, men have occupied top managerial positions in the public as well as the private sector. In recent decades this tradition has gradually changed. Although slowly and with significant variation between countries and sectors, the share of female top managers has been increasing....... This article analyzes whether this demographic change may be related to the leadership priorities of public top managers. Is gender significantly related to the leadership priorities of public sector top managers? The article presents a short review of theories and empirical research in the relations between...... gender and leadership behavior. Based on this review, hypotheses are formulated and tested in an empirical analysis of survey data from the Danish local government context. The results indicate that the behavior of female top managers is significantly more task and change oriented and significantly less...
Full Text Available The present paper examines the issue of the Greek public debt. After providing a historical discussion, we show that the austerity of the last six years has been unsuccessful in stabilizing the debt while, at the same time, it has taken a heavy toll on the economy and society. The recent experience shows that the public debt is unsustainable and therefore a restructuring is needed. An insistence on the current policies is not justifiable either on pragmatic or on moral or any other grounds. The experience of Germany in the early post-WWII period provides some useful hints for the way forward. A solution to the public debt problem is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the solution of the Greek and European crisis. A wider agenda that deals with the malaises of the Greek economy and the structural imbalances of the Eurozone is of vital importance.
Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura
The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…
Ingrey, Jennifer C.
This paper derives from a larger study, looking at how students in one secondary school in Ontario problematised and understood gender expression. This study applies a Foucaultian analytic framework of disciplinary space to the problem of the bathroom in public schools. It focuses specifically on the surveillance and regulation of gendered bodies…
Full Text Available In the Western world Gender accused as family destroyer movement. This Feminists ideology encourages the women to leave the family, in fact looking at the family as an institution of oppression against women. However in Indonesia, Gender serve family empowerment program that Gender Perspective Family Education. Gender Perspective Family Education is a government program that is based on Presidential Instruction Number. 9 of 2000 on gender mainstreaming. As awareness effort of understanding the rights and obligations of male roles and women. The program is integrated through life skills education for justice and gender equality in the family. Yet the program adopted from foreign concept turned out to have some confusion. First, the using of word gender plagiarized from some Western leaders was necessary to attempt to equalize men and women in all fields. Second, the gender equality as a goal of Gender Perspective Family Education is contrary to the reality of human life, biologically and religion. Third, the concept of natural and unnatural taught by this program seeks to abolish the nature of women as mothers. Fourth, the program negates religious element in the learning process, whereas the families in Indonesia can not be separated from religious element. Thus it was very clear that Gender Perspective Family Education is not a step empowering the families but the step endanger the family.
Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)
Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)
Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)
Wong, Y L
There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century.
Hardy, Jay H., III; Gibson, Carter
Despite significant scholarly attention, the literature on the existence and direction of gender differences in creativity has produced inconsistent findings. In the present paper, we argue that this lack of consensus may be attributable, at least in part, to gender-specific inconsistencies in the measurement of creative problem-solving. To…
Full Text Available Agency theory analyses the effects of contractual behaviour between two parties: principal(s and agent(s. This relation is inevitably characterized by information asymmetry because agent holds a substantially larger volume of information than the principal. Due the negative effects of information asymmetry for the principal, this should cover supplementary costs with monitoring agents and/or grant incentives. The first objective of this paper is to emphasize the effects of information asymmetry, particularly on adverse selection and moral hazard. The second objective is to evaluate the negative effects of information asymmetry and to assess the viability of solutions proposed by scholars for mitigation. The third objective is linked with personal contribution, respectively to highlight specificity of agency theory in public sector and the mechanisms of action in this particular field. In this paper, literature is mainly based on scholarsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ contribution to the proposed theme. Little literature approaches agency theory in public sector, in most cases the analysis being restricted to general issues. Research methodology is based on synthesizing relevant information from literature and adapting them to public sector particularities. The results reflect some threats for public bodies in their contracting activity. Conclusions present also a set of solutions which could be used by public institutions to optimize their activity of mitigating information asymmetryÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s effects. These solution guidelines could represent a useful instrument for make more efficient public money spending. Personal contribution and the novelty of this paper consist in presenting a new approach regarding mechanisms of managing information by agents. In case of public institutions, principals have more opportunities the take possession over the information managed by the agent. Nevertheless, agents can limit the principalÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s access
Barkai, Ayelet R
This paper reviews existing case reports in the psychoanalytic literature of children diagnosed with gender identity disorder (GID), now called gender dysphoria. It concentrates on a review of problems and psychoanalytic dilemmas inherent in the use of the term GID and elucidates the concurrent quandaries this term both signifies and is symptomatic of. The focus is on reports of child psychoanalyses published during or after 1991, when the American Psychoanalytic Association formally adopted a nondiscrimination policy against homosexuality. These cases reflect common problematic themes in these treatments, for example, the lack of neutrality in specifying the treatment goal of same-gender identification. This paper explores the effects of these problems on the treatments, raises questions regarding the emphasis on gender in the treatments, and discusses an alternative psychoanalytic approach to children with gender variation.
Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S
There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Chen, Tianhong; Turner, John
This paper analyzes gender issues with respect to public pensions in China. Because provision of public pensions in China is highly fragmented, with different programs applying to different groups of people, we focus on the largest mandatory public pension program in urban China, the Urban Employees’ Pension Program. The paper uses data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) for 2011 to empirically analyze the causes of gender differences in benefit levels between me...
Vyrastekova, J.; Sent, E.-M.; Staveren, I.P. van
This paper identifies gender beliefs in a public goods game and studies their impact on cooperation. On average, the beliefs of men, but not those of women, depend significantly on the group gender composition, with men expecting groups to be more cooperative when more females are present in the
Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki
Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18-25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7-11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369-1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503-508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed.
Walker, Sue; Irving, Kym; Berthelsen, Donna
The authors investigated gender influences on the nature and competency of preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. Preschool-age children (N = 179; 91 boys, 88 girls) responded to hypothetical social situations designed to assess their social problem-solving skills in the areas of provocation, peer group entry, and sharing or taking turns. Results indicated that, overall, girls' responses were more competent (i.e., reflective of successful functioning with peers) than those of boys, and girls' strategies were less likely to involve retaliation or verbal or physical aggression. The competency of the children's responses also varied with the gender of the target child. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of gender-related social experiences on the types of strategies and behaviors that may be viewed as competent for boys and girls of preschool age.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes gender issues with respect to public pensions in China. Because provision of public pensions in China is highly fragmented, with different programs applying to different groups of people, we focus on the largest mandatory public pension program in urban China, the Urban Employees’ Pension Program. The paper uses data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS for 2011 to empirically analyze the causes of gender differences in benefit levels between men and women. We argue that raising the retirement age for women from its current age for most women of 50 would be a major step toward gender equality in public pension benefits. Women would have higher benefits than currently due to having longer working careers, and they may have higher wages as a result of their longer careers. They would also have higher benefits from the individual accounts pensions due to more years of contributions and investment earnings, and a more generous benefit conversion factor due to the older age when they started receiving benefits. Nonetheless, an important feature of the Chinese public pension system is that the gender gap in benefits is less than the gender gap in earnings. In many countries, the reverse is the situation, in part because women have fewer years of work, as well as lower earnings, than men. We explore reasons why the gender pension gap in China reduces the gender gap in compensation.
This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them.
Schmidt, Marie E
This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina
This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...
Monroe, Kristen Renwick; Chiu, William F.
As part of the ongoing work by the Committee on the Status of Women in the Profession (CSWP), we offer an empirical analysis of the pipeline problem in academia. The image of a pipeline is a commonly advanced explanation for persistent discrimination that suggests that gender inequality will decline once there are sufficient numbers of qualified…
The increasing institutionalization of rights in EU has inspired a debate about the gap between the EU polity and citizens' abilities to influence multilevel governance and politics. The objective of the paper is to discuss diversity in the European public spheres from a gender perspective....... It first gives an overview of different feminist approaches to diversity and intersectionality. It explores the arguments for and against creating a democratic European Public Sphere and discusses the tensions between universal principles of equality at the one hand and concerns for inequalities...... state and to link feminist proposals for gender justice with frames for a multilayered trans-national citizenship. The paper aims to contribute to debates about theoretical approaches and models to study gender and diversity in the public sphere in general and in particular The European Public Sphere...
Pristed Nielsen, Helene
This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....
Dittmann, R W
This article discusses general issues with regard to gender-identity problems, sex reassignment, and clinical management in patients with ambiguous genitalia, based on a detailed case history of a patient with penile agenesis who has been followed more than 20 years. After initial uncertainty, the patient began to grow up as a boy, lived from the fourth year of life as a girl and young woman, and lived from late puberty on as a man. Over his lifetime he experienced extensive corrective surgery plus hormonal substitution therapy. Pre- and perinatal hormonal conditions, phenomenology of the genitalia, sex of rearing, timing of sex reassignment and corrective surgery, for example, appear to be important components for the development of gender-role behavior, gender identity, and sexual orientation of intersex patients. Findings and retrospective considerations for this patient suggest the need for careful differential activities in diagnostic workup, approaches to sex assignment and possible reassignment, and the clinical management of patients and families.
Zweimuller, Jopsef; Winter- Ebmer, Rudolf
In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogeneous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector,though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement.
Moon, Minkwon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho
The present study investigates whether gender-related public self-consciousness moderates the relationship between students' gender and emotions in mixed-gender physical education classes. The Positive and Negative Affect Scales and the Gender-related Public Self-Consciousness Scale were administered to 380 middle-school students in South Korea.…
Wiseman, Mel; Davidson, Sarah
Western society recognises male and female sex from physiological attributes, such as genitals and chromosomes. 'Gender' is the social and cultural expectation of how males and females should think, behave and how they should be treated by others (Diamond, 2002). Some children and adolescents experience distress, marginalization, and abuse associated with their gender identifications, preferences and behaviours, which are inconsistent with those expected of their biological sex. Often their families and society find gender non-conformity at best difficult, at worst offensive, distressing and intolerable. There is increasing focus on how mental health professionals work with difference in gender and sexual identity and recent publications highlight the shift from pathologizing transgender to a more 'identity-based' perspective, focussing more on the stigmatizing affects of the environment and the impact on the individual (Bockting, 2009). This article describes the challenges of binary gender discourse for young people and their wider contexts and considers how clinicians may more helpfully respond to avoid unhelpful binaries and so keep the young person in mind. The therapeutic aims of the UK Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) for children and young people are considered and examples of our work provided.
Egne, Robsan Margo
Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…
Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A
There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.
Delivery of public services in ethnic minority states: Gender equality and decentralization in Myanmar. In 2017, to sustain Myanmar's democratic transition, IDRC and Global Affairs Canada ... and staff from the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs (Asia ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.
Bertaux, Nancy E.; Gerring, Lori F.
Explores the gender gap in salaries and promotions among Cincinnati (Ohio) public school teachers from the beginning of the school system in 1830 to 1991. Current data show that, although increasing numbers of women are being promoted to principal, the proportion still lags behind that of men. (SLD)
... current two-tiered system. Support for NHI has increased since similar studies in 2005 and 2008, with the simultaneous growth of public discourse on the policy. More females than males support NHI, reflecting the potential of the NHI system to have a positive impact on gender equality and the health of women and girls.
Konstantin Arsenyevitch Pantserev
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a scientific asses-sment of the major activities that have been organized over the last twenty years by the international community to achieve genuine equality between women and men. the gender theory applies the methodology and methods specific to the allied fields of knowledge. Nevertheless, the scientific literature describes approaches that are specific to women and gender studies. These are, for example, the empirical, normative and analytical approaches. The first regards feminism as a purely empirical measurement of international relations; the second includes the feminist research in the agenda for social and political development in the international arena; the third consi-ders gender as a scientific category and uses it in identifying the gender dimension of the theory of international relations and to better understand all components of these relations. The latter analytical approach is pursued by the authors of this paper. The authors proved that many provisions of Action Plan adopted by the Inter-Parliamentary Council in Paris (1994, as well as the Beijing Declaration and the Beijing Platform for Action (Beijing, 1995, have not yet been implemented, although certain positive shifts are already evident. In a number of European, Asian and African states, women have become more involved in domestic and foreign policy of their respective countries. The article demonstrated how the women’s participation in public life, particularly in the area of decision-making, is expanded and how the principle of equal division of powers and responsibilities between men and women is implemented in everyday life, at work and in the public realm. The authors concluded that we can hardly expect any substantial changes in this sphere in the foreseeable future and that the new international gender order is a form of social utopia that is unlikely to be realized in the nearest future. Article submissions may be
Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.
Nur Syakiran Akmal Ismail
Full Text Available The participation of women in all spheres of life has been accelerated by strategies such as gender mainstreaming. Gender mainstreaming, which was launched in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, is a global strategy used to promote gender equality. It refers to the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. Hence, Malaysia has agreed to comply with GM procedure when the population of women in this country achieves 49 percent. Malaysian’s Gender Gap Index (MGGI was used to evaluate the achievement of gender equality. It was developed by the Organization C that responsibility to women and community development in Malaysia with the assistance of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP in 2004. Four dimensions are used as parameters to evaluate MGGI. They are (i women empowerment in politics, (ii activities in economics, (iii health and (iv education. This paper discusses the roles of gender focal point (GFP as a case study in two selected public sector organizations in implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Malaysia. This study uses interview and content analysis. The results of this study show that the GFPs appointed have performed their roles based on the tasks listed by the Organization C. However the tasks were carried out based on the needs and interests of the respective GFPs organizations only. Similar to other countries, the implementation of GM in the ministries also faces similar problems such as vague understanding of GM, and lack of commitment from the institutions’ leadership.
Full Text Available Despite the increasing number of women graduating in mathematics, a systemic gender imbalance persists and is signified by a pronounced gender gap in the distribution of active researchers and professors. Especially at the level of university faculty, women mathematicians continue being drastically underrepresented, decades after the first affirmative action measures have been put into place. A solid publication record is of paramount importance for securing permanent positions. Thus, the question arises whether the publication patterns of men and women mathematicians differ in a significant way. Making use of the zbMATH database, one of the most comprehensive metadata sources on mathematical publications, we analyze the scholarly output of ∼150,000 mathematicians from the past four decades whose gender we algorithmically inferred. We focus on development over time, collaboration through coautorships, presumed journal quality and distribution of research topics-factors known to have a strong impact on job perspectives. We report significant differences between genders which may put women at a disadvantage when pursuing an academic career in mathematics.
Mihaljević-Brandt, Helena; Santamaría, Lucía; Tullney, Marco
Despite the increasing number of women graduating in mathematics, a systemic gender imbalance persists and is signified by a pronounced gender gap in the distribution of active researchers and professors. Especially at the level of university faculty, women mathematicians continue being drastically underrepresented, decades after the first affirmative action measures have been put into place. A solid publication record is of paramount importance for securing permanent positions. Thus, the question arises whether the publication patterns of men and women mathematicians differ in a significant way. Making use of the zbMATH database, one of the most comprehensive metadata sources on mathematical publications, we analyze the scholarly output of ∼150,000 mathematicians from the past four decades whose gender we algorithmically inferred. We focus on development over time, collaboration through coautorships, presumed journal quality and distribution of research topics-factors known to have a strong impact on job perspectives. We report significant differences between genders which may put women at a disadvantage when pursuing an academic career in mathematics.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia
Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.
Sara Martín Bardera
Full Text Available This article analyzes the meaning of “gender” as a category of analysis in public policy. The concept has been transferred from the feminist theories and this has meant that the United Nations and European Union have incorporated the inequality as a structural inequality and an issue justice. So, the feminist demands enter the political agenda as an integral project which is characterized by the adoption of the gender perspective and its application from a transversal methodology (“gender mainstreaming”. In this sense, the "gender ideology" is a new paradigm against the “patriarchal ideology”. Now, political actions should be articulated in a double movement of correction and promotion to achieve real equality in societies more democratic and ultimately more just.
The article considers religious and secular normative cultures from a gendered perspective focusing on gender and the class and gender privileges linked to the introduction of a public/private divide. It finally discusses issues concerning 'gender display' and gender performance in the 21st century...... as a field, where 'religion', 'public', 'private' and 'gender' overlap, interact, and possibly take on new forms and new meanings and changes all involved actors....
Kusumaningsih, W.; Darhim; Herman, T.; Turmudi
This study aimed to conduct a gender study on students' algebraic thinking ability in solving a mathematics problem, polyhedron concept, for grade VIII. This research used a qualitative method. The data was collected using: test and interview methods. The subjects in this study were eight male and female students with different level of abilities. It was found that the algebraic thinking skills of male students reached high group of five categories. They were superior in terms of reasoning and quick understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of high-achieving group of female students also met five categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were more diligent, tenacious and thorough in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of male students in medium category only satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were sufficient in terms of reasoning and understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability group of female students in medium group also satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were fairly diligent, tenacious and meticulous on working on the problems.
Mueller, Claudia; Wright, Robert; Girod, Sabine
Terms such as "glass ceiling" and "sticky floor" are still commonly used to describe women's role in academic surgery. Despite continued efforts to address disparities between men and women in the field, gender inequalities persist. In this investigation we highlight gender differences in published surgical literature by both quantity and impact. Websites for departments of surgery of three academic centers were reviewed to assess the bibliometrics of publications by gender over a two-week period. A one-way ANOVA showed a significantly higher H-index for men than women (p > .05). Further, one-way ANOVA showed significantly more articles published by men than women (p = .019). These differences are most dramatic at the rank of associate professor where the H-index for men is three times that of the women. The rank of full professor showed men had double the number of articles published. These findings align with the previous research that shows a disparity between males and females as they climb the academic ladder. Conducting and publishing research is a vital part of advancement in academic medicine. This study suggests that publication productivity may be a factor that hinders women from advancing within surgery compared to men. Continuing to explore and identify reasons for this gender difference in academic surgery may highlight ways to address the imbalance.
Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat
There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available There are three things examined in this article, the definition of gender, the concept of nature, and the concept of nurture. These three things need to be studied, because they are the keywords for feminists to spread their ideas to the world of Islam. The existence of feminism should be criticized, as historically this understanding did not make women better in running their lives. That because of problems in the concept of feminism and itsnegative effect. The caution is needed, because the gender activists often point to the backwardness of women and the suppression of them by showing the incorrect reasons. In addressing the differences between men and women, Islam has a better concept than feminism. Islam has a concept of fitrah and amanah. This paper tries to study theconcept of nature and nurture in the Islamic perspective, tries to present an alternative in addressing the differences between men and women, also tries to shows the proof whether Islam leans to the one of two concepts being debated.
Verbitskaya, E V
Meta-analysis is a powerful tool to identify Evidence Based medical technologies (interventions) for use in every day practice. Meta-analysis uses statistical approaches to combine results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. Meta-analysis is a quantitative, formal study design used to systematically assess previous research studies to derive conclusions from this research. Meta-analysis may provide more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for a disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis.We have quite a substantial number of Russian medical publications, but not so many Meta-Analyses published in Russian. Russian publications are cited in English language papers not so often. A total of 90% of clinical studies included in published Meta-Analyses incorporate only English language papers. International studies or papers with Russian co-authors are published in English language. The main question is: what is the problem with inclusion of Russian medical publications in Meta-Analysis? The main reasons for this are the following: 1) It is difficult to find Russian papers, difficult to work with them and to work with Russian journals:a. There are single Russian Biomedical Journals, which are translated into English and are included in databases (PubMed, Scopus and other), despite the fact that all of them have English language abstracts.b. The majority the meta-analyses authors use in their work different citation management software such as the Mendeley, Reference Manager, ProCite, EndNote, and others. These citation management systems allow scientists to organize their own literature databases with internet searches and have adds-on for the Office programs what makes process of literature citation very convenient. The Internet sites of the majority of
Viel Vicuna, B
Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.
Clinically defined periodontal disease is highly prevalent, has considerable impacts on individuals and society and is costly to treat; the cost of dental care is the fourth highest costs of all diseases and consuming between 5 and 10% of all healthcare resources. Changes in the epidemiology of clinically defined periodontal diseases suggest that the prevalence of severe periodontal disease is low and rates of progression of periodontal destruction tend to be relatively slow. Current periodontal care modalities have a remarkably weak evidence base, with considerable resources allocated to fund interventions that include oral hygiene instruction, scale and polishes through to surgical interventions. The public health problem lies more in the failure in design of a contract between dental professionals and the state. Such a contract needs to recognise both the wider determinants of disease and the role that dental professionals could play: a contract that concentrated on rewarding outcomes, namely a diminution in treatment need, as opposed to one based simply on the number of interventions would be a major step forward.
Francis, Becky; Paechter, Carrie
Developments in the field of gender theory as applied to education since the 1970s are briefly reviewed in order to highlight key challenges and debates around gender categorisation and identification in gender and education. We argue that conundrums of categorisation have haunted, and continue to haunt, the field of gender theory, and empirical…
Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carayannis, E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Huray, P.
This report addresses the need for government sponsored R and D to address real public problems. The motivation is that a public benefit of the money spent must be demonstrated. The areas identified as not having appropriate attention resulting in unmet public needs include healthcare cost, cost and benefits of regulations, infrastructure problems, defense spending misaligned with foreign policy objectives, the crime problem, energy impact on the environment, the education problem, low productivity growth industry sectors, the income distribution problem, the aging problem, the propagation of disease and policy changes needed to address the solution of these problems.
Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos
Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five
Rockefeller, Rodman C
Many managers face increasing calls to invest corporate resources in charitable causes. How should executives balance a firm's very real economic imperative to maximize profitability with its hypothetical moral imperative to improve society? To provide one answer, the author draws on his experience as president of an economic-development company, IBEC. Viewing profit as "an essential discipline and measure of economic success" but not "the sole corporate goal," the company actively invested in social programs that met four criteria: they served a need of the local population; they required innovative approaches; they made sense on economic grounds; and they respected the social norms of the community. Such civic-minded efforts, the author argues in this prescient 1971 article, not only improve people's lives but also create the foundation for more affluent and dynamic markets--markets that ultimately produce greater profits for business. For example, one of IBEC's earliest ventures was directed toward solving Venezuela's problems in retail food marketing. Many important items were unavailable at the small stores where people shopped. So in 1949, working with local partners, IBEC opened a supermarket. Supermarkets soon changed the food-buying habits of the nation, and the initiative helped alter patterns of food distribution and created the reliable demand needed to establish a host of local suppliers. Return on IBEC's investment, and that of its local partners, was most satisfactory, the author reports. The road to meeting a public need-especially a major one--is rarely easy, the author says. But if management sizes up the need well, there is a good chance its new venture will survive under adversity.
Mereish, Ethan H.; Bradford, Judith B.
Objective: Research has documented that sexual minorities are at greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals. However, there are limited studies and mixed findings when investigating these health disparities among racial and ethnic minority samples. We used an intersectionality framework to examine disparities in lifetime substance use problems between heterosexual and sexual minority men and women and within sexual minority groups among a racially diverse sample. Method: A nonprobability sample of heterosexual (n = 1,091) and sexual minority (n = 1,465) patients from an urban community health center ranged in age from 18 to 72 years. Participants completed a brief patient survey and reported demographic information and history of lifetime substance use problems. Logistic regressions analyses were used to examine interactions between and among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Results: We found a significant three-way interaction among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Sexual minorities had a greater risk of self-reported lifetime substance use problems than heterosexuals, with nuanced gender and racial differences. Of greatest note, sexual minority women of color had greater risks than heterosexual women of color and than White sexual minority women. Sexual minority men of color did not differ in their risk when compared with heterosexual men of color, and they had lower risk than White sexual minority men. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an intersectionality framework is crucial to clearly identify lifetime substance use disparities between racially diverse sexual minority and heterosexual men and women. Future research, treatment, and policy should use intersectionality approaches when addressing substance use disparities. PMID:24411810
Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon
This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies....
Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz
The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…
Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D.; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin
Gender-segregated (GS) schooling has become popular in the United States despite the fact that every major review has concluded that GS schooling is not superior to coeducational schooling. Moreover, concern has been raised that GS schooling leads to negative effects, including increased gender stereotyping. We argue that these negative effects…
Leider, Jonathon P
Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to
The problem of gender inequality have been existed during centuries and nowadays it is not less important. It becomes one of the values that are of top priority for many developed countries. The main role in decreasing the level of gender inequality plays awareness of society, that can not be achieved without the help of mass media. The paper describes the situation concerning the gender inequality problem in the printed media of Ukraine and its neighborhoods – Poland and Hungary.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine
Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.
Nichol, Penny E; Krueger, Robert F; Iacono, William G
Inconsistent results have been found in research investigating gender differences in alcohol problems. Previous studies of gender differences used a wide range of methodological techniques, as well as limited assortments of alcohol problems. Parents (1,348 men and 1,402 women) of twins enrolled in the Minnesota Twin Family Study answered questions about a wide range of alcohol problems. A latent trait modeling technique was used to evaluate gender differences in the probability of endorsement at the problem level and for the overall 105-problem scale. Of the 34 problems that showed significant gender differences, 29 were more likely to be endorsed by men than women with equivalent overall alcohol problem levels. These male-oriented symptoms included measures of heavy drinking, duration of drinking, tolerance, and acting out behaviors. Nineteen symptoms were denoted for removal to create a scale that favored neither gender in assessment. Significant gender differences were found in approximately one-third of the symptoms assessed and in the overall scale. Further examination of the nature of gender differences in alcohol problem symptoms should be undertaken to investigate whether a gender-neutral scale should be created or if men and women should be assessed with separate criteria for alcohol dependence and abuse.
Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others
Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…
Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey
Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.
Yesuselvi Manickam; Tan Soon Chin; Suffian Hadi Ayub
Today, there is an increase in women working outside their home to sustain themselves economically and socially, but the working experiences can be problematic for women when gender discrimination exists in the workplace. In the early 1960s, women were entering the public relations industry at a rate faster than their male counterparts, but gender bias was a sore issue in the industry. Numerous studies have been conducted on gender bias, and the findings indicate that female public relations ...
Chatterji, Monojit; Mumford, Karen; Smith, Peter N.
Using new linked employee-workplace data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that little none of the gender earnings gap in both the public and private sector can be explained by differences in observable characteristics. Decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution of differences in workplace characteristics to the public private earnings g...
Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn
This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene
-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...
A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)
This study examines the gender profile of the Russian Federation through a comprehensive review of the current literature (1248 publications on gender issues throughout the transition decade) on the conditions of women and men and on the gender disparities in a number of indicators. The report pinpoints the areas in which inequalities exist and attempts to estimate the consequences. It f...
However, the field being feminized faces the realities of gender-bias, glass ceiling effects, ... Results further indicate that culture, customs and traditions temper the ... diversity management and gender equity in Ghanaian mining environments.
Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".
Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine
This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…
Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita
Experience and investigative studies have shown that inequalities still exist between the sexes as well as in how public health policies and strategies approach the needs of the sexes. Sufficient attention has not been given to gender in public health research. Gender-based differences and similarities need to be promoted, and more structured guidelines are needed to build gender into public health research models. The aim of this review was to investigate and discuss public health research and to answer several related questions on gender biases, ethics and methodologies, and the establishment of guidelines. Using the search terms public health research and gender , or ethics , gender , and public health, a literature search was conducted predominately with, but not limited to, the PubMed database. English- or German-language articles were identified that examined the current status of gender in public health research as well as any relevant ethical guidelines. A review of the current literature showed that much work has been undertaken to promote the inclusion of gender in health research. However, deficiencies in the extent of gender-oriented research have been found in a number of key areas, including ethics committees and public health research methodology. Women were found to be underrepresented in ethics committees, which lack clear guidance, particularly in the European Union, to ensure the inclusion of gender issues in public health research. Data are often not sex disaggregated, and information on gender and social circumstances are frequently lacking. Furthermore, some methodologies, such as those used in the field of occupational health, underestimate men's or women's burden of disease. Recommendations include establishing guidelines for researchers on how to incorporate gender in health research, ensuring that the composition of ethics committees is more representative of society, and recommending that data collection systems or bodies ensure that data
Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar
This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…
Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon
This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap in alcohol drinking is one of the few universal gender differences in human social behavior. However, the size of these differences varies greatly from one society to another. The papers in this issue examine, across countries, (1) men's and women's drinking patterns, (2) the prevalence of men's and women's experience of alcohol-related problems, (3) gender differences in social inequalities in alcohol use and abuse, (4) gender differences in the influence of combinations of social roles on heavy alcohol use, and (5) how societal-level factors predict women's and men's alcohol use and problems on a regional and global level. Country surveys were independently conducted and then centralized at one institution for further data standardization and processing. Several results indicated that the greater the societal gender equality in a country, the smaller the gender differences in drinking behavior. In most analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies.
Monojit Chatterji; Karen Mumford; Peter N Smith
This study examines the role of individual characteristics, occupation, and workplace features accounting for differences in hourly earnings between male and female fulltime employees in the public and private sectors. Using new linked employeeemployer data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that essentially none of the gender earnings gap in both the publ...
This study aims to analyze the effect of equality and diversity policies on the gender pay gap in UK public sector. The study is evaluated using secondary data from Labour Force Surveys (LFS), Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) and Workplace Employees Relations Survey (WERS) which compares the presence of equality and diversity policies with the simultaneous gender pay gap in UK public sector in order to determine the extent to which these policies have affected the gender pay gap in ...
Mora, Ricardo; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
In many countries, recruiting and promotion procedures in the public sector would appear to leave less room for gender discrimination than in the private sector. Using data for Spain in 1977 and 1992, this paper explores the consequences of these practices for gender segregation in those occupations where there is a private and a public sector of a minimum size. In particular, an additive index based on the entropy concept is used to compare occupational gender segregation in the private vers...
Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…
Situm, Mirna; Kolić, Maja; Redzepi, Gzim; Antolić, Slavko
Chronic wounds represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals and the entire health care system. Regarding the healing process, wounds can be classified as acute or chronic wounds. A wound is considered chronic if healing does not occur within the expected period according to the wound etiology and localization. Chronic wounds can be classified as typical and atypical. The majority of wounds (95 percent) are typical ones, which include ischemic, neurotrophic and hypostatic ulcers and two separate entities: diabetic foot and decubital ulcers. Eighty percent of chronic wounds localized on lower leg are the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in 5-10 percent the cause is of arterial etiology, whereas the rest are mostly neuropathic ulcers. Chronic wounds significantly decrease the quality of life of patients by requiring continuous topical treatment, causing immobility and pain in a high percentage of patients. Chronic wounds affect elderly population. Chronic leg ulcers affect 0.6-3 percent of those aged over 60, increasing to over 5 percent of those aged over 80. Emergence of chronic wounds is a substantial socioeconomic problem as 1-2 percent of western population will suffer from it. This estimate is expected to rise due to the increasing proportion of elderly population along with the diabetic and obesity epidemic. It has been proved that chronic wounds account for the large proportion of costs in the health care system, even in rich societies. Socioeconomically, the management of chronic wounds reaches a total of 2-4 percent of the health budget in western countries. Treatment costs for some other diseases are not irrelevant, nor are the method and materials used for treating these wounds. Considering etiologic factors, a chronic wound demands a multidisciplinary approach with great efforts of health care professionals to treat it more efficiently, more simply and more painlessly for the patient, as well as more inexpensively for
Ted L. Rosenthal
Full Text Available We studied it age, gender, diagnostic status, and psychiatric features affected 291 consecutive sleep disorder patient's body complaints on a brief checklist. Gender had a strong impact on all four (tested dependent measures, with women reporting more distress than men. Age produced significant regressions on two measures, with younger patients complaining more than older. Presence of psychiatric features was associated with more complaints on one dependent measure - previously found to reflect internal medicine patients' emotional distress. The results of regression analyses were largely supported by follow-up ANOVAs. However, contrasting insomniac versus hypersomniac versus all other sleep disorder diagnoses did not affect body complaints on any dependent measure. The results caution against combining males and females to compare self-reported distress between sleep disorders.
Full Text Available Today, there is an increase in women working outside their home to sustain themselves economically and socially, but the working experiences can be problematic for women when gender discrimination exists in the workplace. In the early 1960s, women were entering the public relations industry at a rate faster than their male counterparts, but gender bias was a sore issue in the industry. Numerous studies have been conducted on gender bias, and the findings indicate that female public relations practitioners receive unequal treatment in their organisation. For that reason, this study investigated whether gender bias exists in the public relations industry in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and if so, what the impact was on the practitioners’ work performance. The study used an in-depth interview with five public relations practitioners from public relations agencies and corporate companies. Feminist Standpoint Theory served as a framework for this study. Results revealed that in Malaysia, gender bias is not prevalent because of cultural diversity and company policies. The priorities of these public relations agencies and organisations favor employee’s performance and competence over gender. The results also indicated that public relations practitioners are treated fairly in areas of career prospects, job functions, and remuneration.
Gardner, Carol Brooks
Discusses Erving Goffman's work on public places with regard to how that work represents women's experience in public places. Reviews strategies that women devise to manage appearances in public places in order to illustrate how gender-conscious appraisal is necessary to appreciate the character of public places. (Author/LS)
Grip, Lena; Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Krekula, Clary; Karlsson, Stefan
The aim of this article is to study how problem definitions of gender equality affect the possible outcomes of gender equality initiatives. The Swedish Municipal Rescue Services were chosen as the empirical example because they offer a workplace where women are greatly under-represented despite years of gender equality efforts. The article analyses how reasoning around gender equality shapes and constructs problem formulations around gender and equality. This article contributes to the debate...
Tanaka, Y [Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
A set of problems are discussed, which must be studied before the public relations are dealt with. Firstly, the trade-off between energy and health must be considered. Although the probability of death caused by atomic accidents is very small (one three hundred millionth a year), many peoples hate atomic power and oppose to the construction of nuclear power plants. Four reasons for this are considered: (1) social diffusion of innovation, (2) nuclear allergy, (3) shortage of the conception of risk-benefit, and (4) heterogeneity of the public. According to the investigation of the relationship between electric power and livelihood, carried out by the policyand science research institute in Tokyo, the highly subjective decision for the acceptance of atomic power is independent of the objective knowledge on atomic power.
Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon
and global level. Country surveys were independently conducted and then centralized at one institution for further data standardization and processing. Several results indicated that the greater the societal gender equality in a country, the smaller the gender differences in drinking behavior. In most...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies.......This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...
Korytcev Maxim, A.
Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.
Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna
Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in seeking information. Educators in public health
... their biological parents are not able to provide food, shelter and safety. Objective: To investigate the problems and adjustment needs of in-school orphans in ... economic/financial, emotional, psychological and social aspects of their lives.
Veronika Hedija; Petr Musil
The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the p...
Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne
It is widely accepted that alcohol and other drug consumption is profoundly gendered. Just where this gendering is occurring, however, remains the subject of debate. We contend that one important and overlooked site where the gendering of substance consumption and addiction is taking place is through AOD research itself: in particular, through the addiction screening and diagnostic tools designed to measure and track substance consumption and problems within populations. These tools establish key criteria and set numerical threshold scores for the identification of problems. In many of these tools, separate threshold scores for women and men are established or recommended. Drawing on Karen Barad's concept of post-humanist performativity, in this article we examine the ways in which gender itself is being materialised by these apparatuses of measurement. We focus primarily on the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) tool as an exemplar of gendering processes that operate across addiction tools more broadly. We consider gendering processes operating through tools questions themselves and we also examine the quantification and legitimation processes used in establishing gender difference and the implications these have for women. We find tools rely on and reproduce narrow and marginalising assumptions about women as essentially fragile and vulnerable and simultaneously reinforce normative expectations that women sacrifice pleasure. The seemingly objective and neutral quantification processes operating in tools naturalise gender as they enact it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van der Sluis, Sophie; Polderman, Tinca J C; Neale, Michael C; Verhulst, Frank C; Posthuma, Danielle; Dieleman, Gwen C
Prevalence and severity of childhood behavioral problems differ between boys and girls, and in psychiatry, testing for gender differences is common practice. Population-based studies show that many psychopathology scales are (partially) Measurement Invariance (MI) with respect to gender, i.e. are unbiased. It is, however, unclear whether these studies generalize towards clinical samples. In a psychiatric outpatient sample, we tested whether the Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (CBCL) is unbiased with respect to gender. We compared mean scores across gender of all syndrome scales of the CBCL in 3271 patients (63.3% boys) aged 6-18. Second, we tested for MI on both the syndrome scale and the item-level using a stepwise modeling procedure. Six of the eight CBCL syndrome scales included one or more gender-biased items (12.6% of all items), resulting in slight over- or under-estimation of the absolute gender difference in mean scores. Two scales, Somatic Complaints and Rule-breaking Behavior, contained no biased items. The CBCL is a valid instrument to measure gender differences in problem behavior in children and adolescents from a clinical sample; while various gender-biased items were identified, the resulting bias was generally clinically irrelevant, and sufficient items per subscale remained after exclusion of biased items. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars
This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...
Jason C. Bond
Full Text Available This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants settings and possibly private (home or party settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8; the Americas (7; Asia (3; Australasia (2, and Africa (2, analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country. Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public
Bond, Jason C; Roberts, Sarah C M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B
This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women's compared to men's drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health.
women in their struggle for power and political leadership and analyze the problems confronting them in the present day Nigeria. The study relied basically on qualitative methodology and gathered its data from documentary sources like journals, magazines, books, newspapers and internet materials. This paper argues that ...
Staggers, Sydney M.; Myers, Scott A.
Gendered violence is considered to be the "physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and visual brutality that is inflicted disproportionately or exclusively on members of one sex". According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2010), gendered violence is a major public health concern that often goes unnoticed because it takes place in private…
Kanter, Ido; Kopelowitz, Evi; Kinzel, Wolfgang
The synchronization process of two mutually delayed coupled deterministic chaotic maps is demonstrated both analytically and numerically. The synchronization is preserved when the mutually transmitted signals are concealed by two commutative private filters, a convolution of the truncated time-delayed output signals or some powers of the delayed output signals. The task of a passive attacker is mapped onto Hilbert's tenth problem, solving a set of nonlinear Diophantine equations, which was proven to be in the class of NP-complete problems [problems that are both NP (verifiable in nondeterministic polynomial time) and NP-hard (any NP problem can be translated into this problem)]. This bridge between nonlinear dynamics and NP-complete problems opens a horizon for new types of secure public-channel protocols.
Javarone, Marco Alberto
We introduce a method based on the Public Goods Game for solving optimization tasks. In particular, we focus on the Traveling Salesman Problem, i.e. a NP-hard problem whose search space exponentially grows increasing the number of cities. The proposed method considers a population whose agents are provided with a random solution to the given problem. In doing so, agents interact by playing the Public Goods Game using the fitness of their solution as currency of the game. Notably, agents with better solutions provide higher contributions, while those with lower ones tend to imitate the solution of richer agents for increasing their fitness. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method allows to compute exact solutions, and suboptimal ones, in the considered search spaces. As result, beyond to propose a new heuristic for combinatorial optimization problems, our work aims to highlight the potentiality of evolutionary game theory beyond its current horizons.
Wallen, Aaron S; Morris, Michael W; Devine, Beth A; Lu, Jackson G
Women's underperformance in MBA programs has been the subject of recent debate and policy interventions, despite a lack of rigorous evidence documenting when and why it occurs. The current studies document a performance gap, specifying its contours and contributing factors. Two behaviors by female students that may factor into the gap are public conformity and private internalization. We predicted that women conform to the norm associating maleness with technical prowess by minimizing their public assertiveness in class discussions and meetings, but that they do not internalize the norm by reducing private effort. Data from multiple cohorts of a top-ranked MBA program reveal female underperformance occurred in technical subjects (e.g., accounting), but not social subjects (e.g., marketing). As predicted, the gender effect ran not through private effort but through public assertiveness, even controlling for gender differences in interests and aptitudes. These findings support some current policy interventions while casting doubt on others.
Pablo Paramo Bernal
Full Text Available This article discusses gender research in urban public space through three different perspectives: the social representations and differentiated uses of space, the division of roles in public and private spaces, and urban planning of public space. The paper gathers and analyses some studies that complement the state of art and literature on women and space giving evidence on how women have been segregated from public space and are victim of gender inequalities. Public space does not exist absolutely nor gender; instead both are socially constructed by social order and reproduced by social practices. Finally, some suggestions for urban planning and research are given in order to respond women’s needs in public space.
Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Donghwan; Nam, Cho Rong; Kim, Da Yea; Park, Sera; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok
Background and objectives The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ 2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups. Results In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and "healthy" users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females. Conclusions An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.
Lawlor, Edward F; Kreuter, Matthew W; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Anne K; McBride, Timothy D
In 2008, the faculty of the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis designed a Master of Public Health program centered on transdisciplinary problem solving in public health. We have described the rationale for our approach, guiding principles and pedagogy for the program, and specific transdisciplinary competencies students acquire. We have explained how transdisciplinary content has been organized and delivered, how the program is being evaluated, and how we have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a Master of Public Health degree.
Among many electric energy sources, the nuclear energy presents proper characteristics that distinguish it on the treatment of public acceptation. The licensing process, based on security considerations of operation and to diminish risks for the population and the environment, aim at attend the preoccupations and apprehensions of public. The information is fundamental for the establishment of public confidence. In Brazil, the licensing of nuclear power plants involve federal, state and municipal agencies, assuring the population participation in discussion of environmental problems. This paper shows the importance of discussion with the population about nuclear enterprises. (C.M.)
Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean
Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided legal protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not protect against discrimination based on gender identity in public accommodations settings such as transportation, retail stores, restaurants, health care facilities, and bathrooms. A 2013 survey of Massachusetts transgender and other gender minority adults found that in the past 12 months, 65% had experienced public accommodations discrimination since the law was passed. This discrimination was associated with a greater risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms in the past 30 days. Nondiscrimination laws inclusive of gender identity should protect against discrimination in public accommodations settings to support transgender people's health and their ability to access health care. Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in
Ocular problems among public service retirees in a Southern Nigerian Metropolitan City. ... Using World Health Organization/ International Agency for Prevention of Blindness criteria for visual assessment 239 (40.4%) had good vision, 203 (34.3%) had moderate visual impairment, 48 (8.1%) had severe visual impairment, ...
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011
This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…
Вязигина, Н. В.
In article the problem of authorship’s expertise connected with diagnostics of a sex of the author of the document is described. The solution of the problem with the help of the knowledge base, methods and means of gender linguistics is proposed. The essence of a modern gender linguistics and the main directions of its development is considered: research of language as systems and research of speech behavior of men and women. The analytical review of available scientific works in the sphere o...
Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda
Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender.
Hansen, Lars Kristian; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw
As today’s public and private sector organizations heavily rely on Information Technology (IT) to provide faster cycle times and better services, IT Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. This research adopts engaged scholarship to investigate IT PPM practices...... within a large local government. The investigation applies Modularity theory to analyze rich data from the local government covering several units with quite diverse functions to address the following two questions (1) which modularity problems does a public organization have in its IT PPM practices...... suggest a model addressing the identified problems by organizing IT PPM in three modules connected by three gateways. These results may be used to inform further research into IT PPM and to help managers improve IT PPM practices in public organizations. Keywords: IT Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM...
Crosnoe, Robert; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Muller, Chandra
Given the increasing importance of education to socioeconomic attainment and other life course trajectories, early academic struggles can have long-term consequences if not addressed. Analysis of a nationally representative sample with official school transcripts and extensive data on adolescent functioning identified a social psychological pathway in this linkage between external feedback about early struggles and truncated educational trajectories. For girls, class failures absent of diagnosed learning disabilities engendered increasingly negative self-perceptions that, in turn, disrupted math and science course-taking, especially in family and peer contexts in which academic success was prioritized. For boys, diagnosed learning disabilities, regardless of class performance, engendered the same changes in self-perception and the same consequences of these changes for course-taking across family and peer contexts. These results reveal how ability labels and ability-related performance indicators come together to influence the long-term educational prospects of girls and boys attending mainstream schools in which the majority of students do not have learning disabilities or severe academic problems. Keywords: education, learning disability, academic failure, peers, and stigma.
Full Text Available Our goal was to locate and evaluate the barriers that impact and cause females to avoid secondary elective physical education courses. We sought to find answers to stop the further decline of female enrolment in secondary physical education by looking into curricula, program and instructional variables. Anecdotal evidence informed this study which was very much exploratory, building upon several key facts. First, Ontario (Canada secondary students are only required to take one credit (course in physical education in order to graduate and second, most students take the required physical education course in grade nine which is their first year of high school. Following this there is an average of 10% fewer females in every physical education class in the province of Ontario and only an average of 12% are enrolled in physical education each year. Several issues were identified and explored including self-confidence; motivation; perceived value of physical activity; opportunities for physical activity; marking scheme; competition; co-ed classes; teaching approach; and peers as possible problems and solutions.
Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean
Context Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. Methods In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in health care was independently associated with adverse self-reported health, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings. Findings Overall, 65% of respondents reported public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months. The 5 most prevalent discrimination settings were transportation (36%), retail (28%), restaurants (26%), public gatherings (25%), and health care (24%). Public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months in health care settings was independently associated with a 31% to 81% increased risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms and a 2-fold to 3-fold increased risk of postponement of needed care when sick or injured and of preventive or routine health care, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings (which also conferred an additional 20% to 77% risk per discrimination setting endorsed
Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women
Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women.
Public acceptability has been the rock on which radioactive waste management plans have foundered in many countries. As a response to this, public consultation, information provision, and transparency have been recognised as necessary elements for successful development and implementation of management plans. However, the actual practice of public consultation, in many cases, fails to adequately incorporate the significance of questioning the ways in which the problem is defined, the issues that are important, and the overall 'framing' of the problem. Public framing generally differs substantially from the way in which the problem is understood by those institutions responsible for its management; further, there are differences in the ways in which different publics frame issues. These public differences may or may not be attributable to demographic factors, but are closely related to the problem context - that is, the history of relationships, structural conditions, and the cultural resources available to make sense of the issues. The author argues that it is crucial that public framing(s) are adequately taken into account in developing management initiatives, so that policies reflect these different understandings, and thus have more social purchase, in line with Grove-White and Wynne's argument that in order for radioactive waste management to become a solvable problem, it is necessary to generate social ownership of the problem. However, traditional, and even many novel, consultation processes do not comprehensively address the issue of framing, but reproduce assumptions about the nature of the problem and how it should be addressed. These assumptions are present in, for example, the institutional arrangements and scientific and technical agendas. The author reports on a project undertaken this year with Nirex entitled 'The Front of the Front End' which used repeat focus groups to directly elicit the ways in which different publics frame the issue of
This study employed the total number of public schools in Ondo, Nigeria which gives information on the name of the school, males and females in each school from JSS1 to SS3 in the eighteen local government areas. Systematic sampling was used to select forty eight schools from the two hundred and eighty eight public ...
Verdonk, P.; Klinge, I.
Background: The integration of genome-based knowledge into public health or public health genomics (PHG) aims to contribute to disease prevention, health promotion, and risk reduction associated with genetic disease susceptibility. Men and women differ, for instance, in susceptibilities for heart
Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed
Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression.
Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with pathological gambling. The extent to which co-occurence extends to subsyndromal levels of gambling or differs between women and men is incompletely understood. To examine whether the association between psychiatric disorders and past-year gambling problems is stronger in women than men. Data from the national epidemiological survey of alcoholism and related disorders (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed. Increasing severity of past-year gambling problems was associated with increasing odds of most past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II disorders, regardless of gender. Associations between gambling problems and major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, and nicotine dependence were statistically stronger in women than in men. A severity-related association exists between past-year gambling problems and psychiatric disorders. The stronger associations in women suggest that gambling research, prevention and treatment efforts consider gender differences.
Droogleever Fortuijn, J.
Public spaces can be seen as arenas where gendered social roles, relations and identities are (re)produced, represented and contested. Because of their (assumed) public character - crowded, open, accessible and visible - these spaces are extremely useful as «observatories» for teaching and learning
Kristoffersen, Janni; Smith, Nina
This study analyzes gender differences in the relationships between behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the SDQ questionnaire at the age of 10-12 years of about 6,000 Danish children born in 1990-92. The sample is merged with extensive...
Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Lorenzi, Jill
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have poor relationships with peers. However, research on this topic has predominantly focused on boys. This study considered child gender, ADHD status, and dimensionally assessed conduct problems as predictors of peer relationship difficulties. Participants were 125 children (ages…
Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.
States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)
Bardack, Sarah; Obradovic´, Jelena
Research Findings: Drawing from a diverse community sample of 89 children, ages 4-6, their primary caregivers and teachers, this study examined the interplay of child emotional behavior problems, parent emotion socialization practices, and gender in predicting teacher-child closeness. Teachers reported on perceptions of closeness with children.…
Brell, Carl D., Jr.
Examines the issue of moral relativism as it pertains to conceptualizations of gender effect on moral development. Reviews positions of theorists regarding the importance of formal and contextually relative criteria to the development of moral reasoning. Argues that neither a justice nor a caring ethic alone can solve the problem of moral…
Kaufman, Regina R; Chevan, Julia
Studies of peer-reviewed article publication by faculty in higher education show men publish more than women. Part of the difference in publishing appears to be attributable directly to gender. Gender differences in publishing productivity have not been explored in physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of gender on peer-reviewed publication productivity in physical therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using survey methods. A survey was administered to a random sample of 881 physical therapy faculty members; 459 responses were used for analysis. Men were more likely than women to be married, have children, hold a PhD degree, be tenured or on a tenure track, and hold the position of department chair. There was a significant difference in peer-reviewed publication rates between male and female respondents. Negative binomial regression models revealed that female gender was a negative predictor of peer-reviewed publication, accounting for between 0.51 and 0.58 fewer articles per year for women than for men over the course of a career. Reasons for the gender differences are not clear. Factors such as grant funding, laboratory resources, nature of collaborative relationships, values for different elements of the teaching/research/service triad, and ability to negotiate the academic culture were not captured by our model. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publishing productivity may have implications for individuals and the profession of physical therapy and should be subject to further exploration.
Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....
Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.
Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.
This exploratory research is focused on two gender phenomena which can manifest in the public sphere (the glass ceiling and horizontal segregation), trying to connect these phenomena with the concept of representative bureaucracy in Romanian central public administration institutions. Using 2003-2015 data covering central public administration institutions (ministries and other government offices/departments) the analysis shows that the overall situation of women in these decision-making posi...
The satisfaction of customer is the main measure and the most important, generally recognized criterion for evaluating the quality of products and services. In the case of education and training, the quality is frequently understood as effectiveness, i.e., the degree to what educational objectives of a training institution are met; the objectives previously formulated on the basis of analyzed and defined demands and expectations of customers (clients). In the first part of the paper: (1) the problems related to the question who in fact is the customer in the context of an institution providing education in public health are discussed; (2) a proposal for resolving these problems is presented; and (3) the main directions of evaluation activities, which should be undertaken under monitoring and effectiveness assessment of postgraduate training in public health are pointed out. In the years 1998-2002, the students' assessment data on educational programs, curriculum contents and subject teachers in the field of postgraduate studies in the School of Public Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, were collected with the help of specially-designed evaluation questionnaires. The data on the students' self-assessment of gained professional competencies were also collected. All students who completed the School of Public Health in these years were subjected to the evaluation inquiries. The data collected were analyzed. Due to the analysis it was possible to define: the quality of the curriculum contents, as well as the professional and didactic skills of the teaching staff as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular curriculum in public health contributed to the increase in professional competence as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular teaching subjects influenced the students' knowledge of and skills in Public Health. The results obtained provided information very useful in the teaching process, designing of
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.
of an engineering identity with masculinity and the culturally defined engineering competencies leads to different learning experiences for male and female students. The nature of hard-core engineering subjects, based on male interests, privileges men and acts as a barrier to women. The masculine culture......This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data...
Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Dalibert, Lucie; Verdonk, Petra; Stutz, Elisabeth Zemp; Klinge, Ineke
Providing a robust scientific background for the focus on gender-sensitive public health and a systematic approach to its implementation. Within the FP7-EUGenMed project ( http://eugenmed.eu ) a workshop on sex and gender in public health was convened on February 2-3, 2015. The experts participated in moderated discussion rounds to (1) assemble available knowledge and (2) identify structural influences on practice implementation. The findings were summarized and analyzed in iterative rounds to define overarching strategies and principles. The participants discussed the rationale for implementing gender-sensitive public health and identified priorities and key stakeholders to engage in the process. Communication strategies and specific promotion strategies with distinct stakeholders were defined. A comprehensive list of gender-sensitive practices was established using the recently published taxonomy of the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project as a blueprint. A clearly defined implementation strategy should be mandated for all new projects in the field of gender-sensitive public health. Our tool can support researchers and practitioners with the analysis of current and past research as well as with the planning of new projects.
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.
This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078
Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander
Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities.
Yavuz, Nilay; Welch, Eric W
Research has identified several factors that affect fear of crime in public space. However, the extent to which gender moderates the effectiveness of fear-reducing measures has received little attention. Using data from the Chicago Transit Authority Customer Satisfaction Survey of 2003, this study aims to understand whether train transit security practices and service attributes affect men and women differently. Findings indicate that, while the presence of video cameras has a lower effect on women's feelings of safety compared with men, frequent and on-time service matters more to male passengers. Additionally, experience with safety-related problems affects women significantly more than men. Conclusions discuss the implications of the study for theory and gender-specific policies to improve perceptions of transit safety.
Casas Patiño, Donovan; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra; Salazar Morales, Mario Rodolfo
This article seeks to explain the importance of violence as a social phenomenon and public health, trying to envision this issue not only from a curative approach to health, but from the social determinants of health, such as economics, politics and the administration of justice. Here, the younger population lacks real opportunities with an absent State that fails to provide structure. These frameworks play a fundamental role in the manifestation of violence. Thus, the debate for addressing and resolving violence opens the way to new perspectives regarding social factors as part of a public health, which cannot be oblivious to the state of the collective. Thus, the analysis of this situation shows that we cannot keep overlooking the whole picture of the real problem in the social health of our world instead of focusing on its discordant parts.
Poffijn, A.; Uyttenhove, J.; Tondeur, F.
Owing to differences in geology, radon in Belgium is recognised to be a more serious problem in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. From national and regional surveys, it became clear that in the province of Luxembourg indoor radon concentrations exceeding the European reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 frequently occur. As many people (children as well as adults) spend an important part of the day indoors at school or at work, it was decided by the local authorities to conduct a more systematic survey. In all schools and public buildings, measurements with integrating etched track devices have been performed. The results of these campaigns are discussed and a limiting scheme for radon in schools and public buildings, based mainly upon the existing Belgian regulations for protecting against ionising radiation is presented. (author)
Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.
We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)
Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana
Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue
Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval
Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval
An analysis of the problem 'nuclear energy and the public' leads to the following findings: 1) one has to find out what exactly worries the citizen, because otherwise the information one supplies is not relevant; 2) information, and nothing else, is not enough if the opposition is based on emotion. This where trust is needed and not printed paper; 3) the basis of trust is the relationship between humans. The proponents of nuclear energy act too much as institutions, they are 'not human'. (RW) [de
Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino
Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.
Ensor, Rosie; Hart, Martha; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire
Disruptive behaviour disorders are much more common in boys than girls (Office of National Statistics, 1999); in contrast, gender differences in normative problem behaviours are poorly understood. To address this issue, 228 6-year-olds (134 boys, 94 girls) were each observed playing a board game with a same-gender friend. Ratings of aggression, disruption, arousal and negativity were used to index problem behaviours. Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the latent factor had the same metric for boys and girls, but a mean that was approximately half a standard deviation higher for boys than girls. In addition, the association between the latent factor and teachers' ratings of total difficulties was significantly stronger for boys than girls.
Full Text Available In the 1980s, John Boswell analyzed the controversy between “essentialists” and “constructionists” in gay and lesbian studies in the light of the medieval “problem of universals.” This paper revives this analogy to understand the controversy launched by Catholic authorities against the (so-called “theory-of-gender” pitted against gender studies at the risk of equating God with Nature.
Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Oaxaca, Ronald L.; Smith, Nina
The gender wage gap in Denmark has virtually stagnated since the early 70s. This study examines whether this stagnation is mainly due to a changing wage dispersion or to changing prices on observed and unobserved skills. Since about half the female labour force is employed in the public sector....... These techniques are applied to a sample of Danish wage earners in the period 1983-94. The decomposition results suggest different explanations behind the stagnation of the gender wage gap in the public and private sectors. The development in average public sector wages is calculated assuming observed......, the impact of the changing wage structure between the public and private sectors is investigated. The analysis is based on the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce decomposition applied to a pooled wage regression model. The equivalence between the former and the Oaxaca-Ransom generalized wage decomposition is established...
Hawkes, Sarah; Buse, Kent; Kapilashrami, Anuj
The Global Public Private Partnerships for Health (GPPPH) constitute an increasingly central part of the global health architecture and carry both financial and normative power. Gender is an important determinant of health status, influencing differences in exposure to health determinants, health behaviours, and the response of the health system. We identified 18 GPPPH - defined as global institutions with a formal governance mechanism which includes both public and private for-profit sector actors - and conducted a gender analysis of each. Gender was poorly mainstreamed through the institutional functioning of the partnerships. Half of these partnerships had no mention of gender in their overall institutional strategy and only three partnerships had a specific gender strategy. Fifteen governing bodies had more men than women - up to a ratio of 5:1. Very few partnerships reported sex-disaggregated data in their annual reports or coverage/impact results. The majority of partnerships focused their work on maternal and child health and infectious and communicable diseases - none addressed non-communicable diseases (NCDs) directly, despite the strong role that gender plays in determining risk for the major NCD burdens. We propose two areas of action in response to these findings. First, GPPPH need to become serious in how they "do" gender; it needs to be mainstreamed through the regular activities, deliverables and systems of accountability. Second, the entire global health community needs to pay greater attention to tackling the major burden of NCDs, including addressing the gendered nature of risk. Given the inherent conflicts of interest in tackling the determinants of many NCDs, it is debatable whether the emergent GPPPH model will be an appropriate one for addressing NCDs.
Using earnings functions estimates on a survey of Egyptian establishments conducted in 1990, standard decomposition techniques of wage differentials show that both males and females have an earnings disadvantage in the public enterprise and government sectors after correcting for a range of personal and job characteristics. Gender based pay discrimination is small in the public sector. In contrast, it is quite high by international comparisons in the private sector and mainly takes place by p...
Farmer, Betty; Waugh, Lisa
Explores students' perceptions of gender issues in public relations. Finds that there were no statistically significant differences in male and female students' desires to perform managerial activities, but there were statistically significant differences in several areas (i.e. female students expect to earn less money starting out and to be…
Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory
We use data from 2015-2016 to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race-ethnicity and gender in six fields at selective public universities. Consistent with widely available information, Black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and White and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. Disadvantaged minority and…
Full Text Available This paper examines how stereotypes and media presentations related to gender norms influence public presentations of gay men and lesbian women. Using online profiles from the online dating website Match.com, this paper examines the body types daters use to describe themselves, their ideal date, and if the poster has a photograph of themselves on their profile. These profiles are used as a method of observing public presentations that are in a unique situation to be tailored towards notions of publically displayed social desirability. Findings indicate that gay men present their online bodies as stereotypically masculine and athletic, while lesbian women are willing to display a slightly broader range of body types. In addition, regardless of gender, both gay men and lesbian women present their ideal dates as stereotypically attractive, with gay men having a particular affinity for dating athletic men. Regression analysis suggests that intersectional variables such as race and age influence a person’s willingness to display a profile picture in the public arena. Overall, this study concludes that heteronormative standards of masculinity combined with structural influences from both the media and peer groups likely have an impact on gay men’s ideal gendered body, while the comparative exclusion of lesbian women from these media influences allow other experiences of gender norms slightly more freedom.
Ayse Kocabacak; Cumali Kalkan
Gender inequality is a problem in the World as well as in Turkey. What is referred by this problem here is the gender discrimination and thus inequality and injustice in opportunities that women face in a society. It appears in different forms in business life or at work place (inequalities in employment, wages, social benefits and education as well as obstacles in career rise, easy dismissal or layoff, sexual harassment / persecution / mobbing, etc.). In this study, this problem is investiga...
Rasyid, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Lukito, A.
This study aims to describe reflective thinking of junior high school students on solving the fractions problem in terms of gender differences. This research is a qualitative approach involving one male student and one female student in seventh grade. The data were collected through the assignment of fractional problem solving and interview, then the data were triangulated and analyzed by three stages, namely data condensation, data display and conclusion. The results showed that the subjects of male and female were reacting, elaborating and contemplating at each stage of solving the fractions problem. But at the stage of devising the plan, the female subject was contemplating, relying more on their beliefs, did not consider their experience, in addition, the female subject didn’t use experience of the steps she planned to solve the problem of fractions.
Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah
We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...
Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc
Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.
Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.
Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B
In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.
Moema de Rezende Vergara
Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.
Claudia Socoowski de Anello e Silva
Full Text Available This work is the product of reflections from the dissertation project on gender and employment. The aim of this study is to examine in what way the occupation of jobs generated in the Polo Naval of Rio Grande-RS by women. For to understand this hiring dynamics, the starting point is the conceptualization of the categories work and gender in social and legal perspectives to arrive in the discussion of public policies guided by these categories. The following will be describe the scenario that will give factual support for empirical research with the partial discussion of the data already collected.
Full Text Available Mass protests across Europe against marriage equality, reproductive rights, gender mainstreaming and sexual education have centralised in the past few years around so-called “gender theory”. This theory is explained as a new threat to the “traditional family” and “natural masculinity and femininity”, as it allegedly aims at cultural revolution: a post-binary gender world. Many of these debates (and concrete actions are targeted at schools and the educational process. It is believed that “gender theory” is already being taught in schools, which will have detrimental consequences for pupils. Agents of the anti-gender movement claim that children are being sexualised and brainwashed by “gender theory”. Taking this debate as the starting point, we first examine the roots of the term “gender theory” and point to its nature as an “empty signifier”. We then analyse the types of anti-gender actions across Europe that interfere with the educational process in public schools. Finally, we consider the role of parents and their right to intervene (or not in the educational process. On the basis of the existing rulings of the European Court of Human Rights, we argue that the provision that parents are entitled to educate their children in accordance with their religious and moral beliefs does not mean that teachers in schools should avoid issues that might “morally distress” pupils or their parents, as long as schools avoid indoctrination, and providing the topics (like any other topics are conveyed in an objective, critical and pluralistic manner.
Tetikcok, Ramazan; Ozer, Erdal; Cakir, Lutfullah; Enginyurt, Ozgur; İscanli, M Dogan; Cankaya, Soner; Ozer, Filiz
Violence within the family is a significant health problem which threatens the health of the community. The global rates of domestic violence directed at women have been reported as 10%-69% and in Turkey as 25%-30%. The data of our study were obtained from the database of the official internet website of the Turkish Statistics Institute as the data related to violence between 2007 and 2012. In the evaluation of the data, SPSS 11.0 statistics software was used. Although it was determined that women from all groups experienced sexual, physical and emotional violence, higher rates were observed in those living in rural areas compared to those in urban areas, in the eastern region compared to all other regions, in the 45-59 years age group, those with low level of income and with a low level of education. When physicians encounter women who have experienced violence, by evaluating the violence in the context of a legal case, violence is identified and not allowed to become a cycle passed from generation to generation, and in addition to the medical intervention, without forgetting that violence is a public health problem, it is necessary to find a way to provide psychosocial and legal support for the victim. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim
Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707
Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim
To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals' education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.
Homman, Lina E; Edwards, Alexis C; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S
Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607). Three waves of questionnaire-based data were collected over the first two years of college (in 2011-2013). Cross-lagged models were applied to examine the possible direction of effect of internalizing symptoms and alcohol problems. Possible effects of gender were investigated using multigroup modeling. There were significant correlations between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms. A direction of effect was found between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms but differed between genders. A unidirectional relationship varying with age was identified for males where alcohol problems initially predicted internalizing symptoms followed by internalizing symptoms predicting alcohol problems. For females, a unidirectional relationship existed wherein alcohol problems predicted internalizing symptoms. Conclusions/Importance: We conclude that the relationship between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms is complex and differ between genders. In males, both phenotypes are predictive of each other, while in females the relationship is driven by alcohol problems. Importantly, our study examines a population-based sample, revealing that the observed relationships between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.
Full Text Available The current article examines recent trends in the development of public policies addressing gender- based violence in Romania. By undertaking an analysis of the legal and institutional framework from a gender perspective, we seek to understand how and if the new developments have the potential to promote women’s rights and actively support gender equality. As a contextual reading is key to understanding the current dynamics, specific references to the Romanian background will be made along the way. While recent legal progress in this area could indicate a promising perspective, our article will point out the inconsistencies and missing points of current policies, inviting to a cautious and vigilant approach. Potential avenues for improvements, as well as key challenges in how we address violence against women will briefly be discussed.
Antin, Tamar M J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Hunt, Geoffrey
Although the population-level success of tobacco denormalization is widely accepted, it remains unclear whether these strategies alleviate health inequities for sexual and gender minorities. The high risk of smoking among sexual and gender minorities together with research that documents a relationship between stigma-related processes and smoking prevalence for these groups raises questions about whether tobacco-related stigma intensifies the disadvantages associated with the stigmas of other social identities. We have not adequately considered how tobacco-related stigma overlaps with other social identity stigmas. Given concerns about the intensification of inequality, this type of inquiry has important implications for understanding both the effectiveness and limitations of tobacco denormalization strategies for sexual and gender minorities and identifying those tobacco prevention, treatment, and public health policies that work to ameliorate health inequities.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheung, Nicole W T
Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
The provision and receipt of emotion work—defined as intentional activities done to promote another’s emotional well-being—are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid-to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife’s primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852
Full Text Available Two independent surveys of PhD students in STEM fields at the University of California, Berkeley, indicate that underrepresented minorities (URMs publish at significantly lower rates than non-URM males, placing the former at a significant disadvantage as they compete for postdoctoral and faculty positions. Differences as a function of gender reveal a similar, though less consistent, pattern. A conspicuous exception is Berkeley's College of Chemistry, where publication rates are tightly clustered as a function of ethnicity and gender, and where PhD students experience a highly structured program that includes early and systematic involvement in research, as well as clear expectations for publishing. Social science research supports the hypothesis that this more structured environment hastens the successful induction of diverse groups into the high-performance STEM academic track.
Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Thianlai, Kanchana
To examine gender variations in the linkages among family stressors, home demands and responsibilities, coping resources, social connectedness, and older adult health problems. Data were collected from 3,800 elderly participants (1,654 men and 2,146 women) residing in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. Findings indicated gender variations in the levels of these constructs and in the mediational pathways. Thai women indicated greater health problems than men. Emotional empathy was the central variable that linked financial strain, home demands and responsibilities, and older adult health problems through social connectedness. Financial strain (and negative life events for women) was associated with lowered coping self-efficacy and increased health problems. The model indicated greater strength in predicting female health problems. Findings support gender variations in the relationships between ecological factors and older adult health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the reception of media content within a gender perspective. The women’s full exercise of citizenship and access to public debate depends greatly on the way media presents them to the world. This study considers that balanced representation of men and women in the news is an important criterion to take into account in order to produce quality journalism. Considering the various television news programs, the evening news is definitely one of the most important and, yet, one of the less studied. Daily broadcast on a prime time schedule, it is considered to be an important source of information through which citizens acknowledge themain events of the news agenda and, also, their social roles and responsibilities. Therefore, several focus groups have been organized with the purpose of debating news contents and understanding how gender meanings are negotiated by audiences. The analysis of these debates displayed important gender perspectives among focus groups participants. Its outputs allowed a better understanding of how audiences interpret gender meanings in the media and emphasized the need to develop alternative proposals of journalistic practices capable of promoting a critical, balanced and diversified gender perspective within the audiences.
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.
Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
This essay aims to show the relevance of sociological categories gender and generation that underlie the phenomenon of nursing in public health, the episteme of praxis. We understand praxis as the foundation of the historical and dialectic materialism, demonstrating its importance in the process of construction of knowledge in public health nursing. The sociological categories of gender and generation were chosen in this paper because it has the privilege to better illuminate certain phenomena that have been the subject of scientific concern, such as violence against women, children and the elderly, in all its vulnerabilities. The dialectical method was adopted, with an emphasis on the secondary laws of "essence and phenomena" and "reality and possibility". Finally, given that the choice of the approach to the object, as well as the instruments for intervention towards a purpose in the process of scientific knowledge is the choice of the knowing subject, the ethics was related to praxis.
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Sumia, Maria; Työläjärvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina
Increasing numbers of adolescents present in adolescent gender identity services, desiring sex reassignment (SR). The aim of this study is to describe the adolescent applicants for legal and medical sex reassignment during the first two years of adolescent gender identity team in Finland, in terms of sociodemographic, psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development. Structured quantitative retrospective chart review and qualitative analysis of case files of all adolescent SR applicants who entered the assessment by the end of 2013. The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common. The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor. Treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.
Maârof Bin Redzuan, Haslinda Abdullah, Aida Mehrad, Hanina Halimatussadiah
Based on last due decades, job satisfaction assumed as one of the imperative organizational factors that has great role among staff at workplace; furthermore,focusing on this important factor and finding effective items that impact on the level of job satisfaction is very essential. The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between gender and job satisfaction of academic staff at public universities in Malaysia. The Job Descriptive Index inventory (JDI) was used to mea...
Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Liebowitz, Sarah
The 160,000 LGBT adults in Missouri would benefit from an expanded state non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity. There is currently no Missouri law protecting LGBT people from discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. A uniform state-wide law would maximize protection for Missouri’s LGBT population, and provide them the same recourse available to their non-LGBT counterparts. Media reports and lawsuits document that a number...
This study aimed to identify the work-related stress and its subsequent problems among teachers of the public schools which operated the school-based Violence Reduction Program (VRP) in the governorate of Tulkarm during the second semester of 2015-2016. Besides, it aimed to identify the effect of specific variables, such as gender, specialization,…
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.
Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Tremblay, Joel; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Khazaal, Yasser; Légaré, Andrée-Anne; Rousseau, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal
There are presently no data available concerning Internet addiction (IA) problems among adolescents in Canada and the province of Quebec. The goal of this study is thus to document and compare the influence of gender on Internet use and addiction. The study data were collected from a larger research project on gambling among adolescents. Activities conducted online (applications used and time spent) as well as answers to the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) were collected from 3938 adolescents from grades 9 to 11. The two most often employed cut-off points for the IAT in the literature were documented: (40-69 and 70+) and (50+). Boys spent significantly more time on the Internet than did girls. A greater proportion of the girls made intense use of social networks, whereas a greater proportion of the boys made intense use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online games, and adult sites. The proportion of adolescents with a potential IA problem varied according to the cut-off employed. When the cut-off was set at 70+, 1.3% of the adolescents were considered to have an IA, while 41.7% were seen to be at risk. At a 50+ cut-off, 18% of the adolescents were considered to have a problem. There was no significant difference between the genders concerning the proportion of adolescents considered to be at risk or presenting IA problems. Finally, analysis of the percentile ranks would seem to show that a cut-off of 50+ better describes the category of young people at risk. The results of this study make it possible to document Internet use and IA in a large number of Quebec adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016.
Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra
Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.
Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A
Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors’ diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex–gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the
Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A
Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors' diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex-gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the
Kezia R Manlove
Full Text Available Peer-reviewed publication volume and caliber are widely-recognized proxies for academic merit, and a strong publication record is essential for academic success and advancement. However, recent work suggests that publication productivity for particular author groups may also be determined in part by implicit biases lurking in the publication pipeline. Here, we explore patterns of gender, geography, and institutional rank among authors, editorial board members, and handling editors in high-impact ecological publications during 2015 and 2016. A higher proportion of lead authors had female first names (33.9% than editorial board members (28.9%, and the proportion of female first names among handling editors was even lower (21.1%. Female editors disproportionately edited publications with female lead authors (40.3% of publications with female lead authors were handled by female editors, though female editors handled only 34.4% of all studied publications. Additionally, ecological authors and editors were overwhelmingly from countries in the G8, and high-ranking academic institutions accounted for a large portion of both the published work, and its editorship. Editors and lead authors with female names were typically affiliated with higher-ranking institutions than their male peers. This description of author and editor features provides a baseline for benchmarking future trends in the ecological publishing culture.
Manlove, Kezia R; Belou, Rebecca M
Peer-reviewed publication volume and caliber are widely-recognized proxies for academic merit, and a strong publication record is essential for academic success and advancement. However, recent work suggests that publication productivity for particular author groups may also be determined in part by implicit biases lurking in the publication pipeline. Here, we explore patterns of gender, geography, and institutional rank among authors, editorial board members, and handling editors in high-impact ecological publications during 2015 and 2016. A higher proportion of lead authors had female first names (33.9%) than editorial board members (28.9%), and the proportion of female first names among handling editors was even lower (21.1%). Female editors disproportionately edited publications with female lead authors (40.3% of publications with female lead authors were handled by female editors, though female editors handled only 34.4% of all studied publications). Additionally, ecological authors and editors were overwhelmingly from countries in the G8, and high-ranking academic institutions accounted for a large portion of both the published work, and its editorship. Editors and lead authors with female names were typically affiliated with higher-ranking institutions than their male peers. This description of author and editor features provides a baseline for benchmarking future trends in the ecological publishing culture.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that children of alcohol use disorder (AUD parents are more likely to develop alcohol problems as well as antisocial and other behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine gender discordance in the effect of early maternal and paternal influences on antisocial behaviors of boys and girls, as well as the environmental factors that moderate the parental effects. Specifically, we examined the effects of childhood and adulthood antisocial behavior of the parents on offspring antisocial behavior as young adults. We also examined whether mothers' and fathers' drinking problems when offspring were young children (6-8 years affected offspring antisocial behavior as young adults (18-21 years. We evaluated 655 children from 339 families in the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS, a prospective study of AUD and non-AUD families. Path models were constructed in order to test for the parental contributions to offspring outcomes. We found that both mothers' and fathers' antisocial behavior contributed to the children's young adult antisocial behavior. Only mothers' drinking problems while their children were little had a significant effect on their sons' later drinking, but not on their daughters'. These different parental effects suggest that maternal and paternal influences may be mediated by different mechanisms.
Harisman, Y.; Noto, M. S.; Bakar, M. T.; Amam, A.
This article discusses about students’ gesture between genders in answering problems of geometry. Gesture aims to check students’ understanding which is undefined from their writings. This study is a qualitative research, there were seven questions given to two students of eight grade Junior High School who had the equal ability. The data of this study were collected from mathematical problem solving test, videoing students’ presentation, and interviewing students by asking questions to check their understandings in geometry problems, in this case the researchers would observe the students’ gesture. The result of this study revealed that there were patterns of gesture through students’ conversation and prosodic cues, such as tones, intonation, speech rate and pause. Female students tended to give indecisive gestures, for instance bowing, hesitating, embarrassing, nodding many times in shifting cognitive comprehension, forwarding their body and asking questions to the interviewer when they found tough questions. However, male students acted some gestures such as playing their fingers, focusing on questions, taking longer time to answer hard questions, staying calm in shifting cognitive comprehension. We suggest to observe more sample and focus on students’ gesture consistency in showing their understanding to solve the given problems.
Full Text Available Gender diversity in management became one of the “hot topics” in recent years. The literature reports examples of research proving all possible effects (i.e. both positive and negative together with lack of influence of gender diversity among top managers to the company performance. (Research Aims. Therefore, the aim of our research is to find out the women share on boards of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in the years 2010-2016, and to check how the changes in the gender structure of the management boards influence the company performance. (Research hypothesis. There is no essential gender diversity on the boards of Polish public companies, and change in the management structure does not affect the situation of the companies. (Method. In our investigation we use data provided by Notoria Serwis, and apply taxonomic measures together with dynamic and correlation analysis. (Conclusions. Our results show that it would be impossible to obtain the 40% parity level on boards till 2020 since increasing tendency of women representation in upper management is rather slow. There is no significant positive correlation between changes in the women share on boards and financial performance of companies, we observe only single negative significant relations.
Mayer, Erik N; Lenherr, Sara M; Hanson, Heidi A; Jessop, Terry C; Lowrance, William T
To describe the publication productivity of academic urologists in the United States by gender. Gender inequality is prevalent in most surgical subspecialties, including urology. Despite small numbers of women in academic positions, differences in scholarly impact by gender are relatively unknown. We assembled a list of 1922 academic urologists (1686 men (87.7%), 236 women (12.3%)) at 124 academic institutions throughout the United States as of February 2016. Scopus and Google Scholar were queried for bibliometric data on each individual, including h-index and m-quotient. We analyzed these metrics for both genders by educational background, subspecialty, National Institutes of Health funding, and academic rank. Men had higher median h-indices than women overall (P productivity by successive rank after controlling for career duration (m-quotient). Women were more likely to choose a practice that specialized in pediatric urology or female urology/pelvic reconstructive surgery than their male counterparts (P advancement such as lack of mentorship or discriminatory policies may help pioneering female urologists as they progress in their careers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Leta, J.; Cabanac, G.
Previous studies performed by our research group have brought to light the concept “scientific capital” developed by Bourdieu to characterize the vertical segregation framework in Brazilian science, specifically Brazilian graduate programs, which is the main piece of the country’s S&T system. The present study still focuses on gender differences in Brazilian graduate programs but it turns attention to their institutional assignments. Among all information sent annaually to Capes evaluation process, heads of graduate programs have to send the top five publications of the year. Considering the institutional relevance of this set of publications, the present study aims to identify whether an institutional mechanism, as the choice of the best publications of the graduate program by the heads, promotes gender equality or reinforces discrepancies in Brazilian academia. Preliminary results, performed upon official data of teacher-researchers performance affiliated to Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, suggest that males rather than females more are more represented in this selective set of publications. (Author)
The purpose of this study is to investigate prospective teachers' perceived personal problem-solving competencies in relation to gender, major, place lived, and internal-external locus of control. The Personal Problem-Solving Inventory and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were used to collect data from freshman teacher candidates…
Schonberger, Ann K.
A study was conducted at the University of Maine at Orono (UMO) to examine gender differences with respect to mathematical problem-solving ability, visual spatial ability, abstract reasoning ability, field independence/dependence, independent learning style, and developmental problem-solving ability (i.e., formal reasoning ability). Subjects…
Andringa, Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Rense; van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the interplay between individual women’s gender role attitudes, having young children at home, as well as the country-context characterized by gender egalitarianism and public childcare support, relates to women’s working hours in 23 European
Labots, Geert; Jones, Aubrey; de Visser, Saco J.; Burggraaf, Jacobus
Aims Several studies have reported the under‐representation of women in clinical trials, thereby challenging the external validity of the benefit/risk assessments of launched drugs. Our aim was to determine the extent to which women have been included in clinical trials used for drug registration and to analyse the fraction of women participating in phases I, II and III. Methods We conducted cross‐sectional, structured research into publicly available registration dossiers of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)‐approved drugs that are prescribed frequently. Furthermore, we analysed compounds with high hepatic clearance and a known gender‐related difference in drug response. In a sensitivity analysis, we compared figures with US disease prevalence data. Results For 38 of the initial 137 drugs (28%), sufficient data were reported and publicly available. For these drugs, 185 479 trial participants were included, of whom 47% were female and 44% were male; gender was not reported for 9% of participants. However, the number of female participants varied with the phase of the trial, with 22% females in phase I trials vs. 48% and 49%, respectively, in phase II and III trials. When compared with US disease prevalence data, 10 drugs (26%) had a greater than 20% difference between the proportion of females affected with the disease compared with representation in clinical trials. Conclusions From these publicly available data, there was no evidence of any systematic under‐representation of women in clinical trials. PMID:29293280
Razavi, Shahra; Jenichen, Anne
This article explores how religion as a political force shapes and deflects the struggle for gender equality in contexts marked by different histories of nation building and challenges of ethnic diversity, different state-society relations (from the more authoritarian to the more democratic), and different relations between state power and religion (especially in the domain of marriage, family and personal laws). It shows how 'private' issues, related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and context-specific solutions. Not only are claims of 'divine truth' justifying discriminatory practices against women hard to challenge, but the struggle for gender equality is further complicated by the manner in which it is closely tied up with, and inseparable from, struggles for social and economic justice, ethnic/racial recognition, and national self-determination vis--vis imperial/global domination.
Felicia Cornelia MACARIE
Full Text Available This study approaches the public organizations and their organizational culture by taking into account the gender factor. More specifically, it will approach women’s presence in the leadership of public organizations, the influence of the public organizational culture in the promotion of women in middle and top management positions, and it will finally identify the defining characteristics of the organizational culture of the institutions led by women in comparison to those led by men. Our study is based on a research conducted in Bistriţa-Năsăud County, Romania, by applying a survey in 12 public organizations. The survey comprises 16 questions, seven of which are open questions; 25 women with different positions in the medium and the top management of public institutions were surveyed. The conclusions of the research confirm the existence of some clear differences in the organizational culture of womenled and respectively, men-led public institutions. At the same time, the study identifies possible causes for the low presence of women in the public top management in contrast to their high presence in the execution positions.
Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew
In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women. In this study, we describe the results of an analysis of data drawn from 1185 fortnightly gamblers that included 338 problem gamblers as classified by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Indicators of problem gambling were similar between males and females with a few key exceptions. Indicators reflecting emotional distress were more commonly reported by females with gambling problems, whereas problem gambling males were more likely to display aggressive behaviour towards gambling devices and others in the venue. Amongst males, signs of emotional distress as well as attempts to conceal their presence in venues from others most strongly differentiated between problem and non-problem gamblers. Amongst females, signs of anger, a decline in grooming and those attempts to access credit were the most distinguishing indicators. These findings have implications for the refinement of identification policies and practices.
Süßenbacher, S; Amering, M; Gmeiner, A; Schrank, B
Within academic psychiatry, women are underrepresented in the higher academic ranks. However, basic determinants of women's lack of academic advancement such as publication activity are poorly understood. The present study examines women's publication activity in high-impact psychiatry journals over two decades and reports developments in the numbers of male and female authorship over time and across cultural areas. We conducted a retrospective bibliometric review of all articles published in 2004 and 2014 in three high-ranking general psychiatry journals. Statistical comparisons were made between the two years and with results from a baseline assessment in 1994. The overall percentage of female authors increased from 24.6% in 1994 to 33.2% in 2004 to 38.9% in 2014. Though increases in female authorship were statistically significant for both decades, there was less difference between 2004 and 2014, indicating a possible ceiling effect. Rates of female first authors increased between 1994 and 2014, though to a lesser degree between 2004 and 2014. Numbers of female corresponding authors plateaued between 2004 and 2014. Within Europe, Scandinavia displayed the most balanced gender-wise first author ratios. Western European and Central European countries increased their rates of female first authors substantially between 2004 and 2014. Despite gains in some areas, our study reveals considerable deficits in the diversity of the current academic psychiatric landscape. Ongoing efforts and interventions to enhance the participation of underrepresented groups on institutional, political and editorial levels are necessary to diversify psychiatric research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
ANNOTATION The dissertation provides an analysis of scientific theories related to a woman’s role in public administration, including interaction of equality, feminism and public administration theories and women’s career development, discusses management vs. leadership in gender perspective, decision-making mechanisms, team role theories and gives theoretical analysis of gender stereotypes and prejudice and a comparison of discrimination theories. The practice of solving ge...
Full Text Available The methodology presented here developed out of work required to convert the hard-copy illustrations submitted to Internet Archaeology for publication of the 1975 excavations at Cricklade. The publication (and digital image preparatory work was funded by English Heritage and was, in part, an experiment designed to explore some of the possibilities presented by digital image publication. Various challenges in how to transform the drawings on permatrace to a digital format were encountered. While a full exploration of the potential of all areas of digital image preparation and publication was not possible, some interesting technical options were evaluated. This short article explains the processes applied in creating the images that were finally incorporated within the publication. It also examines some other avenues regarding the presentation of archaeological drawings that could be explored in both future Internet Archaeology content and other digital publications.
Full Text Available This exploratory research is focused on two gender phenomena which can manifest in the public sphere (the glass ceiling and horizontal segregation, trying to connect these phenomena with the concept of representative bureaucracy in Romanian central public administration institutions. Using 2003-2015 data covering central public administration institutions (ministries and other government offices/departments the analysis shows that the overall situation of women in these decision-making positions has improved considerably in 2011, ensuring the desideratum of gender equity (and possible fertile ground for a representative bureaucracy. However, the sudden shift observed in the data between 2010 and 2011 might be an unintended result of austerity pay cuts as men in decision-making positions migrated to the private sector due to financial reasons. Breaking down the data (according to the BEIS typology provides (partial evidence for the existence of sectorial segregation, as at the higher administrative ranks (level 1 there are more men than women in institutions with Basic functions (Government’s Office, European Funds, Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Justice, National Defense, while the reverse is true for Socio-cultural institutions (Culture, Education and Scientific Research, Employment, Family, Social Protection and Elderly, Health, Youth and Sport.
Verissimo, Angie Denisse Otiniano; Grella, Christine E
This study examines reasons why people do not seek help for alcohol or drug problems by gender and race/ethnicity using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative survey. Multivariate models were fit for 3 barriers to seeking help (structural, attitudinal, and readiness for change) for either alcohol or drug problems, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and problem severity. Predicted probabilities were generated to evaluate gender differences by racial/ethnic subgroups. Over three quarters of the samples endorsed attitudinal barriers related to either alcohol or drug use. Generally, women were less likely to endorse attitudinal barriers for alcohol problems. African Americans and Latina/os were less likely than Whites to endorse attitudinal barriers for alcohol problems, Latina/os were less likely than Whites to endorse readiness for change barriers for alcohol and drug problems, however, African Americans were more likely to endorse structural barriers for alcohol problems. Comparisons within racial/ethnic subgroups by gender revealed more complex findings, although across all racial/ethnic groups women endorsed attitudinal barriers for alcohol problems more than men. Study findings suggest the need to tailor interventions to increase access to help for alcohol and drug problems that take into consideration both attitudinal and structural barriers and how these vary across groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valverde, María Eugenia Rojas
This article shows the significance of the problems of political harassment and violence against women in positions of political responsibility in Bolivia. This phenomenon is seen in both rural and urban areas and transcends borders. It has been shown that these attacks constitute a violation of women's civil and political rights and a threat to the physical and mental health of women leaders in Bolivia. Furthermore, there is no punishment of guilty parties, reparation, or moral or material compensation for the women who are affected. In Bolivia, gender-based harassment and violence is a fundamental barrier to women's political participation. However, this phenomenon is still not addressed by government programs and is not part of the public discourse and debate. In spite of the measures taken to promote women's political participation, several different administrations have been unable to guarantee women the capacity to occupy positions of responsibility without being threatened or harassed. The results of our research led to a bill addressing this problem. Subsequently, Ecuador took this bill as an example and replicated it in a legislative initiative. These results show the importance of research by organizations that represent women in preventing unjust situations and health problems.
Guziy A. E.
Full Text Available The article reads about the institute of public initiatives in the Russian Federation. The comparative law analysis of this form of democracy with the analogous institute in the United States of America has been conducted.
Machado de Faria, N.G.
This paper describes various national approaches to public acceptance of nuclear power plants and stresses the difference between countries with military nuclear programmes and those using the atom for purely peaceful purposes. (NEA) [fr
25 oct. 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.
Caplar, Neven; Tacchella, Sandro; Birrer, Simon
Numerous studies across different research fields have shown that both male and female referees consistently give higher scores to work done by men than to identical work done by women 1,2,3 . In addition, women are under-represented in prestigious publications and authorship positions 4,5 and women receive ~10% fewer citations 6,7 . In astronomy, similar biases have been measured in conference participation 8,9 and success rates for telescope proposals 10,11 . Even though the number of doctorate degrees awarded to women is constantly increasing, women still tend to be under-represented in faculty positions 12 . Spurred by these findings, we measure the role of gender in the number of citations that papers receive in astronomy. To account for the fact that the properties of papers written by men and women differ intrinsically, we use a random forest algorithm to control for the non-gender-specific properties of these papers. Here we show that papers authored by women receive 10.4 ± 0.9% fewer citations than would be expected if the papers with the same non-gender-specific properties were written by men.
Szameitat, André J; Hamaida, Yasmin; Tulley, Rebecca S; Saylik, Rahmi; Otermans, Pauldy C J
Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others) filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants' self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work.
André J Szameitat
Full Text Available Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants' self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work.
A. A. Maksimov
Full Text Available Is there a specific incentive system in the public service? On this question Russian and foreign experts do not give a clear answer. Author systematizes the results of numerous comparative studies of employees’ motivation in public and private organizations. Innovative approaches to motivation most often arise in the commercial sector, and not all of them are usable in the public service. Motivation of civil servants in Russia and abroad has remained relatively stable. Meantime, several non-financial incentives and, above all, the career play a special role here. Comparative analyze of the motivation in state and private organizations enables to identify common and special needs, which are relevant to employees in the both sectors. Studies of this kind were conducted repeatedly and often pushed the researchers to the new discussions and consequently to the new discoveries in the human resource management. The results of these studies can be used in the further developing of concepts such as New Public Management. The relevance of such studies increases with the de-bureaucratization of social relations, the desire to create “service” state. Since these processes inevitably involve commercial entities or products of their activity, first of all, management innovations, there is an urgent need to create conditions for productive cooperation between the public and private sectors. The author stresses the importance of a responsible approach to the creation of a favorable environment for the exchange of experiences and social technologies between public and private organizations, including the transformation of the motivation system in the public sector. The changes must make state and more flexible and dynamic and, at the same time, not violate their essence and socially important purposes. A convenient, but controversial source for borrowing effective motivation tools and technologies is the experience of developed countries, which, despite
Short-Meyerson, Katherine; Sandrin, Susannah; Edwards, Chris
Gender is a critical social factor influencing how children view the world from very early childhood. Additionally, during the early elementary years, parents can have a significant influence on their child's behaviors and dispositions in fields such as science. This study examined the influence of parent gender and child gender on 2nd- and…
Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research on important parameters of the loyalty of employees in the public and the private sector. The research was conducted in the Republic of Croatia as a part of the research focused on the essential parameters of the loyalty of employees that contribute to building and retaining loyal behaviour. Loyalty and employee satisfaction are the key parameters that influence the success of a company. In addition, loyal and satisfied employees are important in building good relationships with customers, suppliers and all stakeholders involved in business processes of an organization or a company. The purpose of this article is to define whether there is a difference in parameters of the loyalty of employees in the public and the private sector in Croatia, as well as whether there are certain differences based on gender.
O'Connor, Erin E; Chen, Pauline; Weston, Brian; Anderson, Redmond; Zeffiro, Timothy; Ahmed, Awad; Zeffiro, Thomas A
Although substantial increases in publications by female academic radiologists have appeared over the last several decades, it is possible that the rate of increase is decreasing. We examined temporal trends in gender composition for full-time radiology faculty, radiology residents, and medical students over a 46-year period. We examined authorship gender trends to determine if the increases in female authorship seen since 1970 have been sustained in recent years and whether female radiologists continue to publish in proportion to their numbers in academic departments. Original articles for selected years in Radiology and in the American Journal of Roentgenology between 1970 and 2016 were examined to determine the gender of first, corresponding, and last authors. Generalized linear models evaluated (1) changes in proportions of female authorship over time and (2) associations between proportions of female authorship and female radiology faculty representation. While linear increases in first, corresponding, and senior authorships were observed for female radiologists from 1970 to 2000, the rate of increase in female first and corresponding authorships then changed, with the slope of the first author relationship decreasing from 0.81 to 0.34, corresponding to 47% fewer female first authors added per year. In contrast, the proportion of female last authorship continued to increase at the same rate. The proportion of female first authorship was linearly related to the proportion of female radiology faculty from 1970 to 2016. Annual increases in first author academic productivity of female radiologists have lessened in the past 16 years, possibly related to reductions in the growth of female radiology faculty and trainees. As mixed, compared to homogeneous gender, authorship teams are associated with more citations, efforts to encourage more women to pursue careers in academic radiology could benefit the radiology research community. Copyright © 2018 The Association
Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Andy H
Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Supplements may directly cause toxic reactions or may interact with other supplements or pharmaceuticals. Some supplements are found to have been contaminated with heavy metals, and others do not contain the expected quantities of active ingredients. In general, supplements are not needed except in cases of established deficiencies, and excess of some nutrients can increase cancer rates. There are important public health reasons for taking some supplements, including folate and iodine in pregnancy. This review discusses the public health concerns associated with dietary supplements and suggests directions for further regulation.
Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet
Digital tools of research dissemination make scholarly publications accessible to the public at large through simple search engines. As a result, the users that we study, interview, and cite may be at risk of exposure to unwelcome types of scrutiny and scholars must grapple with challenges...... to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...
Thompson, Shane Ellis
My dissertation consists of three chapters that focus on the economics of education. In particular I look at public school financing, gender discrimination in advising, and the effectiveness of out-of-school-time programs for disadvantaged schools. The first chapter analyzes the effect of an extremely large funding shock on Wyoming public schools…
Kinnison, Andrea; Cottrell, Randal R.; King, Keith A.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate hand washing behaviors in public restrooms with and without reminder signs. Gender, race, signage, and time of day were examined to determine if there were differences in hand washing compliance based on these variables. Participants included male and female adults entering restrooms at two public shopping…
Lohmann, Roger A; Van Til, Jon
... into eventual dialogue the disparate leaders of Israel and Egypt. Saunders's work continued through the 1980s and 1990s with the Dartmouth Seminar, developing public conversation between Soviet and American citizen leaders, and has since spread to many other nations under the rubric of "sustained dialogue." During the same period, the Kettering Fo...
The abysmal failure of public health care system in Nigeria has attracted comments and criticisms from local and national levels. The provision of adequate health care services to the citizens, particularly those residing at the rural areas has left much to be desired. In spite of media propaganda and the current health sector ...
Bardoel, J.L.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.
New information technologies, liberalizing policies and rapidly changing societies – from mono- to multicultural – entail serious consequences for the prospects of European public service broadcasters in a network society. The European concept of PSB as a comprehensive and universal service is
Texas Research League, Austin.
The U.S. District Court ruling in Rodriguez vs San Antonio Independent School District, which struck down Texas' school finance system as inequitable and unconstitutional, provided the impetus for publishing this interim report. The report documents the growing cost of State-supported public school programs--the primary concern prior to the…
Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne
Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.
Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander
Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a
C. Sathyamala (Christina)
textabstractThis working paper examines the construction of a ‘native’ diet in India by the British from the early 1900s to mid 1900s when the country gained Independence. It was not until the 1920s that malnutrition was ‘discovered’ and constructed as an imperial problem worthy of systematic
Damen Haile Mariam1. One of the articles in this issue demonstrates how road traffic accident is a serious, but neglected, health problem in Ethiopia using secondary data collected by the Amhara National Regional State. Police Commission from 2007-2011 (1). Fatalities due to traffic accidents are reported to be among.
Spoth, Richard; Neppl, Tricia; Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine; Jung, Tony; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini
This article reports two exploratory studies testing a model guided by a social interactional perspective, positing an inverse relation between the quality of parent-child interactions and adolescent problem behaviors. It addresses mixed findings in the literature related to gender differences. Study 1 uses cross-sectional survey data from…
Azul, David; Arnold, Aron; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are indications of gender-related voice problems in our transmasculine participants and to analyze how discrepancies between participant self-evaluations and researcher-led examinations can be best negotiated to ensure a participant-centered interpretation. Method: We conducted a…
that the European Union (EU) approach to gender equality has strengthened the transnational space of mobilization and given actors new possibilities to negotiate about multiple inequalities and direct their claims at different levels. This has at the same time led to a diversification of women’s claims...... and conflicts about the meanings and framings of gender equality and diversity within the EPS. This is illustrated by case studies of the framing of gender equality and ethno-national diversity by political actors in the European Women’s Lobby and the European Parliament. The article proposes......This article addresses conflicts and negotiations about gender equality and diversity within the European public sphere (EPS). It aims to explore the specific constraints and possibilities for realizing gender equality and justice from the transnational European context. Research illustrates...
Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda
Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018
McGregor, Carolyn; Smith, Kathleen P; Percival, Jennifer
The study of women within the professions of Engineering and Computer Science has consistently been found to demonstrate women as a minority within these professions. However none of that previous work has assessed publication behaviours based on gender. This paper presents research findings on gender distribution of authors of accepted papers for the IEEE Engineering and Medicine Society annual conference for 2007 (EMBC '07) held in Lyon, France. This information is used to present a position statement of the current state of gender representation for conference publication within the domain of biomedical engineering and health informatics. Issues in data preparation resulting from the lack of inclusion of gender in information gathered from accepted authors are presented and discussed.
Alexander E. Lantsov
Full Text Available Infrastructure is of high importance for human society, so the state pay great attention to it. Characteristics inherent to infrastructure, its development, maintenance and consumption don’t always explain only the state involvement in the sector.The article considers preconditions and basis of private sector involvement in the process of infrastructure supply, experience of different countries, public and private sectors relationships in the matter and private sector effectiveness in infrastructure supply.
Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.
Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program…
Lestari, N. D. S.; Juniati, D.; Suwarsono, St.
The purpose of this paper is to describe to what extent the prospective teachers can be considered as mathematically literate and how they communicate their reasoning in solving the problem based on the sex differences. Data were collected through mathematics literacy test on occupational context by 157 of prospective teachers from three universities in East Java, Indonesia. Their written responses were collected, organized based on the sex differences, analyzed and categorized to one of three levels of mathematical literacy. The examples of interesting students’ response altogether with the scoring are discussed to describe their characteristic on mathematical literacy and their communication. The result showed that in general the mathematical literacy of female prospective teachers tend to be better than male prospective math teachers. Female prospective teachers are more capable of logical reasoning, using concepts, facts and procedures and algebraic operations to draw conclusions; make an interpretations and evaluations. This study has an implication that gender differences in mathematical literacy of prospective math teachers do exist, therefore this issue should be given a serious concern from the development programs of the faculty.
The aim of this study is to examine potential gender inequality in authority positions in the Swedish labour market. In addition, this thesis intends to explore whether there is a difference in gender inequality between the public and the private sector. The results show that women have poorer advancement opportunities compared to men. Men have significantly higher probabilities of holding managerial positions and this is valid in both sectors of the Swedish economy. The outcome cannot be exp...
Borghi , Rachele; Camuffo , Monica
International audience; The protests which have been ongoing in North-African countries since February 2011 have contributed towards giving visibility to that component of society often neglected by the dominant male model: women. Female bodies occupied not only the front covers of important magazines (Libération, n.9253, 12th-13th February 2011; Los Angeles Times, Saturday 12th February), but also a traditional male space: the public space. This media visibility of women has given new food f...
Full Text Available Myopia, a form of refractive error is a leading cause of visual disability throughout the world. In India uncorrected refractive errors are the most common cause of visual impairment and second major cause of avoidable blindness. Due to this the public health and economic impact of myopia is enormous. Although school vision screening programme is very successful in many states, still a significant number of school going children remain unidentified and the unmet need for correcting refractive errors in children appears to be significant.
Loss, J; Nagel, E
Health communication, e.g., mass media campaigns, patient information leaflets or websites, plays an important role in public health. It contributes to citizen empowerment and helps them make informed decisions in health matters. However, public health communication can lead to adverse effects on both individual and societal level, e.g., by inaccurate or partial information, discriminatory messages, scandalizing coverage or inadequate tailoring to relevant target groups. It seems important to suggest ethical criteria for health information, e.g., (1) accuracy, completeness and balance, (2) transparency, (3) participation of the target group, (4) respect for human dignity, (5) social justice and equity, (6) appropriateness. Thoughtfulness is important in order not to stigmatize population subgroups. In addition, it is laborious to comprehensively and correctly present benefits and risks of a certain health behavior. Marketing principles guide how to 'sell' a certain health behavior, but health campaigns should not manipulate target persons for the sake of a population health aim. It remains unclear, however, how the different providers of health information can be held ethically responsible.
Carabellese, F; Urbano, M; Coluccia, A; Gualtieri, G
The dramatic case of murder of a psychiatrist during her service in her public office (Centro di Salute Mentale of Bari-Libertà) has led the authors to reflect on the safety of workplaces, in detail of public psychiatric services. It is in the light of current legislation, represented by the Legislative Decree of April 9th, 2008 no. 81, which states the implementing rules of Law 123/2007. In particular, the Authors analyzed the criticalities of the application of this Law, with the aim of safeguarding the health and safety of the workers in all psychiatric services (nursing departments, outpatient clinics, community centers, day care centers, etc.). The Authors suggest the need to set up an articulated specific organizational system of risk assessment of psychiatric services, that can prevent and protect the workers from identified risks, and finally to ensure their active participation in prevention and protection activities, in absence of which specific profiles of responsibility would be opened up to the employers.
exaggerates to gender-related problems. However, these views do not explain all cases; true comorbidity of ASD and GID should be considered. A full assessment including evaluation of the family, school, and social environment is essential as other emotional and behavioral problems are very common and unresolved issues in the child's environment are often present e. g., loss. Separation problems are particularly common in the younger group. Intervention should aim to assist development, particularly that of gender identity. It should focus on ameliorating the comorbid problems and difficulties in the child's life and reducing the distress experienced by the child.
Farstad, Sarah M; von Ranson, Kristin M; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Schopflocher, Don P
This study investigated the degree to which facets of impulsiveness predicted future binge eating and problem gambling, 2 theorized forms of behavioral addiction. Participants were 596 women and 406 men from 4 age cohorts randomly recruited from a Canadian province. Participants completed self-report measures of 3 facets of impulsiveness (negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of persistence), binge-eating frequency, and problem-gambling symptoms. Impulsiveness was assessed at baseline, and assessments of binge eating and problem gambling were followed up after 3 years. Weighted data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found evidence of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific predictors of binge eating and problem gambling. Negative urgency emerged as a common predictor of binge eating and problem gambling among women and men. There were disorder-specific personality traits identified among men only: High lack-of-persistence scores predicted binge eating and high sensation-seeking scores predicted problem gambling. Among women, younger age predicted binge eating and older age predicted problem gambling. Thus, there are gender differences in facets of impulsiveness that longitudinally predict binge eating and problem gambling, suggesting that treatments for these behaviors should consider gender-specific personality and demographic traits in addition to the common personality trait of negative urgency. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Williams, Idongesit; Kwofie, Benjamin; Salifu, Fauziatu
More men use ICTs than women globally. This is not necessarily because there are more men than women globally. Rather, it is because of social, economic and cultural challenges work against the adoption of ICTs by women. In this chapter, public demand aggregation of ICT content is promoted...... as a means of bridging the Broadband/ICT gender gap. This chapter argues; the promotion of a common and useful e-government application (e-government applications are numerous, which one are you referring to here?) – Statement too vague in a country will enable equal adoption of ICTs by both men and Women...... other uses of ICTs in other areas of their lives, spurring sustainable adoption of ICTs....
Kistka, Heather M; Nayeri, Arash; Wang, Li; Dow, Jamie; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Chambless, Lola B
OBJECT Misrepresentation of scholarly achievements is a recognized phenomenon, well documented in numerous fields, yet the accuracy of reporting remains dependent on the honor principle. Therefore, honest self-reporting is of paramount importance to maintain scientific integrity in neurosurgery. The authors had observed a trend toward increasing numbers of publications among applicants for neurosurgery residency at Vanderbilt University and undertook this study to determine whether this change was a result of increased academic productivity, inflated reporting, or both. They also aimed to identify application variables associated with inaccurate citations. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the residency applications submitted to their neurosurgery department in 2006 (n = 148) and 2012 (n = 194). The applications from 2006 were made via SF Match and those from 2012 were made using the Electronic Residency Application Service. Publications reported as "accepted" or "in press" were verified via online search of Google Scholar, PubMed, journal websites, and direct journal contact. Works were considered misrepresented if they did not exist, incorrectly listed the applicant as first author, or were incorrectly listed as peer reviewed or published in a printed journal rather than an online only or non-peer-reviewed publication. Demographic data were collected, including applicant sex, medical school ranking and country, advanced degrees, Alpha Omega Alpha membership, and USMLE Step 1 score. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to identify predictors of misrepresentation. RESULTS Using univariate analysis, between 2006 and 2012 the percentage of applicants reporting published works increased significantly (47% vs 97%, p < 0.001). However, the percentage of applicants with misrepresentations (33% vs 45%) also increased. In 2012, applicants with a greater total of reported works (p < 0.001) and applicants from unranked US medical schools (those not
Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary; Haasler, Simone; Tomassini, Massimo; Suzanne, Pamela A.
Institutionalised discrimination continues to perpetuate deep rooted social divisions, with gender inequality persisting as a pervasive feature of labour markets across the world. Despite the depth and breadth of gender inequality, there is limited acknowledgement in career theory that the career support needs of women are distinctive. A…
I. O. Svyatnenko
The study of gender culture in Ukrainian society shows that its features are comprehensive and sacred feminine in femen-power by so minority status of men and their victimization; prevalence among women of social networking and communication circles in general atomizovanosti men and weaknesses spilnotoutvorennya including both gender groups; the presence of extensive opportunities to use women against men on gender-based violence, from affective terrorizing and ending with the moral, ethical, educational and legal repression through the court system matriarchal state; different from the European model of the nuclear family constellations in gender oedipal triangle, which results in the formation of transgender identities; breach of balancing social reflection masculinity provided a repressive attitude towards masculine aggression with the full encouragement of the institutions of socialization patterns of gender behavior kvazimaskulinnyh women.
Carolina Luiza Bernardes
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the issues occurred with nursing workers through a Health Monitoring System for Nursing Workers (SIMOSTE and to describe the consequences of those problems. Method: This is a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study realized in a teaching hospital in the west region of the city of São Paulo. Results: From the SIMOSTE, 1.847 occurrences were registered in a six month period. Within the main occurrences, medical licenses, work related accidents with and without removals; psychiatric consultations and psychotherapy were highlighted. Conclusion: The data points out to the need for the development of new health vigilance actions to notify accidents and illness related to work, besides the prevention of issues.
Engel, Nora C
This paper examines how actors construct the public problem of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India. MDR-TB has been framed by the World Health Organization as a pressing, global public health problem. The responses to MDR-TB are complicated as treatment takes longer and is more expensive than routine TB treatment. This is particularly problematic in countries, such as India, with high patient loads, a large and unregulated private sector, weak health systems and potentially high numbers of MDR-TB cases. This paper analyses how actors struggle for control over ownership, causal theories and political responsibility of the public problem of MDR-TB in India. It combines Gusfield's theory on the construction of public problems with insights from literature on the social construction of diseases and on medical social control. It highlights that there are flexible definitions of public problems, which are negotiated among actor groups and which shift over time. The Indian government has shifted its policy in recent years and acknowledged that MDR-TB needs to be dealt with within the TB programme. The study results reveal how the policy shift happened, why debates on the construction of MDR-TB as a public problem in India continue, and why actors with alternative theories than the government do not succeed in their lobbying efforts. Two main arguments are put forward. First, the construction of the public problem of MDR-TB in India is a social and political process. The need for representative data, international influence and politics define what is controllable. Second, the government seems to be anxious to control the definition of India's MDR-TB problem. This impedes an open, critical and transparent discussion on the definition of the public problem of MDR-TB, which is important in responding flexibly to emerging public health challenges.
Kremer, Kristen P.; Flower, Andrea; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.
The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children’s academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for females compared to males at baseline, but the impact of externalizing behavior on long-term reading outcomes did not vary by gender. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for Black children than White children at multiple points in time. Differences between males, females, Black, and White children concerning behavior and achievement are explained. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future research are also presented. PMID:28529397
Demir, Tulin; Kilic, Selcuk
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). Virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. Due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, Guillain-Barre syndrome increases the interest on this virus gradually. Along with the vector-borne transmission, exposure via blood transfusion and sexual contact are further concerns. Since December 2015, CDC reported 440.000-1.300.000 possible cases in Brazil and as of 19 January 2016, El Salvador, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Surinam, French Guana, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama are the countries with active epidemic. CDC recommends ZIKV screening for all pregnants including asymptomatic cases those living in the active epidemic areas. Recently, virus is detected in the USA and most European countries including UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, and Italy as a travel-associated infection. Owing to the changing world with increased capabilities for transportation globally, this vector-borne infection represents a valuable marker for the ability of spreading of any infection from its original area that it was first seen. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date data and reports in terms of the importance of the ZIKV infection in the public health.
Full Text Available Background: The public sector occupies a key role in the economy comprising the appropriation of state revenue to purchase goods and to render services productively, while ensuring the optimum utilisation of available funds and resources to benefit the inhabitants of the country. Problems in the Zimbabwean public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are key contemporary issues. This is evident from the numerous complaints of poor service delivery received by the public that can be attributed to public procurement. Objective: The purpose of this article was to report on a study that investigated problems in the different stages of the operational procurement process in the Zimbabwean public sector that detract from service delivery, the extent of these problems and how the public procurement process can be improved to enhance service delivery. Method: This descriptive and exploratory study followed a quantitative approach. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to all public entities in Zimbabwe. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The majority of the identified problems in the public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are found in the advertising, bid evaluation and contract stages. Conclusion: As only a few studies on this topic have been conducted in Zimbabwe, the findings of this research add a significant perspective to the existing body of knowledge and can assist stakeholders with regard to how the public procurement process can be improved in order to enhance service delivery through public procurement process reform and restructuring.
Full Text Available We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7–9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH, school psychology services (SPS, health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services.
Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Biruck; Mengistu, Belete; Negussie, Henok; Sileshi, Mesfin; Tamiru, Mossie; Tomczyk, Sara; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Davey, Gail; Fentaye, Amha
Podoconiosis is a geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil of volcanic origin. This Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) is highly prevalent in Ethiopia. According to the nationwide mapping in 2013, the disease is endemic in 345 districts, where an estimated 35 million people live. The government of Ethiopia prioritized podoconiosis as one of eight priority NTDs and included it in the national integrated master plan for NTDs. An integrated lymphoedema management guideline has been developed. Service expansion has continued in the last few years and lymphoedema management services have been expanded to over one hundred endemic districts. The last few years have been critical in generating evidence about the distribution, burden and effective interventions for podoconiosis in Ethiopia. Although the extent of the problem within Ethiopia is considerable, the country is well positioned to now scale-up elimination efforts. Given the extraordinary progress of the past ten years and the current commitment of government, private and third sectors, Ethiopia seems to be on course for the elimination of podoconiosis in our lifetime. We need continued strong partner commitment, evidence-building, and scale-up of activities to accomplish this.
Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating
This special issue of Health Communication compiles 10 articles to laud the promise and yet confront the problems in the digital networked information society related to public health. We present this anthology of symphony and cacophony of lay individuals' communicative actions in a digital networked information society. The collection of problems and promise of the new digital world may be a cornerstone joining two worlds-pre- and postdigital network society-and we hope this special issue will help better shape our future states of public health.
Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan
Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP -article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue.
Full Text Available The introduction of public-private partnerships (PPPs into the educational sphere has opened up the sector to a wide range of new private providers in India and Pakistan. The global literature has indicated that the growth in partnerships that provide targeted programmes for girls, in locations where parents prefer to enrol their daughters in these new private schools rather than state schools, will further reduce any existing gender gap. A specific focus on gender equality considerations within PPP programmes is necessary to analyse new evidence on gender equality. A review of national documents on education for India and Pakistan indicates that the concept of gender equality was not included in the original education policy documents, and gender concerns were introduced through a particular institutional history of engagement between international and national policy interventions.District and village data show that there was very little gendered difference in how parental generations studied viewed the educational pathways of their sons and daughters. The younger generation studied are not confident that they will be able to enter gainful employment, which raises policy concerns that the lack of employment for this younger generation could undo any reduction in the gender gap as increased poverty pushes girls out of school in the next two decades.
Lee, Sangbok; Park, Myoung Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong
This study investigates differences between male and female public office workers' satisfaction levels, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) complaints in workplace and office environments. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 30 offices from 15 public institutions. Male and female workers of the same age were coupled and selected from each office, gathering a total of 120 male and 120 female subjects. The results show that differences exist between genders in noise and lighting satisfaction levels, SBS-related symptoms (eye, nose, skin) and MSD complaints of hand/wrist/finger, while there is no difference in overall satisfaction level of office environments. The study also suggests that office design for public office workers should take into account gender differences in preventing MSDs and also SBS. The findings of this study are expected to serve as basic data for designing effective public office environments.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas
The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of t....... Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.......The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...
Elimination of Leprosy as a public health problem by 2000 AD: an ... the scientific (the natural history of leprosy at the present state of knowledge), ... the relationship between leprosy and poverty, prevention of disabilities, lack of a reliable ...
Janaina Xavier do Nascimento
Full Text Available The present text focuses on issues of gender inequality and public policy in Brazil today. My major goals are as follows: 1 to provide an analysis of gender inequality in Brazilian society through an examination of the three key arenas of labor, political representation and science and 2 to examine both the advances and the challenges that persist in confronting inequality through public policies on gender. To these ends, I employ secondary data, obtained from three different official sources (IBGE, TSE and CNPq. Lastly, I argue that while the policies that have been implemented can be linked to significant progress in the three above-mentioned arenas, we are still quite far from a real reversal of the current situation of deep inequality, persisting, above all, in the field of political representation.
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Terakawa, Shinako; Seki, Ayumi; Anme, Tokie
The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), Parent-child Interaction Rating Scale (IRS), and the parent report version of Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The findings clarified that the processing speed of boys significantly correlated with their peer relationship. On the other hand, the emotional symptoms exhibited by girls had a more common association with their intellectual abilities. The correlations between parenting and intellectual abilities differed in boys and girls. Children's gender should be taken into account when assessing the diversity in their intellectual abilities and developmental problems. Moreover, parenting also influences the development of children in various ways.
Daoud, Yousef; Shanti, Ruba
This paper investigates employment sector choice for Palestinian men and women, the paper analyzes wage differential by gender and sector. The paper utilizes Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) Labor Force Surveys for the years 1999, 2001, 2007, and 2010. Although returns to education by gender has been analyzed before, this paper is the first to analyze wage differential and sector choice by gender. The results indicate that there are stark differences by gender from the view point...
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Terakawa, Shinako; Seki, Ayumi; Anme, Tokie
Background The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. Methods Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (WISC-III), Parent-child Interaction Rating Scale (IRS), and the parent report...
Full Text Available rural livelihoods (Department of Public Works, 1997). It also addresses gender dimensions of the projects. As methodology, a mixed-method approach was employed to assess the experiences and impacts of the Siyatentela 56 (Mpumalanga Province), Gundo Lashu...
With more than 200,000 problem drug users is contact with structured treatment services in England the public health imperative behind drug treatment is great. Problem drug use for many is a chronic and relapsing condition, where "cure" is often neither a reasonable or appropriate expectation and it can further be argued that in these circumstances problem drug use is no different from any number of chronic and enduring health conditions that are managed in the health care system and therefore should be conceptualised as such. A public health approach to drug treatment emphasises the need for drug users in or accessing treatment, to reduce their harmful drug use, reduce drug use related risks such as sepsis and overdose and stay alive for longer. However a public health perspective in relation to problem drug use isn't always either apparent or readily understood and to that end there is still a significant need to continue the arguments and debate that treatment and interventions for problem and dependent drug users need to extend beyond an individualistic approach. For the purposes of discussion in this article public and population health will be used interchangeably. A recognition and acceptance that a public and population health approach to the management of problem drug users is sound public health policy also then requires a long term commitment in terms of staffing and resources where service delivery mirrors that of chronic condition management.
Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki
Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.
Full Text Available Gender inequality is a problem in the World as well as in Turkey. What is referred by this problem here is the gender discrimination and thus inequality and injustice in opportunities that women face in a society. It appears in different forms in business life or at work place (inequalities in employment, wages, social benefits and education as well as obstacles in career rise, easy dismissal or layoff, sexual harassment / persecution / mobbing, etc.. In this study, this problem is investigated and evaluated in terms of gender equality issues that women face in Turkey especially in business life. For this purpose, current situation analysis and findings in Turkey from past to present have been made, statistical comparisons have been given against global averages, in which areas of business life it appears the most and from what reasons it originates, reason for its persistence and improvement over time has been researched, and based on our findings, recommendations for possible solutions have been presented.
Peplak, Joanna; Song, Ju-Hyun; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina
This study examined the development of children's decisions, reasoning, and emotions in contexts of peer inclusion/exclusion. We asked an ethnically diverse sample of 117 children aged 4years (n=59; 60% girls) and 8years (n=58; 49% girls) to choose between including hypothetical peers of the same or opposite gender and with or without attention deficit/hyperactivity problems and aggressive behavior. Children also provided justifications for, and emotions associated with, their inclusion decisions. Both 4- and 8-year-olds predominantly chose to include the in-group peer (i.e., the same-gender peer and peers without behavior problems), thereby demonstrating a normative in-group inclusive bias. Nevertheless, children included the out-group peer more in the gender context than in the behavior problem contexts. The majority of children reported group functioning-related, group identity-related, and stereotype-related reasoning after their in-group inclusion decisions, and they associated happy feelings with such decisions. Although most children attributed sadness to the excluded out-group peer, they attributed more anger to the excluded out-group peer in the aggression context compared with other contexts. We discuss the implications of our findings for current theorizing about children's social-cognitive and emotional development in contexts of peer inclusion and exclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Philippe Deuffic and Christophe Bouget
Full Text Available How did the issue of deadwood become an important part of management policies for forest biodiversity? The authors provide a number of answers on the emergence and inclusion of deadwood in management policies.How did the issue of biodiversity emerge? Why are certain categories of living beings ignored? How did the issue of deadwood land on the public-policy agenda? To answer these questions, we used the approach established by Trom and Zimmerman (2001, which identifies the necessary steps toward "institutionalisation" of a public problem, i.e. public criticism of a disturbance, objectivisation of the problem, networking of stakeholders and acceptance of the problem by stakeholders in the field. Using the example of efforts to conserve deadwood in forests, we show that placing an issue on the public agenda does not mean all aspects of biodiversity are involved. In addition, certain potential stakeholders such as forest owners are not inclined to adopt these policies. It is not that they contest the legitimacy of the policy, but rather the procedural aspects from which they feel excluded.
This general analysis of the question of public acceptance of nuclear activities focuses on the problems met by all governmental authorities in implementing their nuclear programmes. The author highlights the need for more specific regulations aimed at guaranteeing fuller information of the public and ensuring closer participation by it. (NEA) [fr
This paper gathers a wide range of indicators into distinctive profiles to show how configurations of gender economic inequality are shaped by both welfare state strategies and gender role ideologies. When multiple aspects of gender inequality are assembled together, it becomes evident that all societies exhibit both gender-egalitarian and inegalitarian features. These tradeoffs can best be understood through the ideological and institutional contexts in which they are embedded. Empirical illustrations are provided for fourteen advanced societies by analysing the major expressions of gender inequality; from women's economic wellbeing and financial autonomy, through labour force participation and continuity of employment, to occupational attainments and economic rewards. The analysis confirms the existence of distinctive profiles of gender inequality and their affinity to normative conceptions of the gender order and ideal types of welfare state institutions.
Otway, H J; Thomas, K
Model study of public opinion 'for' and 'against' the various energy sources - oil, coal, solar and nuclear power. Attitudes are examined from four aspects: psychology - economic advantages, sociopolitical problems, environmental problems and safety. The investigation focuses on nuclear energy. (13 refs.) (In French)
Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson
Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.
Full Text Available Bilkis Vissandjee,1 Assia Mourid,2 Christina A Greenaway,3 Wendy E Short,4 Jodi A Proctor5 1Faculty of Nursing, Public Health Research Institute, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 2Allied Health Library, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, McGill University, Division of Infectious Diseases, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada; 4Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; 5School of Social Work, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors’ diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex–gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate
Todorović Miodrag; Radovanović Olica
Artificial abortion is a very important social-medical, economic and demographic problem. It is not only a problem of public health (disease disability, sterility) and social economy (to lose income and compensation because of absenteeism, increase of expense in health care sector for the treatment of direct, early and late consequences and sterility). It is a very important demographic problem because of the increase in "unrealized fertilities" and lost of descendents. According to the regis...
Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender ...
Sievering, H.; Sinopoli, J.
A framework for environmental decision-making is described in which both qualitative and quantitative aspects of regional problems can be integrated into a problem-solving context. The techniques employed in this framework are computer simulation, games, and vote-trading. The paper concludes that through this framework: (a) environmental analysts can assess public value structure goal sets which can be used in the development of regional simulations, and (b) in turn, the quantitative aspects of the problems will be more easily communicated to the affected public. A brief description of the application of the framework is also presented.
Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel
To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Talan, Ali J; Drake, Carolyn B; Glick, Jennifer L; Claiborn, Camilla Scott; Seal, David
Limited research has examined the ways in which public health training programs equip students to address health disparities affecting the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and other sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations. This study outlines the availability of public health curricula on SGM health topics, and the prevalence of LGBT and SGM-inclusive institutional support services across CEPH-accredited U.S. schools of public health. Content analysis of all course offerings related to gender and sexuality revealed a limited focus on sexual and gender minority health: just 4.7% of courses contained keywords indicating that LGBT or SGM health topics were covered. Similar analysis of institutional support services available at U.S. schools of public health found that only 25% of schools had LGBT student organizations, and just 19% had an office of diversity that specifically advertised LGBT or SGM-inclusive programming or services on the institution's Web site. Finally, only two of 52 schools offered an educational certificate centered on LGBT health. These findings illustrate a significant need for enhanced curricular content and institutional support services that equip public health students to address SGM health disparities. Improvement in this area may encourage future health care professionals to work to reduce these disparities, to improve SGM persons' experiences in health care settings, and to generate further research in this area.
Chen Su-May Sheih
Full Text Available Patrons of public libraries are more diverse and complex than those of other types of libraries, implying potentially more unexpected and difficult situations. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety are generated among librarians when they must handle problem patrons, an effort that may influence the work efficiency of librarians and their physical and mental health. This study conducted a semi-structured in-depth interview, using public service librarians in Taiwan as subjects, to explore the categories of problem patrons and their behavioral characteristics. According to the results, the behavioral characteristics of problem patrons can be divided into 6 categories: interfering with others, violating library regulations, influencing library works, improperly using resources and facilities, breaking laws, and exhibiting a psychological disorder as well as violating social norms. On the basis of the research results, this study offers suggestions for future reference when public libraries must handle problem patrons.
Waks, Leonard J.
In his books "Public Opinion" and "The Phantom Public," Walter Lippmann argued that policy leaders should deny the public a significant role in policymaking. Public opinion, he argued, would inevitably be ill-informed, self-interested and readily manipulated. In "The Public and its Problems," Dewey countered Lippmann…
The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…
Why do men in the United States today complete less schooling than women? One reason may be gender differences in early self-regulation and prosocial behaviors. Scholars have found that boys' early behavioral disadvantage predicts their lower average academic achievement during elementary school. In this study, I examine longer-term effects: Do…
Harrison, Scott D.
Despite three decades of research, gendered participation in music continues to be problematic. While many aspects of Western society maintain a patriarchal stance in the workplace, it is apparent that girls have made some significant changes in their musical choices. Males, it seems, are maintaining the same preferences for instruments as they…
Lange, Karoline; Cohrs, Stefan; Skarupke, Christian; Görke, Monique; Szagun, Bertram; Schlack, Robert
Electronic media play an important role in the everyday lives of children and adolescents and have been shown to be associated with sleep problems. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between time spent using different electronic media and insomnia complaints (IC) in German adolescents with particular respect to gender differences in use patterns and associations with IC. Cross-sectional data of a weighted total of 7533 adolescents aged 11-17 stem from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study) that was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The assessment of IC and time spent using different electronic media (television, computer/internet, video games, total screen time, mobile phones, and music) was included in a self-report questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between time spent per day with each electronic media and IC. Age, SES, emotional problems (anxiety/depression) and presence of a medical condition were considered as covariates in the adjusted model. Boys and girls were considered separately. For boys: computer/internet use of ≥3 h/d (AOR = 2.56, p non-listeners. Everyday use of electronic media devices is associated with IC in adolescents. Clinicians dealing with adolescents referred for sleep problems should be aware of gender-specific patterns of media use and sleep problems.
Full Text Available Gender issues in the field of education has been a continuos debated issue for generations. In the present context, the gender issue is being debated heatedly based on the differences in the achievements among male and female students in public exams.The objective of this study is to obtain views from (N=120 secondary school students randomly selected from various location in Malaysia. Hermeneutic analysis was used in order to analyse the students’ written essays on the factors which contributed to the achievement of the two genders in examinations. The findings of the study clearly indicated that female students outperform male students in examinations. The sample also summed up the factors leading to the failure of male students in performing well and ways to overcome this setback.
Cao, Xing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D
Given the significant modifications to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom criteria from DSM-IV to DSM-5, a better understanding of the dimensionality underlying DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents is needed. However, to date, whether gender moderates the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in youth remains unclear. Meanwhile, little is known about how distinct PTSD dimensions relate to adolescent behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. A sample of 1184 disaster-exposed Chinese adolescents (53.8 % girls) with age ranging from 13 to 17 years (M = 14.3, SD = 0.8) completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Withdrawn, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behavior subscales of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model provided the best fit to the data for both girls and boys. Measurement equivalence of this model held across gender, although girls had higher mean scores than boys on some factors. Differential patterns of associations emerged between PTSD dimensions and behavioral problems, with anhedonia symptoms most strongly relating to social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior symptoms most strongly relating to aggression and delinquency. These findings further support the gender invariance and external criterion validity of the newly refined hybrid model that best represents DSM-5 PTSD symptom structure in youth, and carry implications for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and gender comparison of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology, and potential symptom targets for PTSD intervention among adolescent disaster survivors.
Fragkaki, Iro; Cima, Maaike; Meesters, Cor
Morality deficits have been linked to callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems in response to moral dilemmas, but these associations are still obscure in response to antisocial acts in adolescence. Limited evidence on young boys suggested that callous-unemotional traits and externalizing problems were associated with affective but not cognitive morality judgments. The present study investigated these associations in a community sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 15.35, 64 % females). Adolescents with high callous-unemotional traits showed deficits in affective but not cognitive morality, indicating that they can identify the appropriate moral emotions in others, but experience deviant moral emotions when imagining themselves committing antisocial acts. Externalizing problems and male gender were also strongly related to deficits in affective morality, but they had smaller associations with deficits in cognitive morality too. Implications for treatment and the justice system are discussed.
Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H
The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.
Steensma, Thomas D; Zucker, Kenneth J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Vanderlaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental report, peer sociometric methods, and social interactions in laboratory play groups. The present study was the first cross-national investigation that assessed behavior and emotional problems and the quality of peer relations, both measured by the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), in a sample of 728 gender dysphoric patients (554 children, 174 adolescents), who were referred to specialized gender identity clinics in the Netherlands and Canada. The gender dysphoric adolescents had significantly more teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems than the gender dysphoric children. In both countries, gender dysphoric natal boys had poorer peer relations and more internalizing than externalizing problems compared to the gender dysphoric natal girls. Furthermore, there were significant between-clinic differences: both the children and the adolescents from Canada had more emotional and behavioral problems and a poorer quality of peer relations than the children and adolescents from the Netherlands. In conclusion, gender dysphoric children and adolescents showed the same pattern of emotional and behavioral problems in both countries. The extent of behavior and emotional problems was, however, higher in Canada than in the Netherlands, which appeared, in part, an effect of a poorer quality of peer relations. Per Bronfenbrenner's (American Psychologist, 32, 513-531, 1977) ecological model of human development and well-being, we consider various interpretations of the cross-national, cross-clinic differences on TRF behavior problems at the level of the family, the peer group, and the culture at large.
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kastrup, Marianne C
There is increasing focus on the gender perspective related to the consequences of collective violence. Women run a greater risk of being victims of sexual violence, but few studies have focused on gender differences with respect to physical violence, sexual violations and the impact on health...
Lisa Westholm; Seema Arora-Jonsson
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this pa...
Husky, Mathilde M; Michel, Grégory; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François
The objectives of the present study are to describe gender differences in factors associated with moderate risk and problem gambling. Data were extracted from the 2010 Health Barometer, a large survey on a representative sample of the general population aged 15-85 years living in France (n=27,653), carried out by the National Institute for Health Promotion and Health Education. Data were collected between October 2009 and July 2010. A computer-assisted telephone interview system was used. The findings indicate that men are three times more likely to experience problems with gambling. Men and women have different patterns of gambling activities. Men were more involved with Rapido, internet gambling, sports and racetrack betting, poker, and casino tables, whereas women gambled more often on scratch games. Both men and women engaging in immediate reward games were significantly more likely to experience difficulties with gambling. This association, however, was stronger in women. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behaviors were more likely to be associated with gambling problems in women as compared to men. The study underscores the importance of considering gender-related differences in the study of gambling behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bergerot, Cristiane Decat; Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Ashing, Kimlin Tam; Kim, Youngmee
Monitoring distress assessment in cancer patients during the treatment phase is a component of good quality care practice. Yet, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining distress. In an attempt to begin filling this gap and inform clinical practice, we conducted a prospective, longitudinal study examining changes in distress (anxiety, depression, and problems in living) by age and gender and the roles of age and gender in predicting distress. Newly diagnosed Brazilian cancer patients (N = 548) were assessed at three time points during chemotherapy. Age and gender were identified on the first day of chemotherapy (T1); anxiety, depression, and problems in living were self-reported at T1, the planned midway point (T2), and the last day of chemotherapy (T3). At T1, 37 and 17% of patients reported clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression, respectively. At T3, the prevalence was reduced to 4.6% for anxiety and 5.1% for depression (p 70 years (p < .03). Female patients reported greater emotional, physical, and family problems than their male counterparts (p < .04). For most patients, elevated levels of distress noted in the beginning of treatment subsided by the time of treatment completion. However, middle-aged and female patients continued to report heightened distress. Evidence-based psychosocial intervention offered to at risk patients during early phases of the treatment may provide distress relief and improve outcomes over the illness trajectory while preventing psychosocial and physical morbidity due to untreated chronic distress.
Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.
Four items are discussed showing that the problems involved through participation of the public in large-scale projects with environmental impact cannot be solved satisfactorily without suitable modification of the existing legal framework. The problematic items are: the status of the electric utilities as a quasi public enterprise; informal preliminary negotiations; the penetration of scientific argumentation into administrative decisions; the procedural concept. The paper discusses the fundamental issue of the problem-adequate design of the procedure and develops suggestions for a cooperative participation design. (orig./HSCH) [de
Kuhar, Roman; Zobec, Aleš
Mass protests across Europe against marriage equality, reproductive rights, gender mainstreaming and sexual education have centralized n the past few years around so-called “gender theory”. This theory is explained as a new threat to the “traditional family” and “natural masculinity and femininity”, as it allegedly aims at cultural revolution: a post-binary gender world. Many of these debates (and concrete actions) are targeted at schools and the educational process. It is believed that “gend...
Vladimir B. Zotov
Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a complex mechanism, which includes a variety of industry legislation, which together form a system of legislative regulation of relations at the interaction of private and public parties in the realization of long-term capital-intensive investment projects for the development of public infrastructure. The article describes the current state of PPP in the Russian Federation, the analysis of the main problems and needs integrated action (regulatory, institutional and investment to improve and develop this project.
de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and
Ximena Marin Hermann
Full Text Available Domestic roles ( reproductive and productive Colombian rural women are different and are marked by the dynamics of their own territories , but also developed in the areas of public and private unevenly and unfairly compared to men rural sector. Considering the above, raises feminist economics "care economy" as an effort to validate and make visible the contribution of women to the economy. But this trend can go further, can contribute to the transformation of reproductive and productive roles, encouraging participation and democracy for women. Considering this, the equitable use of the time in the private ( family enters debate. Women no longer want and seek only equality in public but do not want to share your time at home on an unequal footing . Public policies are needed to contribute to these disparities disappear. To this extent it is possible to ask yourself the current Public Policy Of Gender Equity for Women ( SOCIAL CONPES 161/2013 , can guarantee the full enjoyment of the rights of Colombian women applying the principles of equality and non-discrimination? This reflection tries to do, from a gender perspective, an analytical reading of the impact of public policy on the transformation of the reality of the Colombian rural women.
Full Text Available The article reveals the essence and role of public-private partnership (PPP. It is established that a public and private partnership is a powerful and promising tool of social and economic development at both the regional and local levels, as well as a means of raising funds to projects. The legal regulation of public and private partnership in Ukraine and its shortcomings are determined. It was found that the legislation contains a lot of controversial issues related to: communication problems between the partners; legislative and regulatory issues; financing problems. The number of the PPP projects in Ukraine is presented by sectors and investment in projects of public-private partnership is shown. It was determined that during 1992-2012, 58 PPP projects have been implemented in Ukraine, or 7.03% of the total number of implemented projects. The structure of PPP projects implemented in Ukraine is shown, where the lion’s share is taken by the energy sector (71%, telecommunications (24%, transport (2%, water supply and drainage (3%. The problems that hinder the development of public and private partnership in Ukraine were identified, namely the shortage of highly qualified specialists who are able to develop public-private partnership in the future – both on the part of business, and country; shortage of projects of public-private partnership as well as appropriate banking requirements to them; disinclination of business for stimulating the development of public-private partnership, since the number of private operators is negligible in a very few sectors; inability of public authorities to maintain partner relationships and the implementation of PPP projects; shortcomings of the legislative framework (such as concession and mismatch of enforcement activity; little activity of the regions in showing initiative to develop and implement PPP projects; inability to attract investment in long-term PPP projects, etc. The ways of improving the
Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro
This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. © 2013 APJPH.
Public participation programs must develop a means to enlist meaningful public feedback. Besides the traditional public meetings, which generally mobilize the opposition, careful surveys can be done of a representative spectrum of the public getting their judgments about specific criteria. These judgments can be used to shape siting policy. Such an approach would help avoid the criticism that public input is not taken into account. While the suggestions included in this paper go far in dealing with public fear and distrust they cannot guarantee siting success. There are a number of uncontrollable contingencies that can affect any siting program. Another energy crises, for example, may increase the prestige of the nuclear industry and make LLRW siting less onerous. Or, new broadcasts of waste site failures or of nuclear accidents could make LLRW siting more problematic. The problems of waste siting will not disappear nor are the solutions easy ones. They demand serious consideration by talented scientists of all kinds. Waste siting difficulties certainly rank near the top of challenges facing advanced industrial societies. Attempts to site wastes of all kinds have foundered because of strong public opposition. LLRW siting attempts are certain to meet similar problems. Local communities tend to see little or no benefits but high costs in hosting waste sites. Fear of pollution, the unknown aspects of radiation risks, a lack of confidence in governmental agencies, are all factors promoting public resistance. Compounding these problems has been the failure of citizen participation programs to fulfill the functions for which they were designed. Instead of fostering more open communication, regulating conflict, and generating better ideas, participation programs dealing with waste siting tend to generate more conflict and mobilize determined opposition
Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri
Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.
Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kirst, Maritt; Casas, Miguel; Hall, Wayne; Krausz, Michael; Metrebian, Nicky; Reggers, Jean; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.
Injection drug use (involving the injection of illicit opiates) poses serious public health problems in many countries. Research has indicated that injection drug users are at higher risk for morbidity in the form of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B and C, and drug-related mortality, as well as increased
Nigeria and other developing countries of Africa, south of Saharan are currently facing one of the most dehumanizing social and public health problems, human trafficking (HT). This can be termed modern slavery in which victims of HT are adopted, forced or coerced into labour and sexual exploitation, especially young girls ...
Yaghi, Abdulfattah; Alibeli, Madalla
In order to achieve their course learning outcomes, public affairs instructors can train students to solve real community problems (SRCP). This approach focuses on the learners themselves and aims to transform the role of college professors from traditional teaching (lecturing) to facilitating and coaching students' learning activities. This study…
Background: Trauma, especially head trauma, is an expanding major public health problem and the leading cause of death of the young and productive part of the world's population. Research is mainly done in high-income countries where only a small proportion of the worldwide fatalities occur. The intention of this study ...
Full Text Available Public management can and should be taught. Former Soviet Republics, including Georgia are facing this acute problem. Some attention is directed to management training, but public management stays in the background, although it is evident that major political and economic problems of Georgia and other countries of so-called “fledging democracies” arise due to the government theory neglect. The article considers development of administrative way of thinking starting from political doctrine to managerial approach, prospects for public management principles development, existing educational models. The epoch of classic universities is passing; with the help of textbooks students can only make courseworks. That’s why the use of innovative methods is necessary for students training.
Juliana da Costa Fernandes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the association between weekly working hours and self-rated health of nurses in public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS A total of 3,229 nurses (82.7% of the eligible group participated in this cross-sectional study, carried out between April 2010 and December 2011. The collection instrument consisted of a self-administered multidimensional questionnaire. The weekly working hours were calculated from a recall of the daily hours worked over seven consecutive days; this variable was categorized according to tertiles of distribution for men and women. The outcome of interest, self-rated health, was categorized into three levels: good (very good and good, regular, and poor (poor and very poor. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate and multivariate analyses, having as reference group those with short working hours (first tertile. All the analyses were stratified by gender and elaborated using the program SPSS. RESULTS Among women, the group corresponding to the longest working week (more than 60.5 hours per week were more likely to report regular self-rated health, compared with those with shorter working hours, after adjusting for confounding factors (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.02–1.67. Among men, those with average working hours (49.5–70.5 hours per week were more than twice as likely to rate their health as regular (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.08–4.35 compared to those with shorter working hours (up to 49.5 hours. There was no significant association between long working hours and poor self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS The results point to the urgent need to promote interventions in the organization of work and appreciation of the nursing profession, in order to reduce the number of multiple jobs and thus contribute to mitigate potential effects on the health of workers and the quality of care in hospitals.
Full Text Available The political struggles against the environmental, health, social, and economic impacts of neo-developmentalism and neo-extractivism in Latin America have been theoretically fertile. From the diversity of perspectives, we recover the contributions of a sociology of public problems for the struggles for Environmental Justice, basically because it promotes the practice of research as a reflexive and democratic form of cooperation between those directly environmentally affected and all those subject to a structure of environmental injustice. First, we present the epistemological, ethical and political dimension, defined by the active formation of a public. Secondly, we focus on the conceptual, strategic and institutional creativity of the public, with examples of the problems caused by the environmental and health impacts of the massive use of agrotoxics in gmo agriculture. Finally, we establish a bridge between the contributions of a sociology of public problems and Environmental Justice, the latter considered as a field of thought and action with competence in environmentalist discourses, meaning that the concept of justice is not reduced to state administration. Instead it refers to the diversity of practices in the public sphere, claiming and criticizing the unequal distribution of environmental risk and harm. At the same time, these practices creatively promote institutional reforms and transformations toward the full enforcement of rights and guarantees to life, health and the environment. A sociology of public problems aims to provide an understanding of the struggle for rights and recognition of forms of life, social and environmental equity and the right to democratic participation and the broad exercise of self-determination in building a society with environmental justice.
The public space often conveys a notion of res publica, owned by all members of the public, with equal access and participation. In reality, however, there are several publics, as indeed spaces at the local, state, national and international levels. Irrespective of levels, the public space is where decisions binding on all are ...
Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina
Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these
Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H
This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the unexplained gender pay gap in individual departments of a Czech hospital, to find out whether this gap varies between departments and, if so, to identify the possible causes of these differences. To estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap, we use the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT, and to identify the causes behind differences in the unexplained gender pay gap we use a linear regression model. We find that the ATT varies significantly between departments. To explain these differences, we use selected characteristics of the departments: the department’s size, the proportion of women in the department, and the gender of the departmental head. We come to the conclusion that women’s wages increase relative to male wages as the proportion of female employees grows. On the other hand, the unexplained gender wage gap is not proven to be lower in smaller or female-led departments.
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Smith, Nina
Questionnaire (SDQ) of about 6,000 children born in 1990-92 in a large region in Denmark. The sample is merged with register information on parents and students observed until the age of 19. We find significant and large negative coefficients of the externalizing behavioral indicators. The effects tend......Behavioral problems are important determinants of school outcomes and later success in the labor market. We analyze whether behavioral problems affect girls and boys differently with respect to school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations of the Strength and Difficulties...... to be larger when based on parents' SDQ scores compared to teachers' SDQ scores. According to our estimations, the school outcomes for girls with abnormal externalizing behavior are not significantly different from those of boys with the same behavioral problems. A decomposition of the estimates indicates...
Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.
Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age 19 to 70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, and substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038
Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ
This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample
Full Text Available This work proposes an anthropological reflection on the images and discourses of the body and the sexuality in the Brazilian society, focusing on a particular social phenomenon: the emergence of the Viagra in the national public scenario. This article explores the connotations constructed and confirmed by the Brazilian media press about this drug. Two Brazilian newspapers belonging to the same publisher but aimed at different publics were analyzed from April 1998 to April 1999, period that corresponds to the beginning – and apex – of the debate on the Viagra in the country. The discussion focuses on the symbolism and discursive strategies utilized by the newspapers when presenting this medication to the general public. This article also draws the attention to an appeal to traditional logics of gender, despite a contemporary scenario of issues concerning the relationships among the sexes and the sexuality.
Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni
This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…
Timmermans, R.E.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.; Verhoeven, L.
Effects of guided (GI) and direct instruction (DI) in solving subtraction problems for mathematically low performers in regular schools were compared. In the GI condition, self-development of solution procedures was encouraged whereas in the DI condition one prescribed strategy was to be used. Forty
Stephens, Cristina; Westmaas, J Lee; Kim, Jihye; Cannady, Rachel; Stein, Kevin
Research suggests that a cancer diagnosis predicts marital dissolution more strongly for women survivors than men, but there is a paucity of research on potential processes underlying this vulnerability. The present cross-sectional study examined whether specific cancer-related problems were associated with the odds of relationship breakup following diagnosis and whether these relationships differed between male and female cancer survivors. A national cross-sectional quality of life study assessed self-reported cancer-related problems and relationship change among survivors who were either 2, 6, or 10 years post-diagnosis (n = 6099). Bivariate analyses indicated that cancer-related problems (e.g., emotional distress) were greater for divorced/separated survivors compared to those with intact relationships and were greater for women versus men. Logistic regressions indicated that for both male and female survivors, lower income, younger age, and longer time since diagnosis were associated with greater odds of divorce or separation after diagnosis (ORs > 2.14, p emotional distress (OR = 1.14, p divorce or separation. For men only, fear of cancer recurrence was associated with greater odds of divorce or separation (OR = 1.32, p emotional or financial/employment problems attributed to the cancer diagnosis were associated with the likelihood of reporting relationship dissolution. Although directions of causality could not be ascertained, results suggest the possibility that helping male and female cancer survivors cope with specific cancer-related problems may benefit the quality and stability of their relationships with significant others following diagnosis.
Full Text Available Background. Mental disorders prevention in specific professional groups is impossible without scientifically substantiated allocation of groups with increased neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders risk. This fact indicates the need to study the gender, age and professional characteristics in law enforcement workers who already have problems with psychological adaptation. Methods and materials. The study involved 1630 law enforcement officers (1,301 men and 329 women who were evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R. As the statistical methods were used the partial regression calculation coefficient η2, cohort calculation risk measures, φ*-total Fischer transformation method, and single-factor dispersion Fisher's analysis. Results. According to gender characteristics, the problems with psychological adaptation in men were significantly less pronounced than in women (φ*=1.79; p=0.37. These data were confirmed by the cohort calculation and risk measures results: men – 0.261, women – 0.349 (the psychological disadaptation risk in women was 1.3 times higher than men. There weren’t any statistically significant age differences between the representatives of both gender groups with psychological adaptation disturbances and healthy ones (φ* ≤1.19; p≥0.1. Among patients who suffered from psychosomatic diseases, were men over the age of 35 (φ* ≥2.28; p≤0.0001 and women over 26 years old (φ*= 2.16; p=0.014 prevailed. There were significantly fewer people among men with psychosomatic illnesses with 4-9 years of professional working experience than in a healthy group. On the contrary, there were significantly more patients in a law enforcement workers group with 10-15 years working experience than in the healthy one (φ*>1.73; p<0.0001. Conclusion. The risk of mental health problems in female police officers is much higher than in men. Disadaptation development is not related to the age and length of working
Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko
Long working hours may impact human health. In Japan, teachers tend to work long hours. From 2002 to 2012, the number of leaves of absence due to diseases other than mental disorders, or mental disorders among public school teachers increased by 1.3 times (from 2,616 to 3,381), or 1.8 times (from 2,687 to 4,960), respectively. The present study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and sleep problems among public school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics including working hours, and responses to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and sleep problems separately by sex. The response rate was 44.8% (n=558). After excluding ineligible responses, the final sample comprised 515 teachers (335 males and 180 females). Sleep problems was identified in 41.5% of males and 44.4% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk of sleep problems in males working >60 hours per week (OR 2.05 [95% CI 1.01-4.30]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. No significant association was found in females. There is a significant association between long working hours and sleep problems in male teachers. Reducing working hours may contribute to a reduction in sleep problems.
Eboka, Obiajulu Chinyelum
The study investigated the perception of teachers on the influence of principals' leadership styles and gender on teacher morale. Four research questions and four research hypotheses guided the study. An ex-post facto research design was adopted in the study. Through the simple random sampling technique a total of 72 principals and 2,506 in 72…
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 199-222 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : gender wage gap * segregation * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003
Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A
Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.
Scorzafave,Luiz Guilherme; Pazello,Elaine Toldo
There are hundreds of works that implement the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. However, this decomposition is not invariant to the choice of reference group when dummy variables are used. This paper applies the solution proposed by Yun (005a,b) for this identification problem to Brazilian gender wage gap estimation. Our principal finding is the increasing difference in part-time work coefficients between men and women, which contributes to narrow the gender wage gap. Other studies in Brazil not...
Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C
To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu
Full Text Available An integrated model of health system responses to public health problems is considered to be the most preferable approach. Accordingly, there are several models that stipulate what an integrated architecture should look like. However, tools that can guide the overall process of integration are lacking. This tool is designed to guide the entire process of integration of health system responses to major public health problems. It is developed by taking into account the contexts of health systems of developing countries and the emergence of double-burden of chronic diseases in these settings. Chronic diseases – HIV/AIDS and NCDs – represented the evidence base for the development of the model. System level horizontal integration of health system responses were considered in the development of this tool.
This paper exploits a rich collection of household surveys to investigate the wage differential between the public and private sectors in 17 Latin American countries during the 1980s and 1990s. The paper also studies how the sector of employment affects the gender wage gap. The paper finds very small premia for male workers and large and significant premia for female workers. The paper also finds that, on average, Latin American women earn 30 percent less than men with similar skills and that...
Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Kamga, Henri Lucien Foumou; Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-C?cile; Tabah, Earnest Nji; Oyediran, Alain Bankole OO; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu
Introduction Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and manifests as damage to the skin and peripheral nerves. The disease is dreaded because it causes deformities, blindness and disfigurement. Worldwide, 2 million people are estimated to be disabled by leprosy. Multidrug therapy is highly effective in curing leprosy, but treating the nerve damage is much more difficult. The World Health Assembly targeted to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem from the world by 2000. The objective...
V S Muhametzhanova; E A Ivlev
In recent years, in Russia both official and media discourses have emphasized the need to modernize, optimize and reform the institutions of public and municipal administration as basic means of socio-economic and political development of the country. Unfortunately, quite often different organizational forms within the system of social management encounter not only institutional or objective obstacles, but also subjective problems determined by the “quality” of human resources. For decades, t...
M. I. Zaidel
Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the postsoviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in exsoviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the postsoviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of statemaking is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of marketoriented economy and modernization of institutions.
Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) has been well used as an educational philosophy and methodology in the construction of student centered and contextualized learning environment. PBL is also regarded as an effective method in producing engineering graduates who can not only meet the needs...... on the learning experiences of engineering students in the PBL environment in Denmark. This book also attempts to question the issue of diversity in engineering education via the exploration of whether or in which ways the PBL environment is friendly to diverse groups of learners such as women....
Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E
The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Former Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) head, William Lee thinks that nuclear critics could misuse institute reports on investigations of nuclear plant construction and operation. If so, that would outweigh any public relations benefits of using the reports to inform and educate the public. Lee thinks the best way to gain public confidence is for the industry to perform well. The four-year-old institute was originally formed to improve operations, but recent problems with unfinished plants led to a system of construction audits. By offering guidance to companies building nuclear plants, INPO is meeting competition from utilities such as Duke Power, which is now marketing its expertise in designing and building plants. Lee emphasizes the importance of asking the right questions that will lead to quality control
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the credit risk management (CRM practices of Indian public sector banks in grant of commercial loans to find the grey areas which need review and restructuring to improve banks’ asset quality. Based on literature review, a conceptual model of credit risk management systems for commercial loans, of Indian public sector banks, has been developed. This model has been used to underline the problems areas and obstacles in credit risk management through comparison of large and small banks. The empirical comparison of CRM practices of Indian public sector banks has resulted into emergence of various grey areas, like insufficient training, data management, inappropriate IT support, system disintegration, inconsistent rating approaches, which need immediate attention and if tackled properly, can reduce their non-performing assets.
Ferreira, Luciane Ouriques
This article presents some contrasts that exist between the discourses of public policies concerning women's health care, especially with respect to indigenous women, and the ethnological discourse which emphasizes the specificity of gender relations within indigenous societies. We worked on the assumption that the development of these public policies as well as the organization of health care services offered, which in fact are necessary, have a transforming effect on prevailing gender relations within Amerindian Societies. On the one hand, gender relations between indigenous people are associated with the domains of kinship and corporeality. On the other hand, the process of creating public policies, by means of biomedical intervention and the medicalization of the female body, constitutes a powerful tool for body modeling and the construction of subjectivities contributing to making women worthy of citizenship. The female gender is under discussion and its content is being negotiated.
Szameitat, André J.; Hamaida, Yasmin; Tulley, Rebecca S.; Saylik, Rahmi; Otermans, Pauldy C. J.
Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others) filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants’ self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work. PMID:26479359
Emil C. Alcantara
Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the academic performance, critical thinking skills, and problem solving skills in mathematics of Grade-7 students in the five central public secondary schools of Area 2, Division of Batangas, Philippines. This study utilized descriptive method of research. Three hundred forty one (341 students of the public secondary schools out of the total of 2,324 Grade-7 students were selected through systematic random sampling as the subjects of the study. It was found out that the level of performance in Mathematics of the Grade-7 students is proficient. The level of critical thinking skills of students from the different schools is above average as well as their level of problem solving skills. The mathematics performance of the students is positively correlated to their level of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Students considered the following learning competencies in the different content areas of Grade-7 Mathematics as difficult to master: solving problems involving sets, describing the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units, finding a solution of an equation or inequality involving one variable, using compass and straightedge to bisect line segments and angles, and analyzing, interpreting accurately and drawing conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data.
'Climate change' is an oft avowed environmental priority among cooperation and development actors. The Palestinian Territories, for their part, are one of the largest recipients of international aid. To the degree that the UNPD has played a role in promoting the question of 'climate change', the dependence of the Palestinian Authority on international aid has contributed to framing this emergent public problem; its construction is anchored in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Palestinian state's demand for recognition at the international level. In the international arenas dedicated to 'climate change', what's more, the Palestinian Authority discusses this question in terms of political and climatic injustice. Two questions thus merit study: what effect does the construction of the climate problem have on the Palestinian Authority and, conversely, what effect does the Palestinian Authority have on the construction of the climate problem?
Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia
To assess the association between weekly working hours and self-rated health of nurses in public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 3,229 nurses (82.7% of the eligible group) participated in this cross-sectional study, carried out between April 2010 and December 2011. The collection instrument consisted of a self-administered multidimensional questionnaire. The weekly working hours were calculated from a recall of the daily hours worked over seven consecutive days; this variable was categorized according to tertiles of distribution for men and women. The outcome of interest, self-rated health, was categorized into three levels: good (very good and good), regular, and poor (poor and very poor). The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate and multivariate analyses, having as reference group those with short working hours (first tertile). All the analyses were stratified by gender and elaborated using the program SPSS. Among women, the group corresponding to the longest working week (more than 60.5 hours per week) were more likely to report regular self-rated health, compared with those with shorter working hours, after adjusting for confounding factors (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.02-1.67). Among men, those with average working hours (49.5-70.5 hours per week) were more than twice as likely to rate their health as regular (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.08-4.35) compared to those with shorter working hours (up to 49.5 hours). There was no significant association between long working hours and poor self-rated health. The results point to the urgent need to promote interventions in the organization of work and appreciation of the nursing profession, in order to reduce the number of multiple jobs and thus contribute to mitigate potential effects on the health of workers and the quality of care in hospitals. Avaliar a associação entre horas de trabalho semanais e autoavaliação de saúde de enfermeiros em hospitais públicos do Rio de
Full Text Available Gender violence is a public health, social and human right problem, which is present at the globally and is permeated in all social classes, all socioeconomic levels and ages. Although gender-based violence has serious consequences for the health of the victims, and may even lead to murder or suicide, it is still considered a problem of private spaces, however, policies must be generated to eradicate the problem. Gender violence has its roots in gender inequalities built over time by society and perpetuated by various structures of the same. It is necessary to analyze the social determinants that influence gender violence to identify the modifiable parts of this problem. Gender violence is described as public health and then each of the social determinants that influence the phenomenon of study and finally give some final considerations of the analysis.
Baumgarten, Alexandre; Bastos, João Luiz; Toassi, Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Celeste, Roger Keller
To explore factors associated with discrimination in healthcare services and to assess whether discrimination based on dental aesthetics differs by sex. Cross-sectional analysis based on a household survey carried out in a city in Southern Brazil. Fifteen primary health care (PHC) units with a dental team were randomly selected, and individuals who used the public services in the catchment areas of the PHC units were interviewed. The survey questionnaire included experiences with discrimination related to health services, sociodemographic and dental characteristics. Multiple logistic regressions were estimated with dental appearance as outcome. The final sample was composed of 433 individuals, with 15.2% reporting being discriminated in health services. Participants with ≥20 teeth were significantly more likely to report discrimination than those with <20 teeth (16.6% vs 9.1%, respectively), and people with twisted and stained teeth reported more discrimination than those with white and aligned teeth (23.2% vs 9.9%, respectively). Overall, individuals with twisted and stained teeth were more likely to report discrimination (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.46-6.71). When the analyses were stratified by sex, women with twisted and stained teeth showed an OR=3.62 (95% CI: 1.55-8.46) and men OR=0.54 (95% CI: 0.05-6.18). Dental appearance may lead to discrimination in healthcare services, but this seems to be more important for women than men. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED in adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, case-control study and outpatients aged 10 to 19y were recruited from six eye clinics of various practices and locations in Japan, and 253 non-DED subjects and 70 DED patients were enrolled. Participants were examined for DED-related signs. Patients were also interviewed to ascertain the presence or absence of six common DED-related symptoms: dryness, irritation, pain, eye fatigue, blurring, and photophobia. Main outcome measures were differences in signs and symptoms of dry eye disease between boys and girls. RESULTS: Of the 323 adolescents recruited, 70 (21.7% were diagnosed with DED. Significant differences between the non-DED and DED groups were found for short tear break-up time (BUT; ≤5s; P=0.000 and superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK; staining score ≥3; P=0.000. Late adolescent girls reported fewer symptoms than late adolescent boys, although their DED-related signs were worse compared to other groups. The prevalence and severity of DED were similar in the Tokyo area compared with suburban and local areas but myopic errors were worse. CONCLUSION: We find that adolescents reported symptoms of DED similar to those found in adults, and the majority have short BUT-type DED. The prevalence and severity of DED in late adolescent girls is comparable with adults. Adolescents with DED are underserved and we believe that DED is a hidden but potentially serious health problem for this age group.
, poisoning, drowning, suicide, homicide and others, and details regarding time and place, victim and main cause should be noted. Morbidity survey field staff should be informed that injuries are part of the illness concept and that questions should be asked accordingly. Details regarding the circumstances surrounding different injuries must be known to those who develop preventive programmes. Injury is a public health problem affecting some people more than others. Our ordinary environment--the home, the work-site, the street or road--represents various kinds of risk, and some of these are difficult to eliminate. Not only do we have to accept much of our environment with its existing houses, equipment, vehicles, transport systems, energy supply, toxic substances etcetera, many also suffer from various inherited or acquired conditions that increase the risk. We therefore need to develop safer and more "forgiving" living environments where ordinary people can live and move around safely. Injury control activities may focus on different categories of injury. Road safety measures often include information and education campaigns, improved driver training, road design and maintenance, regular vehicle safety checks, separation of pedestrians from vehicle traffic, speed limits, safety belt, air-bag and helmet use, special training and control of public service vehicle drivers, bicycle lane separation, road lighting, reflectorised materials on clothing, review of the road traffic related legislation and law enforcement, and emergency medical services improvement. Domestic injuries can be prevented for example with window guards, child barriers at stairs, smoke detectors, clothes and furniture in less flammable materials, replacement of open stoves, stabilising of open lamps, fire-fighting equipment and practice, child-proof poison packaging and storage, safe disposal of toxic waste, home safety education of parents, and strict building code enforcement. Occupational injuries can
The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising its diagnostic manual, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). At the time of writing, and based on recommendations from its ICD Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health, WHO is proposing a new ICD chapter titled Conditions Related to Sexual Health, and that the gender incongruence diagnoses (replacements for the gender identity disorder diagnoses used in ICD-10) should be placed in that chapter. WHO is proposing that there should be a Gender incongruence of childhood (GIC) diagnosis for children below the age of puberty. This last proposal has come under fire. Trans community groups, as well as many healthcare professionals and others working for transgender health and wellbeing, have criticised the proposal on the grounds that the pathologisation of gender diversity at such a young age is inappropriate, unnecessary, harmful and inconsistent with WHO's approach in regard to other aspects of development in childhood and youth. Counter proposals have been offered that do not pathologise gender diversity and instead make use of Z codes to frame and document any contacts that young gender diverse children may have with health services. The author draws on his involvement in the ICD revision process, both as a member of the aforementioned WHO Working Group and as one of its critics, to put the case against the GIC proposal, and to recommend an alternative approach for ICD in addressing the needs of gender diverse children.
Arria, Amelia M; Jernigan, David H
Excessive drinking among college students is a serious and pervasive public health problem. Although much research attention has focused on developing and evaluating evidence-based practices to address college drinking, adoption has been slow. The Maryland Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems was established in 2012 to bring together a network of institutions of higher education in Maryland to collectively address college drinking by using both individual-level and environmental-level evidence-based approaches. In this article, the authors describe the findings of this multilevel, multicomponent statewide initiative. To date, the Maryland Collaborative has succeeded in providing a forum for colleges to share knowledge and experiences, strengthen existing strategies, and engage in a variety of new activities. Administration of an annual student survey has been useful for guiding interventions as well as evaluating progress toward the Maryland Collaborative's goal to measurably reduce high-risk drinking and its radiating consequences on student health, safety, and academic performance and on the communities surrounding college campuses. The experiences of the Maryland Collaborative exemplify real-world implementation of evidence-based approaches to reduce this serious public health problem.
Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women's experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author's prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice). It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally.
Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael
In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women’s experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author’s prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice; and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice, both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice. It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally.
Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women’s experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author’s prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice). It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally. PMID:27754351
There is no evidence on the extent of public versus private wage differentials in Turkey. The main objective of this paper is to examine the factors which explain the employment choice and the wage differentials in the public administration, state owned enterprises and the formal private wage sector in Turkey. Selectivity corrected wage equations are estimated for each sector for men and women separately. Oaxaca decomposition of the wage differentials between sectors for men and women are car...
Using criminal law powers to respond to people living with HIV (PHAs) who expose sexual partners to HIV or transmit the virus to them is a prominent global HIV public policy issue. While there are widespread concerns about the public health impact of HIV-related criminalization, the social science literature on the topic is limited. This article responds to that gap in knowledge by reporting on the results of qualitative research conducted with service providers and PHAs in Canada. The article draws on a studies in the social organization of knowledge perspective and insights from critical criminology and work on the "medico-legal borderland." It investigates the role played by the legal concept of "significant risk" in coordinating criminal law governance and its interface with public health and HIV prevention. In doing so, the article emphasizes that exploring the public health impact of criminalization must move past the criminal law--PHA dyad to address broader social and institutional processes relevant to HIV prevention. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews, this article explores how criminal law governance shapes the activities of providers engaged in HIV prevention counseling, conceptualized as a complex of activities linking clinicians, public health officials, front-line counselors, PHAs, and others. It emphasizes three key findings: (1) the concept of significant risk poses serious problems to risk communication in HIV counseling and contributes to contradictory advice about disclosure obligations; (2) criminalization discourages PHAs' openness about HIV non-disclosure in counseling relationships; and (3) the recontextualization of public health interpretations of significant risk in criminal proceedings can intensify criminalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald
Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meng, Ngy; Seiha, Do; Thorn, Pok; Willis, Rebecca; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Dejene, Michael; Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul; Solomon, Anthony W
To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia. Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. The EU-level prevalence of TF among 25,801 1-9-year-old children examined ranged from 0% to 0.2%. Among the 24,502 adults aged 15+ years examined, trichiasis was found in 59 people. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalences of trichiasis in all ages in the EUs studied ranged from 0% to 0.14%; five EUs had a prevalence of trichiasis ≥0.1%. There appears to be no need nor justification at this time for implementing public health measures to control trachoma in Cambodia.
Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen
Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.
Ave, Charlie; Kapa, D Ramaiah; Ottesen, Eric
The Cook Islands has a long history of high-endemicity lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmitted by Aedes vector mosquitoes. Though the infection prevalence had declined between 1975 and 1999 following episodic treatment activities, still infection was widespread with pockets of persistent infection. Beginning in 1999, the Cook Islands embarked on a national program, in partnership with Pacific Programme to Eliminate LF (PacELF), to eliminate LF as a public health problem. All 12 inhabited islands were identified as endemic, and six rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with once-yearly, single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) were implemented during 2000-2006 to interrupt transmission of LF. Surveys carried out at the baseline, mid-term, stop-MDA, and post-MDA periods assessed LF antigen (Ag) prevalence in children and adults. Historical data, health workers' observations, and hospital records were used to assess the trend and burden of chronic disease. The baseline Ag prevalence (1999) ranged from 2.0% in Manihiki to > 18.0% in Aitutaki, Mitiaro, and Pukapuka, and the national average Ag prevalence was 8.6%. MDA, carried out with a national treatment coverage over six annual rounds of MDA ranging from 63.5 to 96.7% in different years, was stopped in 2007. By then, the national Ag prevalence had declined to 0.27%. The post-MDA surveillance survey results (2013-2014) showed that Ag prevalence had fallen to 0% in 11/12 islands, and the national prevalence was only 0.03%. Chronic filarial disease had almost entirely disappeared. The Cook Islands met all the criteria required for the World Health Organization (WHO) to acknowledge elimination of LF as a public health problem, as it did officially in 2016. This success also confirms that LF, even when transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that are recognized to be more efficient than other vector species, can be eliminated as a public health problem by six rounds of MDA.
A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…
Full Text Available Abstract Background A Community health assessment (CHA involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the "What" and the "How". The "What" identifies the specific software being used and the "How" explains the way they are integrated together during problem solving steps. This level of understanding will highlight the role of GIS utilization during problem solving and suggest to developers how GIS can be enhanced to better support data analysis during community health assessment. Results An online survey was developed to identify the information technology used during CHA analysis. The tasks were broken down into steps and for our analysis these steps were categorized by action: Data Management/Access, Data Navigation, Geographic Comparison, Detection of Spatial Boundaries, Spatial Modelling, and Ranking Analysis. 27 CHA professionals completed the survey, with the majority of participants (14 being from health departments. Statistical software (e.g. SPSS was the most popular software for all but one of the types of steps. For this step (detection of spatial boundaries, GIS was identified as the most popular technology. Conclusion Most CHA professionals indicated they use statistical software in conjunction with GIS. The statistical software appears to drive the analysis, while GIS is used primarily for simple spatial display (and not complex spatial analysis. This purpose of this survey was to thoroughly examine into the process of problem solving during community health assessment data analysis and to gauge how GIS is integrated with other software for this purpose. These findings suggest that GIS is used more for spatial
Vittorio Carlo Vezzetti
Full Text Available This broad review elaborates on the most up-to-date knowledge on biochemical and psychobiological aspects of parental loss and other childhood adversities during divorce involving minor children. So far, divorce involving minor children was unfortunately considered by authorities only as a purely juridical problem, and this approach has often allowed a completely different approach according to the Courts. Now, scientific research, also making use of animal models, is demonstrating the biological basis of the problem and the indisputable consequences on the well-being and health of children. The innovative conclusion of this review is that this argument (because of its frequency and gravity is primarily a question of public health and that it is necessary to further harmonize practices in this area.
Martin Adalberto TENA-ESPINOZA-DE-LOS-MONTEROS
Full Text Available This paper describes the process of civic innovation that, based on technological solutions and open initiatives, the civic society’s organization Codeando México suggests for the attention and solution of social and civic problems in Mexico. The Retos Cívicos (Civic Challenges and Retos Públicos (Public Challenges initiatives are addressed and described as experiences of innovation in the implementation of technological strategies for the solution of social and civic problems. A reflection is made on the civic appropriation of the ICTs and its irruption in the processes of innovation, as well as on the impact that the ICTs have in the conformation of a new civic ecosystem. Last, the strategies of Hacking cívico (Civic Hacking and Comunidades Cívicas (Civic Communities that the Codeando México organization promotes as a model for the linkage and civic participation within the frame of civic innovation, are mentioned.
Full Text Available The work surveys the Italian experience with reference to growth and public debt. It does not seek to test conflicting views, as the effects of some financial and policy innovations are too recent and some data is of poor quality. Rather, its more limited scope is to draw on past experience and, more importantly, assess future prospects in order to discuss some problems regarding both fiscal and monetary policy. The author examines debt formation with reference to borrowing requirements, their composition and their adjusted measure, before taking into consideration financing policies pursued by the authorities and the changes in the composition, ownership and cost of debt. Finally, possible future developments and some connected policy problems are examined.
Vezzetti, Vittorio Carlo
This broad review elaborates on the most up-to-date knowledge on biochemical and psychobiological aspects of parental loss and other childhood adversities during divorce involving minor children. So far, divorce involving minor children was unfortunately considered by authorities only as a purely juridical problem, and this approach has often allowed a completely different approach according to the Courts. Now, scientific research, also making use of animal models, is demonstrating the biological basis of the problem and the indisputable consequences on the well-being and health of children. The innovative conclusion of this review is that this argument (because of its frequency and gravity) is primarily a question of public health and that it is necessary to further harmonize practices in this area.
Tsai, Jack; O'Toole, Thomas; Kearney, Lisa K
Homelessness is a major public health problem that has received considerable attention from clinicians, researchers, administrators, and policymakers in recent years. In 2016, 550,000 individuals were homeless in the United States (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2016) with 4.2% of individuals in the United States experiencing homelessness for over 1 month sometime in their lives and 1.5% experiencing homelessness in the last year (Tsai, 2017). Homelessness remains a recalcitrant problem and a ripe area for study, particularly in addressing needs of individuals at high risk for homelessness and those from understudied populations. New and innovative measurement approaches, interventions, and study methodologies are presented in this special issue to shed light on how psychology can help benefit and improve homeless services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
In western Europe persons living in border areas increasingly ask for participation in national licensing procedures for nuclear installations to be erected close to the border in neighbouring countries. National practices vary in this matter. Whilst many countries concede rights of participation to foreign citizens in the border areas, the Federal Republic of Germany, e.g., denies foreign citizens direct participation. The paper enquires into the connected problems of public international law and pertinent international treaties and international customary low are examined. (NEA) [fr
Furberg, Curt D; Sealey, Jean E; Blumenfeld, Jon D
About one-half of all hypertensive adults do not have their blood pressure controlled. They are often prescribed medications that conform to national guidelines but they continue to have elevated blood pressure. This public health problem might be improved by applying plasma renin guided therapy. A contributor to the public health problem of unsuccessfully treated hypertension is that the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is not recognized in treatment guidelines as clinically relevant for the treatment of hypertension or as important as the body salt status for determining blood pressure levels. Another contributor to the problem is the lack of specificity in the package inserts for antihypertensive drugs. They do not specifically state under the heading "Indications" that RAS blockers are primarily most effective in hypertensive subjects with medium and high plasma renin levels; by contrast, natriuretic drugs are most effective in those with low plasma renin levels. Literature review. To address the problem of unsuccessfully treated hypertension, we recommend that the "Indications" section of package inserts for antihypertensive drugs be more specific. The primary indication for RAS blockers ought to be hypertension with medium and high plasma renin levels, and natriuretic agents for those with low plasma renin levels. Similar language ought to be added to treatment guidelines. Additionally, 3 other reasons for lack of blood pressure control also need to be addressed-failure to prescribe antihypertensive drugs to hypertensive subjects, failure of patients to fill prescriptions, and low drug adherence. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
LGBT people file public accommodations discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusted them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaint...
Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Baradaran, Laila P.; Abbott, Craig B.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva
A mega-analytic study was designed to exploit the power of a large data set combining raw data from multiple studies (n=1870) to examine the effects of type of family violence, age, and gender on children's behavior problems assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our findings confirmed that children who experienced multiple forms of…
Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha
This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…
Polka, Walter S.; Litchka, Peter R.; Calzi, Frank F.; Denig, Stephen J.; Mete, Rosina E.
The major focus of this paper is a gender-based analysis of school superintendent decision-making and problem-solving as well as an investigation of contemporary leadership dilemmas. The findings are based on responses from 258 superintendents of K-12 school districts in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania collected over a…
Marsman, Rianne; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Contradictory findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems could be due to studies not accounting for issues of comorbidity and gender. In a population-based cohort of 1768 (10- to 12-year-old) early adolescents, we used
Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek
Price is an inherent part of marketing mix. It is used for multiple reasons, from skimming consumer's surplus to antimarketing. In public transport, higher prices are often used in rush hours. The logic is to give an incentive to customers to travel outside rush hours, thus more evenly distribute...... the load. But it is possible to argue that prices should be lower in rush hours because means of public transportation tend to be full, i.e. there is a lower comfort of travelling, possibly even taking longer to travel the same distance. It is also possible to argue that the prices should be the same all...
Ireland experienced a period of major political and social change between 1957 and 1977 which included the redefinition of the role and status of women and the creation of a new public policy paradigm. By 1977 the main features of this public policy paradigm were in place in the form of an ‘equality contract’. The ‘equality contract’ granted formal legal equality to married women in family law and procedural equality to all women in relation to employment. This replaced the hirarchically base...
Weinhardt, Lance S; Stevens, Patricia; Xie, Hui; Wesp, Linda M; John, Steven A; Apchemengich, Immaculate; Kioko, David; Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Cochran, Katherine M; Watjen, Jennifer M; Lambrou, Nickolas H
Purpose: In this study, we explored experiences and feelings of safety in public facilities in relation to psychological well-being among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth in the Midwest in the summer of 2016, in the context of ongoing legislative proposals and regulations regarding school and public bathroom use in the United States. Methods: We used a mixed-method approach, with (1) a self-administered, paper-and-pencil survey of 120 TGNC youth, focusing on differences of self-esteem, resilience, quality of life (QoL), perceived stigma, feelings of safety, and experiences of public facility use and (2) two focus group interviews ( n =9) in which TGNC youth discussed individual perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of bathroom use outside participants' homes. The samples consisted predominantly of individuals assigned female at birth and currently of trans-masculine identity. Results: TGNC youth in our sample who reported that they had felt unsafe in bathrooms due to appearance or gender identity had significantly lower levels of resilience (mean (felt safe) =125.7 vs. mean (felt unsafe) =116.1; p =0.03, Cohen's d =0.44) and QoL (mean (felt safe) =59.1 vs. mean (felt unsafe) =51.9; p =0.04, Cohen's d =0.39), compared to those who felt safe. Meanwhile, feeling unsafe in bathrooms was associated with a greater level of perceived LGBT stigma (mean (felt safe) =2.3 vs. mean (felt unsafe) =2.6; p =0.03, Cohen's d =0.41) and problematic anxiety in the past year (χ 2 (1)=4.06; p =0.04). Individuals in the focus groups provided specific examples of their experiences of and concerns about locker room or bathroom use in public facilities, and on the impact of school bathroom-related policies and legislation on them. Conclusion: Perceptions of safety related to bathroom use are related to psychological well-being among TGNC youth. Our predominantly trans-masculine youth sample indicated that choice of bathroom and locker room use is important and that
Weinhardt, Lance S.; Stevens, Patricia; Xie, Hui; Wesp, Linda M.; John, Steven A.; Apchemengich, Immaculate; Kioko, David; Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Cochran, Katherine M.; Watjen, Jennifer M.; Lambrou, Nickolas H.
Abstract Purpose: In this study, we explored experiences and feelings of safety in public facilities in relation to psychological well-being among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth in the Midwest in the summer of 2016, in the context of ongoing legislative proposals and regulations regarding school and public bathroom use in the United States. Methods: We used a mixed-method approach, with (1) a self-administered, paper-and-pencil survey of 120 TGNC youth, focusing on differences of self-esteem, resilience, quality of life (QoL), perceived stigma, feelings of safety, and experiences of public facility use and (2) two focus group interviews (n=9) in which TGNC youth discussed individual perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of bathroom use outside participants' homes. The samples consisted predominantly of individuals assigned female at birth and currently of trans-masculine identity. Results: TGNC youth in our sample who reported that they had felt unsafe in bathrooms due to appearance or gender identity had significantly lower levels of resilience (mean(felt safe)=125.7 vs. mean(felt unsafe)=116.1; p=0.03, Cohen's d=0.44) and QoL (mean(felt safe)=59.1 vs. mean(felt unsafe)=51.9; p=0.04, Cohen's d=0.39), compared to those who felt safe. Meanwhile, feeling unsafe in bathrooms was associated with a greater level of perceived LGBT stigma (mean(felt safe)=2.3 vs. mean(felt unsafe)=2.6; p=0.03, Cohen's d=0.41) and problematic anxiety in the past year (χ2 (1)=4.06; p=0.04). Individuals in the focus groups provided specific examples of their experiences of and concerns about locker room or bathroom use in public facilities, and on the impact of school bathroom-related policies and legislation on them. Conclusion: Perceptions of safety related to bathroom use are related to psychological well-being among TGNC youth. Our predominantly trans-masculine youth sample indicated that choice of bathroom and locker room use is important and that antiharassment
Anderson, Denise M.; Shinew, Kimberly J.
Explored men's and women's perceptions of workplace equity in public parks and recreation. Surveys of American Parks and Recreation Society members highlighted significant differences between men and women in their perceptions of equity and in levels of organizational citizenship. Perceptions of inequity appeared to be precursors to lower levels…
Endelstein, Lucine; Ryan, Louise
In recent years religious clothing has become prevalent across many European cities, making religious bodies more visible in public spaces. This paper brings together our separate research on Jews in Paris and Muslims in London. While recognising the clear differences between these two socio-political contexts and distinct religious groups, we suggest that a focus on clothing allows us to consider some points of similarity and difference in the presentation of gendered religious bodies, particularly in situations of heightened stigmatisation. We draw upon Goffman's notion of impression management, in contexts of risks and threats, to explore how individuals experience and negotiate self presentation as members of stigmatised religious groups. We use rich qualitative data based on indepth interviews to consider how, when faced with collective stigmatisation, actors make deliberate and measured choices to present themselves and attempt to impression manage.
Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Kamga, Henri Lucien Foumou; Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Tabah, Earnest Nji; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O O; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu
Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and manifests as damage to the skin and peripheral nerves. The disease is dreaded because it causes deformities, blindness and disfigurement. Worldwide, 2 million people are estimated to be disabled by leprosy. Multidrug therapy is highly effective in curing leprosy, but treating the nerve damage is much more difficult. The World Health Assembly targeted to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem from the world by 2000. The objective of the review was to assess the successes of the leprosy elimination strategy, elimination hurdles and the way forward for leprosy eradication. A structured search was used to identify publications on the elimination strategy. The keywords used were leprosy, elimination and 2000. To identify potential publications, we included papers on leprosy elimination monitoring, special action projects for the elimination of leprosy, modified leprosy elimination campaigns, and the Global Alliance to eliminate leprosy from the following principal data bases: Cochrane data base of systematic reviews, PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the Leprosy data base. We also scanned reference lists for important citations. Key leprosy journals including WHO publications were also reviewed. The search identified 63 journal publications on leprosy-related terms that included a form of elimination of which 19 comprehensively tackled the keywords including a book on leprosy elimination. In 1991, the 44th World Health Assembly called for the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem in the world by 2000. Elimination was defined as less than one case of leprosy per 10000-population. Elimination has been made possible by a confluence of several orders of opportunities: the scientific (the natural history of leprosy at the present state of knowledge), technological (multi-drug therapy and the blister pack); political (commitment of governments) and financial (support from NGOs for example the Nippon Foundation that
Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.
Wage and employment differences between male and female agricultural labourers in the under developed countries including India is not new. With the help of a simple theoretical model it is here proved that public policy like implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in the rural areas can reduce wage discrimination but fails to reduce employment discrimination in the agricultural labour market. It is also proved that implementation of NREGS not only reduces profita...
Gray, Fiona Vera
This thesis contributes new and unique evidence to the limited body of empirical literature on men’s stranger intrusion in public space, commonly termed ‘street harassment’, through a transdisciplinary study bringing a philosophical framework to the study of violence against women and girls (VAWG). Analysis of 50 women’s accounts given during a three stage research process is presented, alongside the development of a theoretical framework combining feminist approaches to VAWG with the gendere...
Roggeband, C.M.; Verloo, M.
Over the past decade, there has been a major shift in Dutch gender equality policy to an almost exclusive focus on migrant women. Simultaneously, the focus of 'minority policies' has shifted more and more towards gender relations. The appearance of migrant women at the top of the political agenda is
Full Text Available Over the last decades several achievements have emerged in Nordic state societies concerning gender equality, particularly with regard to political representation, salaries, and shared parental leave.In most newsrooms one may find a near equal distribution of women and men working alongside one another. Additionally, in the larger newsrooms of Sweden, there is a gender balance at the manageriallevel. Yet in terms of news content, women remain a minority. By using qualitative and quantitative data from two projects, The Global Media Monitoring Project and The Global Status of Women in the News Media, this article assesses some of the challenges and best practice solutions for gender equality in Scandinavian newsrooms. The major gender discrepancies between newsrooms can often be explained by the level of gender awareness at the societal-level. Further, capable leadership, policies, and gender monitoring seem to benefit a gender balance in the news. National legislation on parental leave and discrimination, additionally, appear to play a key role in creating gender equality in the newsroom.
What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.
Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K
Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M
Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors.
Full Text Available Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways.
G. G. Kuznetsova
Full Text Available The state, municipality, population and entrepreneurship interrelation mechanism is far from being perfect in Russian housing and communal services industry. The problem may be solved provided interests of all the above participants of the industry are balanced. Most reasonable is to provide for parallel functioning of the market and governmental and municipal bodies, all of them acting in accordance with respective legal norms. More power should be given to municipalities who are non-governmental local public self-management bodies formed to provide for proper living conditions topopulation within certain territory by asserting priority interests common for this population. Negative consequences of the monopoly status of suppliers and providers of communal services should be eradicated. Transition from the monopolistic and closed communal services market to that open and competitive should become general strategy of Russian housing and communal services industry development.
Rodríguez, Leonor; Cervantes, Elsa; Ortiz, Rocío
Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways. PMID:21695035
Onishchenko, G G
In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene.
Weisz, George M
Starvation in early life can lead to premature metabolic syndrome and bone demineralization. Osteoporosis in the Jewish population may not yet be a recognized syndrome, but the harsh conditions to which Holocaust survivors were exposed may have increased the incidence of the condition. Immigrants and refugees who came to Israel from East Africa and Yemen - whether decades ago or more recently - may have been at increased risk of under-nutrition during pregnancy, affecting both the mother and consequently the offspring. This malnutrition may be further exacerbated by rapid overfeeding in the adopted developed country. This problem was also recognized at the turn of the 21st century in poor and underdeveloped countries and is becoming a global public health issue. In this review, the risks for premature metabolic syndrome and bone demineralization are enumerated and preventive measures outlined.
Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.
In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…
Fabio Espitia Garzón
Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.
Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Assad; Hamid, Saima
Pakistan has been ranked highest and appears worst in stillbirths' rate according to the recent global estimates. Reasons could be manifold; socio-cultural, health system related country specific, and some of these of course déjà vu, i.e., the biomedical causes. Yet, a fresh stocktaking is necessary to understand the complex phenomenon in a country, awfully affected by this menace. Maternal, neonatal and child health program needs to be informed and geared up toward addressing the actual reasons behind this heavy toll of stillbirths in Pakistan. Maternal health indicators would never be improved, if the issue of stillbirths is not stalled at the earliest. Besides known medical reasons, this account attempts to document the health systems related factors, and more so the social determinants behind the whole scenario, so that appropriate and customized interventions could be suggested, developed and implemented. This paper will be a piece of evidence for policy corridors, program managers, development partners, non-governmental organizations, public health institutions, students, and researchers to enhance their understanding of a major public health problem, and to recognize the strengths and opportunities in the health system of Pakistan to cope with this challenge.
Gober, Patricia; Wheater, Howard S.
Socio-hydrology views human activities as endogenous to water system dynamics; it is the interaction between human and biophysical processes that threatens the viability of current water systems through positive feedbacks and unintended consequences. Di Baldassarre et al. implement socio-hydrology as a flood risk problem using the concept of social memory as a vehicle to link human perceptions to flood damage. Their mathematical model has heuristic value in comparing potential flood damages in green versus technological societies. It can also support communities in exploring the potential consequences of policy decisions and evaluating critical policy tradeoffs, for example, between flood protection and economic development. The concept of social memory does not, however, adequately capture the social processes whereby public perceptions are translated into policy action, including the pivotal role played by the media in intensifying or attenuating perceived flood risk, the success of policy entrepreneurs in keeping flood hazard on the public agenda during short windows of opportunity for policy action, and different societal approaches to managing flood risk that derive from cultural values and economic interests. We endorse the value of seeking to capture these dynamics in a simplified conceptual framework, but favor a broader conceptualization of socio-hydrology that includes a knowledge exchange component, including the way modeling insights and scientific results are communicated to floodplain managers. The social processes used to disseminate the products of socio-hydrological research are as important as the research results themselves in determining whether modeling is used for real-world decision making.
De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G
The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease
Came, Heather; Griffith, Derek
Racism is a "wicked" public health problem that fuels systemic health inequities between population groups in New Zealand, the United States and elsewhere. While literature has examined racism and its effects on health, the work describing how to intervene to address racism in public health is less developed. While the notion of raising awareness of racism through socio-political education is not new, given the way racism has morphed into new narratives in health institutional settings, it has become critical to support allies to make informing efforts to address racism as a fundamental cause of health inequities. In this paper, we make the case for anti-racism praxis as a tool to address inequities in public health, and focus on describing an anti-racism praxis framework to inform the training and support of allies. The limited work on anti-racism rarely articulates the unique challenges or needs of allies or targets of racism, but we seek to help fill that gap. Our anti-racism praxis for allies includes five core elements: reflexive relational praxis, structural power analysis, socio-political education, monitoring and evaluation and systems change approaches. We recognize that racism is a modifiable determinant of health and racial inequities can be eliminated with the necessary political will and a planned system change approach. Anti-racism praxis provides the tools to examine the interconnection and interdependence of cultural and institutional factors as a foundation for examining where and how to intervene to address racism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R
Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the period of nearly three decades of post-socialist transition in the countries of Southeastern Europe (SEE, there were numerous synergistic, destructive and anti-developmental hindering institutional factors that directly caused the creation of social and economic insecurity. Many developmental problems, as well as social, economic and institutional deformations, have generated a lasting and deep crisis. This paper analyzes the basic deformations of public sector management, which has emerged as a driving force for all development problems in the SEE countries. It starts with two assumptions: first, weak and slow institutional changes were deliberately programmed by the nomenclature of government, in order to eliminate institutional competition and affirmation of the quasi-institutional monism of neoliberal type, which have enabled the substitutive development of the so-called alternative institutions; and second, highly interest-oriented motives of the government nomenclature have been the main cause of ignoring rational recommendations by representatives of non-institutional economic theories.
Gupta, Prakash C; Ray, Cecily S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Singh, Poonam K
Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand's successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.
Brüggmann, Dörthe; Köster, Corinna; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Bauer, Jan; Ohlendorf, Daniela; Bundschuh, Matthias; Groneberg, David A
Worldwide, the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represents the predominant viral agent causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children. To conduct research and tackle existing healthcare disparities, RSV-related research activities around the globe need to be described. Hence, we assessed the associated scientific output (represented by research articles) by geographical, chronological and socioeconomic criteria and analysed the authors publishing in the field by gender. Also, the 15 most cited articles and the most prolific journals were identified for RSV research. Retrospective, descriptive study. The NewQIS (New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science) platform was employed to identify RSV-related articles published in the Web of Science until 2013. We performed a numerical analysis of all articles, and examined citation-based aspects (eg, citation rates); results were visualised by density equalising mapping tools. We identified 4600 RSV-related articles. The USA led the field; US-American authors published 2139 articles (46.5%% of all identified articles), which have been cited 83 000 times. When output was related to socioeconomic benchmarks such as gross domestic product or Research and Development expenditures, Guinea-Bissau, The Gambia and Chile were ranked in leading positions. A total of 614 articles on RSV (13.34% of all articles) were attributed to scientific collaborations. These were primarily established between high-income countries. The gender analysis indicated that male scientists dominated in all countries except Brazil. The majority of RSV-related research articles originated from high-income countries whereas developing nations showed only minimal publication productivity and were barely part of any collaborative networks. Hence, research capacity in these nations should be increased in order to assist in addressing inequities in resource allocation and the clinical burden of RSV in these countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer
The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials
This story is of particular interest and importance to Edinburgh and Scottish medicine. It describes the events in one general medical practice in Edinburgh, the Muirhouse Medical Group, and their impact and relationship to the AIDS pandemic. For many, the origin of HIV in the UK is now history. Since the introduction of HIV/AIDS into the intravenous illegal drug using community, much has changed but problems remain that should concern policy makers and clinicians. Reflections on the recent history of the HIV epidemic among drug users in the UK provide important insights into risks for current policy making and the potentially problematic direction that policy has taken. Rather than starting from a pragmatic baseline of harm minimisation, with its low cost, high impact, prevention approach, the emphasis, and consequently the resources, has been on a model of recovery which fails to acknowledge the fragile control maintained by early intervention and supporting treatments. In 2015, the re-emergence of HIV in a vulnerable inner city population of people who inject drugs highlighted a policy failure. An ongoing epidemic could and should have been prevented, as should several other recent epidemics of other viral or bacterial infections in urban populations in Scotland. The story of HIV is full of controversy, denial, prejudice and stigma. At all levels across the world from national presidents, governments and public opinion, progress has been impeded by these problems. People using drugs have an additional set of problems: criminality, poverty and marginalisation from education and the supports of main stream society. These continue to hamper efforts to improve lives and prevent disease.
Yoo, Minsang; Lee, Saerom; Kang, Mo-Yeol
This study investigated effects of workers' cultural and personal characteristics on the relationship between workplace mistreatment and health problems in both South Korea and EU Countries. Data were obtained from nationally representative interview surveys: the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2011 (50,032 participants) and fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) in 2010 (41,302 participants). The Pressure-State-Response model was adapted to explore differences in the relationship between mistreatment and health problems according to country, and logistic regression analysis was used after stratification of moderating factors. Workplace mistreatment, such as discrimination, violence, harassment, and self-reported health problems, were assessed by gender and educational level. Among KWCS participants, there were 4,321 victims (14.70%) of workplace mistreatment; among EWCS participants, there were 5,927 victims (17.89%). There was a significant positive association between workplace mistreatment and self-reported health problems. A stronger association was found among workers with higher educational levels in Korea (2- to 4-fold higher odds for mental and physical health problems), but there was no significant difference by education level in workers of EU Countries. Female Koreans who worked alone had a higher risk of health problems related to workplace mistreatment than other gender compositions in the workplace (the OR for psychological symptoms reached 6.631). In contrast, the gender composition of the work place did not significantly affect EU workers. Workplace mistreatment is significantly associated with physical and mental health problems, especially among workers with higher educational levels and females who work alone in Korea.
known problems: the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and the Bin Packing Problem ( BPP ) (Ralphs, 2003). The VRP has a plethora of real world...well known problems: the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and the Bin Packing Problem ( BPP ) (Ralphs, 2003). The VRP has a plethora of real world
Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda
Single-sex public schools are seen as a vehicle for improving the educational experiences of low-income and minority students. Our two-year ethnographic study of low-income and minority students who attended experimental single-sex academies in California indicates that improving achievement involves more than separating students by gender. Using…
Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna
This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…
Coate, Kelly; Howson, Camille Kandiko
The continued gender imbalance in senior positions in higher education is a problem that persists despite decades of feminist research and publications in the area, as well as interventions in many countries to promote the advancement of women. In this article we view the issue of gender inequality through the lens of the prestige economy, which…
Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A
Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways.
Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that posits that multiple social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status) intersect at the micro level of individual experience to reflect multiple interlocking systems of privilege and oppression at the macro, social-structural level (e.g., racism, sexism, heterosexism). Public health’s commitment to social justice makes it a natural fit with intersectionality’s focus on multiple historically oppressed populations. Yet despite a plethora of research focused on these populations, public health studies that reflect intersectionality in their theoretical frameworks, designs, analyses, or interpretations are rare. Accordingly, I describe the history and central tenets of intersectionality, address some theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlight the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy. PMID:22594719
Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that posits that multiple social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status) intersect at the micro level of individual experience to reflect multiple interlocking systems of privilege and oppression at the macro, social-structural level (e.g., racism, sexism, heterosexism). Public health's commitment to social justice makes it a natural fit with intersectionality's focus on multiple historically oppressed populations. Yet despite a plethora of research focused on these populations, public health studies that reflect intersectionality in their theoretical frameworks, designs, analyses, or interpretations are rare. Accordingly, I describe the history and central tenets of intersectionality, address some theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlight the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy.
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.
I. I. Prokopchuk
Full Text Available In 2000, at the Millennium Summit at UN adopted the Millennium Development Goals , which cover global problems and are calculated for the period 20002015 years. Ukraine has signed the Millennium Development Goals and has taken over the political commitment to implement them. One of the goals of this international instrument provides for the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. Тhe global goals, objectives and indicators adapted to the peculiarities of Ukraine on the basis of national development. For the analysis of qualitative and quantitative measurements of changes in gender conditions in politics and public administration in Ukraine at present of the experts proposed one objectives and three indicators. Objective: To provide a gender ratio of at least 30 to 70% of either gender in representative bodies and highlevel executive. Indicators: 1 Gender ratio among deputies of the Supreme soviet of Ukraine , women / men ( or vice versa , and 2 the gender ratio among members of local authorities , women / men ( or vice versa , and 3 the gender ratio among senior civil servants (12 categories , women / men ( or vice versa. In 2015, Ukraine should report at the United Nations on the implementation of the MDGs. In this paper, the author analyzed the state of gender equality in politics and governance in Ukrainian society. One of the main problems of the present stage of gender equality in politics and public administration in Ukraine the author notes : no systematic gender mainstreaming to implement personnel policies in the civil service at the central and local level; the lack of effective state control over observance of gender equality, not provided the institutional legal mechanisms for gender equality; and without the current regulatory framework on gender turns into an empty declaration; the lack of political will to implement the goals of gender equality. The author of the article provides recommendations on optimal
Schneider, Daniele; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes
This study aimed to promote visibility of women working in public security along the Parana coast, articulating issues of gender, violence(s), and the health-disease process. The methodology was qualitative, through an ethnographic research which included 50 women (civilians, military policewomen, and prison officers) from municipalities along the Parana coast, between March 2014 and March 2015. Results revealed: 1) the dilemmas that these women are subjected to, facing the seasonal dynamics in the field of public security in the region; 2) exposure to violence (mainly institutional and gender-based) and its impact on these women's health; 3) power relations, marked by corporations' hierarchies and gender asymmetries between men and women in professional settings. In summary, this research highlighted the need to promote visibility of women working in public security institutions, considering the impact of violence and gender inequalities in their personal and professional lives, including the resistance and rearrangements promoted by these women in the institutions in response to their presence in a hegemonic and traditionally male environment.
Dworkin, Shari L.
This paper examines the shifting nature of contemporary epidemiological classifications in the HIV/ AIDS epidemic. It first looks at assumptions that guide a discourse of vulnerability and circulate around risk categories. It then examines the underlying emphasis in public health on the popular frame of “vulnerable women” who acquire HIV through heterosexual transmission. Drawing on work on gender, sexuality, and intersectionality, the paper asks why a discourse of vulnerability is infused into discussions of heterosexually-active women's HIV risks but not those pertaining to heterosexually-active men's. The paper then moves to current surveillance categories that are hierarchically and differentially applied to women's and men's risks in the HIV epidemic. Here, the focus is on the way in which contemporary classifications allow for the emergence of the vulnerable heterosexually-active woman while simultaneously constituting lack of fathomability concerning bisexual and lesbian transmission risk. Lastly, theories of intersectionality, are used to examine current research on woman-to-woman transmission, and to suggest future more productive options. PMID:16864226
Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dobránszki, Judit
Science affects multiple basic sectors of society. Therefore, the findings made in science impact what takes place at a commercial level. More specifically, errors in the literature, incorrect findings, fraudulent data, poorly written scientific reports, or studies that cannot be reproduced not only serve as a burden on tax-payers' money, but they also serve to diminish public trust in science and its findings. Therefore, there is every need to fortify the validity of data that exists in the science literature, not only to build trust among peers, and to sustain that trust, but to reestablish trust in the public and private academic sectors that are witnessing a veritable battle-ground in the world of science publishing, in some ways spurred by the rapid evolution of the open access (OA) movement. Even though many science journals, traditional and OA, claim to be peer reviewed, the truth is that different levels of peer review occur, and in some cases no, insufficient, or pseudo-peer review takes place. This ultimately leads to the erosion of quality and importance of science, allowing essentially anything to become published, provided that an outlet can be found. In some cases, predatory OA journals serve this purpose, allowing papers to be published, often without any peer review or quality control. In the light of an explosion of such cases in predatory OA publishing, and in severe inefficiencies and possible bias in the peer review of even respectable science journals, as evidenced by the increasing attention given to retractions, there is an urgent need to reform the way in which authors, editors, and publishers conduct the first line of quality control, the peer review. One way to address the problem is through post-publication peer review (PPPR), an efficient complement to traditional peer-review that allows for the continuous improvement and strengthening of the quality of science publishing. PPPR may also serve as a way to renew trust in scientific
Vandenabeele, Wouter; Skelcher, Chris
This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those
Pilver, Corey E; Libby, Daniel J; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender-related differences in the associations between problem-gambling severity and substance-use disorders; however, these associations have not been examined longitudinally. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between problem-gambling severity and incident substance-use disorders in women versus men. Analyses were conducted using Wave-1 and Wave-2 NESARC data focusing on psychiatric diagnoses from 34,006 non-institutionalized US adults. Inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling were used to categorize Wave-1 participants as at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG) and non-ARPG (i.e. non-gambling/low-frequency gambling/low-risk gambling). Dependent variables included the three-year incidence of any substance-use disorder, alcohol-use disorders, nicotine dependence, drug-use disorders, prescription drug-use disorders, and illicit drug-use disorders. Significant gender-by-ARPG status interactions were observed with respect to the three-year incidence of nicotine dependence and prescription drug-use disorders, and approached significance with respect to incident alcohol-use disorders. ARPG (relative to non-ARPG) was positively associated with nicotine dependence among women (OR=2.00; 95% CI=1.24-3.00). ARPG was negatively associated with incident prescription drug-use disorders among men (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.10-0.88)). Finally, ARPG was positively associated with incident alcohol-use disorders among men (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.39-3.48). Gambling problems were associated with an increased 3-year incidence of nicotine dependence in women and alcohol dependence in men. These findings highlight the importance of considering gender in prevention and treatment initiatives for adults who are experiencing gambling problems. Moreover, the specific factors underlying the differential progressions of specific substance-use disorders in women and men with ARPG warrant identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
In its 1977 recommendations the International Commission on Radiological Protection has laid particular emphasis on application of the principle of optimization in setting controls on the disposal of radioactive wastes that will result in radiation exposure to the public. This principle has been followed in the UK for a long time though it is only recently that it has been possible to apply an even semiquantitative technique in its application. The paper examines the principles of differential cost-benefit analysis and discusses problems in applying this technique. Consideration is given to the assessment of parameter values to be used in the differential cost-benefit equation, these being protection costs, collective dose commitment (and, from it, health detriment) and the more difficult process of attaching a cost to social detriment. Finally, the application of the technique in practice is discussed by illustration of experience gained in the control of liquid effluents from nuclear power stations and a fuel reprocessing plant. It is found that despite the complexity of the technique and the technical difficulties in estimation of many of the parameter values, especially detriment, differential cost-benefit analysis fills a useful if limited role. However, a great many value judgements, some of them implicit in developing data to put into the overall equation, are still required. (author)
Escandón Romero, C; García Manzo, N T; Escobedo de la Peña, J; Hernández Ramos, J M; Olvera Alvarez, J; Cabral Soto, J
Amebiasis still remains as a major public health problem in the world. It is one of the most common reasons for medical consult. There are more than half a million cases of amebiasis just at the Mexican Institute of the Social Security. There is still a lack of epidemiologic information on amebiasis in Mexico. To describe the secular trend fro amebiasis and for amebic liver abscess in the Mexican population, as well as in those covered by IMSS Solidaridad. An ecologic trend study was carried on. Incidence rate of amebiasis in all of its forms of presentation, and of amebic liver abscess, were plotted against each year for the 1986-1994 period. Amebiasis incidence in all of its forms of presentation showed a stable trend in this period, as it was seen with amebic liver abscess. Amebiasis is more common in the first years of life. On the contrary, amebic liver abscess showed an inverted 'J' pattern; its occurrence is higher in the extreme years of life. Fatality rates have shown a descendent trend. Amebiasis reflects socioeconomic conditions in Mexico and the fact that Mexican is still an endless culture. There is a need to promote health education, better diagnostic procedures and detection of asymptomatic carriers. Health policies for mothers that are asymptomatic carriers should be reviewed, due to the high rates of amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in children under one year of age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been widely studied, early childhood caries (ECC remains a serious public health problem, especially in countries where there is no national program of oral health assessment and no genuine primary oral health care, such as in Kosovo. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC and analyze caries risk factors. Methods The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Prishtina, capital of Kosovo. Data were collected through clinical examination and interviews. Dmft data were recorded according to WHO criteria. Bacterial examination (CRT bacteria test and plaque test of Greene-Vermillion were used. Results The mean dmft of preschool children was found to be 5.8. The prevalence of ECC was 17.36%, with a mean dmft of 11 ± 3.6. Streptococcus mutans prevalence in ECC children was 98%. A significant correlation between dmft and S mutans counts (≥105 CFU/mL saliva was demonstrated. A correlation was also found between daily sweets consumption and dmft in children with ECC (P P Conclusion The prevalence of ECC was high among preschool children in the municipality of Kosovo. We recommend increasing parents' knowledge of proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and increasing preschool children's accessibility to dental services.
González-Forteza, Catalina; Torre, Alicia Edith Hermosillo de la; Vacio-Muro, María de Los Ángeles; Peralta, Robert; Wagner, Fernando A
Depression is an important public health problem that requires more and better attention. In the present work we review epidemiologic studies of depression among adolescents in Mexico and discuss strategies that may help in earlier identification and referral of potential cases for timely care. In summary, depressive symptoms are prevalent among adolescents and adults in Mexico as in many other countries, with a higher ratio of female cases. Young people experiencing the most challenging socio-urban situations have higher rates of depression. Even though depressive disorders are more prevalent among females, consequences may be even worse for males. The authors posit that, among males, stigma attached to depression might lead to attempts to hide depressive symptoms by masking them through high-risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol, drug use, and violence, among others). Women may have higher rates of suicide attempts, but the case-fatality rate of suicide attempts is higher among males. Despite of barriers and resource scarcity among healthcare and educational institutions, it is necessary to continue to develop alternatives that will lead to better attention of mental health issues among the youth, even when their mental health needs are not expressed directly or their chief complaints are in regard to "other" health issues. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.
Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Segura, Elsa Leonor
Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is, together with geohelminths, the neglected disease that causes more loss of years of healthy life due to disability in Latin America. Chagas disease, as determined by the factors and determinants, shows that different contexts require different actions, preventing new cases or reducing the burden of disease. Control strategies must combine two general courses of action including prevention of transmission to prevent the occurrence of new cases (these measures are cost effective), as well as opportune diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals in order to prevent the clinical evolution of the disease and to allow them to recuperate their health. All actions should be implemented as fully as possible and with an integrated way, to maximise the impact. Chagas disease cannot be eradicated due because of the demonstrated existence of infected wild triatomines in permanent contact with domestic cycles and it contributes to the occurrence of at least few new cases. However, it is possible to interrupt the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in a large territory and to eliminate Chagas disease as a public health problem with a dramatic reduction of burden of the disease.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ilyin
Full Text Available Economic policy of extreme neoliberalism, having been held in Russia for more than twenty years, has led to the present stagnation of socio-economic development of the country. Its concentrated expression has resulted in a rapid deterioration of the budgetary system, especially at the regional level. In the next three-year budget cycle (2014–2016 a great number of Russian regions will be with the deficit and debt load on the verge of bankruptcy. The Russian government doesn’t take any action to prevent crisis processes. On the contrary, the Ministry of Finance, as the conductor of rigid conservative policy, in a less degree is interested in making regionally oriented decisions. Trying to shift the blame for what is happening in the public sector to the regional authorities, the Minister of Finance has offered to the President to dismiss regional governors who have chronic debts. However, this is unlikely to solve the debt problem, because at the present time, the regions have more expenditure commitments than resources for their providing. On the basis of the analysis of the situation in the field of subnational finance, the authors have come to the conclusion that it is necessary to change the approaches to fiscal policy in the system of regional regulation and offer a number of measures in this direction.
Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej
Cigarette smoking has been main reason of the Polish society health hazard and one of the most widespread unhealthy element of the human life style. Aim of the study is to evaluate the attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland. Most of respondents considered the nicotinism problem in Poland as very important--3 of them evaluate importance of problem on the scale of 0 - 10, estimated it from 8, 9 and 10 points. 74.3% of respondents support the opinion to put the total injunction from smoking at public areas into practice. According to respondents, the most effective forms to express a non-smoking lifestyle is to promote the idea of the total injunction from smoking at public areas and the promotion of the nonsmoking people at the mass media.
Le Heuzey, M-F
There has been an explosion of public interest and concern about children and adolescents who show an interest in changing their gender. And it is an emerging problem for pediatricians, which brings many inquiries about what to do? Both the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder are controversial. But there are a new early treatment using puberty blocking hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wang, Frances L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L
We contribute to the literature on the relations of temperament to externalizing and internalizing problems by considering parental emotional expressivity and child gender as moderators of such relations and examining prediction of pure and co-occurring problem behaviors during early to middle adolescence using bifactor models (which provide unique and continuous factors for pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems). Parents and teachers reported on children's (4.5- to 8-year-olds; N = 214) and early adolescents' (6 years later; N = 168) effortful control, impulsivity, anger, sadness, and problem behaviors. Parental emotional expressivity was measured observationally and with parents' self-reports. Early-adolescents' pure externalizing and co-occurring problems shared childhood and/or early-adolescent risk factors of low effortful control, high impulsivity, and high anger. Lower childhood and early-adolescent impulsivity and higher early-adolescent sadness predicted early-adolescents' pure internalizing. Childhood positive parental emotional expressivity more consistently related to early-adolescents' lower pure externalizing compared to co-occurring problems and pure internalizing. Lower effortful control predicted changes in externalizing (pure and co-occurring) over 6 years, but only when parental positive expressivity was low. Higher impulsivity predicted co-occurring problems only for boys. Findings highlight the probable complex developmental pathways to adolescent pure and co-occurring externalizing and internalizing problems.
Yoshioka-Maeda, Kyoko; Murashima, Sachiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi
The purpose of this study was to explore the tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and developing relevant new projects. Previous research only roughly showed those skills for creating new community health services, such as lobbying. Nine Japanese public health nurses who had created new projects in their municipalities were selected by theoretical sampling and interviewed in 2002-2003. Yin's Case Study Method, especially the multiple-case study design, was used. All 9 public health nurses used similar approaches in identifying community health problems and the need for creating new services, even though their experiences differed and the kinds of projects varied. They identified the difficulties of clients, recognized clients who had the same problems, elucidated the limitations of existing services, and forecasted outcomes from the neglect of the clients' problems. Then they succeeded in creating a new project by examining individual health problems in the context of their community's characteristics, societal factors, and using existing policies to support their clients. This is the first study to explore the skills of public health nurses and their intention to use such skills in creating new projects as well as the exact process. They could identify community health problems that will be the basis for developing new services to provide care for individual clients. This is different from the traditional community assessment approach that requires the collection of a huge amount of information to clarify community health problems. The tacit knowledge of public health nurses will help to create needs-oriented new services more smoothly.
Mano, Quintino R.; Jastrowski Mano, Kristen E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Tamm, Leanne
Evidence suggests that higher order linguistic functioning such as text comprehension is particularly vulnerable to emotional modulation. Gender has been identified as an important moderating variable in emotional expression such that girls tend toward internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety) whereas boys tend toward externalizing emotions…
Diehl, Alessandra; Vieira, Denise Leite; Zaneti, Marina Milograna; Fanganiello, Ana; Sharan, Pratap; Robles, Rebecca; de Jesus Mari, Jair
The aim of this article is to provide a narrative literature review of the 'third gender' phenomenon in Brazil ( Travestis), India ( Hijras) and Mexico ( Muxes), considering the social stigma, the legal and health aspects of these identities. These three groups share similar experiences of stigmatisation, marginalisation, sexual abuse, HIV infection, infringement of civil rights and harassment accessing health services. Brazil, India and Mexico public services for the third gender conditions are still very scarce and inadequate for the heavy demand from potential users. Although all three countries have used legislation to promote provision of comprehensive healthcare services for third gender, there is still strong resistance to implementation of such laws and policies. Brazil, India and Mexico face a huge challenge to become countries where all human rights are respected.
Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Veen, Violaine C; van Geel, Mitch; Andershed, Henrik; Vedder, Paul
The current study examines how the bifactor model of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) is related to conduct problems in a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,874; 43% female). It addresses to what extent the YPI dimensions explain variance over and above a General Psychopathy factor (i.e., one factor related to all items) and how the general factor and dimensional factors are related to conduct problems. Group differences in these relations for gender, ethnic background, and age were examined. Results showed that the general factor is most important, but dimensions explain variance over and above the general factor. The general factor, and Affective and Lifestyle dimensions, of the YPI were positively related to conduct problems, whereas the Interpersonal dimension was not, after taking the general factor into account. However, across gender, ethnic background, and age, different dimensions were related to conduct problems over and above the general factor. This suggests that all 3 dimensions should be assessed when examining the psychopathy construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.
Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
Hoover, Cora R; Wong, Candice C; Azzam, Amin
We investigated whether a public health-oriented Problem-Based Learning case presented to first-year medical students conveyed 12 "Population Health Competencies for Medical Students," as recommended by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Regional Medicine-Public Health Education Centers. A public health-oriented Problem-Based Learning case guided by the ecological model paradigm was developed and implemented among two groups of 8 students at the University of California, Berkeley-UCSF Joint Medical Program, in the Fall of 2010. Using directed content analysis, student-generated written reports were coded for the presence of the 12 population health content areas. Students generated a total of 29 reports, of which 20 (69%) contained information relevant to at least one of the 12 population health competencies. Each of the 12 content areas was addressed by at least one report. As physicians-in-training prepare to confront the challenges of integrating prevention and population health with clinical practice, Problem-Based Learning is a promising tool to enhance medical students' engagement with public health.
Smudde, Peter M.; Luecke, John R.
Integrating "The West Wing" in public relations courses can effectively dramatize the concrete and abstract dimensions of public relations. In turn, students see public relations in action (albeit fictionally so) and learn much about it through structured lessons. From individual writing assignments about situations in "The West Wing," to the…
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…
Ayse Nilay Evcil
Full Text Available Every day, in urban areas, the mobility of people and goods forms inner urban transportation. When urban transportation is carried in the form of public transportation, it becomes a public service. The urban public transport is one of the important services for all citizens since it is a public service provision. This service is provided by local government and it has been offered as a service without any distinctions between young, old, children, men, women, disabled, employee or retired or briefly to the society. Additionally, traffic congestion and the expence of owing and maintaining vehicles increase public transport usage in cities.
Pietikäinen, Virpi; Kortelainen, Terttu; Siklander, Pirkko
Introduction: Teachers in Finland are demanded to develop students' competencies in information literacy. However, they can meet this demand only by collaborating with public librarians. The aim in this case study was to explore the perspectives of teachers, librarians and students in a problem-based project and to analyse the advantages and…
Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Jensen, Peter S.; Martin, Jack K.; Perry, Brea L.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Fettes, Danielle
The study examines the general public's perceptions of, and response to, mental disorders in children by using the National Stigma Study-Children. Results concluded that lack of knowledge, skepticism, and misinformed beliefs are the reasons for low utilization rates for children's mental health problems.
False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service…
Nam T. Tran
Full Text Available Abstract Although a large number of studies have examined the association between young adult’s alcohol consumption and their problem gambling behaviours, none of these studies address the prospective association between mother’s alcohol consumption and their young adult offspring’s problem gambling behaviours. Using data from a 30 year prospective pre-birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia (n = 1691, our study examines whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict offspring’s risk of problem gambling behaviours and whether these associations differ by the young adults’ gender. Offspring’s level of problem gambling behaviours was assessed by the short version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, with about 10.6 % of young adults having some risk of problem gambling behaviours. Trajectories of maternal alcohol consumption were determined by group-based trajectory modelling over five time points. Our study found that mother’s alcohol consumption pattern fits into three drinking trajectory groups, namely abstainers (17.2 %, a low-stable drinkers group (64.6 % and a moderate-escalating drinkers group (18.2 %. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the moderate-escalating alcohol trajectory group is independently associated with a risk of their male young adult offspring having problem gambling behaviours at 30 years—even after adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Mothers who exhibit a persistent life course pattern of moderate-escalating drinking have male children who have a high risk of engaging in problem gambling behaviours. Offspring’s alcohol consumption partially mediated the association between maternal drinking trajectories and young adult’s risk of problem behaviours. High levels of maternal alcohol consumption may lead to male offspring antisocial behaviours. Programs intended to address problem gambling behaviours by young adults may need to
Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova
Full Text Available The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the fact that there is a problem of women discrimination in the textbooks, which provide classical gender stereotypes, where, in spite of modern social changes, women are still overrepresented in the private domain and underrepresented in the public sphere. Apart from that, gender stereotypes and gender asymmetry are embedded in the language, where the woman is often not referred to directly while the man is used in the generalizing meaning of "human". The gender asymmetry is reflected in the idioms as well. Nevertheless the analysis of modern coursebooks reveals both some changes in the presentation of women and men's occupations and in the language due to the usage of so-called "gender neutral" forms. The objective of our research lies in the linguistic analysis of the usage of the "gender neutral" forms as well as in the coursebooks on phraseology in order to find out gender asymmetries. In addition, the author focuses on gender stereotypes, men and women's behavioral patterns in different domains of life, and positive changes in the image of men and women represented in the Aspekte German coursebook.
Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves
This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health.
Full Text Available In the article the author determines that, due to changes during the privatisation process, the Slovenian framework for public institution accounting is unable to assure the relevant presentation of costs, benefits and effects. She therefore proposes certain changes based on solutions applied in the private sector accounting practices. Her conclusions and recommendations, however, are based on a need for a true and fair measurement of a public institution’s results. The recommended way to achieve this goal is the proper application of solutions included in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards issued by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants.
Reilly, Margaret A.
Beyond the scientific, the administrative and procedural issues of radiological emergency planning and response there is the issue of public perception. This paper emphasises that, radiation crises being a rare occurrence there is no enough database for generating scholarly quantitative reports. It suggests the need for disseminating timely and accurate information through a single spokesman from a responsible public agency
Van Rinsum, C.E.; Gerards, S.M.P.L.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Van De Goor, L.A.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.
Background The role of health broker is a relatively new one in public health. Health brokers aim to create support for efforts to optimise health promotion in complex or even “wicked” public health contexts by facilitating intersectoral collaborations and by exchanging knowledge with different
Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.
We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…
MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen
Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…
Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution, declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course - deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse - but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society. There is considerable evidence that stressful early life events influence a variety of physical and/or psychological health problems later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from number of chronic diseases. A model outlining potential biobehavioural pathways is put forward that may be a potential explanation of how exposure to violence among both men and women work as an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work.
Ahire, Mrinalini; Sheridan, Judith; Regbetz, Shane; Stacey, Phillip; Scott, James G
Those with mental illness are at increased risk of physical health problems. The current study aimed to examine the information available online to the Australian public about the increased risk and consequences of physical illness in those with mental health problems and the services available to address these co-morbidities. A structured online search was conducted with the search engine Google Australia (www.google.com.au) using generic search terms 'mental health information Australia', 'mental illness information Australia', 'depression', 'anxiety', and 'psychosis'. The direct content of websites was examined for information on the physical co-morbidities of mental illness. All external links on high-profile websites [the first five websites retrieved under each search term (n = 25)] were examined for information pertaining to physical health. Only 4.2% of websites informing the public about mental health contained direct content information about the increased risk of physical co-morbidities. The Australian Government's Department of Health and Ageing site did not contain any information. Of the high-profile websites, 62% had external links to resources about physical health and 55% had recommendations or resources for physical health. Most recommendations were generic. Relative to the seriousness of this problem, there is a paucity of information available to the public about the increased physical health risks associated with mental illness. Improved public awareness is the starting point of addressing this health inequity.
Jevin D West
Full Text Available Gender disparities appear to be decreasing in academia according to a number of metrics, such as grant funding, hiring, acceptance at scholarly journals, and productivity, and it might be tempting to think that gender inequity will soon be a problem of the past. However, a large-scale analysis based on over eight million papers across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities reveals a number of understated and persistent ways in which gender inequities remain. For instance, even where raw publication counts seem to be equal between genders, close inspection reveals that, in certain fields, men predominate in the prestigious first and last author positions. Moreover, women are significantly underrepresented as authors of single-authored papers. Academics should be aware of the subtle ways that gender disparities can occur in scholarly authorship.
West, Jevin D; Jacquet, Jennifer; King, Molly M; Correll, Shelley J; Bergstrom, Carl T
Gender disparities appear to be decreasing in academia according to a number of metrics, such as grant funding, hiring, acceptance at scholarly journals, and productivity, and it might be tempting to think that gender inequity will soon be a problem of the past. However, a large-scale analysis based on over eight million papers across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities reveals a number of understated and persistent ways in which gender inequities remain. For instance, even where raw publication counts seem to be equal between genders, close inspection reveals that, in certain fields, men predominate in the prestigious first and last author positions. Moreover, women are significantly underrepresented as authors of single-authored papers. Academics should be aware of the subtle ways that gender disparities can occur in scholarly authorship.
Tiefer, L; Kring, B
Gender socialization seems important in every culture although the precise nature of gender categories and the specifics of gender roles differ across societies. Gender socialization produces in most people a compulsion to behave according to appropriate rules and expectations, and a grave anxiety about not being considered by others, or by themselves, truly male or female. Sexual performance is tightly tied to appropriate gender role behavior, and the need to conform to conventional scripts probably inhibits most people from expressing individual desires and interests. The gratification obtained from gender affirmation, however, may compensate for any lost erotic or intimate rewards. Our society is in the throes of major changes in gender roles, and many of the frequent public debates about sexual issues (e.g., impact of pornography, prevalence of sexual abuse and harassment, advisability of public sex education, propriety of homosexuals in the military) reflect insecurities about the effect of these new roles on sexual behavior. Present knowledge suggests that any change in gender roles is bound to have a major effect on sexual behavior, both within the life of an individual and within a society. Insecurities and adjustment difficulties are likely to remain normative, and to be part of the problems brought to every mental health clinician.
Grunow, Martina; Nuscheler, Robert
We investigate risk selection between public and private health insurance in Germany. With risk-rated premiums in the private system and community-rated premiums in the public system, advantageous selection in favor of private insurers is expected. Using 2000 to 2007 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we find such selection. While private insurers are unable to select the healthy upon enrollment, they profit from an increase in the probability to switch from private to public health insurance of those individuals who have experienced a negative health shock. To avoid distorted competition between the two branches of health care financing, risk-adjusted transfers from private to public insurers should be instituted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal
PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral
Kaye, Dan K
Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...
Full Text Available In the Polish and the EU public finances law there are serious terminological difficulties concerning the deficit and the debt. They arise first from the terminological chaos in this field and second from the parallel application of the EU and the Polish methodology of calculating of deficit and debt. Thus, the paper aims to explain the terminological and definitional problems of deficit and debt in the public finances law using unobtrusive research consisting of the detailed analysis of the Polish and EU legislation. Although there is no doubt that it would be desirable to order the applied terms, in the current legal situation, it would be extremely difficult, as it would require the changes to the Constitution, laws, and modification of translations of UE acts. The solution to the problem, presenting additional advantages, could consist of full transition to the EU methodology by the renouncement from the Polish methodology.
Eek, Frida; Ôstergren, Per-Olof; Diderichsen, Finn
Abstract Background Denmark and Sweden are considered to be countries of rather similar socio-political type, but public health policies and smoking habits differ considerably between the two neighbours. A study comparing mechanisms behind socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco smoking, could yield...... information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark......, these differences were modified by gender and age. As a general pattern, socioeconomic differences in Sweden tended to contribute more to the total burden of this habit among women, especially in the younger age groups. In men, the patterns were much more similar between the two countries. Regarding continued...
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination
Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Gelius, Peter; Schow, Diana
Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, "translates" into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a "policy problem" that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to "sell" to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government.We conclude that the new perspective on PI proposed in this article might be useful and important for i) describing and mapping policies to counteract PI in different contexts; ii) evaluating whether or not existing policy instruments are appropriate to the policy problem of PI, and iii) explaining the factors and processes that underlie policy development and implementation. More research is warranted in all these areas. In particular, we propose to focus on comparative analyses of how the problem of PI is defined and tackled in different contexts, and on the identification of truly effective policy instruments that are designed to "solve" the PI policy problem.
Grisham, John W; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Negin, Joel; Wright, E P
Worldwide interest in problem-based learning (PBL) has grown in past decades. This article aims to evaluate the perceived effectiveness, appropriateness, benefits, and challenges attributed to the use of PBL in public health education in Vietnam with a view to providing recommendations for curricular design and future policy. Teachers at 2 universities in Hanoi participated in group interviews, and students from these 2 universities completed Likert-style questionnaires. Students and teachers regarded PBL positively. However, there was consensus that hybrid models that used PBL alongside other methods are probably the most beneficial for public health education in Vietnam. Teachers discussed the educational and systematic advantages and difficulties associated with PBL. Themes arising from this analysis may be helpful in guiding future research-namely, regarding the application of PBL in low- and middle-income countries and in public health. Further exploration of the use of PBL hybrid models is discussed. © 2012 APJPH.
María Isabel Míguez González
Full Text Available The terms public relations, communication management, corporate communication, institutional communication, business communication and organizational communication coexist in the professional field of communication without clear conceptual limits. In order to clarify this situation from an academic point of view, we reviewed the contributions about these terms made by Spanish authors, based on the oldest notion of public relations. The analysis shows significant discrepancies between different authors, who can not clearly define the scope of these concepts and their relationship to each other.
Hansen, Lars Kristian
arbejder på at forbedre dens IT PPM praksisser. Undersøgelsen anvender Work Design Teori til at analysere kommunens IT PPM praksisser på tværs af hierarkiske niveauer og organisatoriske enheder i bestræbelsen på, at besvare følgende tre forskningsspørgsmål:(1) Hvordan udfører en offentlig organisation...... and Van De Ven’s (2005) Work Design Teori, der sondrer mellem vertikal- og horisontal arbejdsdeling. Vertikal deling af arbejde bliver betragtet som fordelingen af autoritet, viden og resurser, hvilket undersøgelsen finder værende delt ud på fire hierarkiske niveauer: (1) det politiske niveau med den...... af det andet forskningsspørgsmål anvendes Work Design Teori til at identificere problemer indenfor tre relaterede problemområder: hierarkiske dekompositions problemer, modularitets problemer og komplekse netværks problemer. De identificerede problemer er sammenfattet i en model bestående af 14...
Hansen, Lars Kristian
dansk kommune, der arbejder på at forbedre dens IT PPM praksisser. Undersøgelsen anvender Work Design Teori til at analysere kommunens IT PPM praksisser på tværs af hierarkiske niveauer og organisatoriske enheder i bestræbelsen på, at besvare følgende tre forskningsspørgsmål:(1) Hvordan udfører en...... at trække på Sinha and Van De Ven’s (2005) Work Design Teori, der sondrer mellem vertikal- og horisontal arbejdsdeling. Vertikal deling af arbejde bliver betragtet som fordelingen af autoritet, viden og resurser, hvilket undersøgelsen finder værende delt ud på fire hierarkiske niveauer: (1) det politiske...... kommunens IT projektgrupper. I besvarelsen af det andet forskningsspørgsmål anvendes Work Design Teori til at identificere problemer indenfor tre relaterede problemområder: hierarkiske dekompositions problemer, modularitets problemer og komplekse netværks problemer. De identificerede problemer er...
de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
This study estimates the prevalence of absenteeism due to voice disorders among teachers and investigates individual and contextual factors associated with it. The study involved 1,980 teachers from 76 municipal schools. The response rate was 85%. The survey was carried out between May 2004 and July 2005 using a self-administered structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and work-related questions. The dependent variable was obtained from answers to the following question: In the last 2 weeks, have you missed work because of voice problems? Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated factors. Voice-related absenteeism in the prior 2 weeks was reported by 66 teachers (3.35%). During their entire careers, approximately one-third of teachers missed work at least once due to voice problems. In the final model, factors associated with recent absenteeism were as follows: witnessing violence by students or parents one or more times (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.14-3.90), presence of depression or anxiety (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.09-3.78), upper respiratory problems in the prior 2 weeks (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.53-5.29), and absenteeism because of voice problems during the preceding 6 months (OR = 15.79; 95% CI = 8.18-30.45). The results encourage new approaches to the problems of absenteeism in the educational sector and contribute to addressing the weaknesses of economic and administrative approaches to the phenomenon.
Peggy M. Delmas
Full Text Available Using Feminist Phase Theory (FPT as our analytical framework, we studied the status of gender awareness and influence in higher education leadership development trends in four premier higher education journals for the years 2008, 2011, and 2014. Our analysis was accomplished through the review of articles and book reviews published in two US and two international journals: Higher Education (Netherlands, Higher Education Quarterly (UK, Journal of Higher Education (US, and The Review of Higher Education (US. Study results indicated progress toward a multifocal set of perspectives in which gender was not an issue; rather other concerns such as social justice or diversity were the focus. Data also indicated that while gender was no longer a specific focus of the literature, it was still an underlying concern. Gender and leadership are still being examined, intentionally or not. An additional finding revealed through the study of these journals is a lack of research about leadership in higher education, particularly in the US. A focus on understanding leadership does not appear to be a priority among this higher education community.
A.N. Wekesa (Alice Nelima)
textabstractDespite gender equity concerns in education emerging as a key area of interventions and debates within the global justice arena, the educational needs of pregnant schoolgirls and student-mothers have received minimal attention. This research is an attempt to make visible the experiences
Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain
The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator…
Ibrahim, Ireen Munira; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Ahmad, Norazura; Najmuddin, Ahmad Farid
The Emergency Department (ED) is a very complex system with limited resources to support increase in demand. ED services are considered as good quality if they can meet the patient's expectation. Long waiting times and length of stay is always the main problem faced by the management. The management of ED should give greater emphasis on their capacity of resources in order to increase the quality of services, which conforms to patient satisfaction. This paper is a review of work in progress of a study being conducted in a government hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. This paper proposed a simulation optimization model framework which is used to study ED operations and problems as well as to find an optimal solution to the problems. The integration of simulation and optimization is hoped can assist management in decision making process regarding their resource capacity planning in order to improve current and future ED operations.
Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati
Objective The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. Materials and methods This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns. Results Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status) correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer–employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction with work-related achievements, were more likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high scorers. However, low scorers on interpersonal communication and work-stress problems were less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high-scoring peers. Conclusion Ample
Kerr, David C.R.; Lopez, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
We tested whether individual differences in a component of early conscience mediated relations between parental discipline and externalizing behavior problems in 238 3.5-year-olds. Parents contributed assessments of discipline practices and child moral regulation. Observations of children's behavioral restraint supplemented parental reports.…
Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.
This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…
Szkoła Zdrowia Publicznego w Warszawie, Poland Abstract The issue of public health also includes broad ethical questions. It is here for instance that we find so-called decisions of conscience. Since medical practice is full of moral dilemmas, transferred into the domain of public health, for instance when a doctor decides to provide, in individual cases, costly medical procedures while being simultaneously aware that the funds used for these procedures, could save many more people whose ailments are less costly. These situations force the medical practitioner into making a decision, despite the fact that all the possible choices are morally reprehensible . There exist many moral dilemmas, where the person making the decision cannot find a satisfactory solution, while also being forced to make a decision. Normally, the decision maker then calls upon the category of so-called lesser evil. But this category is no justification – lesser evil is still evil. Which is why it is worth asking what the situation of lesser evil is for the decision maker . What is a moral choice within a public health policy? Key words: public health, the ethical dilemma, naturalism
This document is a transcript of the meeting, with additional written comments. The main topic is the West Valley Processing Plant and how to dispose of it and its high-level wastes. Objective is to get public input on this topic. (DLC)
Yee, Martha M.; Soto, Raymond
Describes a survey of reference librarians in libraries with online public access catalogs that was conducted to determine what types of searches patrons would use to look for names of fictional characters. Name, subject, and author indexes are discussed, and implications for cataloging using the MARC format are suggested. (10 references) (LRW)
Kandakai, Tina L.; Smith, Leonie C. R.
Objective: To explore the impact of teen-adult sexual relationships as a public health threat and the effectiveness of statutory rape laws in protecting adolescent children. Methods: A comprehensive review of current literature surrounding child abuse, teen pregnancy, and statutory rape was conducted. Results: Of one million teen girls who become…
Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S; De Vries, Nanne K.; Seidell, Jaap C; Kremers, Stef P J; Jansen, Maria W J
Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated
Full Text Available Taking into consideration the fact that the public administration has a very important role in offering services and being a public service to the citizens and business community, as well as the need of improvement and harmonization of the norms and standards with the European Union, as one of the most important demands toward the integration process of Macedonia in the EU, makes this paper necessary to be taken into consideration for at least as a humble research in the area of public administration. Primary goal of this paper is that through comparative and quantitative methods to represent the challenges of reforming the public and state administration in Macedonia. De-politicization, more professional administration services and lowering the number of clerks in administration is one of the main criteria that our country needs to fulfil towards full integration in NATO and EU. The more time passes, the least progress is seen in this process, as we see stagnation in the aspect of quality of services, as well as in the aspect of total number of administrative clerks.
This paper examines how public school districts responded to Michigan's 2012 "right-to-work" law. It describes the key findings from reviews of more than 500 teacher collective bargaining agreements. It also raises several questions about the legality of some union contracts with regard to this new law. Approximately 75 percent of…
Griffin, Robert J.; Sen, Shaikat
A study of "causal" communication, the communication of attribution-related information, investigated the relationship of exposure to mass media (especially film) depictions of Vietnam veterans to perceived causes for the problems facing a number of Vietnam veterans. The study further extends attribution theory to social interaction and…
Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Keith Wendt; Kristen C. Nelson
Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional...
van Schoor, Guido; Otten, Johannes D. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Holland, Roland; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; Verbeek, André L. M.
Women aged >75 years are not invited for mammographic screening; if diagnosed with breast cancer, due to their anticipated short-life expectancy, they are expected to die of other causes. To describe the breast cancer health problem in women aged >75 years, we estimated breast cancer incidence in
Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Sanders, Matthew R.
Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend…
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim
psychosomatic symptoms than native adolescents. Effect sizes varied considerable for the different outcomes, and similar effects were found for first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. Differences in these indicators of emotional and behavioral problems between immigrant and native adolescents did......PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... not vary significantly with the receiving country. With two exceptions, effects of immigrant status were similar for boys and girls. Although no differences in psychosomatic symptoms were found between first-generation immigrant and native girls, first-generation immigrant boys reported less psychosomatic...
Full Text Available Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement.
Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health and a major focus of regulatory activity in developed and developing countries. Air quality indicators suggest New Zealand has clean air relative to many other countries. However, media releases such as 'Christchurch wood fires pump out deadly smog' and 'Vehicle pollution major killer' have sparked public health concern regarding exposure to ambient air pollution, especially in anticipation of increasing emissions and population growth. Recent evidence is presented on the effects of air quality on health, which has been aided by the application of urban airshed models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Future directions for research into the effects of air quality on health in New Zealand are discussed, including a national ambient air quality management project: HAPINZ--Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand.
For oil-importing countries, the uninterrupted flow of energy sources lies at the heart of their national security. The crises of 1973-74 and 1979-80 have demonstrated the vulnerability of their economies to oil shortages, and the need to maintain a certain level of stocks to absorb unexpected losses in normal supply. On the other hand, oil producers have perceived a large inventory accumulation as a destabilizing factor to the oil market. This paper introduces fresh evidence on the dynamic nature of the relationship between OECD countries on the one hand and the public and private sectors on the other. The aims of the paper are, thus, twofold. The first is to highlight the underlying determinants of the inventory policies in major OECD countries. Of particular interest to this inquiry is the question of the free-rider phenomenon. The second is to study the interaction between public and private inventories in the framework of a dynamic model. (author)
Naschi, G.; Petrangeli, G.
The analytical study of nuclear accidents, even if they are limited in number, forms a significant part of the vast discipline of industrial plant risk analysis. The retrospective analysis of the causes and various elements which contributed to the evolution of real accidents, as well as, the evaluation of the consequences and lessons learned, constitute a bank of information which, when suitably elaborated through a process of rational synthesis, can strongly influence the preparation of safety normatives, plant design specifications, environmental impacts assessments, and the perception of risk. This latter aspect is gaining importance today as growing public awareness and sensitivity towards the development and use of new technologies now bear heavily on new plant decision making. This paper examines how the public perception of risk regarding nuclear energy has been influenced by the events surrounding the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents and the way in which information dissemination concerning these accidents was handled by mass media
Fisher, L; Gudmundsdottir, M; Gilliss, C; Skaff, M; Mullan, J; Kanter, R; Chesla, C
The management of type 2 diabetes requires major life style changes. How patients and family members resolve disagreements about disease management affects how well the disease is managed over time. Our goal was to identify differences in how couples resolved disagreements about diabetes management based on ethnicity and patient gender. We recruited 65 Latino and 110 European-American (EA) couples in which one spouse had type 2 diabetes. Couples participated in a 10-minute videotaped, revealed differences interaction task that was evaluated with 7 reliable observer ratings: warm-engagement, hostility, avoidance, amount of conflict resolution, off-task behavior, patient dominance, and dialogue. A series of 2 x 2, Ethnicity x Sex ANOVAs indicated significant effects for Ethnicity and for the Ethnicity x Sex interaction, but not for Sex. Latino couples were rated as significantly more emotionally close, less avoidant, less hostile toward each other, and had less dominant patients than EA couples; however, Latino couples achieved significantly less problem resolution and were more frequently off-task than EA couples. These findings were qualified by patient gender. The findings highlight important differences
Wagner Fernando A.; Gallo Joseph J.; Delva Jorge
Depression is one of the most important causes of disability in the world, causes considerable suffering, and problems associated with depression are extremely costly to society. Depression is one of the most common and debilitating illnesses of older people that is frequently overlooked. The most recent epidemiological study in Mexico estimated the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes among people 18 to 54 years old to be 7.8%, only second to alcohol dependence (8.2%). A previous...
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Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…
Luiz Guilherme Scorzafave
Full Text Available There are hundreds of works that implement the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. However, this decomposition is not invariant to the choice of reference group when dummy variables are used. This paper applies the solution proposed by Yun (005a,b for this identification problem to Brazilian gender wage gap estimation. Our principal finding is the increasing difference in part-time work coefficients between men and women, which contributes to narrow the gender wage gap. Other studies in Brazil not using any correction of the identification problem have found different results.Há centenas de trabalhos que implementam a decomposição de Oaxaca-Blinder. Entretanto, esta decomposição não é invariante à escolha dos grupos de referência quando variáveis binárias são utilizadas como regressores. Este artigo aplica a solução proposta por Yun (005a,b para este problema de identificação à estimação do diferencial de salários por sexo no Brasil. A crescente diferença entre homens e mulheres no coeficiente da regressão associado ao trabalho em meio período vem contribuindo para reduzir o diferencial de salários por sexo. Outros estudos já realizados no Brasil que não utilizaram qualquer correção do problema de identificação, encontraram resultados diferentes.